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Sample records for formation live birth

  1. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  2. Live birth in an archosauromorph reptile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L.; Benton, Michael J.; Brandley, Matthew C.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes. PMID:28195584

  3. Characterization of Live Birth with Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Batista

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the congenital malformations constitute the first cause of infantile death in developed countries, as well as the second cause of death in Cuba, in younger children of an elderly year. Objective: characterizing the live birth newborns with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality during the year 2011. Methods: descriptive, cross-section study of 30- live birth with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality in Havana, during the year 2011. Some of analyzed variables were: sex, affected system, congenital malformation, type of malformation, severity, birth weight, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis, family history of congenital malformation, maternal age, among others. Results: the masculine sex was the more affected, with 18 cases that represented the 60 %. The Polydactyl was the malformation further frequent, with 23.3 %, followed by the pre-aural appendix, with 10 %. The 20 % was born pre-term and only in the 10 % of the cases was obtained a positive result in the tests of prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: the live birth with MC were characterized to be males with isolated MC and less severe, full term, normopeso, without family history of the aforementioned affection and with a negative prenatal diagnosis. The majority of mothers belonged to 20-35's age group years, they suffered from hypertension and during pregnancy, the principal diseases that they presented were the sepsis and anemia.

  4. Prognosis for live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2012-01-01

    To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic.......To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic....

  5. Time to subsequent live birth according to mode of delivery in the first birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, S M; Khashan, A S; Kenny, L C; Kearney, P M; Mortensen, P B; Greene, R A; Agerbo, E; Uldbjerg, N; Henriksen, T B

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the rate and time to next live birth by mode of delivery. Hospital-based cohort. Aarhus University Hospital (AUH), Denmark. All pregnant women attending AUH were invited to enroll in the Aarhus Birth Cohort (ABC) study between 1989 and 2010 (n = 91,625). Women were followed from their first live birth until the subsequent live birth or until censoring due to study end using Cox regression models. Rate and time to subsequent live birth according to mode of delivery. 46,162 index live births were identified, of which 22,462 (49%) had a subsequent live birth. Women with any type of caesarean had a 6% reduction in the rate of subsequent live birth (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89, 0.98), which remained unchanged in the analysis by type (emergency, HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.89, 1.02; elective, HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85, 0.98) compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). Operative vaginal delivery was associated with an 8% reduction in subsequent live birth rates (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86, 0.98) and vaginal delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia with a 19% reduction compared with SVD. Median time to next birth in days was shortest in women with a first caesarean (994 days, 95% CI 973, 1026) and longest in women with a vaginal delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia (1065 days, 95% CI 994, 1191). In women with planned pregnancies, the shortest median time to second birth was in women with breech vaginal deliveries (859 days, 95% CI 737, 1089) and the longest in women with vaginal deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia (1193 days, 95% CI 1028, 1430). The impact of mode of delivery on subsequent rate and time to next birth was minimal in this study. The greatest reduction was among women with assisted vaginal delivery complicated by shoulder dystocia. This study is strengthened by data on pregnancy planning as well as information on complications of pregnancy, delivery and neonatal morbidities, all of which may influence a woman's decision on subsequent birth

  6. Prevalence of orofacial clefts in Korean live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung Won; Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, You Sun; Kim, Min-A; Seo, Kyung

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial clefts and identify the characteristics of other birth defects associated with orofacial clefts in Korea. This study used data from the Congenital Anomaly Survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. The survey was conducted on birth defects documented during 2005 to 2006 in 2,348 medical institutes in Korea. This study was performed using data from medical insurance claims of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The prevalence of orofacial clefts was defined as the number of cases per 10,000 live births. Among the 883,184 live births, 25,335 infants had birth defects, which included 980 infants with orofacial clefts. The prevalence of total orofacial clefts in the total live births was 11.09 per 10,000, accounting for 3.9% of all birth defects. The most common orofacial cleft was cleft palate only (n=492), followed by cleft lip only (n=245) and cleft lip with cleft palate (n=243), with prevalence rates of 5.57, 2.77, 2.75 per 10,000 live births, respectively. While malformations of the circulatory system; digestive system; eyes, ears, face, and neck; and musculoskeletal system were most frequently encountered among infants with a cleft lip with or without a cleft palate, anomalies of most organ systems were notably observed among infants with cleft palate only. The prevalence of orofacial clefts in Korea was similar or slightly lower than that of other countries. This study informs present status of orofacial clefts and gives baseline data to lay the foundation stone for Korea's registry system of orofacial clefts.

  7. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  8. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Malhotra, Neena; Shende, Unnati; Tiwari, Abanish

    2013-01-01

    In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called “rescue ICSI”. We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle. PMID:23869158

  9. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Malhotra, Neena; Shende, Unnati; Tiwari, Abanish

    2013-01-01

    In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  10. Neonatal Bacteraemia Among 112,360 Live Births

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huggard, D

    2016-10-01

    Our aims were to determine the incidence of bacteraemia in a cohort of neonatal patients over a 14 year period, to describe the organisms involved, and to establish the rates of sepsis with regard to both early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Lastly, we investigated the trends of neonatal sepsis, to determine whether changes in clinical practice influenced the rate of blood culture positivity. With regards to EOS, GBS was the predominant pathogen, followed by E.coli, CoNS, and S. aureus . The overall mean EO rate per 1000 live births (LBs) was 1.19. Looking at LOS, S. aureus , CoNS , Enterococcus spp. were the most common bacteria cultured. The mean LOS rate was 1.88 per 1000 live births. The overall rate of EOS remained fairly steady. GBS remains the major pathogen in EOS; however its incidence has remained largely unchanged over time in relation to both EOS and LOS. Conversely the rate of LOS peaked from ’05-’09, mainly due to an increase in Staphylococcus aureus , CoNS and Enterococcus spp. cases, and then improved dramatically in the following years. This was likely due to a change in hospital policies in relation to hand hygiene and intravenous line placement and maintenance.

  11. Cretaceous choristoderan reptiles gave birth to live young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Cheng, Yen-Nien

    2010-04-01

    Viviparity (giving birth to live young) in fossil reptiles has been known only in a few marine groups: ichthyosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, and mosasaurs. Here, we report a pregnant specimen of the Early Cretaceous Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis, a species of Choristodera, a diapsid group known from unequivocal fossil remains from the Middle Jurassic to the early Miocene (about 165 to 20 million years ago). This specimen provides the first evidence of viviparity in choristoderan reptiles and is also the sole record of viviparity in fossil reptiles which lived in freshwater ecosystems. This exquisitely preserved specimen contains up to 18 embryos arranged in pairs. Size comparison with small free-living individuals and the straight posture of the posterior-most pair suggest that those embryos were at term and had probably reached parturition. The posterior-most embryo on the left side has the head positioned toward the rear, contrary to normal position, suggesting a complication that may have contributed to the mother’s death. Viviparity would certainly have freed species of Hyphalosaurus from the need to return to land to deposit eggs; taking this advantage, they would have avoided intense competition with contemporaneous terrestrial carnivores such as dinosaurs.

  12. [Living the birth process in a humanized assistance model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Larissa Mandarano; Barbieri, Márcia; Fustinoni, Suzete Maria

    2011-01-01

    That was a qualitative study with phenomenological approach that aimed at understanding women's post-partum experiences in a humanized assistance. Data were collected in a hospital from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Eight women in post-partum period were interviewed. From data analysis two themes were extracted: Bearing the labor and Having the opportunity rescuing autonomy, being disclosed the phenomenon: "Living the ambiguity on the birth process in a humanized assistance model". The reports show feelings like pain, fear and anxiety, however, it allowed a participation and rescuing autonomy. Although the study have been realized in a humanized assistance, the women's experiences reveals that they are far from an effective humanization, according to its principles. This study can be used to guide educative actions target to humanization and to generate managerial changes.

  13. Live Birth and Cumulative Live Birth Rates in Expected Poor Ovarian Responders Defined by the Bologna Criteria Following IVF/ICSI Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Chai; Vivian Chi-Yan Lee; Tracy Wing-Yee Yeung; Hang Wun Raymond Li; Pak-Chung Ho; Ernest Hung-Yu Ng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the live birth and cumulative live birth rates of expected poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria and to compare their outcomes with those of expected normal responders Design: Retrospective analysis Setting: University infertility clinic Patients: A total of 1,152 subfertile women undergoing their first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle Interventions: Women were classified into 4 groups according to the Bologna criteria for comparison Main Outcome ...

  14. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J

    2016-01-01

    was live births per ART treatment cycle. We controlled for multiple covariates in the analyses. Our secondary outcomes were adverse birth outcomes. RESULTS: The chance of a live birth for each embryo transfer was significantly reduced in ART treatments in women with UC (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0......OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide.......92), but not significantly reduced in the full model of ART treatments in women with CD (OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.14). Surgery for CD before ART treatment significantly reduced the chance of live birth for each embryo transfer (OR=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.91). In children conceived through ART treatment by women with UC...

  15. Association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in single embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Patel, Hency H; Stone, Logan D; Christos, Paul J; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 single embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. Normal responders, Live-birth rate was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between blood type and live birth, while controlling for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for live birth were estimated. A total of 2,329 patients were included. The mean age of the study cohort was 34.6 ± 4.78 years. The distribution of blood types was as follows: A = 897 (38.5%); B = 397 (17.0%); AB = 120 (5.2%); and, O = 1,915 (39.3%) patients. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation, or embryo quality parameters between the blood types. The unadjusted ORs for live birth when comparing blood type A (referent) with blood types B, AB, and O were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.6-1.7), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2), and 0.96 (95% CI. 0.6-1.7), respectively. The adjusted ORs for live birth remained not significant when comparing blood type A to blood types B, AB, and O individually. No difference in birth weight or gestational age at delivery was noted among the four blood types. Our findings suggest that ABO blood type is not associated with live-birth rate, birth weight, or gestational age at delivery in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 SET. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. VSRR - Provisional monthly number of live births by state

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly provisional counts of births are provided by state of residence (50 states, District of...

  17. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    ... for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases...

  18. Birth weight differences between preterm stillbirths and live births: analysis of population-based studies from the U.S. and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many stillbirths show evidence of fetal growth restriction, and most occur at preterm gestational age. The objective of this study is to compare birth weights at preterm gestational ages between live births and stillbirths, and between those occurring before or during labour. Methods Based on singleton births from the United States (U.S. 2003–2005 (n=902,491 and Sweden 1992–2001 (n=946,343, we compared birth weights between singleton live births and stillbirths at 24–36 completed weeks of gestation from the U.S. and at 28–42 completed weeks from Sweden. Results In both the U.S. and Sweden, stillbirth weight-for-gestational-age z-scores were at least one standard deviation lower than live birth z-scores at all preterm gestational ages (GA. In Sweden, no birth weight difference was observed between antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths at preterm GAs, whereas birth weights among intrapartum stillbirths were similar to those among live births at 37–42 weeks. Conclusions Birth weights observed at preterm gestation are abnormal, but preterm stillbirths appear to be more growth-restricted than preterm live birth. Similar birth weights among ante- and intrapartum preterm stillbirths suggest serious fetal compromise before the onset of labor.

  19. Epidemiological profile of live births in the city of Chapecó-SC

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rodrigo Aguiar da; Ferraz, Lucimare; Busato,Maria Assunta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study to investigate the epidemiological profile of birth in Chapecó/SC, from July 2011 to June 2013, based on the Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos – Sinasc (Live Birth Information System – Sinasc, na sigla em português). It is a descriptive research, retrospective, of quantitative approach. From 5,918 live births, 9.2% were born weighing less than 2,500 g; 9.4% were premature children; 15.7% were babies born to adolescent mothers; and 20% of ...

  20. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  1. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2011-01-04

    The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown. We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018). We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226), we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7). In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71) more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24); p-value for difference in estimate live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing maternal age and a history of previous live births

  2. Live-birth rate associated with repeat in vitro fertilisation treatment cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D.A.C.; Tilling, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Importance The likelihood of achieving a live-birth with repeat in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to three or four embryo transfers. Objective To determine the live-birth rate per initiated IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed until June 2012. Main exposure IVF, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Main Outcome(s) Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30% and 100% of women discontinuing due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of zero had they continued. Results In all women the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95%CI: 29.3, 29.7). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth, with 65.3% (64.8, 65.8) of women achieving a live-birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (32.0, 32.5), and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (67.8, 68.9). For women aged 40-42, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95%CI: 11.8, 12.8), with six cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (29.7, 33.3). For women older than 42 years all rates within each cycle were less than 4%. No age differential was observed among women using donor oocytes. Rates were lower in those with untreated male factor infertility compared to those with any other cause, but

  3. Live-Birth Rate Associated With Repeat In Vitro Fertilization Treatment Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D A C; Tilling, Kate; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    The likelihood of achieving a live birth with repeat in vitro fertilization (IVF) is unclear, yet treatment is commonly limited to 3 or 4 embryo transfers. To determine the live-birth rate per initiated ovarian stimulation IVF cycle and with repeated cycles. Prospective study of 156,947 UK women who received 257,398 IVF ovarian stimulation cycles between 2003 and 2010 and were followed up until June 2012. In vitro fertilization, with a cycle defined as an episode of ovarian stimulation and all subsequent separate fresh and frozen embryo transfers. Live-birth rate per IVF cycle and the cumulative live-birth rates across all cycles in all women and by age and treatment type. Optimal, prognosis-adjusted, and conservative cumulative live-birth rates were estimated, reflecting 0%, 30%, and 100%, respectively, of women who discontinued due to poor prognosis and having a live-birth rate of 0 had they continued. Among the 156,947 women, the median age at start of treatment was 35 years (interquartile range, 32-38; range, 18-55), and the median duration of infertility for all 257,398 cycles was 4 years (interquartile range, 2-6; range, live-birth rate for the first cycle was 29.5% (95% CI, 29.3%-29.7%). This remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. The cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate across all cycles continued to increase up to the ninth cycle, with 65.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-65.8%) of women achieving a live birth by the sixth cycle. In women younger than 40 years using their own oocytes, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 32.3% (95% CI, 32.0%-32.5%) and remained above 20% up to and including the fourth cycle. Six cycles achieved a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 68.4% (95% CI, 67.8%-68.9%). For women aged 40 to 42 years, the live-birth rate for the first cycle was 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8%-12.8%), with 6 cycles achieving a cumulative prognosis-adjusted live-birth rate of 31.5% (95% CI, 29.7%-33.3%). For women older than 42

  4. Endometrial Shedding Effect on Conception and Live Birth in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P.; Kruger, Michael; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Casson, Peter; Schlaff, William; Coutifaris, Christos; Brzyski, Robert; Christman, Gregory; Carr, Bruce R.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cataldo, Nicholas A.; Steinkampf, Michael P.; Gosman, Gabriella G.; Nestler, John E.; Carson, Sandra; Myers, Evan E.; Eisenberg, Esther; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate whether progestin-induced endometrial shedding, prior to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, metformin, or a combination of both, affects ovulation, conception, and live birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods A secondary analysis of the data from 626 women with PCOS from the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Network trial was performed. Women had been randomized to up to six cycles of clomiphene citrate alone, metformin alone, or clomiphene citrate plus metformin. Women were assessed for occurrence of ovulation, conception, and live birth in relation to prior bleeding episodes (after either ovulation or exogenous progestin-induced withdrawal bleed). Results While ovulation rates were higher in cycles preceded by spontaneous endometrial shedding than after anovulatory cycles (with or without prior progestin withdrawal), both conception and live birth rates were significantly higher after anovulatory cycles without progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding (live birth per cycle: spontaneous menses 2.2%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 1.6%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 5.3%; p<0.001). The difference was more marked when rate was calculated per ovulation (live birth per ovulation: spontaneous menses 3.0%; anovulatory with progestin withdrawal 5.4%; anovulatory without progestin withdrawal 19.7%; p < .001). Conclusion Conception and live birth rates are lower in women with PCOS after a spontaneous menses or progestin-induced withdrawal bleeding as compared to anovulatory cycles without progestin withdrawal. The common clinical practice of inducing endometrial shedding with progestin prior to ovarian stimulation may have an adverse effect on rates of conception and live birth in anovulatory women with PCOS. PMID:22525900

  5. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  6. Conventional morphology performs better than morphokinetics for prediction of live birth after day 2 transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Aisling; Park, Hannah; Bergh, Christina; Selleskog, Ulrika; Lundin, Kersti

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the potential value of time-lapse variables for prediction of embryo viability. However, these variables have not been evaluated in combination with conventional morphological grading and patient characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of patient characteristics and embryo morphology together with morphokinetic variables to predict live birth after day 2 transfer. This retrospective analysis included 207 transferred embryos from 199 couples cultured in a time-lapse system up to day 2 of development. Good prediction of live birth or ranking of embryos with respect to live birth potential was achieved with early cleavage combined with fragmentation grade at 43-45 h. These variables were selected as the strongest predictors of live birth, as assessed by stepwise logistic regression, and additional inclusion of morphokinetic variables did not improve the model significantly. Also, neither logistic regression models nor classification tree models with morphokinetic variables were able to achieve equally good prediction of live birth, as measured by AUC on an external data set not used for model development. In conclusion, for fresh day 2 transfers early cleavage in combination with fragmentation grade at 43-45 h should be considered when selecting between good quality embryos. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Infants of azotemic mothers: a report of three live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, A S; Singer, D; Anderson, L; Lester, B; Abuelo, J G

    1988-10-01

    Women with severe renal failure rarely conceive, and when they do become pregnant these women often deliver prematurely. The clinical course of mothers with renal failure has been described, but little attention has been given to the offspring. In this report, we provide data on three infants born prematurely to mothers either on dialysis or with severe renal failure. The infants were the appropriate size for gestational age and demonstrated no obvious physical abnormalities. Laboratory data, including renal function, was also within normal limits. Renal size in the two infants studied by ultrasound was near or above the 95th percentile when corrected for gestational age. The premature birth appeared to be a function of maternal complications rather than a primary in utero growth disturbance.

  8. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd......: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst...

  9. Deep phenotyping to predict live birth outcomes in in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Prajna; Choi, Bokyung; Shahine, Lora K; Jun, Sunny H; O'Leary, Kathleen; Lathi, Ruth B; Westphal, Lynn M; Wong, Wing H; Yao, Mylene W M

    2010-08-03

    Nearly 75% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments do not result in live births and patients are largely guided by a generalized age-based prognostic stratification. We sought to provide personalized and validated prognosis by using available clinical and embryo data from prior, failed treatments to predict live birth probabilities in the subsequent treatment. We generated a boosted tree model, IVFBT, by training it with IVF outcomes data from 1,676 first cycles (C1s) from 2003-2006, followed by external validation with 634 cycles from 2007-2008, respectively. We tested whether this model could predict the probability of having a live birth in the subsequent treatment (C2). By using nondeterministic methods to identify prognostic factors and their relative nonredundant contribution, we generated a prediction model, IVF(BT), that was superior to the age-based control by providing over 1,000-fold improvement to fit new data (plive birth probabilities. We showed that data from a prior cycle could be used effectively to provide personalized and validated live birth probabilities in a subsequent cycle. Our approach may be replicated and further validated in other IVF clinics.

  10. Effect of ethnicity on live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasan, K; Pandian, D; Hopkisson, J; Campbell, B K; Maalouf, W E

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relationship between the ethnicity of women and the clinical success of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Observational cohort study. Nottingham University Research and Treatment Unit in Reproduction (NURTURE), UK. A total of 1517 women, of which 1291 were white Europeans and 226 belonged to an ethnic minority group. All the women were undergoing their first cycle of assisted reproductive technology (ART) between 2006 and 2011. All of the women underwent their first cycle of ART between 2006 and 2011. Live birth rates following IVF or ICSI treatment. Although pre-treatment ovarian reserve variables [mean age, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and total antral follicle count] were significantly favourable in the ethnic group, the live birth rates were significantly lower in this group (35%) compared with the white European group (43.8%) (relative risk 0.8; 95% CI 0.66-0.97). On logistic regression analysis, ethnicity was an independent predictor of live birth rate (OR 0.688; 95% CI 0.513-0.924). After controlling for the other independent variables (age and FSH), the significant association between ethnicity and live birth rate remained strong (OR 0.591; 95% CI 0.425-0.822) on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Live birth rates following IVF or ICSI treatment were significantly lower in the ethnic minority group compared with white European women, which suggests that ethnicity is a major determinant of live birth following IVF treatment. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. The Meaning of Giving Birth: Voices of Hmong Women Living in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cheryl A; Callister, Lynn Clark; Gettys, Jamie Peterson; Hickman, Jacob R

    2017-02-27

    Increasing knowledge about the sociocultural context of birth is essential to promote culturally sensitive nursing care. This qualitative study provides an ethnographic view of the perspectives on birthing of Hmong mothers living in the highlands of Vietnam. Unique cultural beliefs exist in Hmong culture about the spiritual and physical world as well as ritual practices associated with childbearing. This includes variations of ancestor worship, reincarnation, and healing practices by shamans. Traditionally, Hmong families take an active role in childbirth with birth frequently occurring in the home. Situated within a large collaborative anthropology project, a convenience sample of 8 Hmong women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed regarding the perinatal experience. In addition, ethnic traditional birth attendants (midwives) and other village women contributed perspectives providing richly descriptive data. This ethnographic study was conducted during 6 weeks of immersed participant observation with primary data collection carried out through fieldwork. Data were analyzed to derive cultural themes from interviews and observations. Significant themes included (1) valuing motherhood, (2) laboring and giving birth silently, (3) giving birth within the comfort of home and family, (4) feeling capable of birthing well, (5) feeling anxiety to provide for another child, and (6) embracing cultural traditions. Listening to the voices of Hmong women enhances understanding of the meaning of childbirth. Gaining greater understanding of Hmong cultural beliefs and practices can ensure childbearing women receive respectful, safe, and quality care.

  12. Live birth rate and number of blastomeres on day 2 transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the presence of large fragment (LF) and abnormal cell divisions (ACDs) has influenced the correlation between live birth rate and number of blastomeres detected on day 2 by conventional scoring. Methods This study included 578 embryos cultured in time lapse and sele......Purpose To investigate whether the presence of large fragment (LF) and abnormal cell divisions (ACDs) has influenced the correlation between live birth rate and number of blastomeres detected on day 2 by conventional scoring. Methods This study included 578 embryos cultured in time lapse...

  13. Sperm DNA damage has a negative association with live-birth rates after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Proutski, I; Stevenson, M; Jennings, D; McManus, J; Lutton, D; Lewis, S E M

    2013-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on pregnancy rates following assisted reproduction treatment (ART). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage. Following IVF, couples with rate of 33%; in contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13%. Following ICSI, no significant differences in sperm DNA damage were found between any groups of patients. Sperm DNA damage was also associated with low live-birth rates following IVF in both men and couples with idiopathic infertility: 39% of couples and 41% of men with idiopathic infertility have high sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage assessed by the Comet assay has a close inverse relationship with live-birth rates after IVF. Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on assisted reproduction treatment outcome, in particular, on pregnancy rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage and treatment outcome. Following IVF, couples with rate of 33%. In contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13% following IVF. Following ICSI, there were no significant differences in levels of sperm DNA damage between any groups of

  14. Use of ovarian reserve parameters for predicting live births in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszuk, Krzysztof; Kunicki, Michał; Liss, Joanna; Lukaszuk, Mariusz; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2013-06-01

    To examine common clinical determinants, including patient age; levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); antral follicle count (AFC); and number of oocytes retrieved, to predict live births in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Women undergoing cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the first time were reviewed retrospectively, and serum levels of AMH, inhibin B, and FSH, as well as AFC (days 1 and 4 of pre-ICSI menstrual period) and patient age were analyzed as determinants of live birth rates. Of the patients studied, 35.71% (891/2495) became pregnant, with live births achieved in 32.20% (806/2495) of cycles initiated and in 46.37% (806/1738) of embryo transfers. Clinical pregnancy rate was 35.71% (891/2495) for cycles initiated and 51.26% (891/2318) for embryo transfers. Univariate analysis revealed that the odds of live birth significantly decreased with increasing age, declining AMH or inhibin B concentrations, and fewer oocytes retrieved. At AMH levels greater than 5.7 ng/ml, the odds of live birth were 3.18 times greater than for AMH levels less than 1.9 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.89-5.43]. Using multivariate logistic regression, only AMH (OR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.00-3.60; p live birth. Area under the curve for ROC (ROC(AUC)) indicated that AMH (AUC = 0.60) surpassed AFC (AUC = 0.59), number of oocytes retrieved (AUC = 0.59), inhibin B (AUC = 0.55), FSH (ROC(AUC) = 0.54) and chronological age (ROC(AUC) = 0.53) in predicting live birth. In this assessment of various indices (i.e., age; levels of AMH, inhibin B, and FSH; AFC; and quantity of oocytes retrieved) for predicting live births for IVF patients, AMH, AFC and the quantity of oocytes retrieved constituted the most reliable determinants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geographic distribution of live births with tetralogy of Fallot in North Carolina 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer S; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Strassle, Paula D; Meyer, Robert E

    2016-11-01

    Geographic variation in congenital heart disease is not well-described. This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) to describe the spatial epidemiology of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), in North Carolina (NC) and to compare travel time for cases to congenital heart centers in NC. Using the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program database, live births with TOF born between 2003 and 2012 were identified. Birth certificates provided demographic variables. A denominator of live births/zip code was obtained from the NC live births database. ArcGIS® software was used to illustrate TOF prevalence by zip code, and SatScanTM was used to identify spatial clusters of TOF cases and to identify changes in cluster location over time. Driving time to each of five NC congenital heart centers was predicted based on road systems information. A total of 496 infants were born with TOF between 2003 and 2012. The prevalence was 4.2/10,000 live births. A large cluster (330 zip codes, 306 cases) was identified in northeastern NC. Average driving time for each case to closest congenital heart center was: University of North Carolina 37 min, Vident Medical Center 64 min, Duke University 58 min, Carolina's Medical Center 89 min, and Wake Forest Baptist Health 57 min. Overall, average predicted driving time to the nearest congenital heart center was 61 min. Approximately 50 infants/year were born with TOF in NC. One cluster was identified. Further study is necessary to explore potential explanations for the observed case cluster. As interest in regionalization of congenital heart surgery grows, GIS and spatial analysis can become increasingly useful tools for health care planning. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:881-887, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Association of number of retrieved oocytes with live birth rate and birth weight: an analysis of 231,815 cycles of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Valerie L; Brown, Morton B; Luke, Barbara; Conrad, Kirk P

    2015-04-01

    To determine if number of retrieved oocytes correlates with live birth rate and incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women undergoing fresh embryo transfer with the use of either autologous (n = 194,627) or donor (n = 37,188) oocytes whose cycles were reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in the years 2004-2010. None. Live birth rate, birth weight, birth weight z-score, LBW. For both autologous and donor oocyte cycles, increasing number of retrieved oocytes paralleled live birth rate and embryos available for cryopreservation in most analyses, with all models adjusted for age and previous births. For cycles achieving singleton pregnancy with the use of autologous oocytes via transfer of two embryos, a higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with lower mean birth weight, lower birth weight z-score, and greater incidence of LBW. In contrast, for cycles using donor oocytes, there was no association of number of retrieved oocytes with measures of birth weight. A higher number of retrieved oocytes was associated with an increased incidence of LBW in autologous singleton pregnancies resulting from transfer of two embryos, but not in donor oocyte cycles. Although the effect of high oocyte number on the incidence of LBW in autologous cycles was of modest magnitude, further study is warranted to determine if a subgroup of women may be particularly vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low birth weight and risk of albuminuria in living kidney donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, D; MacDonald, D; Jackson, S; Spong, R; Issa, N; Kukla, A; Reule, S; Weber, M; Matas, AJ; Ibrahim, HN

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birth weight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. 257 living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, albuminuria and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birth weight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birth weight was not associated with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2: OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74, p=0.45) or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p=0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p=0.03. This data further strengthens the link between low birth weight and potential adverse renal outcomes. PMID:24547690

  18. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  19. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  20. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  1. Mid-luteal progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates during ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce Saez, Jane; Balen, A; Platteau, P

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated whether mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates in women with WHO group II anovulatory infertility undergoing ovulation induction. Data were from women (n=335) stimulated with gonadotrophins using a low-dose step...

  2. Children born after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. A review of 13 live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Silber, Sherman; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation. We report 13 live births after orthotopic transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in cancer patients (n = 8) and in patients treated with high doses of chemotherapy for benign diseases (n = 2) (microscopic polyangiitis, sickle cell anemia). Interpretation...

  3. Is there a link between blastomere contact surfaces of day 3 embryos and live birth rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paternot Goedele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-cell communication and adhesion are essential for the compaction process of early stage embryos. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive objective calculation system of embryo compaction in order to test the hypothesis that embryos with a larger mean contact surface result in a higher live birth rate compared to embryos with a lower mean contact surface. Methods Multilevel images of 474 embryos transferred on day 3 were evaluated by the Cellify software. This software calculates the contact surfaces between the blastomeres. The primary outcome of this study was live birth. An ideal range of contact surface was determined and the positive and negative predictive value, the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the curve for this new characteristic were calculated. Results In total, 115 (24% transferred embryos resulted in a live birth. Selection of an embryo for transfer on its mean contact surface could predict live birth with a high sensitivity (80% and high negative predicting value (83% but with a low positive predictive value (27%, a low specificity (31% and low area under the ROC curve (0.56. The mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a single medium was significantly higher compared to the mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a sequential medium (p = 0.0003. Conclusions Neither the mean contact surface nor the number of contact surfaces of a day 3 embryo had an additional value in the prediction of live birth. The type of culture medium, however, had an impact on the contact surface of an embryo. Embryos cultured in a single medium had a significant larger contact surface compared to embryos cultured in the sequential medium.

  4. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-07-11

    Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis.

  5. External validation of anti-Müllerian hormone based prediction of live birth in assisted conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Amani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronological age and oocyte yield are independent determinants of live birth in assisted conception. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is strongly associated with oocyte yield after controlled ovarian stimulation. We have previously assessed the ability of AMH and age to independently predict live birth in an Italian assisted conception cohort. Herein we report the external validation of the nomogram in 822 UK first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods Retrospective cohort consisting of 822 patients undergoing their first IVF treatment cycle at Glasgow Centre for Reproductive Medicine. Analyses were restricted to women aged between 25 and 42 years of age. All women had an AMH measured prior to commencing their first IVF cycle. The performance of the model was assessed; discrimination by the area under the receiver operator curve (ROCAUC and model calibration by the predicted probability versus observed probability. Results Live births occurred in 29.4% of the cohort. The observed and predicted outcomes showed no evidence of miscalibration (p = 0.188. The ROCAUC was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.68, suggesting moderate and similar discrimination to the original model. The ROCAUC for a continuous model of age and AMH was 0.65 (95% CI 0.61, 0.69, suggesting that the original categories of AMH were appropriate. Conclusions We confirm by external validation that AMH and age are independent predictors of live birth. Although the confidence intervals for each category are wide, our results support the assessment of AMH in larger cohorts with detailed baseline phenotyping for live birth prediction.

  6. Women's alcohol consumption and cumulative incidence of live birth following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L E; Missmer, S A; Thornton, K L; Hacker, M R

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes among women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This study is a retrospective cohort study. This study was performed in a private academically affiliated IVF center. Patients included women presenting for their first IVF cycle from July 2004 through October 2012. Women completed self-administered questionnaires before their first IVF cycle, which included report of usual alcohol consumption. Women were categorized as non-drinkers, social drinkers, or daily drinkers, as well as by the number of drinks consumed per week. Competing risks analysis was used to calculate the cumulative incidence of live birth after 6 cycles stratified by alcohol consumption. Main outcome measures included spontaneous abortion, clinical pregnancy, and live birth following IVF. There were 591 (27.7%) non-drinkers, 1466 (68.7%) social drinkers, and 77 (3.6%) daily drinkers (total n = 2134). In the first cycle, compared to non-drinkers, daily drinkers had a twofold increased risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.5) among all cycle starts, and while their risk of live birth was 30% lower (aRR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.3), the sample size was small, and it was not significantly lower. By the end of 6 cycles, social drinkers and daily drinkers did not differ from non-drinkers in their cumulative incidence of live birth (56.1, 50.6, and 52.1%, respectively; both P ≥ 0.28). There was a trend towards lower risk of live birth among daily drinkers. Daily drinkers had an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in the first cycle, but the number of daily drinkers was small.

  7. The pregnancy rate and live birth rate after kidney transplantation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, I; Santori, G; Fazio, F; Valente, U

    2012-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation recipients live longer and have better quality of life than patients on dialysis. Hypothalamic gonadal dysfunction in females who have ESRD may be reversed within the first few months after kidney transplantation, such as the ability to have children. Despite thousands of successful pregnancies in transplantation recipients, there is limited information about it. In this study, we evaluated the pregnancy rates and live birth rates in women (n = 133) who underwent kidney transplantation in our center from 1983 to 2010. Recipients of a second kidney transplantation and recipients of multiorgan transplantations were excluded. We observed 33 pregnancies with 11 live births (33.3%), 12 spontaneous abortions (36.36%), and 10 therapeutic abortions (30.3%). The pregnancy rate was 18%. The live birth rate was 33.3%. Therapeutic abortions were 36.3%, and the pregnancies resulting in fetal loss were 30.3%. The pregnancies were identified in 32 women. The majority of women (n = 32; 96.9%) had a single pregnancy, whereas 1 woman (3.1%) had two pregnancies. In our series, the pregnancy rates for kidney transplantation recipients were markedly lower and decreased more rapidly than those reported in the general population.

  8. The long-term prognosis for live birth in couples initiating fertility treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, S S; Henningsen, A A; Loft, A

    2017-01-01

    , across clinics, evaluating live births after insemination, ART and natural conceptions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This register-based national cohort study from Denmark includes all women initiating fertility treatments in public and private clinics with homologous gametes in 2007-2010. PARTICIPANTS...... were estimated 2, 3 and 5 years from the first treatment cycle, in all women, including drop-outs. Birthrates were stratified by type of first treatment (ART/IUI), mode of conception (ART/IUI/natural conception) and female age. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Within 5 years, in women aged ... years (N = 3553), 35-39 years (N = 1156) and ≥40 years (N = 451), a total of 64%, 49% and 16% had a live birth due to treatment, respectively. Additionally, in women aged conception, yielding total 5-year birthrates of 80...

  9. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infe...

  10. Identifying real differences in live birth rates between HMG and rFSH in IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    Fertility treatment strives for the delivery of a healthy live birth. Human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) are the two types of gonadotrophin currently used for ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction treatments. Although both HMG and rFSH have been shown to be effective, a number of studies have examined whether a potential difference in clinical benefit or outcome exists between treatments. Unlike rFSH preparations, HMG contains both FSH and LH activity (in the form of LH and human chorionic gonadotrophin, which are short- and long-acting, respectively). The beneficial effect of exogenous LH activity has been investigated in the Menotrophin versus Recombinant FSH in-vitro Fertilisation Trial (MERiT), which revealed differences in embryo quality and endometrial receptivity between rFSH and highly purified HMG. Current evidence suggests that HMG provides significantly higher live birth rates than rFSH in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles using long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol. Further studies will continue to provide data with which to expand these findings and optimize the chances of achieving a live birth following assisted reproduction treatment.

  11. Live birth from a 46-year-old using fresh autologous oocytes through in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolice, Mark P

    2014-07-01

    To report a live birth with IVF from a 46-year-old woman using autologous oocytes. Case report. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility private practice and ambulatory IVF center. One 46-year-old nulligravid woman. IVF with fresh ET. Live birth after IVF. A 46-year-old with antimullerian hormone (AMH) level less than 0.16 conceived through IVF using autologous oocytes. A total of seven oocytes were retrieved, from which four embryos were transferred at the cleavage stage, resulting in a pregnancy and delivery of a healthy male infant weighing 1,580 g at 31 and 3/7 weeks' estimated gestational age. The prognosis for a live birth from IVF in a patient with very advanced reproductive age, particularly with an undetectable AMH level using autologous oocytes, remains extremely poor. This case should be interpreted with caution so as to not provide false hope to women aged 45 and above. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective validation of two models predicting pregnancy leading to live birth among untreated subfertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, Claudine C; Laven, Joop S E; van Rooij, Ilse A J; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; te Velde, Egbert R; Habbema, J Dik F

    2005-06-01

    Models predicting clinical outcome need external validation before they can be applied safely in daily practice. This study aimed to validate two models for the prediction of the chance of treatment-independent pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples. The first model uses the woman's age, duration and type of subfertility, percentage of progressive sperm motility and referral status. The second model in addition uses the result of the post-coital test (PCT). For validation, these characteristics were collected prospectively in two University hospitals for 302 couples consulting for subfertility. The models' ability to distinguish between women who became pregnant and women who did not (discrimination) and the agreement between predicted and observed probabilities of treatment-independent pregnancy (calibration) were assessed. The discrimination of both models was slightly lower in the validation sample than in the original sample which provided the model. Calibration was good: the observed and predicted probabilities of treatment-independent pregnancy leading to live birth did not differ for both models. The chance of pregnancy leading to live birth was reliably estimated in the validation sample by both models. The use of PCT improved the discrimination of the models. These models can be useful in counselling subfertile couples.

  13. Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, M C; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D

    2017-05-06

    To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1-56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary

  14. Live birth rates following in vitro fertilization in women with thyroid autoimmunity and/or subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Joyce; Yeung, Wing-Yee T; Lee, Chi-Yan V; Li, Hang-Wun R; Ho, Pak-Chung; Ng, Hung-Yu E

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the live birth rate following in vitro fertilization (IVF) is affected by thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) and/or subclinical hypothyroidism in subfertile women. Retrospective study in a university infertility clinic. A total of 627 women without past or current history of thyroid disorder undergoing their first IVF cycle. Pre-IVF archived blood serum samples were tested for TAI and thyroid function tests. Live birth rate. The clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate were similar among women with or without TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism using a TSH threshold 4·5 mIU/l. Thyroid autoantibody level did not affect these IVF outcomes. The live birth rate and miscarriage rate of women with TAI and/or subclinical hypothyroidism following IVF were not impaired. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Two Live Births following Robotic-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage in Nonpregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Göçmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To report the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage performed in two nonpregnant women and the success of live birth outcomes. Presentation of Cases. A 36-year-old woman with a complaint of recurrent second trimester pregnancy losses and a 35-year-old patient with a complaint of preterm deliveries and cervical insufficiency underwent robotic assisted abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement in nonpregnant period. The two patients had spontaneous pregnancy after the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage and delivered healthy infants. Discussion. The limitations of traditional laparoscopic abdominal cerclage have been accomplished with robotic surgery advantages especially intuitive movements and increased range of motion. There are only a few studies in the literature including robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in nonpregnant women, and only five successful live birth outcomes were reported. In this paper, we reported the sixth and seventh cases of achieved live pregnancy after robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in the literature. Conclusion. Robotic assisted abdominal cerclage is a good alternative surgical method with successful pregnancy outcomes.

  16. [Evaluation of information systems on live births and mortality in Brazil in the 2000s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Paulo Germano de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2014-10-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health's mortality and live birth information systems (SIM and SINASC) are valuable tools for measuring population health status. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of vital information systems from 1999-2001 to 2008-2010 in the States and major geographic regions of Brazil. Indicators were constructed to assess data coverage, regularity, and quality for SIM and SINASC. The municipalities (counties) were divided into three categories according to adequacy of data on deaths and live births by calculating an adequacy index based on the proportion of the population living in each category. The adequacy index for Brazil increased from 73.9 to 89.1 in the SIM and from 80.5 to 90.9 in the SINASC from the first to the second triennium, respectively. Improvements occurred in all the indicators, in all regions of the country, and in most States. Analysis of the adequacy of vital information in Brazil showed clear improvement throughout the country, particularly in States of the North and Northeast regions.

  17. Living Arrangements and Family Formation Attitudes in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of nonfamily living arrangements and cohabitation on changes in family formation attitudes at the individual level. Results indicate that both the experience and duration of cohabiting arrangements have significant effects on family formation attitudes but fail to show significant consequences of premarital, nonfamily living…

  18. Live births after polar body biopsy and frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfer: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Guimar?es, Fernando; Roque,Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Kostolias, Alessandra; Azevedo, Rodrigo A de; Martinhago, Ciro D; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber,Selmo

    2016-01-01

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or screening (PGS) technology, has emerged and developed in the past few years, benefiting couples as it allows the selection and transfer of healthy embryos during IVF treatments. These techniques can be performed in oocytes (polar-body biopsy) or embryos (blastomere or trophectoderm biopsy). In this case report, we describe the first two live births to be published in Brazil after a polar-body (PB) biopsy. In case 1, a 42-year-old was submitted to PB...

  19. Live birth after in vitro fertilization (ivf in a 53 year old woman: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Orazulike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of live birth in a 53 year old woman following assisted reproductive techniques (ART. A 53-year-old civil servant who registered for antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH in 2008 at 17 weeks gestation is presented. She had conceived after 4 years of infertility follow treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI-ET using her husband's sperm and donor eggs. The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term. She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. The puerperium was complicated by hypertension, which was managed appropriately. Infertility in women of advanced reproductive age can be successfully treated with donor oocytes in Nigeria. Antenatal supervision and delivery by skilled attendants is the key to achieve favourable outcome.

  20. Live birth afterin vitro fertilization (ivf) in a 53 year old woman:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orazulike NC; Oriji VK; Fiebai PO

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of live birth in a53 year old woman following assisted reproductive techniques (ART).A53-year-old civil servant who registered for antenatal care at theUniversity ofPort HarcourtTeachingHospital(UPTH) in2008 at17 weeks gestation is presented.She had conceived after4 years of infertility follow treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) using her husband’s sperm and donor eggs.The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term.She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at38 weeks of gestation.The puerperium was complicated by hypertension, which was managed appropriately.Infertility in women of advanced reproductive age can be successfully treated with donor oocytes inNigeria.Antenatal supervision and delivery by skilled attendants is the key to achieve favourable outcome.

  1. Embryo quality is the main factor affecting cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in fresh stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, Maarit; Veleva, Zdravka; Martikainen, Hannu

    2015-11-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate which factors affect the cumulative live birth rate after elective single embryo transfer in women younger than 36 years. Additionally, number of children in women with more than one delivery per ovum pick-up after fresh elective single embryo transfer and subsequent frozen embryo transfers was assessed. Retrospective cohort study analysing data of a university hospital's infertility clinic in 2001-2010. A total of 739 IVF/ICSI cycles with elective single embryo transfer were included. Analyses were made per ovum pick-up including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo transfers. Factors affecting cumulative live birth rates were examined in uni- and multivariate analyses. A secondary endpoint was the number of children born after all treatments. In the fresh cycles, the live birth rate was 29.2% and the cumulative live birth rate was 51.3%, with a twin rate of 3.4%. In the multivariate analysis, having two (odds ratio (OR) 1.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-2.67) or ≥3 top embryos (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.79-3.95) was associated with higher odds for live birth after fresh and frozen embryo cycles. Age, body mass index, duration of infertility, diagnosis or total gonadotropin dose were not associated with the cumulative live birth rate. In cycles with one top embryo, the cumulative live birth rate was 40.2%, whereas it was 64.1% in those with at least three top embryos. Of women who had a live birth in the fresh cycle, 20.4% had more than one child after all frozen embryo transfers. Among women with three or more top embryos after ovum pick-up, 16.1% gave birth to more than one child. The cumulative live birth rate in this age group varies from 40% to 64% and is dependent on the quality of embryos. Women with three or more top embryos have good chance of having more than one child per ovum pick-up without elevated risk of multiple pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluating the implementation of Information System on Live Births in municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Hartz, Zulmira Maria de Araújo; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Meira, Antônio José de; Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta da

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the degree of implementation of the Information System on Live Births (SINASC) and its relationship to the organizational context in municipalities (counties) of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2010. The sample included 132 municipalities that had healthcare facilities providing childbirth care and the decentralized SINASC. Data collection used a semi-structured questionnaire. Degree of implementation was defined by a scoring system with different weights for each indicator, according to the respective levels of importance assigned to them, using the following classification: adequate, inadequate, and critical. Data analysis used the median as the summary measure and the Pearson chi-square test for comparison of proportions. SINASC is not adequately implemented in the majority of the municipalities in the sample. Population size and quality of the municipal administration did not influence the degree of implementation. In terms of organization of information in the SINASC, the structure was evaluated as better than the process. Limitations included lack of qualified staff, unsatisfactory collection and completion of certificates of live birth, underutilization of data, and limited publication of the information.

  3. Costs of achieving live birth from assisted reproductive technology: a comparison of sequential single and double embryo transfer approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sara; Boulet, Sheree L; Mneimneh, Allison S; Perkins, Kiran M; Jamieson, Denise J; Zhang, Yujia; Kissin, Dmitry M

    2016-02-01

    To assess treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs and birth outcomes for assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles in a subset of patients using elective double embryo (ET) and to project the difference in costs and outcomes had the cycles instead been sequential single ETs (fresh followed by frozen if the fresh ET did not result in live birth). Retrospective cohort study using 2012 and 2013 data from the National ART Surveillance System. Infertility treatment centers. Fresh, autologous double ETs performed in 2012 among ART patients younger than 35 years of age with no prior ART use who cryopreserved at least one embryo. Sequential single and double ETs. Actual live birth rates and estimated ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs for double ET cycles started in 2012 and projected ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs if the double ET cycles had been performed as sequential single ETs. The estimated total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs were $580.9 million for 10,001 double ETs started in 2012. If performed as sequential single ETs, estimated costs would have decreased by $195.0 million to $386.0 million, and live birth rates would have increased from 57.7%-68.0%. Sequential single ETs, when clinically appropriate, can reduce total ART treatment and pregnancy/infant-associated medical costs by reducing multiple births without lowering live birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. SUPER EARLY PREMATURE BIRTH IN TERMS OF THE NEW STANDARD OF LIVE BIRTH IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisheva, N S; Duglas, N I; Pavlova, T Yu; Yakovleva, E B; Rad, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a serious problem of public health around the world owing to the high frequency of complications and perinatal losses. According to the WHO recommendations by gestation terms the premature birth divides into: super early premature birth (SEPB) in the term of 22-27 weeks, early PB in the term of 28-33 weeks and PB in the term of 34-37 weeks. Preterm born infants make 85%, and in the neonatal mortality structure make more than 55%. It is necessary to consider that in recent years the number of women in the premature birth development risk group has increased, to which patients with a uterus scar, extragenital pathology, supporting reproductive technology treatment pregnancy are related.

  5. Live birth following in vitro maturation of oocytes retrieved from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration and embryo cryopreservation for 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzelac, Peter S; Delaney, Abigail A; Christensen, Greg L; Bohler, Henry C L; Nakajima, Steven T

    2015-11-01

    To report a live birth after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration in the setting of fertility preservation. Observational study. Academic center. A 23-year-old woman. IVM from extracorporeal ovarian tissue aspiration. Live birth after IVM. A 23-year-old woman conceived with embryos derived from extracorporeal oocyte aspiration followed by IVM, embryo freezing, and frozen embryo transfer. A healthy live birth from extracorporeal aspiration of immature oocytes, IVM, and a frozen embryo transfer after 5 years was documented. Consideration of this technique should be made as a primary or adjunct intervention in the setting of fertility preservation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Response to Elvis' 2015 Critique of the AURA Report "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths"

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, Sara; Postman, Marc; Tumlinson, Jason; Mather, John C

    2015-01-01

    To ensure progress in astronomy over the coming decades, the key questions are "what facilities will we build, and when?" Toward this end, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) recently commissioned a study on future space-based options for UV and optical astronomy. The resulting study - "From Cosmic Births to Living Earths" - concluded that a space telescope equipped with a 12-meter class primary mirror would make fundamental advances across virtually all of astrophysics, including finding and characterizing the atmospheres of dozens of Earth-like planets. This ambitious telescope concept is referred to as the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST). In a recent arXiv white paper, Elvis (2015) critiqued a subset of the findings of the AURA study, focusing on the detection and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone. In this response, we clarify these issues to confirm that HDST would play a transformative role in the study of terrestrial worlds. Its capabilities f...

  7. Increased odds of live birth in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles with shorter ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Friedman, Caroline; Hutchinson, Anne P; Lekovich, Jovana P; Elias, Rony T; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of prolonged ovarian stimulation on pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles with fresh day 3 ET. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. All patients initiating their first IVF cycle with fresh day 3 ET. Prolonged ovarian stimulation was defined as a duration of more than two standard deviations (95th percentile) for the study cohort (i.e., >13 days). None. Live birth rate was considered the primary outcome and was compared between patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for ≤13 days and >13 days. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all pregnancy outcomes after day 3 ET were calculated. The OR for live birth was adjusted using logistic regression. A total of 6,410 and 339 patients underwent ovarian stimulation for ≤13 days and >13 days, respectively. There were no differences in the demographics or mean number of day 3 embryos transferred between the two groups. Ovarian stimulation ≤13 days was associated with increased odds of clinical pregnancy (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.19-3.89) and live birth (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.25-4.43). The increased odds for live birth in the ≤13-day group remained unchanged after logistic regression. Patients with clinical pregnancies in the >13-day group were younger (34.6 ± 4.91 years) compared with those who did not conceive (38.2 ± 4.72 years). Our findings suggest that ovarian stimulation ≤13 days is associated with increased odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth. In patients undergoing ovarian stimulation >13 days, younger age is associated with live birth. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of live birth and pregnancy success after in vitro fertilization in infertile women aged 40 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Ok; Sung, Nayoung; Song, In Ok

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes and the live birth rate at 1-year age increments in women aged ≥40 years undergoing fresh non-donor in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), and to identify predictors of success in these patients. This retrospective study was performed among women ≥40 years of age between 2004 and 2011. Of the 2,362 cycles that were conducted, ET was performed in 1,532 (73.1%). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in women ≥40 years significantly decreased with each year of increased age (p<0.001). Maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 0.644; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.540-0.769; p<0.001), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (OR, 0.950; 95% CI, 0.903-0.999; p=0.047), the number of high-quality embryos (OR, 1.258; 95% CI, 1.005 -1.575; p=0.045), and the number of transferred embryos (OR, 1.291; 95% CI, 1.064 -1.566; p=0.009) were significant predictors of live birth. A statistically significant increase in live birth rates was seen when ≥3 embryos were transferred in patients 40 to 41 years of age, whereas poor pregnancy outcomes were seen in patients ≥43 years of age, regardless of the number of transferred embryos. Moreover, the cumulative live birth rate increased in patients 40 to 42 years of age with repeated IVF cycles, but the follicle-stimulating hormone in those ≥43 years of age rarely showed an increase. IVF-ET has acceptable outcomes in those <43 years of age when a patient's own oocytes are used. Maternal age, basal FSH levels, and the number of high-quality embryos and transferred embryos are useful predictors of live birth.

  9. Risk and fear in the lived experience of birth without a midwife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plested, Mariamni; Kirkham, Mavis

    2016-07-01

    the broad aim of this study was to examine the lived-experience of women who birth without a midwife or other health-care professional in the United Kingdom; the specific purpose of this paper is to examine risk discourse as experienced by these women. reflective lifeworld research, a phenomenological approach was used in this study based on the philosophical writings of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and Gadamer (Dahlberg et al., 2008). 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had birthed without a midwife or other health-care professional present, interviews were transcribed and hermeneutically analysed. women׳s lived-experiences of the maternity services in this study suggest a pervading mood of fear which finds voice in manipulative risk discourse and midwifery behaviours that can result in women avoiding maternity care. Fear based ׳risk-talk׳ is used as a scare tactic to coerce women into particular choices; if women do not comply they are labelled ׳risk-takers׳ and can become ostracised by the maternity care system. risk discourse and its emphasis on mortality and morbidity raises awareness of death and creates important existential concerns for women which are unaddressed by health-care professionals. This can lead to a loss of trust in health-care professionals and women sourcing positive support and a salutogenic approach to childbirth from outside the system. health-care professionals need to become aware of and address manipulative and coercive attitudes in risk discourse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meiotic spindle normality predicts live birth in patients with recurrent in vitro fertilization failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilani, Suha; Chapman, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the impact of meiotic spindle normality on live birth rates in women with recurrent IVF failure. A retrospective comparative study. A large private sector IVF service in Sydney, Australia. Five hundred five intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)/ET cycles of patients who fulfilled the criteria for recurrent IVF failure, three or more previous fresh or frozen ETs with no ongoing pregnancy. Polarized light microscopy was used at the time of ICSI. Clinical pregnancy rates (PR) and live birth rates (LBR) were compared depending on the morphology of the meiotic spindle of the oocyte(s) from which the embryo(s) were transferred. Women receiving embryos where at least one was derived from a normally spindled oocyte had significantly increased clinical PR and LBR when compared with those who had only embryos derived from abnormally spindled oocytes (clinical PR: 31% vs. 7%; odds ratio [OR], 6.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.65-11.40) and (LBR: 24% vs. 4%; OR, 7.24; 95% CI 3.62-14.49). Comparison between the abnormal spindle groups showed significantly higher clinical PR and LBR from the group of patients receiving embryos where at least one was derived from an oocyte with no visible spindle compared with the group receiving embryos from dysmorphic spindles only (clinical PR: 9% vs. 6%; OR, 0.58; 95% CI 0.22-1.57 and LBR: 8% vs. 1%; OR, 0.16; 95% CI 0.03-0.77). Normally spindled oocytes, as determined by polarized light microscopy, are associated with significantly higher clinical PRs in patients with recurrent IVF failure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endometriosis, Ovarian Reserve and Live Birth Rate Following In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho Neto, Marcela Alencar; Martins, Wellington de Paula; Luz, Caroline Mantovani da; Jianini, Bruna Talita Gazeto Melo; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether women with endometriosis have different ovarian reserves and reproductive outcomes when compared with women without this diagnosis undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and to compare the reproductive outcomes between women with and without the diagnosis considering the ovarian reserve assessed by antral follicle count (AFC). Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women who underwent IVF/ICSI in a university hospital in Brazil between January 2011 and December 2012. All patients were followed up until a negative pregnancy test or until the end of the pregnancy. The primary outcomes assessed were number of retrieved oocytes and live birth. Women were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis of endometriosis, and each group was divided again into a group that had AFC ≤ 6 (poor ovarian reserve) and another that had AFC ≥ 7 (normal ovarian reserve). Continuous variables with normal distribution were compared using unpaired t-test, and those without normal distribution, using Mann-Whitney test. Binary data were compared using either Fisher's exact test or Chi-square (χ(2)) test. The significance level was set as p live birth was similar between women with the diagnosis of endometriosis and those without it (19.1 versus 22.5%), and also when considering only women with a poor ovarian reserve (9.4 versus 8.9%) and only those with a normal ovarian reserve (25.5 versus 26.5%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with endometriosis are more likely to have a poor ovarian reserve; however, their chance of conceiving by IVF/ICSI is similar to the one observed in patients without endometriosis and with a comparable ovarian reserve. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Pre-stimulation parameters predicting live birth after IVF in the long GnRH agonist protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Göran; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Broberg, Per;

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify novel pre-stimulation parameters associated with live birth in IVF and to develop a model for prediction of the chances of live birth at an early phase of the treatment cycle. Data were collected from a randomized trial in couples with unexplained...... infertility, tubal factor, mild male factor or other reason for infertility. All women (n=731) had undergone an IVF cycle (no intracytoplasmic sperm injection) after stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin or follicle-stimulating hormone following the long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist...

  13. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Draper, Elizabeth S; Kollée, Louis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10...... European regions. METHODS: The Models of Organizing Access to Intensive Care for Very Preterm Births (MOSAIC) study collected prospective data on all very preterm births in 10 European regions covering 494,463 total live births in 2003. The analysis sample was live births between 24 and 31 weeks...... of gestation without lethal congenital anomalies (N = 4908). Outcomes were rates of preterm birth, in-hospital mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage grades III and IV or cystic periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Mortality and morbidity rates were standardized for gestational age...

  14. Evolution of the Galaxy and the Birth of the Solar System: The Short-Lived Nuclides Connection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sahijpal

    2014-06-01

    An attempt is made, probably for the first time, to understand the origin of the solar system in context with the evolution of the galaxy as a natural consequence of the birth of several generations of stellar clusters. The galaxy is numerically simulated to deduce the inventories of the short-lived nuclides, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 53Mn and 60Fe, from the stellar nucleosynthetic contributions of the various stellar clusters using an -body simulation with updated prescriptions of the astrophysical processes. The galaxy is evolved by considering the discreteness associated with the stellar clusters and individual stars. We estimate the steady state abundance of the radionuclides around 4.56 billion years ago at the time of formation of the solar system. Further, we also estimate the present 26Al/27Al and 60Fe/56Fe of the interstellar medium that match within a factor of two with the observed estimates. In contrary to the conventional Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE) model, the present adopted numerical approach provides a natural framework to understand the astrophysical environment related with the origin of the solar system. We deduce the nature of the two stellar clusters; the one that formed and evolved prior to the solar system formation, and the other within which the solar system that was probably formed. The former could have contributed to the short-lived nuclides 129I and 53Mn, whereas, the supernova associated with the most massive star in the latter contributed 26Al and 60Fe to the solar system. The analysiswas performed with the revised solar metallicity of 0.014

  15. Assortative Mating by Education and Postponement of Couple Formation and First Birth in Britain and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafsson, S.; Worku, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on postponement of couple formation and first birth. We analyze couples born 1930¿1979 who have experienced both events. First, we estimate a spouse choice equation based on individual human capital and family of origin characteristics as well as marriage market indicators, using

  16. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea. PMID:22253639

  17. The influence of female and male body mass index on live births after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja;

    2013-01-01

    . Analyses were adjusted for age and smoking at treatment initiation and results stratified by BMI groups and presented by IVF/ICSI treatment. RESULT(S): In total, 12,566 women and their partners went through 25,191 IVF/ICSI cycles with 23.7% ending in a live birth. Overweight and obese women with regular...

  18. Impact of estrogen-to-oocyte ratio on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2015-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether the ratio of serum estrogen level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration to number of oocyte retrieved has any impact on live birth rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 7,112 women treated with GnRH-a long protocol in our center. Cycles were firstly divided into 6 groups according to the E2/oocyte ratio (Live birth rate (39.4%) in women with E2/oocyte ratio ≥ 750 pg/ml was the lowest compared with that in other groups. We further divided the top 10% of patients into high estrogen group (E2/oocyte ≥ 740 pg/ml; n = 713). Compared with controls, those with high E2/oocyte ratio had significantly higher peak E2 level (6711.85 pg/ml versus 4670.89 pg/ml; P = 0.000) on the day of hCG administration; however, the live birth rate (39.27% versus 45.67%; P = 0.001) was significantly lower for women with high estrogen level. Thus, we conclude that high E2/oocyte ratio adversely affects live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treated with GnRH-a long protocol.

  19. Antimullerian hormone: prediction of cumulative live birth in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist treatment for in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdine, O.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Lentjes, E.G.; Torrance, H.L.; Macklon, N.S.; Fauser, B.C.; Broekmans, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of antimullerian hormone (AMH) in predicting cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) within 1 year after treatment initiation in GnRH antagonist treatment cycles for in vitro fertilization (IVF). DESIGN: Observational (retrospective) substudy as part of an ongoing

  20. Cumulative live birth rate after GnRH agonist trigger and elective cryopreservation of all embryos in high responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljević, Veljko; Kovačič, Borut; Knez, Jure

    2017-07-01

    Elective embryo cryopreservation after using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocols and GnRH agonist triggering is becoming an increasingly important part of medically assisted reproduction. We designed a single-centre retrospective study to assess the cumulative probability of achieving a live birth through consecutive transfers of vitrified-warmed blastocysts after elective embryo cryopreservation in high-responding patients. Hence, 123 women identified to be at high risk for developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were included. They were stimulated using GnRH antagonist protocol, and GnRH agonist was used to trigger final oocyte maturation. All embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst stage and transferred in the subsequent menstrual cycles. Using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, a total of 65.9% (95% CI 57.5 to 74.3) women achieved a live birth after a maximum of six embryo transfer cycles using the 'conservative' approach. Applying the 'optimistic' approach, presuming that women who still had cryopreserved embryos and did not return for embryo transfer had the same chance of achieving a live birth as those returning for transfer, the cumulative live birth rate estimated in six embryo transfer cycles was 76.6% (95% CI 69.1 to 84.1). No cases of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were recorded. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Cate M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Methods Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006–2010 inclusive using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Results Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65% took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349, decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191 and decreasing alcohol consumption (p Conclusions The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to

  2. Trends in live birth prevalence of Down syndrome in the Northern Netherlands 1987-96 : the impact of screening and prenatal diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortelboer, MJM; de Wolf, BTHM; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Reefhuis, J; Mantingh, A; Beekhuis, [No Value; Cornel, MC

    2000-01-01

    In the Northern Netherlands, we examined the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) and the impact of maternal serum screening (MSS) and prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis (PCD) during the period 1987-96. In this period the live birth prevalence, based on the maternal age distribution and the age s

  3. Trends in live birth prevalence of Down syndrome in the Northern Netherlands 1987-96 : the impact of screening and prenatal diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortelboer, MJM; de Wolf, BTHM; Verschuuren-Bemelmans, CC; Reefhuis, J; Mantingh, A; Beekhuis, [No Value; Cornel, MC

    2000-01-01

    In the Northern Netherlands, we examined the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome (DS) and the impact of maternal serum screening (MSS) and prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis (PCD) during the period 1987-96. In this period the live birth prevalence, based on the maternal age distribution and the age s

  4. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, George M; Walker, Kate; Morris, Joan K

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Records of prenatal and postnatal diagnoses from seven UK regional congenital anomaly registers and two Australian registers covering 4.5 million births included 975 diagnoses of trisomy 13 and 2254 of trisomy 18. Prevalence at birth in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination was calculated by adjusting for prenatally diagnosed pregnancies that were terminated according to their likelihood of surviving to term. The live birth prevalence in the absence of prenatal screening and selective termination in England and Wales from 1997 to 2004 was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) per 10 000 births for trisomy 13 and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) for trisomy 18. It has increased since 1989-1996, by 13% for trisomy 13 and 25% for trisomy 18. These increases are consistent with those predicted due to increases in maternal age. This study provides the first estimates of maternal age-specific prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 for women aged 16-45. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Nagashima

    Full Text Available Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies-an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4-5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146. Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species.

  6. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris) Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Jennifer B; Sylvester, Skylar R; Nelson, Jacquelyn L; Cheong, Soon Hon; Mukai, Chinatsu; Lambo, Colleen; Flanders, James A; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N; Songsasen, Nucharin; Travis, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies-an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4-5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146). Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species.

  7. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  8. Successful live birth in a woman with resistant ovary syndrome following in vitro maturation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Yuan, Ping; Qiu, Qi; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-09-06

    Resistant ovary syndrome (ROS) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Infertility is a common complaint of woman presenting with ROS, and little progress has been made in term of reproduction with the patient's own gamete. So far only one case report of live birth has been reported after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in a patient suffering from ROS in 2013. A secondary infertile woman of 33 years-old was manifested with oligomenorrhea and markedly increased gonadotropin levels around postmenopausal range, but had normal antral follicle count, normal serum inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. She had normal karyotype of 46,XX and normal thyroid function. There were no abnormal findings in some autoantibody assays and FSH receptor sequencing. After oral contraceptive pills combined with triptorelin depot were administered, her gonadotropin levels reduced but it showed no response to high doses of exogenous gonadotropins (hp-HMG 300IU/d for 15 days). Then endometrium was prepared with estradiol valerate and IVM from small antral follicles were performed. Five immature oocytes were retrieved. Twenty-four hours after IVM culture, 3 oocytes matured to metaphase II stage and were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using her husband's sperm. Two top-quality embryos were transferred and one embryo was cryopreserved. The patient got pregnant and delivered a healthy boy at term. IVM using their own oocytes could be an available treatment for infertile women with ROS.

  9. Live Birth from ICSI-TESA into In Vitro Matured Oocytes: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Atasever, Melahat

    2015-01-01

    Repeated in vitro Fertilization (IVF) failure together with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is one of the distressing situations leading couples to search for alternative treatment options. For such patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) who have experienced Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, mild ovarian stimulation with in vitro oocyte maturation could be a promising alternative. Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA) of spermatozoa from a known obstructive azoospermic patient is a limiting factor for IVM (in vitro maturation) but the couple reported here accepted mild IVF -IVM with TESA. In the treatment of a 32-year old woman, 9 immature oocytes were retrieved, 5 in vitro matured oocytes (maturation rate 55%) and after fertilization by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), 3 oocytes (fertilization rate 60%) which had two pronuclei and two good quality embryos on day 2, were transferred. A live pregnancy was observed by ultrasound scan and healthy infant was delivered. Although the number of births from ICSI of immature oocytes injected with surgically derived sperm is quite low, the selection of this mode of therapy as an alternative to conventional IVF will overcome the limitations and provides a new option in IVF practice.

  10. Are women with recent live births aware of the benefits of folic acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, I B; Daniel, K L

    2001-05-11

    Each year, approximately 4,000 pregnancies result in spina bifida or anencephaly, serious and often fatal conditions for the newborn. The B vitamin folic acid can reduce the incidence of these conditions by 50%-70%. To examine folic acid awareness among women who had recently delivered a live-born infant, CDC analyzed Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data for 1995-1998. The question used to measure awareness was, "Have you ever heard or read that taking the vitamin folic acid can help prevent some birth defects?" During the study period, overall folic acid awareness increased 15%, from 64% in 1996 to 73% in 1998, although changes varied by state. Despite this increase, differences in folic acid awareness were observed among different groups of women. Women who obtained a high school education or less; who were black, Hispanic, or from other racial/ethnic groups; who entered prenatal care after the first trimester; and whose pregnancies were unintended were less aware of folic acid. This study indicates that gaps persist among women in low socioeconomic groups. Overall, PRAMS data indicated an increase in folic acid awareness among women with recent deliveries. However, this awareness might be too late for the pregnancy that has occurred, indicating a continued need to educate all reproductive-aged women regarding the need to take folic acid before they become pregnant.

  11. In vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening improves implantation and live birth in women age 40 through 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Ling; McCulloh, David H; Hodes-Wertz, Brooke; Adler, Alexis; McCaffrey, Caroline; Grifo, James A

    2015-03-01

    In Vitro Fertilization is an effective treatment for infertility; however, it has relatively low success in women of advanced maternal age (>37) who have a high risk of producing aneuploid embryos, resulting in implantation failure, a higher rate of miscarriage or birth of a child with chromosome abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to compare the implantation, miscarriage and live birth rates with and without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) of embryos from patients aged 40 through 43 years. This is a retrospective cohort study, comparing embryos screened for ploidy using trophectoderm biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization to embryos that were not screened. We compared pregnancy outcomes for traditional fresh IVF cycles with day 5 embryo transfers, Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET) cycles without PGS and PGS-FET (FET of only euploid embryos) cycles of patients with maternal ages ranging from 40 to 43 years, undergoing oocyte retrievals during the period between 1/1/2011 and 12/31/2012. The implantation rate of euploid embryos transferred in FET cycles (50.9%) was significantly greater than for unscreened embryos transferred in either fresh (23.8%) or FET (25.4%) cycles. The incidence of live birth per transferred embryo for PGS-FET (45.5%) was significantly greater than for No PGS fresh (15.8%) or No PGS FET (19.0 %) cycles. The incidences of live birth per implanted sac for PGS FET cycles (89.3%), No PGS fresh cycles (66.7%) and No PGS FET cycles (75.0%) were not significantly different. The present data provides evidence of the benefits of PGS with regard to improved implantation and live birth rate per embryo transferred.

  12. Live birth and perinatal outcomes following stimulated and unstimulated IVF: analysis of over two decades of a nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Sesh Kamal; LaMarca, Antonio; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Seed, Paul T; Khalaf, Yakoub

    2016-10-01

    Does ovarian stimulation affect perinatal outcomes of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) following IVF treatment. Despite no significant differences in the risks of PTB and LBW between stimulated and unstimulated IVF in the present study, the study cannot exclude the effect of ovarian stimulation on the perinatal outcomes following IVF. Pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy complications compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies attributed to the underlying infertility and the in vitro fertilization techniques. It is of interest to determine the effect size of ovarian stimulation use in achieving a live birth and whether ovarian stimulation that is routinely used in IVF, affects perinatal outcomes of birth weight and gestational age at delivery compared to unstimulated IVF. Anonymous data were obtained from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the statutory regulator of ART in the UK. The HFEA has collected data prospectively on all ART performed in the UK since 1991. Data from 1991 to 2011 comprising a total of 591 003 fresh IVF ± ICSI cycles involving 584 835 stimulated IVF cycles and 6168 unstimulated IVF cycles were analyzed. Data on all women undergoing either stimulated or unstimulated fresh IVF ± ICSI cycles during the period from 1991 to 2011 were analyzed to compare live birth rates, singleton live birth rates, perinatal outcomes of PTB, early PTB (live births. Adjusted logistic regression was performed for each perinatal outcome for confounding factors: female age, period of treatment, cause of infertility, number of previous IVF cycles and previous live birth. Analysis of the large nationwide data demonstrated 3.5 times (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.1-3.9) as many unstimulated IVF cycles being required to achieve one live birth compared to stimulated IVF and 2.9 times (95% CI: 2.6-3.2) as many unstimulated IVF cycles being required to

  13. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    . Design, Setting, and Subjects: In a population study, we included Danish women with new autoimmune overt hypothyroidism not diagnosed within the first year after a pregnancy (n = 117; median age 53.0 y) and age-andregion-matched euthyroid controls from the same population (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures......: In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...... births and induced abortions were major risk factors for the development of autoimmune overt hypothyroidism in women aged up to 55 years. The increased risk for hypothyroidism after giving birth extends longer than just to the 1-year postpartum period, and numbers of previous pregnancies should be taken...

  14. Uterus transplantation: From animal models through the first heart beating pregnancy to the first human live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Omer; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Dogan, Selen; Aydinuraz, Batu; Simsek, Mehmet

    2016-07-01

    Absolute uterine factor infertility affects 3-5% of the general population, and unfortunately this condition is untreatable. There are some available options, including surrogacy or adoption, but neither of these suits each and every woman who desires to have her own genetic child. With recent advances in surgery and transplant immunology, uterus transplantation may be a source of hope for these women with uterine infertility. In the last decade, a number of animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and primates have been used as experimental models, and pregnancies were achieved in some of these. Human data consist of 11 subjects yielding positive pregnancy results with no live births in the second trial from Turkey and, more fortunately, live births from the latest trial from Sweden. In the light of all these studies, uterus transplantation has been proven to be a viable option for women with uterine factor infertility.

  15. Live birth after replacement of an embryo obtained from a spontaneously in vitro matured metaphase-I oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras, Paloma; Gallardo, Miguel; Hebles, María; Jiménez, Juan Manuel; Migueles, Beatriz; Montero, Lorena; Sánchez-Martín, Fernando; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual

    2017-06-01

    This case report describes a live birth after the fresh replacement of an embryo obtained from a spontaneously in vitro matured oocyte. The patient was subjected to controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment, obtaining two oocytes. One was found to be immature at the time of denudation, at metaphase-I. This immature oocyte was kept in culture overnight in standard conditions along with the second oocyte - which was mature but failed to fertilize - spontaneously achieving metaphase-II, and was subjected to ICSI. The resulting embryo was replaced on the second day of development, producing a pregnancy that resulted in a healthy live birth. Post-denudation in vitro maturation could be considered as a tool to improve reproductive outcomes in selected patients, such as poor responders.

  16. How many oocytes are optimal to achieve multiple live births with one stimulation cycle? The one-and-done approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Denis A; Leung, Angela; Resetkova, Nina; Ruthazer, Robin; Penzias, Alan S; Sakkas, Denny; Alper, Michael M

    2017-02-01

    To study how many infertility patients would complete an average-sized family (achieve ≥2 live births) after a single, complete in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. A retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility practice. Women undergoing IVF. None. The outcome of 1 or ≥2 live births after a single retrieval cycle, followed by use of all embryos in subsequent frozen cycles in relation to oocyte number. The pregnancy rate was statistically significantly higher when ≥15 oocytes were retrieved (289 of 699, 41.3%) than live births and assuming that all remaining frozen embryos were used, we found that 498 of 2,226 (22.4%) patients would achieve ≥2 live births. We performed multivariate analysis, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.802. When controlling for multiple factors we found that as the number of oocytes retrieved increased, the chance of at least two live births increased, with odds ratio 1.08 (8% live birth increase per additional oocyte). We demonstrate that one fresh cycle with high oocyte yield is an optimal way to plan IVF treatment. With modern cryopreservation methods, the concept of "one-and-done" could safely achieve ≥2 live births with just one stimulation cycle in almost a quarter of our patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths: The Future of UVOIR Space Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne; Aigrain, Suzanne; Battel, Steve; Brandt, Niel; Conroy, Charlie; Feinberg, Lee; Gezari, Suvi; Guyon, Olivier; Harris, Walt; Hirata, Chris; Mather, John; Postman, Marc; Redding, Dave; Schiminovich, David; Stahl, H Philip; Tumlinson, Jason

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in history, humans have reached the point where it is possible to construct a revolutionary space-based observatory that has the capability to find dozens of Earth-like worlds, and possibly some with signs of life. This same telescope, designed as a long-lived facility, would also produce transformational scientific advances in every area of astronomy and astrophysics from black hole physics to galaxy formation, from star and planet formation to the origins of the Solar System. The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) commissioned a study on a next-generation UVOIR space observatory with the highest possible scientific impact in the era following JWST. This community-based study focuses on the future space-based options for UV and optical astronomy that significantly advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the cosmos and the life within it. The committee concludes that a space telescope equipped with a 12-meter class primary mirror can find and chara...

  18. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  19. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; de Lacey, Sheryl; Chapman, Michael; Ratcliffe, Julie; Norman, Robert J; Johnson, Neil; Sacks, Gavin; Lyttleton, Jane; Boothroyd, Clare

    2012-05-18

    IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET). Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment.The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture.Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P = 0.05, 80% power). There remains a need for

  20. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H S; Wu, F; Aghai, Z

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown...

  1. H-Y antibody titers are increased in unexplained secondary recurrent miscarriage patients and associated with low male : female ratio in subsequent live births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, H. S.; Wu, F.; Aghai, Z.; Steffensen, R.; van Halteren, A. G.; Spierings, E.; Christiansen, O. B.; Miklos, D.; Goulmy, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birth of a boy is significantly more common than a girl prior to secondary recurrent miscarriage (SRM) and is associated with a poorer chance of a subsequent live birth. Children born after SRM are more likely to be girls. High-titer antisera specific for male antigens (H-Y) have been shown to a

  2. [Incidence of fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates and influencing factors in Xi' an, 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Wang, L L; Dang, S N; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2016-08-10

    To analyze the incidence and influencing factors on fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates in Xi' an. A questionnaire survey was conducted among women at the childbearing age who were selected through multi stage stratified random sampling in Xi 'an during 2010-2013. All the childbearing aged women involved, were in pregnancy or having definite pregnancy outcomes. A total of 4 970 women at childbearing age and their infants were investigated. The overall incidence of fetal macrosomia weight among the single live birth neonates under study, was 9.7% during 2010-2013 (8.9% in 2010, 8.1% in 2011, 10.0% in 2012 and 10.1% in 2013, respectively). The incidence rates of fetal macrosomia appeared 10.5% in the central district and, 8.6% in the rural-urban area of Xi'an. There were statistically significant differences (Pmacrosomia. The incidence of fetal macrosomia in Xi' an was higher than the national figures. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was higher in the central district than in rural-urban area. Having male neonate, postmature birth, gestational diabetes, being multipara, drinking during pregnancy were the risk factors related to fetal macrosomia.

  3. Role of baseline antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone in prediction of cumulative live birth in the first in vitro fertilisation cycle: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study determined for the first time the role of baseline antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in the first in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle in predicting cumulative live birth from one stimulation cycle. We studied 1,156 women (median age 35 years) undergoing the first IVF cycle. Baseline AFC and AMH level on the day before ovarian stimulation were analysed. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers after the same stimulation cycle. Serum AMH was significantly correlated with AFC. Both AMH and AFC showed significant correlation with age and ovarian response in the stimulated cycle and total number of transferrable embryos. Baseline AFC and serum AMH were significantly higher in subjects attaining a live birth than those who did not in the fresh stimulated cycle, as well as those attaining cumulative live birth. There was a significant trend of higher cumulative live birth rate in women with higher AMH or AFC. However, logistic regression revealed that both AMH and AFC were not significant predictors of cumulative live birth after adjusting for age and number of embryos available for transfer. Considering only one single predictor, the areas under the ROC curves for AMH (0.646, 95% CI 0.616-0.675) and age (0.648, 95% CI 0.618-0.677) were slightly higher than that for AFC (0.617, 95% CI 0.587-0.647) in predicting cumulative live birth. However, a model combining AMH (with or without AFC) and age of the women only classified an addition of less than 2% of subjects correctly compared to the model with age alone. Baseline AFC and serum AMH have only modest predictive performance on the occurrence of cumulative live birth, and may not give additional value on top of the women's age.

  4. Serum progesterone elevation adversely affects cumulative live birth rate in different ovarian responders during in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer: a large retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Feifei; Wang, Keyan; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the relationship between serum progesterone (P) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) administration and cumulative live birth rate in patients with different ovarian response during in vitro fertilization (IVF), we carried out this retrospective cohort study including a total of 4,651 patients undergoing their first IVF cycles from January 2011 to December 2012. All patients with a final live birth outcome (4,332 patients) were divided into three groups according to ovarian response: poor ovarian responder (≤5 oocytes, 785 patients), intermediate ovarian responder (6-19 oocytes, 3065 patients) and high ovarian responder (≥20 oocytes, 482 patients). The thresholds for serum P elevation were 1.60 ng/ml, 2.24 ng/ml, and 2.50 ng/ml for poor, intermediate, and high ovarian responders, respectively. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was calculated in each group. The relationship between serum P level and cumulative live birth rate was evaluated by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle was inversely associated with serum P level in patients with different ovarian response. For all responders, patients with elevated P level had significantly higher number of oocytes retrieved, but lower high quality embryo rate, and lower cumulative live birth rate compared with patients with normal serum P level. In addition, serum P level adversely affected cumulative live birth rate by both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, independent of ovarian response. Serum P elevation on the day of HCG administration adversely affects cumulative live birth rate per oocyte retrieval cycle in patients with different ovarian response.

  5. Two trisomy 22 live births in one hospital in 15 months: is it as rare as we thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Thirona; Aldous, Colleen

    2014-02-01

    We report two cases of complete non-mosaic trisomy 22 who were born within 15 months of each other in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In an effort to consolidate diagnostic criteria to suspect trisomy 22 prior to chromosomal testing, we compare the clinical features of these infants with those of 23 other trisomy 22 live borns presented in the literature. We further compare the clinical phenotype of trisomy 22 with those of trisomies 13 and 18 to delineate a clinical picture to presume possible trisomy 22 soon after birth. Dysmorphic features which distinguish trisomy 22 from trisomy 13 and 18 include hypertelorism, long philtrum, long and thin upper lip, webbing of the neck, low set, wide spread nipples and an abnormal anus. Given the poor prognosis of this disorder and early mortality of most confirmed cases, non-aggressive versus aggressive treatment measures should be weighed up as soon after birth as possible.

  6. The birth of the first child as a positive event in the lives of young parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójtowicz-Dacka Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to research the relatioship between level of knowledge possessed by the contemporary parents about the psychological needs of small children and their perception of the birth of their child as a positive event. Study involved 90 parents, aged 25-30, who are currently raising young children up to 1 year of age. The analyses that were carried out verified the existence of such a correlation, but the event of birth is not a positive event for all parents. In summary, the sense of satisfaction with the birth of a child and perceiving this situation as a positive event is especially high among women and those with a higher education. For men and for parents with a low level of education, it can become a positive experience if they raise their level of knowledge about the needs of small children.

  7. Elevated progesterone in GnRH agonist down regulated in vitro fertilisation (IVFICSI) cycles reduces live birth rates but not embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, Robert; Kwik, Michele; Ryan, John; Al-Jefout, Moamar; Foley, Jane; Illingworth, Peter

    2012-02-01

    To assess the impact of pre-hCG elevated progesterone on live birth outcomes during GnRH agonist long down regulated protocol assisted reproduction cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Single Centre Private IVF Clinic. A total of 582 consecutive cycles of IVF/ICSI in 2003. All patients underwent a long down-regulation protocol, controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/ICSI. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured just prior to HCG administration. 253 patients were followed to 2009 for outcomes of their frozen embryo cycles. Live birth rate in fresh and frozen cycles. Patients in the upper quartile pre-hCG progesterone concentration (≥ 5.4 pmol/L) had a higher final estradiol level, more oocytes collected and more usable embryos, when compared to those with lower quartiles. They also had lower live birth rates per cycle started (21.9% vs. 15%, P live birth rates from frozen embryo cycles were not significantly different between the groups. Pre-hCG progesterone elevation leads to lower live birth rates in stimulated IVF cycles. Live birth rates achieved with frozen embryos in the high progesterone cycles suggest, that pre-hCG progesterone elevation negatively affects endometrial receptivity without adversely affecting embryo quality.

  8. Total number of oocytes and zygotes are predictive of live birth pregnancy in fresh donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariton, Eduardo; Kim, Keewan; Mumford, Sunni L; Palmor, Marissa; Bortoletto, Pietro; Cardozo, Eden R; Karmon, Anatte E; Sabatini, Mary E; Styer, Aaron K

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the association of oocyte donor-recipient characteristics, oocyte donor response, and live birth pregnancy rate following fresh donor oocyte IVF-ET. Retrospective cohort study. Academic reproductive medicine practice. Two hundred thirty-seven consecutive fresh donor oocyte IVF-ET cycles from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013 at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center. None. Live birth rate per cycle initiated. The mean (±SD) age of oocyte donors and recipients was 27.0 ± 3.7 and 41.4 ± 4.6 years, respectively. Oocyte donor demographic/reproductive characteristics, ovarian reserve testing, and peak serum E2 during ovarian stimulation were similar among cycles which did and did not result in live birth, respectively. Overall implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth pregnancy rates per cycle initiated were 40.5%, 60.8%, and 54.9%, respectively. The greatest probability of live birth was observed in cycles with >10 oocytes retrieved, mature oocytes, oocytes with normal fertilization (zygote-two pronuclear stage), and cleaved embryos. The number of oocytes (total and mature), zygotes, and cleaved embryos are associated with live birth following donor oocyte IVF cycles. These findings suggest that specific peri-fertilization factors may be predictive of pregnancy outcomes following donor oocyte IVF cycles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Mothers of Kids with Severe Birth Defects May Have Shorter Lives: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and history of pregnancy complications. Cohen noted that premature death risk was higher among women whose children were born with multiple defects, as opposed to one birth defect. "Of course, we can never make a definitive cause-and-effect determination with a single study," cautioned ...

  10. Maternal and Live-birth Outcomes of Pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324

  11. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    describe a couple who experienced repeated miscarriages as a result of the ... Transfer of the two euploid embryos resulted in a singleton pregnancy and subsequent birth of a baby. ... had an unbalanced form of this translocation with only derivative 5 .... Caesarean section and maternal death – latest Saving Mothersreport.

  12. A Study Of 370 Live Births In A Rural Area Of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surinder

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in12 Anganwadi areas of ferozepur District in Punjab to know about the various aspects of reproduction of the population. A total of 13, 782 population was covered. The sex ratio of the surveyed population was 900.7 females to 1000 males. The crude Birth rate of the area came to be 26.83 per 1000 population. In 94.87% of the births, the delivery occurred at the completion of 36 weeks of Gestation period & majority of the births (91.63% occurred to the mothers in the age group of 20 to 35 years . 24.86% of the children were born to the mothers with parity of five and above. 46.75% of the births took place between the months of July and October. 96.22% of the deliveries were conducted at home and majority (93.79% of the mothers utilized the services of indigenous dais( 73.52% of trained dais and 20.27% of untrained dais for the conduction of delivery.

  13. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related to clini...... biopsies were obtained from morphologically high quality blastocysts resulting in live birth and three biopsies were obtained from non-implanting blastocysts of a comparable morphology. Total RNA was extracted from all samples followed by complete transcriptome sequencing...

  14. The presence of HLA-antibodies in recurrent miscarriage patients is associated with a reduced chance of a live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Witvliet, Marian D; Steffensen, Rudi

    2010-01-01

    Anti-paternal HLA-antibodies are considered a harmless phenomenon during most pregnancies, whereas their role in recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients is disputed. In contrast to primary RM, patients with secondary RM have carried a fetus to term pregnancy prior to a series of miscarriages, which...... in secondary RM patients with a boy prior to the miscarriages (62%) compared to secondary RM patients with a firstborn girl (29%, p=0.03), primary RM patients (23%, p=0.02) and parous controls (25%, p=0.005). Forty-one percent of HLA-antibody positive pregnant RM patients had a live birth compared to 76...

  15. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  16. Comparison of live-birth defects after luteal-phase ovarian stimulation vs. conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and vitrified embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Ai, Ai; Fu, Yonglun; Tian, Hui; Cai, Renfei; Hong, Qingqing; Chen, Qiuju; Shoham, Zeev; Kuang, Yanping

    2015-05-01

    To assess live-birth defects after a luteal-phase ovarian-stimulation regimen (LPS) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and vitrified embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary-care academic medical center. Infants who were born between January 1, 2013 and May 1, 2014 from IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments (n = 2,060) after either LPS (n = 587), the standard gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-a) short protocol (n = 1,257), or mild ovarian stimulation (n = 216). The three ovarian-stimulation protocols described and assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment (IVF or ICSI, and vitrified ET) in ordinary practice. The main measures were: gestational age, birth weight and length, multiple delivery, early neonatal mortality, and birth defects. Associations were assessed using logistic regression by adjusting for confounding factors. The final sample included 2,060 live-born infants, corresponding to 1,622 frozen-thawed (FET) cycles, which led to: 587 live-born infants from LPS (458 FET cycles); 1,257 live-born infants from the short protocol (984 FET cycles); and 216 live-born infants from mild ovarian stimulation (180 FET cycles). Birth characteristics regarding gestational age, birth weight and length, multiple delivery, and early neonatal death were comparable in all groups. The incidence of live-birth defects among the LPS group (1.02%) and the short GnRH-a protocol group (0.64%) was slightly higher than in the mild ovarian-stimulation group (0.46%). However, none of these differences reached statistical significance. For congenital malformations, the risk significantly increased for the infertility-duration factor and multiple births; the adjusted odds ratios were 1.161 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.009-1.335) and 3.899 (95% CI: 1.179-12.896), respectively. No associations were found between congenital birth defects and various ovarian-stimulation regimens, maternal age, body mass index, parity

  17. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  18. Neonatal line as a linear evidence of live birth: Estimation of postnatal survival of a new born from primary tooth germs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of neonatal line indicates live birth and it is possible to estimate the exact period of survival of the infant in days by measuring the amount of postnatal hard tissue formation, and thus can be an evidence to the brutal act of infanticide. Materials and Methods: Primary tooth germs of both the arches were removed from the sockets of an infant who died few days after birth. Ground sections were made with hard tissue microtome. Decalcified sections were made from the crown of primary right mandibular canine and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. To visualize the neonatal line, the sections were subjected to light mocroscopy, polarized microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A developing permanent molar from a one and a half year old boy and ten fully developed deciduous molars were used as controls. Results: The ground sections of all the developing tooth germs showed the presence of neonatal line and the analysis of enamel showed six distinct cross striations along the enamel rod length indicating the period of survival of the baby to be six days which was later confirmed with the hospital records. Conclusion: Neonatal line could be used as an evidence of infanticide. Accurate detection of neonatal line with advanced techniques could rewrite this supplementary evidence of infanticide into substantial evidence.

  19. The value of Anti-Müllerian hormone in low and extremely low ovarian reserve in relation to live birth after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnders, Igna F; Nelen, Willianne L D M; IntHout, Joanna; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Braat, Didi D M; Fleischer, Kathrin

    2016-05-01

    To determine the relation of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) with live birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve. This study was a retrospective cohort study in a Dutch tertiary fertility clinic. Between January 2009 and March 2012, AMH levels were measured in infertile women when ≥36 years of age or when showing clinical signs of diminished ovarian reserve, before they underwent IVF or ICSI treatment. Ultimately, 156 women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve were included and evaluated for cumulative live birth rates. Of each woman, only one treatment cycle was analyzed, either the one in which she became pregnant or her first treatment cycle if she did not reach pregnancy. The relation between AMH and live birth was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression analysis. A ROC curve was composed to evaluate the discriminative value of AMH in relation to live birth after IVF/ICSI. Thirty-three out of 156 women (21.2%) gave live birth. Live birth was significantly lower in women with AMH ≤0.1ng/ml (4/37 women; 10.8%) or AMH >0.1-0.4ng/ml (7/42 women; 16.7%), compared to women with AMH >0.4-1.05ng/ml (22/77 women; 28.6%), plive birth (per 0.1ng/ml increase in AMH value, Odds ratio 1.21; 95% CI 1.07-1.36). The level of AMH is related to live birth after IVF/ICSI in women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve. The live birth rate in women with AMH >0.4ng/ml was significantly higher than in women with AMH ≤0.4ng/ml. AMH could serve as a tool in the pre-treatment counseling for pregnancy and live birth chances in women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acupuncture and Clomiphene Citrate for Live Birth in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Study Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an alternative therapy to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, but there is no study reporting the live birth rate following ovulation induction by acupuncture or its potential as an adjuvant treatment to clomiphene citrate (CC. We assess the efficacy of acupuncture with or without CC in achieving live births among 1000 PCOS women in Mainland China. This paper reports the methodology of an ongoing multicenter randomized controlled trial. The randomization scheme is coordinated through the central mechanism and stratified by the participating sites. Participants will be randomized into one of the four treatment arms: (A true acupuncture and CC, (B control acupuncture and CC, (C true acupuncture and placebo CC, and (D control acupuncture and placebo CC. To ensure the quality and integrity of the trial we have developed a unique multinational team of investigators and Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Up to the end of April 2013, 326 subjects were recruited. In conclusion, the success of this trial will allow us to evaluate the additional benefit of acupuncture beyond the first line medicine for fertility treatment in PCOS women in an unbiased manner.

  1. A successful live birth with in vitro fertilization and thawed embryo transfer after conservative treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Woo; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min

    2017-06-26

    Estrogen-dependent early stage endometrial cancer is relatively common in young women of reproductive age. The standard treatment is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), even in early stage well-differentiated endometrial cancer patients. This surgical option results in permanent loss of fertility. There have been some reports of live births using in vitro fertilization after conservative management of endometrial cancer with high-dose progestin for the purpose of fertility preservation. However, most were not recurrent cases and pregnancy was achieved through conventional in vitro fertilization, which usually raises serum estradiol levels and may lead to the recurrence of endometrial cancer. To date, it is hard to find a case that can be referred for any possible different approach needed for the patients who experience recurrence. Here we report a successful live birth with in vitro fertilization using letrozole to maintain physiological levels of estradiol, and subsequent thawed embryo transfer after elective cryopreservation of embryos in a patient with recurrent endometrial cancer. There has been no evidence of disease recurrence at one year after delivery.

  2. Effect of male and female body mass index on pregnancy and live birth success after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Ahrens, Katherine A; Hotaling, James M; Carrell, Douglas T; Link, Megan; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Kissell, Kerri; Porucznik, Christina A; Hammoud, Ahmad O

    2015-02-01

    To assess the effects of both male and female body mass index (BMI), individually and combined, on IVF outcomes. Prospective cohort study. University fertility center. All couples undergoing first fresh IVF cycles, 2005-2010, for whom male and female weight and height information were available (n = 721 couples). None. Embryologic parameters, clinical pregnancy, and live birth incidence. The average male BMI among the study population was 27.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) (range, 17.3-49.3 kg/m(2)), while the average female BMI (n = 721) was 25.2 ± 5.9 kg/m(2) (range, 16.2-50.7 kg/m(2)). Neither male nor female overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), class I obese (30-34.9 kg/m(2)), or class II/III obese (≥35 kg/m(2)) status was significantly associated with fertilization rate, embryo score, or incidence of pregnancy or live birth compared with normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) status after adjusting for male and female age, partner BMI, and parity. Similar null findings were found between combined couple BMI categories and IVF success. Our findings support the notion that weight status does not influence fecundity among couples undergoing infertility treatment. Given the limited and conflicting research on BMI and pregnancy success among IVF couples, further research augmented to include other adiposity measures is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B-C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF.

  4. Live birth after artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use ionophore: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Thomas; Montag, Markus; Montag, M; Van der Ven, K; Van der Ven, H; Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Oppelt, P; Hirchenhain, J; Krüssel, J; Maxrath, B; Gnoth, C; Friol, K; Tigges, J; Wünsch, E; Luckhaus, J; Beerkotte, A; Weiss, D; Grunwald, K; Struller, D; Etien, C

    2015-04-01

    Artificial oocyte activation has been proposed as a suitable means to overcome the problem of failed or impaired fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In a multicentre setting artificial oocyte activation was applied to 101 patients who were diagnosed with fertilization abnormalities (e.g. less than 50% fertilized oocytes) in a previous conventional ICSI cycle. Female gametes were activated for 15 min immediately after ICSI using a ready-to-use Ca(2+)-ionophore solution (A23187). Fertilization, pregnancy and live birth rates were compared with the preceding cycle without activation. The fertilization rate of 48% in the study cycles was significantly higher compared with the 25% in the control cycles (P splitting of the historical control group into failed (0%), low (1-30%) and moderate fertilization rate (31-50%) showed that all groups significantly benefitted (P embryo transfer cancelled compared with their previous treatments (1/101 versus 15/101). In total, 99% of the patients had an improved outcome with A23187 application resulting in a 28% live birth rate (35 babies). These data suggest that artificial oocyte activation using a ready-to-use compound is an efficient method.

  5. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B–C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF. PMID:27689042

  6. Class III obesity and unwanted pregnancy among women with live births in New York City, 2004-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous adverse health effects for pregnant women and their newborns. Unintended pregnancy is associated with suboptimal prenatal health behaviors and adverse birth outcomes. While research has suggested a link between obesity and unintended pregnancy, the evidence has been contradictory. Research has not focused on women at the highest level of obesity, Class III (body mass index ≥40). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data for 4,161 women in New York City with a live birth from 2004 to 2007 and complete data on pregnancy intention, height, and weight were examined. The primary outcome, having a live birth that resulted from an unwanted pregnancy (not wanted at that time or at any time in the future), was compared across 6 groups of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic factors and stressors during pregnancy were conducted. The proportion of women reporting their pregnancy was unwanted increased with increasing BMI level to a high of 24 % among women with Class III obesity. After adjustment for confounding sociodemographic factors, women classified as Class III obese were significantly more likely than women with normal BMI to report an unwanted pregnancy [AOR = 2.81 (95 % CI: 1.41-5.60)]; this relationship held after adjusting for stressors during pregnancy. No significant association was found for women of other BMI groups. Previous analyses may have masked a relationship between BMI and unwanted pregnancy among women with Class III obesity. Further research exploring underlying mechanisms which are amenable to intervention is of critical public health importance.

  7. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  8. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  9. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  10. Rising Star: a Game-Changing Format in a Dying Genre. The Highs and Lows of a Format's Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merav Schiffmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the TV industry everyone is constantly searching for ‘the next big hit.’ For a brief moment in time, Rising Star perfectly fit this description. Within days of the Israeli launch of the first season, the format had already sold internationally to major territories. Rising Star boasted a first of its kind audience participation and a real-time live experience. This caught the attention of producers, executives and creators everywhere. This was a game-changing concept, set to shake the genre of reality singing competition shows to the core.The case study discussed in this paper examines the creation stages of a transmedia television format, the strains effecting its development, its rapid global roll-out and the international adaptations, primarily the failure on the US market and its negative ripple effect.

  11. Cortisol production patterns in young children living with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Butzin-Dozier, Zachary; Rittenhouse, Joseph; Dozier, Mary

    2010-05-01

    To examine differences in waking to bedtime cortisol production between children who remained with birth parents vs children placed in foster care following involvement of Child Protective Services (CPS). Between-subject comparison of cortisol patterns among 2 groups of children. Children referred from the child welfare system. Three hundred thirty-nine children aged 2.9 to 31.4 months who were living with birth parents (n = 155) or placed in foster care (n = 184) following CPS involvement as well as 96 unmatched children from low-risk environments. Main Exposures Involvement by CPS and foster care. Main Outcome Measure Salivary cortisol samples obtained at waking and bedtime for children on 2 days. Child Protective Services-involved children who continued to live with birth parents and CPS-involved children placed in foster care differed in cortisol production, with children living with their birth parents showing flatter slopes in waking to bedtime values. Continuing to live with birth parents following involvement of CPS is associated with greater perturbation to the diurnal pattern of cortisol production than living with foster parents. Foster care may have a regulating influence on children's cortisol among children who have experienced maltreatment.

  12. Live birth after IVF in a 46-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Prato, Luca; Borini, Andrea; Cattoli, Monica; Preti, Maria Serena; Serrao, Lucia; Flamigni, Carlo

    2005-10-01

    Pregnancies after IVF have been reported in women aged > or =44 years, but nobody older than 45 years at oocyte retrieval delivered. We report a case of birth of a healthy child after IVF in a 46-year-old infertile woman. Ovarian stimulation was performed with clomiphene citrate, 150 mg daily for 5 days. Three oocytes were retrieved and one embryo was replaced. The patient delivered a healthy male infant after Caesarean section at 39 weeks. A successful pregnancy after IVF with homologous oocytes can be achieved in women older than 45 years. At this age IVF is not a cost-effective treatment compared with oocyte donation, but it may be offered in countries in which gamete donation is forbidden.

  13. Estimation of single-year-of-age counts of live births, fetal losses, abortions, and pregnant women for counties of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bismark; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-05-08

    We provide a methodology for estimating counts of single-year-of-age live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women from aggregated age-group counts. As a case study, we estimate counts for the 254 counties of Texas for the year 2010. We use interpolation to estimate counts of live-births, fetal-losses, and abortions by women of each single-year-of-age for all Texas counties. We then use these counts to estimate the numbers of pregnant women for each single-year-of-age, which were previously available only in aggregate. To support public health policy and planning, we provide single-year-of-age estimates of live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women for all Texas counties in the year 2010, as well as the estimation method source code.

  14. Live birth in a 50-year-old woman following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer with autologous oocytes: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Geetha; Goswami, Sourendra; Chattopadhyay, Ratna; Ghosh, Sanghamitra; Chakravarty, Baidyanath; Ganesh, Ashalatha

    2015-02-01

    To report a live birth with in vitro fertilization (IVF) from a 50-year-old woman with homologous oocytes. Case report. Referral center. A 50-year-old woman. IVF with fresh embryo transfer (ET). Live birth after IVF. A 50-year-old woman conceived with her own oocytes by means of IVF. Three fresh embryos were transferred, resulting in a pregnancy and delivery by cesarean section at 35 weeks of a healthy male baby weighing 2,300 g. Extensive literature search suggests that this is the first case report of live birth in a 50-year-old woman after IVF-ET with her own oocytes. This is a very rare and unusual case that deviates from the norm and therefore warrants attention. In selected cases, assisted reproductive technology might be reasonable to try for a limited number of times with a woman's own oocytes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-09-13

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025.Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births.Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births.Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW.Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on LBW

  16. Birth of live calves by in vitro embryo production of slaughtered cows in a commercial herd in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Arlotto

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fertilisation (IVF has become a useful breeding tool in most of the developed world. In this paper the success of bovine IVF and the birth of live calves under typical South African conditions is reported. Oocytes for IVF were collected from the ovaries of 6 slaughtered Bovelder beef cows. On average, 36.2 oocytes per donor were retrieved. From these oocytes, 43 blastocysts were produced from 5 of the donors by IVF with frozen Bovelder semen. The best 11 of these embryos were transferred into oestrous, synchronised Bovelder recipients in the same herd. As a result, 7 calves were born (a 64 %calving rate from 4 of the original donors. The calves had a normal birth mass, but the mean gestation length of the male calves was significantly longer than the herd average (291.6 versus 285.2 days respectively. No calving difficulties were encountered. In summary, it was shown that IVF for bovine embryo production and transfer is possible on a commercial basis in South Africa.

  17. Cumulative live birth rates after one ART cycle including all subsequent frozen-thaw cycles in 1050 women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M; Bogstad, J; Løssl, K

    2017-01-01

    per allocated woman after fresh and frozen cycles. Subjects were censored out after the first live birth. Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the relative prognostic significance of female age, BMI, the number of retrieved oocytes and the diagnosis of infertility in relation to the CLBR...... of the trial is a possible limitation with introduction of new methods as 'Freeze all' and 'GnRH-agonist triggering', but as these treatments were used in only few women, a systematic bias is not likely. Blastocyst culture of surplus embryos for freezing was introduced to both groups simultaneously, thereby...... minimizing the risk of bias. Furthermore, with a minimum of 2-year follow-up, a minority (

  18. Corona cell RNA sequencing from individual oocytes revealed transcripts and pathways linked to euploid oocyte competence and live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jason C; Patton, Alyssa L; McCallie, Blair R; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2016-05-01

    Corona cells surround the oocyte and maintain a close relationship through transzonal processes and gap junctions, and may be used to assess oocyte competence. In this study, the corona cell transcriptome of individual cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was investigated. Isolated corona cells were collected from COCs that developed into euploid blastocysts and were transferred in a subsequent frozen embryo transfer. Ten corona cell samples underwent RNA-sequencing to generate unique gene expression profiles. Live birth was compared with negative implantation after the transfer of a euploid blastocyst using bioinformatics and statistical analysis. Individual corona cell samples produced a mean of 21.2 million sequence reads, and 307 differentially expressed transcrpits (P corona cell transcriptome was successfully generated using RNA-sequencing. Key genes and signalling pathways were identified in association with implantation outcome after the transfer of a euploid blastocyst in a frozen embryo transfer. These data could provide novel biomarkers for the non-invasive assessment of embryo viability.

  19. First pregnancy and live birth resulting from cryopreserved embryos obtained from in vitro matured oocytes after oophorectomy in an ovarian cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, E B; Chan, M L H; Wong, W H W; Lim, C J W; Tharmalingam, M D; Hendricks, M; Loh, S F; Chia, Y N

    2014-02-01

    In vitro maturation (IVM) of immature oocytes retrieved from surgically resected ovaries has been proposed as a method of fertility preservation in ovarian cancer patients undergoing definitive surgery. While there had been several reports of successful derivation of mature oocytes and or embryos, there have been no reports as yet of successful pregnancies. In this case report, we present a pregnancy and live birth from a young patient, with stage IIIC ovarian cancer, who had undergone fertility sparing surgery. The immature oocytes recovered after oophorectomy were fertilized after IVM. The embryos obtained were cryopreserved and later transferred to achieve a singleton healthy pregnancy leading to a live birth.

  20. Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianicolo Emilio Antonio Luca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital anomalies and their primary prevention are a crucial public health issue. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Brindisi, a city in southeastern Italy at high risk of environmental crisis. Methods This research concerned newborns up to 28 days of age, born between 2001 and 2010 to mothers resident in Brindisi and discharged with a diagnosis of congenital anomaly. We classified cases according to the coding system adopted by the European Network for the Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT. Prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in Brindisi were compared with those reported by EUROCAT. Logistic regression models were adapted to evaluate the association between congenital anomalies and municipality of residence of the mother during pregnancy. Results Out of 8,503 newborns we recorded 194 subjects with congenital anomalies (228.2/10,000 total births, 1.2 times higher than the one reported by the EUROCAT pool of registries. We observed 83 subjects with congenital heart diseases with an excess of 49.1%. Odds Ratios for congenital heart diseases significantly increased for newborns to mothers resident in Brindisi (OR 1.75 CI 95% 1.30-2.35. Conclusions Our findings indicated an increased prevalence of Congenital Anomalies (especially congenital heart diseases in the city of Brindisi. More research is needed in order to analyze the role of factors potentially involved in the causation of congenital anomalies.

  1. Anthropometry of Malawian live births between 35 and 41 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, B F; van Buuren, S; Verhoeff, F H; Brabin, B J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to construct cross-sectional gestational age specific percentile curves for birthweight, length, head and mid-arm circumference for Malawian babies, and to compare these percentiles with reference values for babies born to women with normal pregnancies, from a developed country. A cross-sectional study which enrolled pregnant women attending two study hospitals between March 1993 and July 1994 was undertaken. Data on maternal socio-economic status, newborn anthropometry, previous obstetric history and current pregnancy were collected. Smoothed percentile values were derived using the LMS method. Malawian reference percentiles were constructed for fetal growth from 35 weeks' gestation for singleton births. Mean birthweight, length and head circumference were lower at all gestational ages for Malawian compared with Swedish newborns. Fetal growth per completed gestational week was higher by 60 g in weight, 0.5 cm in length and 0.2 cm in head circumference in Swedish compared with Malawian babies. Growth restriction was present from 35 to 41 weeks' gestation. The pattern for the 10th percentile suggested that this was occurring from well before 35 weeks' gestation in a proportion of babies.

  2. A Case of Live Birth after Uterine Reconstruction for Recurrent Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy following IVF Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanayagam Maruthini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent ruptured right cornual ectopic pregnancies conceived after IVF. Following the second episode, a sonohysterography was undertaken to identify possible areas of scar weakness that may rupture with uterine distension in a future pregnancy. The scan revealed asymmetrical muscle thickness in the cornual regions, the right (6 mm being thinner than the left (1.6 cm. Subsequently, an elective laparotomy was undertaken, and the cornua were reconstructed and thickened in several layers by bringing the laterally retracted myometrial fibres onto the reconstruction site. A sono-hysterography after surgery showed satisfactory (3-4 cm myometrial thickness all around. A further cycle of IVF resulted in a singleton pregnancy. Pelvic scans confirmed normal intrauterine pregnancy without any myometrial thinning. She was delivered by an uneventful elective caesarean section at term. We propose that, in those who intend to have further pregnancies after a cornual ectopic pregnancy, a sono-hysterography is possibly the best investigative tool to assess myometrial integrity. This case demonstrates that in women with areas of muscle weakness it is possible to successfully perform an interval elective reconstructive surgery on the uterus that can result in an uneventful pregnancy and birth.

  3. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Extremely Preterm Birth Home For Patients Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth ... Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 PDF Format Extremely Preterm Birth Pregnancy When is a baby considered “preterm” or “ ...

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE NATURAL GROWTH AND THE ANALYSIS OF THE SEASONALITY OF LIVE BIRTHS AND DEATHS FROM ROMANIA AND BACAU COUNTY IN THE LAST FOUR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Harja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, Romania's population declined every year naturally, the number of deaths being higher than live births. If in Bacau until 2002 we had to deal with natural growth of the population, even if increasingly less, starting that year it emerged more and more the process of decline of the population. In both cases, the phenomenon is more pronounced in rural areas than in urban areas due to more pronounced aging of the rural population. Both in the case of live births and deaths it is observed the seasonal oscillation by the months of the year. If in the case of births they are more numerous in the summer months and in decrease in the winter months, the situation is exactly the opposite in the case of deaths. Thus from here we have the natural decrease of the population, which increases in the winter months and starts to decline or become slightly positive in July-September.

  5. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users...

  6. Cumulative live birth rates following lVF in 41-to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Disseldorp, J.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Klinkert, E. R.; Velde, E. R. te; Fauser, B. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the

  7. The mutation-free embryo for in vitro fertilization selected by MALBAC-PGD resulted in a healthy live birth from a family carrying PKD 1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Ma, Yiyi; Yu, Shengqiang; Sun, Ningxia; Wang, Liang; Chen, Dongping; Yang, Guijiang; Lu, Sijia; Li, Yangyang; Yang, Bo; Mei, Changlin

    2017-08-19

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, autosomal dominant PKD or adult-onset PKD) is the most prevalent and potentially lethal kidney disease that is hereditary and lacks effective treatment. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of embryos in assistant reproductive technology (ART) helps to select mutation-free embryos for blocking ADPKD inheritance from the parents to their offspring. However, there are multiple pseudogenes in the PKD1 coding region, which make blocking ADPKD inheritance by PGD complicated and difficult. Therefore, this technique has not been recommended and used routinely to ADPKD family plan. Here, we report a new strategy of performing PGD in screening (target-) mutation-free embryos. We firstly used a long-range PCR amplification and next generation sequencing to identify the potential PKD1 mutant(s). After pathogenic variants were detected, multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC), a recently developed whole genome amplification method, was used to screen embryo cells. We successfully distinguished the mutated allele among pseudogenes and obtained mutation-free embryos for implantation. The first embryo transfer attempt resulted in a healthy live birth free of ADPKD condition and chromosomal anomalies which was confirmed by aminocentesis at week 18 of gestation, and by performing live birth genetic screening. The first MALBAC-PGD attempt in ADPKD patient resulted in a healthy live birth free of ADPKD and chromosomal anomalies. MALBAC-PGD also enables selecting embryos without aneuploidy together and target gene mutation, thereby increasing implantation and live birth rates.

  8. Antimüllerian hormone : Prediction of cumulative live birth in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist treatment for in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdine, Ouijdane; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Lentjes, Eef G W; Torrance, Helen L.; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart C J M; Broekmans, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in predicting cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) within 1 year after treatment initiation in GnRH antagonist treatment cycles for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Design Observational (retrospective) substudy as part of an ongoing

  9. Low body mass index compromises live birth rate in fresh transfer in vitro fertilization cycles: a retrospective study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiali; Liu, Lanlan; Zhang, Junwen; Qiu, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Ping; Sha, Aiguo; Ren, Jianzhi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of low body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in fresh transfer cycles. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated hospital. A total of 4,798 cycles with conventional stimulation and fresh transfer in a single IVF center during the period 2013-2014. Low BMI (Live birth rate per fresh embryo transfer. Low BMI was associated with reduced live birth rates and increased miscarriage rates compared with normal weight, controlling for important covariates known to influence IVF outcomes. Patient age was the most potent confounder, causing a 10.5% reduction in the odds ratio (OR) for live birth between the groups compared. When an interaction term (age × BMI) was introduced, the OR for live birth was reduced in cycles of those aged ≥35 years compared with cycles of those aged 28-34 years, whereas the change in OR between cycles in those aged <28 and cycles in those aged 28-34 years was insignificant. Low BMI is associated with negative outcomes in fresh transfer cycles, especially for women of advanced age. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of Anti-Mullerian hormone in low and extremely low ovarian reserve in relation to live birth after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, I.F.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hout, J. in't; Herwaarden, A.E. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Fleischer, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) with live birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective cohort study in a Dutch tertiary fertility

  11. Predicting the chances of a live birth after one or more complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation: Population based study of linked cycle data from 113 873 women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. McLernon; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.R. te Velde (Egbert); Lee, A.J. (Amanda J.); S.K. Bhattacharya (Siladitya)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective To develop a prediction model to estimate the chances of a live birth over multiple complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) based on a couple's specific characteristics and treatment information. Design Population based cohort study. Setting All licensed IVF clinics in

  12. The value of Anti-Mullerian hormone in low and extremely low ovarian reserve in relation to live birth after in vitro fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, I.F.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hout, J. in't; Herwaarden, A.E. van; Braat, D.D.M.; Fleischer, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) with live birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in women with (extremely) low ovarian reserve. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a retrospective cohort study in a Dutch tertiary fertility c

  13. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ikuma

    Full Text Available Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception.After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23. Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient.While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the miscarriage rate, as well as

  14. Shortening gametes co-incubation time improves live birth rate for couples with a history of fragmented embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Anne; Hesters, Laetitia; Gallot, Vanessa; Tallet, Cathie; Tachdjian, Gerard; Frydman, Nelly

    2017-10-01

    Short gamete co-incubation (SGCO) consists in decreasing the duration of contact between oocytes and sperm from the standard overnight insemination (SOI) toward 2 hours. However, the effectiveness of this technique to improve in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes remains controversial. Our study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of SGCO in a poor prognosis population with a history of fragmented embryos defined by the presence of at least 50% of the embryos with more than 25% of cytoplasmic fragments. From January 2010 to January 2014, 97 couples were included in a SGCO protocol. We separated women into 2 subgroups: younger and older than 35 years. Compared to SOI, after SGCO, 2-cell stage embryos were higher in all women (p<0.001) and less fragmented in women over 35 years (p<0.05). On day 2, top quality embryos obtained and transferred were higher with SCGO than with SOI, independently of the age of the women (p<0.001). Moreover, the number of embryos with less than 25% of fragmentation was higher after SGCO than SOI (p<0.001) whereas the number of multinucleated embryos was lower (p<0.001). We observed that after fresh ET, independently of the age of the women, the clinical pregnancy rate was 3 times higher after SGCO than after SOI. However, the live-birth rate was 4 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women above 35 years but 3 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women younger than 35 years. The present results indicate that for a particular indication, reducing the time of oocytes and sperm co-incubation may improve IVF-ET outcomes in terms of live-birth rate. AMH: anti mullerian hormone; COC: cumulus-oocytes complex; E2: estradiol; ET: embryo transfer; FET: frozen embryo transfer; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotrophin releasing hormone; hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin hormone; hMG: human menopausal gonadotropin hormone; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; IVF-ET: in vitro

  15. Trends of and factors associated with live-birth and abortion rates among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa B; Wall, Kristin M; Mehta, C Christina; Golub, Elizabeth T; Rahangdale, Lisa; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Karim, Roksana; Wright, Rodney; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Kassaye, Seble; Cohan, Deborah; Ofotokun, Igho; Cohn, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about fertility choices and pregnancy outcome rates among HIV-infected women in the current combination antiretroviral treatment era. We sought to describe trends and factors associated with live-birth and abortion rates among HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in the United States. We analyzed longitudinal data collected from Oct. 1, 1994, through Sept. 30, 2012, through the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Age-adjusted rates per 100 person-years live births and induced abortions were calculated by HIV serostatus over 4 time periods. Poisson mixed effects models containing variables associated with live births and abortions in bivariable analyses (P abortion in HIV-positive women remained stable over these time periods (4.03-4.29/100 person-years, P trend = .09). Significantly lower live-birth rates occurred among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women in 1994 through 1997 and 1997 through 2001, however rates were similar during 2002 through 2005 and 2006 through 2012. Higher CD4(+) T cells/mm(3) (≥350 adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.39 [95% CI 1.03-1.89] vs abortion, condom use, and increased parity were associated with increased abortion rates among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. CD4(+) T-cell count, combination antiretroviral treatment use, and viral load were not associated with abortion rates. Unlike earlier periods (pre-2001) when live-birth rates were lower among HIV-positive women, rates are now similar to HIV-negative women, potentially due to improved health status and combination antiretroviral treatment. Abortion rates remain unchanged, illuminating a need to improve contraceptive services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The prognostic value of anti-paternal antibodies and leukocyte immunizations on the proportion of live births in couples with consecutive recurrent miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgad, S; Loewenthal, R; Gazit, E; Sadetzki, S; Novikov, I; Carp, H

    1999-12-01

    Anti-paternal antibodies directed towards paternal leukocytes have been used to predict the prognosis for the subsequent pregnancy in women with consecutive recurrent miscarriages (CRM) and also to determine if the patient has become immune after paternal leukocyte immunization. The predictive value is controversial, as these antibodies are not essential for pregnancy to develop, and only occur in a minority of parous women. This study tried to determine the predictive value of these antibodies when assessed separately for women with five or more abortions and compared to women with three or four abortions. The patients were assessed separately so that the higher live birth rate in the latter group would not obscure meaningful results in the former group with a poor prognosis. Antibody production, whether spontaneous, or induced by immunization, raised the live birth rate in primary and tertiary aborters with three, four, five or more abortions. Anti-paternal antibodies increased the proportion of live births from 18.5 to 53. 7% (P /= 5 CRM and 3-4 CRM respectively. Both immunization with paternal leukocytes per se and the ability to express anti-paternal antibodies were associated with an increased proportion of live births in the next pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that that the odds ratio for a live birth was approximately four times greater in women who were immunized and produced anti-paternal antibodies than in control patients. The lack of anti-paternal antibodies at initial testing could serve as a marker for the benefit of immunization with paternal leukocytes; the subsequent presence as a prognostic marker for the subsequent pregnancy.

  17. Cumulative live-birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or isolated polycystic ovaries undergoing in-vitro fertilisation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-02-01

    This retrospective cohort study evaluated the cumulative live birth rate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovaries (PCO) undergoing in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. We studied 104 women with PCOS, 184 with PCO and 576 age-matched controls undergoing the first IVF treatment cycle between 2002 and 2009. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers combined after the same stimulation cycle. Women in both the PCOS (n = 104) and isolated PCO groups (n = 184) had higher ovarian response parameters compared to age-matched controls (n = 576), and higher rates of withholding fresh embryo transfer for risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The actual incidence of moderate to severe OHSS was significantly higher in the PCOS (11.5 %) but not the isolated PCO group (8.2%) compared to controls (4.9%). The live birth rates in the fresh cycle were comparable among the 3 groups, but the PCOS group had a significantly higher miscarriage rate compared to the other 2 groups. Cumulative live birth rate was significantly higher in the isolated PCO group (60.3%), but not the PCOS group (50.0%), compared to controls (47.5%). Women in the isolated PCO group, but not the PCOS group, had a significantly higher cumulative live birth rate compared to controls. This could be explained by the quantitative effect of the higher number of transferable embryos obtained per stimulation cycle, which is uncompromised by the unfavourable embryo competence otherwise observed in PCOS.

  18. Antral follicle count determines poor ovarian response better than anti-Müllerian hormone but age is the only predictor for live birth in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Yildiz, Sule; Mutlu, Ilknur; Arisoy, Ozgur; Oktem, Mesut

    2013-06-01

    To determine the predictive value of serum anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and antral follicle counts (AFC), on ovarian response and live birth rates after IVF and compare with age and basal FSH. Basal levels of AMH, FSH and antral follicle count were measured in 192 patients prior to IVF treatment. The predictive value of these parameters were evaluated in terms of retrieved oocyte number and live birth rates. Poor responders in IVF were older, had lower AFC and AMH but higher basal FSH levels. In multivariate analysis AFC was the best and only independent parameter among other parameters and AMH was better than age and basal FSH to predict poor response to ovarian stimulation. Addition of AMH, basal FSH, age and total gonadotropin dose to AFC did not improve its prognostic reliability. Area under curve (AUC) for each parameter according to ROC analysis also revealed that AFC performed better in poor response prediction compared with AMH, basal FSH and age. The cut-off point for mean AMH and AFC in discriminating the best between poor and normal ovarian response cycles was 0.94 ng/mL (with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 86%) and 5.5 (with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 91%), respectively. However, age was the only independent predictor of live birth in IVF as compared to hormonal and ultrasound indices of ovarian reserve. AFC is better than AMH to predict poor ovarian response. Although AMH and AFC could be used to predict ovarian response they had limited value in live birth prediction. The only significant predictor of the probability of achieving a live birth was age.

  19. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  20. Successful sperm extraction and live birth after radiation, androgen deprivation and surgical castration for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G J A; Hayden, R P; Tanrikut, C

    2017-02-01

    Fertility preservation has become an important aspect of cancer treatment given the gonadotoxic effects of oncologic therapies. It is now considered standard of care to offer sperm banking to men undergoing treatment for primaries that affect young individuals. Less is known regarding fertility preservation of patients afflicted with prostate cancer. This cohort has progressively expanded and grown younger in the post-PSA era. Prostatectomy, radiation, chemotherapy and androgen blockade all pose unique challenges to the infertility specialist. Optimum management becomes even more uncertain for those men with metastatic prostate cancer. Most of these individuals will have received multiple forms of therapy, each carrying a distinct insult to the patient's reproductive potential. We describe a case of successful ex vivo sperm extraction and live birth in a patient previously treated with radiation and chronic androgen deprivation for metastatic prostate cancer. The presented case demonstrates that conception after radiation therapy and chronic androgen deprivation is feasible. We propose that fertility counselling and sperm cryopreservation should be considered for all prostate cancer patients. Additionally, for those individuals undergoing external beam radiotherapy, testicular shielding should be routinely offered in the event further family building is desired.

  1. Fertility Treatment, Use of in Vitro Fertilization, and Time to Live Birth Based on Initial Provider Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Mandy W; Sanders, Jessica N; Simonsen, Sara E; Stanford, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the type of clinician (generalist vs subspecialist) initially seen by infertile women, the treatment received, and the time to pregnancy. We analyzed mixed-mode questionnaire data from 867 women with primary infertility enrolled into a retrospective cohort through population- and fertility clinic-based sampling. We compared women presenting first to generalist providers with women presenting first to fertility subspecialists, with the main outcomes of receiving in vitro fertilization (IVF), time to pregnancy, and live birth. The first contact for most (84%) women with infertility was a generalist provider. Only 8% of women sought care first from a fertility subspecialist, and these women were older and had been trying longer to conceive. Women who presented first to a generalist provider were less likely to receive IVF (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.82), were equally likely to achieve pregnancy, and had similar times to pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.80-1.53) compared with women who presented first to a subspecialist. Generalist providers are frequently the first point of care for women with difficulty conceiving and are uniquely positioned to promote the balanced management of infertility. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  2. Fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study of 565,116 live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nationwide birth cohort study. Not applicable. All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. Not applicable. Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013. The study included 565,116 singleton pregnancies. A total of 14,985 children were conceived by ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination, and 8,490 children were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the follow-up period, 2,011 (0.4%) children developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The primary analyses showed no association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. In secondary analyses, ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination with follicle-stimulating hormone was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 8.64). No clear associations were seen with other types of fertility treatment or with specific treatment indications. No association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus was found. Ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination with follicle-stimulating hormone may be associated with an increased risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, this finding may be due to chance or to confounding by indication and thus requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dual trigger of oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin to optimize live birth rates in high responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Daniel; Benadiva, Claudio; Kummer, Nicole; Budinetz, Tara; Nulsen, John; Engmann, Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    To compare live birth rates after dual trigger of oocyte maturation with GnRH agonist (GnRHa) and low-dose hCG versus GnRHa alone in high responders with peak E(2) triggered with GnRHa alone or GnRHa plus 1,000 IU hCG (dual trigger) for oocyte maturation. GnRHa alone versus dual trigger. Live birth, implantation, and clinical pregnancy rates and OHSS. The dual-trigger group had a significantly higher live birth rate (52.9% vs. 30.9%), implantation rate (41.9% vs. 22.1%), and clinical pregnancy rate (58.8% vs. 36.8%) compared with the GnRHa trigger group. One case of mild OHSS occurred in the dual-trigger group, and there were no cases of OHSS in the GnRHa trigger group. Dual trigger of oocyte maturation with GnRHa and low-dose hCG in high responders with peak E(2) birth without increasing the risk of significant OHSS. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of ethnicity on live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment: analysis of UK national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, W; Maalouf, W; Campbell, B; Jayaprakasan, K

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of ethnicity of women on the outcome of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Observational cohort study. UK National Database. Data from 2000 to 2010 involving 38 709 women undergoing their first IVF/ICSI cycle were analysed. Anonymous data were obtained from the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), the statutory regulator of IVF and ICSI treatment in the UK. Data analysis was performed by regression analysis with adjustment for age, cause and type of infertility and treatment type (IVF or ICSI) to express results as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Live birth rate per cycle of IVF or ICSI treatment. While white Irish (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.90), Indian (0.85; 0.75-0.97), Bangladeshi (0.53: 0.33-0.85), Pakistani (0.68; 0.58-0.80), Black African (0.60; 0.51-0.72), and other non-Caucasian Asian (0.86; 0.73-0.99) had a significantly lower odds of live birth rates per fresh IVF/ICSI cycle than White British women, ethnic groups of White European (1.04; 0.96-1.13), Chinese (1.12; 0.77-1.64), Black Caribbean (0.76; 0.51-1.13), Middle Eastern (0.73; 0.51-1.04), Mediterranean European (1.18; 0.83-1.70) and Mixed race population (0.94; 0.73-1.19) had live birth rates that did not differ significantly. The cumulative live birth rates showed similar patterns across different ethnic groups. Ethnicity is a major determinant of IVF/ICSI treatment outcome as indicated by significantly lower live birth rates in some of the ethnic minority groups compared with white British women. Ethnicity affects IVF outcome with lower live birth rates in some ethnic groups more than in white British. © 2016 Crown copyright. BJOG:An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Effect of Different Concentrations of Melatonin on Live Births Resulting from the Transfer of Two-Cell Embryos of NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Saadati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Infertility is a global problem affecting millions of men and women in developed and developing countries. In this regard, in-vitro fertilization (IVF plays an important role in improving the quality of life in infertile patients. However, studies have shown that the implantation failure in IVF is the main challenge of this procedure. Melatonin can increase the survival rate of embryos and IVF success rate through eliminating free radicals and removing reactive oxygen species. So, this study is conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of melatonin on the rate of newborns of mice following transfer oftwo-cell embryos .   Methods : In this study, female mice with average age of six to eight weeks were superovulated by administering pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG intraperitoneally (7.5 IU. ip, and followed after 48h by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (7.5 IU. ip. Two-cell mouse embryos were obtained from female mice oviduct after 48 h. The embryos transferred bilaterally into pseudopregnant mice of the same strain through surgical procedure and 8-14 embryos were transferred to each tube. The study included 4 treatment groups and one control group (6 mice in each group. The treatment groups were exposed to subcutaneous injection of concentrations of 100 µm , 10 µm , 1 µm and 100 nm of melatonin. After the cesarean on 18th day of pregnancy, the percentage of live births was assessed. The outcomes of the live birth rate were as­sessed using the chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage of live birth was calculated and compared with the control group.   Results: A total of 701 two-cell mouse embryos were transferred into one control group and four experimental groups. The number and percentage of live births at concentrations of 100 µm and 10 µm of melatonin and the control groups were 21 (15.55%, 13 (9.15% and 9 (6

  6. Determinants of inter birth interval among married women living in rural pastoral communities of southern Ethiopia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Begna, Zenebu; Assegid, Sahilu; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Gerbaba, Mulusew

    2013-01-01

    Background Though birth interval has beneficial effects on health status of the mother and their children, it is affected by range of factors some of which are rooted in social and cultural norms and the reproductive behaviors of individual women. However, there was limited data showed the determinants of birth intervals in rural pastoral communities of South Ethiopia. Therefore, the study was aimed to assess the determinants of inter birth interval among women’s of child bearing age in Yabal...

  7. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redel, Bethany K; Spate, Lee D; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2016-03-01

    Most in vitro culture conditions are less-than-optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional-profiling database to identify culture-induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo-produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria-related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro-produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246-258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Reproduction and Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. L-Carnitine supplementation during suckling intensifies the early postnatal skeletal myofiber formation in piglets of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösel, D; Kalbe, C; Rehfeldt, C

    2009-07-01

    Piglets of low birth weight exhibit a reduced total number of skeletal myofibers at birth and throughout life compared with piglets of middle and heavy birth weight, which is associated with impaired (lean) growth and quality of carcass and meat at market weight. We investigated the effect of L-carnitine supplementation to suckling piglets of different birth weights on early postnatal myofiber formation, muscle growth, and body composition. A total of 48 piglets of low (LW) and middle (MDW) birth weight from 9 German Landrace gilts received 400 mg of L-carnitine (carnitine, n = 25) or a placebo (control, n = 23) once daily from d 7 to 27 of age and were slaughtered on d 28 of age (weaning). Carnitine-supplemented piglets deposited less fat as indicated by a reduced proportion of perirenal (P = 0.1) and intramuscular fat (P = 0.05). Circulating glucose concentrations tended to be greater in supplemented LW piglets (P = 0.13). The concentration of carnitine in semitendinosus (STN) muscle was approximately doubled (P supplementation, with emphasis on the proportion of esterified carnitine. The ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to isocitrate dehydrogenase tended (P = 0.12) to be smaller in STN muscle of supplemented piglets, indicating a more oxidative muscle metabolism. The total number of STN myofibers was increased by 13% (P = 0.02) in supplemented LW piglets, thereby reaching the unchanged level of MDW littermates. In addition, supplemented LW piglets displayed a 2.4-fold mRNA expression of the gene encoding the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain in STN muscle than control piglets (P = 0.05), but there were no differences in the proportion of fibers positively staining for the embryonic myosin isoform. L-carnitine-supplemented piglets exhibited a greater DNA:protein ratio (P = 0.02) in STN muscle, which resulted from a greater DNA concentration (P = 0.04). However, the STN muscle of L-carnitine-supplemented piglets was not less mature as indicated by

  9. Blastocyst transfer ameliorates live birth rate compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer in fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Sun, Hai-Xiang

    2014-05-01

    Blastocyst transfer has been recommended to raise the implantation rate without affecting the pregnancy rate. The objective of this meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate whether the live birth rate and other pregnancy outcomes can be improved by blastocyst transfer compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer. EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers published between March 2004 and March 2013. An extensive range of the electronic databases yielded initially 317 studies from which seven trials met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Our outcome measures were the live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, first trimester miscarriage rate and ectopic pregnancy rate. Fixed effects models were chosen to calculate the odds ratio (OR). Seven trials (n=1446 cases) were finally analyzed. Compared with cleavage-stage embryos transfer, the blastocyst transfer was statistically significantly associated with an increase in clinical pregnancy rate [OR 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.78], implantation rate (OR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74) and ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.57-2.94), and also a reduction in the probability of first trimester miscarriage rate (OR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.87). The improvement in the live birth rate was also observed (OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.32-2.37). Moreover, there was no evidence of difference in multiple pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates. The available evidences suggest that live birth and other pregnancy outcomes after fresh in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) are significantly improved following blastocyst transfer as compared to cleavage-stage embryo transfer.

  10. Does prolonged pituitary down-regulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist improve the live-birth rate in in vitro fertilization treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianzhi; Sha, Aiguo; Han, Dongmei; Li, Ping; Geng, Jie; Ma, Chaihui

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of a prolonged duration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) in pituitary down-regulation for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) on the live-birth rate in nonendometriotic women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated hospital. Normogonadotropic women undergoing IVF. Three hundred seventy-eight patients receiving a prolonged pituitary down-regulation with GnRH-a before ovarian stimulation and 422 patients receiving a GnRH-a long protocol. Live-birth rate per fresh ET. In comparison with the long protocol, the prolonged down-regulation protocol required a higher total dose of gonadotropins. A lower serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level on the starting day of gonadotropin and the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and a fewer number of oocytes and embryos were observed in the prolonged down-regulation protocol. However, the duration of stimulation and number of high-quality embryos were comparable between the two groups. A statistically significantly higher implantation rate (50.27% vs. 39.69%), clinical pregnancy rate (64.02% vs. 56.87%) and live-birth rate per fresh transfer cycle (55.56% vs. 45.73%) were observed in the prolonged protocol. Prolonged down-regulation in a GnRH-a protocol might increase the live-birth rates in normogonadotropic women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Which factors are most predictive for live birth after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatments? Analysis of 100 prospectively recorded variables in 8,400 IVF/ICSI single-embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, Katarina Kebbon; Lakic, Tatevik Ghukasyan; Olovsson, Matts; Berglund, Lars; Brodin, Thomas; Holte, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To construct a prediction model for live birth after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and single-embryo transfer (SET) after 2 days of embryo culture. Prospective observational cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility center. SET in 8,451 IVF/ICSI treatments in 5,699 unselected consecutive couples during 1999-2014. A total of 100 basal patient characteristics and treatment data were analyzed for associations with live birth after IVF/ICSI (adjusted for repeated treatments) and subsequently combined for prediction model construction. Live birth rate (LBR) and performance of live birth prediction model. Embryo score, treatment history, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI; number of oocytes/total dose of FSH administered), female age, infertility cause, endometrial thickness, and female height were all independent predictors of live birth. A prediction model (training data set; n = 5,722) based on these variables showed moderate discrimination, but predicted LBR with high accuracy in subgroups of patients, with LBR estimates ranging from 40%. Outcomes were similar in an internal validation data set (n = 2,460). Based on 100 variables prospectively recorded during a 15-year period, a model for live birth prediction after strict SET was constructed and showed excellent calibration in internal validation. For the first time, female height qualified as a predictor of live birth after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing blastocyst quality and live birth rates of intravaginal culture using INVOcell™ to traditional in vitro incubation in a randomized open-label prospective controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Kevin J; Broome, E Jason; Doody, Kathleen M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to to compare the efficacy of intravaginal culture (IVC) of embryos in INVOcell™ (INVO Bioscience, MA, USA) to traditional in vitro fertilization (IVF) incubators in a laboratory setting using a mild pre-determined stimulation regimen based solely on anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and body weight with minimal ultrasound monitoring. The primary endpoint examined was total quality blastocysts expressed as a percentage of total oocytes placed in incubation. Secondary endpoints included percentage of quality blastocysts transferred, pregnancy, and live birth rates. In this prospective randomized open-label controlled single-center study, 40 women aged culture. IVF produced a greater percentage of total quality embryos as compared to IVC (50.6 vs. 30.7 %, p = 0.0007, respectively). There was no significant difference between in IVF and IVC in the percentage of quality blastocysts transferred (97.5 vs. 84.9 %, p = 0.09) or live birth rate (60 % IVF, 55 % IVC). IVF was shown to be superior to IVC in creating quality blastocysts. However, both IVF and IVC produced identical blastocysts for transfer resulting in similar live birth rates. IVC using INVOcell™ is effective and may broaden access to fertility care in selected patient populations by ameliorating the need for a traditional IVF laboratory setting. Further studies will help elucidate the potential physiological, psychological, geographic, and financial impact of IVC on the delivery of fertility care.

  13. Formation of long-lived reactive species of blood serum proteins by the action of heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskov, Vadim I; Popova, Nelly R; Ivanov, Vladimir E; Karp, Olga E; Chernikov, Anatoly V; Gudkov, Sergey V

    2014-01-17

    It has been previously established that heat induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aqueous solutions. In biological systems, ROS cause oxidative damage predominantly to proteins due to their abundance and sensitivity to oxidation. Proteins oxidized by the action of X-rays represent long-lived reactive species, which trigger the secondary generation of ROS (Bruskov et al. (2012) [25]). Here we studied the possibility of formation of long-lived species of the blood serum proteins bovine serum albumin and bovine gamma-globulin in air-saturated solutions under the action of heat. It is shown that heat induces the generation of long-lived protein species, which in turn generate ROS ((1)О2, (·)O2(-), (·)OН, and H2O2). The formation of the long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG with a half-life of about 4h induced by moderate hyperthermia was revealed using the chemiluminescence of protein solutions. It was found that long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG cause prolonged generation of H2O2. The results obtained suggest that H2O2 produced by proteins after heating represents a messenger in signaling pathways and produces therapeutic effects in living organisms.

  14. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  15. VSRR - Provisional monthly and 12-month ending number of live births, deaths and infant deaths: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly and 12 month-ending provisional counts of births, deaths and infant deaths are provided for the...

  16. Healthcare access and quality of birth care: narratives of women living with obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing births with skilled attendants and increasing health facilities with Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) can reduce maternal mortality and are considered critical interventions for ensuring safe motherhood. Despite Tanzania’s policy to support women to give birth with the assistance of skilled personnel, some women do not access this care. This article uses women’s stories to illustrate the challenges that caused them to fail to access adequate obstetric care in a timely man...

  17. Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births - Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Approximately 400,000 teens aged 15-19 years give birth every year in the United States (1), and the teen birth rate remains the highest in the developed world. Teen childbearing is a public health concern because teen mothers are more likely to experience negative social outcomes, including school dropout. In addition, infants of teen mothers are more likely to be low birth weight and have lower academic achievement, and daughters of teen mothers are more likely to become teen mothers themselves. To learn why teens wishing to avoid pregnancy become pregnant, CDC analyzed data from the 2004-2008 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report describes estimated rates of self-reported prepregnancy contraceptive use among white, black, and Hispanic teen females aged 15-19 years with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births. Approximately one half (50.1%) of these teens were not using any method of birth control when they got pregnant, and of these, nearly one third (31.4%) believed they could not get pregnant at the time; 21.0% used a highly effective contraceptive method (although less than 1% used one of the most effective methods, such as an intrauterine device [IUD]); 24.2% used the moderately effective method of condoms; and 5.1% used the least effective methods, such as rhythm and withdrawal. To decrease teen birth rates, efforts are needed to reduce or delay the onset of sexual activity, provide factual information about the conditions under which pregnancy can occur, increase teens' motivation and negotiation skills for pregnancy prevention, improve access to contraceptives, and encourage use of more effective contraceptive methods.

  18. Nascimentos pré-termo no Brasil entre 1994 e 2005 conforme o Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC Preterm births in Brazil from 1994 to 2005 according to the Information System on Live Births (SINASC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F. Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A monitorização da prematuridade é muito importante, considerando seu impacto na morbidade e mortalidade infantis e seus custos econômicos e sociais. Este estudo utilizou dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, implantado em 1990 e expandido de forma gradativa até cobrir cerca de 90% de todos os nascimentos no país, para descrever a evolução da prematuridade no Brasil, regiões e capitais, entre os anos de 1994 e 2005. Observou-se um aumento na proporção de partos prematuros no país como um todo e uma diminuição no número de nascimentos sem informação da idade gestacional. As regiões Sudeste, Sul e Centro-Oeste acompanharam a tendência do país, ao contrário das regiões Norte e Nordeste. São comparados os achados do SINASC com os de estudos de base populacional. O SINASC vem apresentando progressiva melhora na cobertura e qualidade dos dados, mas ainda existem problemas com a acurácia da idade gestacional, levando a uma subestimação da prevalência de prematuridade. Por causa de sua importância, torna-se necessário aprofundar os esforços para o ganho de acurácia do sistema.Monitoring preterm births is essential given their impact on infant morbidity and mortality and their economic and social costs. This article is based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC, implemented in 1990 and expanded gradually to cover 90% of all births in the country. Preterm birth time trends are presented for Brazil, regions, and capitals from 1994 to 2005. At the national level, there was an increase in the preterm birth rate, accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of missing information on gestational age. The Southeast, South, and Central-West regions followed the national trend, while the preterm birth rate fell in the North and Northeast regions. We compared the findings from SINASC with those from population-based studies. The coverage and quality of SINASC has increased over time

  19. Experiments on the formation of carboxylase and thiamine pyrophosphate in living bakers' yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijnse, B.; Terpstra, W.

    1951-01-01

    The formation of carboxylase by living bakers' yeast was demonstrated upon incubation of the yeast with either thiamine or 2-methyl-4-amino-5-ethoxymethylpyrimidine, in the presence and in the absence of glucose. Carboxylase is also formed upon incubation of the yeast with NH4 sulfate and glucose. I

  20. O registro de nascimento e sua importância em planejamento materno-infantil Live-birth register and its importance to maternal and child care planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Levy

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a proporção de nascimentos registrados conforme o artigo 63 do decreto n.° 4.857 de 9 de novembro de 1939 - Lei dos Registros Públicos que obirga o registro de nascimento "no cartório do lugar em que tiver ocorrido o parto, no prazo de 15 dias após o nascimento", ou "na falta ou impedimento do pai", até 60 dias após o nascimento. No distrito de São Paulo, por "lugar onde ocorreu o parto", entende-se cada um dos 48 subdistritos em que o mesmo se subdivide. Com base em amostras colhidas em maternidades, foram estimadas essas proporções, no ano base de 1969.With basic on a probabilistic sample of live births collected in maternities, an estimative of the proportion of live births registered was made. According to the Brazilian law, the register has to be done in an especific date and place, depending on the local area where the birth occurred. The year-base for this study was 1969.

  1. Identification and replication of prediction models for ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hongying; Jin, Susan; Hansen, Karl R; Diamond, Michael P; Coutifaris, Christos; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory; Alvero, Ruben; Huang, Hao; Bates, G Wright; Usadi, Rebecca; Lucidi, Scott; Baker, Valerie; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Legro, Richard S; Zhang, Heping

    2015-09-01

    Can we build and validate predictive models for ovulation and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? We were able to develop and validate a predictive model for pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS using simple clinical and biochemical criteria particularly duration of attempting conception, which was the most consistent predictor among all considered factors for pregnancy outcomes. Predictive models for ovulation and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome have been reported, but such models require validation. This is a secondary analysis of the data from the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome I and II (PPCOS-I and -II) trials. Both trials were double-blind, randomized clinical trials that included 626 and 750 infertile women with PCOS, respectively. PPCOS-I participants were randomized to either clomiphene citrate (CC), metformin, or their combination, and PPCOS-II participants to either letrozole or CC for up to five treatment cycles. Linear logistic regression models were fitted using treatment, BMI, and other published variables as predictors of ovulation, conception, clinical pregnancy, and live birth as the outcome one at a time. We first evaluated previously reported significant predictors, and then constructed new prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and the area under the curves (AUCs) was calculated to compare performance using different models and data. Chi-square tests were used to examine the goodness-of-fit and prediction power of logistic regression model. Predictive factors were similar between PPCOS-I and II, but the two participant samples differed statistically significantly but the differences were clinically minor on key baseline characteristics and hormone levels. Women in PPCOS-II had an overall more severe PCOS phenotype than women in PPCOS-I. The clinically minor but statistically significant differences may be due to the

  2. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-01-01

    ...) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles...

  3. A randomized trial comparing digital and live lecture formats [ISRCTN40455708

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird-Fick Heather S

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education is increasingly being conducted in community-based teaching sites at diverse locations, making it difficult to provide a consistent curriculum. We conducted a randomized trial to assess whether students who viewed digital lectures would perform as well on a measure of cognitive knowledge as students who viewed live lectures. Students' perceptions of the digital lecture format and their opinion as whether a digital lecture format could serve as an adequate replacement for live lectures was also assessed. Methods Students were randomized to either attend a lecture series at our main campus or view digital versions of the same lectures at community-based teaching sites. Both groups completed the same examination based on the lectures, and the group viewing the digital lectures completed a feedback form on the digital format. Results There were no differences in performance as measured by means or average rank. Despite technical problems, the students who viewed the digital lectures overwhelmingly felt the digital lectures could replace live lectures. Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence digital lectures can be a viable alternative to live lectures as a means of delivering didactic presentations in a community-based setting.

  4. Regional differences and factors associated with the number of prenatal visits in Brazil: analysis of the Information System on Live Births in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Juliana Cristine Dos; Boing, Antonio Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To investigate factors associated with seven or more prenatal visits, in Brazil, in 2013. Cross-sectional study from the database of Information System on Live Births. The association of explanatory variables was tested with prenatal visits by means of the analysis of single and multiple multinomial regressions. The spatial distribution of prenatal visits according to the Brazilian municipalities was also analyzed. It was found that 2.7% of pregnant women attended no prenatal visit and 63.1% attended 7 or more. The chance to attend 7 or more prenatal visits was higher among pregnant women aged 40 years or more, with 12 years or more of schooling, living with a roommate, living in the South and Southeast regions, who had a triplet or more pregnancy, with gestational age of 42 weeks or more, and who had children with normal birth weight. Significant regional disparities were identified in the prevalence of women with seven or more prenatal visits. Although Brazil has a Unified Health System that provides universal prenatal care, the use of this service is uneven according to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics.

  5. A decrease in serum estradiol levels after human chorionic gonadotrophin administration predicts significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, L A; Molinaro, T A; Sammel, M D; Dokras, A

    2012-09-01

    Although close observation of serum estradiol (E2) levels remains a mainstay of assessing clinical response to controlled ovarian stimulation, the prognostic value of any change in E2 levels after administration of hCG remains unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum E2 response after hCG administration and the clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in fresh IVF cycles. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women aged 21-45 years undergoing their first IVF cycle from 1999 to 2008 at a single practice. We compared the post-hCG serum E2 level with values on the day of hCG trigger. IVF cycles were stratified by post-hCG E2 response and appropriate parametric and non-parametric statistics were performed. Clinical intrauterine pregnancy and live births were the primary outcomes of interest. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to identify predictive factors associated with outcomes while adjusting for potential confounders. Among the 1712 IVF cycles, 1065 exhibited a >10% increase (Group A), 525 had a plateau (± 10%, Group B) and 122 showed a >10% decrease (Group C) in post-hCG E2 levels. While the E2 levels on the day of hCG were similar across groups, Group C had more patients with diminished ovarian reserve, required higher gonadotrophin doses and had the lowest implantation rates. After adjusting for age, total gonadotrophin dose, infertility diagnosis, number of oocytes and number of transferred embryos, the associations between post-hCG E2 decline (Group C) and clinical pregnancy [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33-0.84, P= 0.007] and live birth (aOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.71, P= 0.002) were significant. We also found significant associations between E2 plateau (Group B) and clinical pregnancy (aOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.94, P= 0.013) and live birth (aOR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56-0.97, P= 0.032) when adjusting for the same factors. In our study, >10% decrease in E2 levels

  6. From cloud crash to star birth: star formation in cloud collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Kazuhiro; Tasker, Elizabeth; Habe, Asao

    2015-08-01

    Much speculation surrounds the role of collisions between giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the galactic star formation rate.Once thought to be uncommon occurrences, observations and simulation now suggestthese could explain the formation of our most massive stars and super star clusters.To explore the result of such interactions, we simulated idealised GMC collisions with star formation and radiative feedback processes.Our results suggest that the star population formed has a stellar mass function index of -0.1 (compared with -1.4 for the non-collisional population),in good agreement with the observations of the assumed cloud collision case, NGC6334 (Munoz et al. 2007).Radiative feedback has a relatively modest dynamical effect on the collisional gas distribution,but increases the star formation rate post collision as the expanding HII bubbles trigger a subsequent stellar population.

  7. Single-embryo transfer reduces clinical pregnancy rates and live births in fresh IVF and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become an accepted procedure to transfer more than one embryo to the patient to achieve acceptable ongoing pregnancy rates. However, transfers of more than a single embryo increase the probability of establishing a multiple gestation. Single-embryo transfer can minimize twin pregnancies but may also lower live birth rates. This meta-analysis aimed to compare current data on single-embryo versus double-embryo transfer in fresh IVF/ICSI cycles with respect to implantation, ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates. Methods Search strategies included on-line surveys of databases from 1995 to 2008. Data management and analysis were conducted using the Stats Direct statistical software. The fixed-effect model was used for odds ratio (OR. Fixed-effect effectiveness was evaluated by the Mantel Haenszel method. Seven trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results When pooling results under the fixed-effect model, the implantation rate was not significantly different between double-embryo transfer (34.5% and single-embryo transfer group (34.7% (P = 0.96; OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.78, 1.25. On the other hand, double-embryo transfer produced a statistically significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (44.5% than single-embryo transfer (28.3% (P Conclusion Meta-analysis with 95% confidence showed that, despite similar implantation rates, fresh double-embryo transfer had a 1.64 to 2.60 times greater ongoing pregnancy rate and 1.44 to 2.42 times greater live birth rate than single-embryo transfer in a population suitable for ART treatment.

  8. Antimüllerian hormone: prediction of cumulative live birth in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist treatment for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdine, Ouijdane; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Lentjes, Eef G W; Torrance, Helen L; Macklon, Nick S; Fauser, Bart C J M; Broekmans, Frank J

    2015-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in predicting cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) within 1 year after treatment initiation in GnRH antagonist treatment cycles for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Observational (retrospective) substudy as part of an ongoing prospective cohort study. University medical center. A total of 487 patients scheduled for IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Patients starting their first IVF/ICSI cycle with 150 or 225 IU recombinant FSH and GnRH antagonist cotreatment were included. Serum samples collected before the first IVF treatment were used to determine AMH. Treatment data after treatment initiation for a maximum of 1 year were recorded. Prediction of CLBR with the use of AMH. The model for predicting CLBR within 1 year included age at first treatment, AMH, type of infertility, and previous assisted reproductive technology treatment leading to live birth. The accuracy in discriminating between women who did or did not achieve a live birth was only 59%. AMH had intermediate added value in the prediction of CLBR as demonstrated by the net reclassification improvement (total 29.8). A nomogram based on age and AMH was developed by which a subgroup of patients could be identified with the poorest pregnancy prospects. The predictive accuracy of AMH for 1-year CLBR in GnRH antagonist treatment cycles was limited and did not yield much additional value on top of age. Withholding treatment based on predictors such as age and AMH, or a combination, remains problematic. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02309073. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endometrial vascularity is lower in pregnancies with pregnancy-induced hypertension or small-for-gestational-age fetus in live birth after in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W S; Yung, S S F; Ng, E H Y

    2014-10-01

    To assess the relationship between endometrial/subendometrial vascularity and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses in women who had a live birth following in-vitro fertilization (IVF). This was a retrospective study of women who had a live birth after IVF from November 2002 to December 2004. Only women with a singleton pregnancy (n = 104) were included for analysis. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurement with power Doppler of the endometrial and subendometrial regions was performed on the day of oocyte retrieval in stimulated IVF cycles or on luteinizing hormone surge + 1 day in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles to measure the endometrial volume and the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) of the endometrial and subendometrial regions. Pregnancy outcomes were also reviewed. Eight women (7.7%) had PIH or an SGA fetus. Women in the PIH/SGA group had significantly lower endometrial VI (0.504 vs 1.051; P = 0.023) and VFI (0.121 vs 0.253; P = 0.023) than those in the non-PIH/SGA group. However endometrial FI was significantly higher in the PIH/SGA group (23.04 vs 22.71; P = 0.028). There were no significant differences in subendometrial indices between the two groups. Women who had a live birth following IVF and whose pregnancy was complicated by PIH or an SGA fetus had significantly lower endometrial vascularity in terms of VI and VFI than did women without PIH or SGA. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Incidence of uterine torsion during veterinary-assisted dystocia and singleton live births after vaginal delivery inHolstein-Friesian cows at pasture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faria N; Simes J

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the incidence of uterine torsion and their association with live births after vaginal delivery at pasture.Methods:A total of 119 veterinary-assisted dystocia, occurred in Holstein-Friesian cows, were accessed between September 2012 and February 2013 from Azores islands (Portugal). The general health status of dam, cause of dystocia, obstetric treatment choice, number and viability of fetus were evaluated.Results:The uterine torsion represented 24.4% (29/119) of total assisted dystocia. The general health status was normal or slowly affected, at delivery time, for 96.6% (28/29) of the cows with uterine torsion. Vaginal delivery after rolling cows, cesarean section or euthanasia were performed in 72.4% (21/29), 24.1% (7/29) and 3.5% (1/29) of dams with uterine torsion, respectively. Singletons were observed in 96.6% (28/29) and 86.7% (78/90) of cows with uterine torsion and remaining dystocia, respectively. After vaginal delivery, the occurrence of singleton live births was more probable to occur in cows with uterine torsion (17/21) than the remaining cows (37/70) of control group (odds ratio=3.79; 95% interval of confidence from 1.16 to 12.41;P<0.05).Conclusions:A high frequency of uterine torsion was observed in Holstein-Friesian cows with normal or slowly affected general health status at delivery time at pasture. The singleton live births prevailed and, in general, their occurrence by vaginal delivery after uterus reposition was most likely to occur in cows with uterine torsion than dams presenting other dystocia.

  11. Determinantes do baixo peso ao nascer a partir das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos Determinants for low birth weight according to Live Born Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Faria Carniel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos conhecer a distribuição do peso de nascimento das crianças de Campinas (SP e indicar fatores de risco para baixo peso. Realizou-se estudo transversal no qual foram utilizados dados das 14.444 Declarações de Nascidos Vivos de 2001. A variável dependente foi o peso de nascimento, e as independentes as características maternas, gestacionais, do parto e do recém-nascido. Na avaliação da associação entre variáveis empregou-se teste de qui-quadrado e calculou-se valores de odds ratio brutos (OR e ajustados (ORaj. A média do peso de nascimento foi 3.142g, variando de 285 a 5.890g; 65,1% das crianças pesaram 3.000g ou mais, 25,7% entre 2.500 e 2.999g e 9,1% menos de 2.500g. Os determinantes para baixo peso em prematuros foram cesariana, gemelaridade, recém-nascidos femininos e os de mulheres com menos de sete consultas de pré-natal. Para crianças a termo os riscos foram gestação dupla, tripla ou mais, filhos de mulheres com mais de 34 anos, das com até sete anos de estudo, com oito a onze e das com menos de sete consultas de pré-natal. A distribuição de peso de nascimento em Campinas foi inadequada e a proporção de baixo peso foi mais que o dobro dos países desenvolvidos. Os recém-nascidos prematuros que nasceram por cesariana, os prematuros e os a termo de gestação múltipla, os femininos, os de mulheres com pré-natal inadequado e os a termo daquelas com maior idade e baixa escolaridade apresentaram maior chance de nascer com baixo peso.The distribution of birth weight was determined for children in Campinas, Brazil, and risk factors for low birth weight were assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the variables from Live Birth Certificates in 2001. The dependent variable was birth weight and the independent ones were mothers' characteristics and those related to their pregnancies and to newborns. The association between variables was assessed by the chi-square test, crude

  12. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  13. Sistema de informações sobre nascidos vivos: um estudo de revisão Brazilian live birth information system: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Santana Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre o uso do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC na pesquisa em saúde. As bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO foram pesquisadas no período de 1994 a 2005, utilizando-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". Foram identificados 157 resumos dentro do período de referência, dos quais 44 foram selecionados e classificados segundo critérios específicos. O número de artigos publicados por ano cresceu ao longo do período estudado. A maioria dos estudos foi desenvolvida na região Sudeste e empregou o município como a unidade geográfica da análise. Uma gama variada de temas foi avaliada, incluindo descrições do perfil de nascidos vivos, avaliações de serviços e programas de saúde e fatores de risco para desfechos infantis. Concluindo, embora o SINASC represente uma fonte de dados importante para a pesquisa sobre a saúde materno-infantil, a cobertura do sistema e a confiabilidade dos seus dados precisam ser melhor avaliadas.The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos SINASC in health research. MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases were searched from 1994 to 2005 using the following combination of descriptors: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". We identified 157 abstracts within the reference period, among which 44 were selected and classified according to specific criteria. The number of articles published per year increased during the period studied. The majority of the studies was carried out in the Southeast region and used the municipality as the geographic unity of analysis. A varied range of subjects were assessed including descriptions of live births profiles, health service and programs evaluations and risk factors for infant outcomes. In conclusion, although the SINASC represents an important data

  14. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  15. Application of a validated prediction model for in vitro fertilization: comparison of live birth rates and multiple birth rates with 1 embryo transferred over 2 cycles vs 2 embryos in 1 cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Wantman, Ethan; Stern, Judy E; Baker, Valerie L; Widra, Eric; Coddington, Charles C; Gibbons, William E; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ball, G David

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated prediction model to examine whether single embryo transfer (SET) over 2 cycles results in live birth rates (LBR) comparable with 2 embryos transferred (DET) in 1 cycle and reduces the probability of a multiple birth (ie, multiple birth rate [MBR]). Prediction models of LBR and MBR for a woman considering assisted reproductive technology developed from linked cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System for 2006-2012 were used to compare SET over 2 cycles with DET in 1 cycle. The prediction model was based on a woman's age, body mass index (BMI), gravidity, previous full-term births, infertility diagnoses, embryo state, number of embryos transferred, and number of cycles. To demonstrate the effect of the number of embryos transferred (1 or 2), the LBRs and MBRs were estimated for women with a single infertility diagnosis (male factor, ovulation disorders, diminished ovarian reserve, and unexplained); nulligravid; BMI of 20, 25, 30, and 35 kg/m2; and ages 25, 35, and 40 years old by cycle (first or second). The cumulative LBR over 2 cycles with SET was similar to or better than the LBR with DET in a single cycle (for example, for women with the diagnosis of ovulation disorders: 35 years old; BMI, 30 kg/m2; 54.4% vs 46.5%; and for women who are 40 years old: BMI, 30 kg/m(2); 31.3% vs 28.9%). The MBR with DET in 1 cycle was 32.8% for women 35 years old and 20.9% for women 40 years old; with SET, the cumulative MBR was 2.7% and 1.6%, respectively. The application of this validated predictive model demonstrated that the cumulative LBR is as good as or better with SET over 2 cycles than with DET in 1 cycle, while greatly reducing the probability of a multiple birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine admi...... we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multi-center randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab....

  17. Healthcare access and quality of birth care: narratives of women living with obstetric fistula in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mselle, Lilian T; Kohi, Thecla W

    2016-07-22

    Increasing births with skilled attendants and increasing health facilities with Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) can reduce maternal mortality and are considered critical interventions for ensuring safe motherhood. Despite Tanzania's policy to support women to give birth with the assistance of skilled personnel, some women do not access this care. This article uses women's stories to illustrate the challenges that caused them to fail to access adequate obstetric care in a timely manner, hence causing the development of fistulas. This paper presents the narratives of 16 women who were conveniently selected based on their experiences of not being able to access adequate obstetric care in timely manner. The analysis was guided by recommendations for the identification and interpretation of narratives, and identified important components of women's experiences, paying attention to commonalities, differences and areas of emphasis. Semi-structured interviews were carried out at CCBRT hospital in Dar es Salaam. Four (4) general story lines were identified from women description of their inability to access quality obstetric care in a timely manner. These were; failing to decide on a health care facility for delivery, lacking money to get to a health care facility, lacking transportation to a health care facility and lacking quality birth care at the health care facility. Women were unable to reach to the health care facilities providing comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) in time because of their lack of decision-making power, money and transportation, and those who did reach the facilities received low quality birth care. Empowering women socially and financially, upgrading primary health care facilities to provide CEmOC and increased numbers of skilled personnel would promote health care facility deliveries.

  18. 北京61272例新生儿出生缺陷监测结果分析%Analysis of the birth defects among 61 272 live born infants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑛; 刘晓红; 王粉燕; 赵心亮; 张羲; 张运平

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the birth defect condition in Haidian district of Beijing city, 61 272 live-born infants who were delivered in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital from 2003 to the March of 2009 are analyzed. Methods: Data was collected from the hospital' s medical records and from the birth defect surveillance. Results: Among the newborns studied, 1 076 were found having birth defect (17.56‰). The most common birth defects are congenital heart defect, followed by dysmorphosis of external ear, polydactyly, hypospadia, cleft lip and palate. In addition, three birth defects that are not included in the birth defect surveillance list were enorchia, renal agenesis and giant hemangioma. The birth defect rates of preterm and small for gestational age infants are significantly higher than it of the term infants. The birth defect patterns for these two types of abnormal infants are distinct. Conclusion: We have determined the pattern of birth defects in Beijing, which may help in policy-making regarding the prevention and intervention of birth defects.

  19. Live birth of twins after performing early hCG administration as a modification of natural cycle in vitro fertilization, in a women with decreased ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Jordana H; Sokal-Arnon, Tamar; Son, Weon-Young; Tan, Seang Lin; Dahan, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    This case reports the first twin live births achieved in a woman with a serum FSH of such magnitude -80 IU/L, after following early hCG administration in natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF). Case report. A 27-year-old with 2 years of primary infertility presented with regular menses since menarche. FSH following clomiphene citrate challenge test was 80 IU/L. Antral follicle count was 1. After failing two IVF cycles, natural cycle IVF with early hCG administration was attempted. Ovulation with 10,000 IU hCG was triggered when the dominant follicle was 10 mm in mean diameter. Two smaller follicles were also present. Oocyte collection was performed 38 h after hCG injection. Three mature oocytes were retrieved. Two oocytes fertilized normally. Two good-quality embryos were transferred on day 2. Bichorionic biamniotic pregnancy was achieved and healthy twins were delivered at term. This case suggests that natural cycles with early hCG administration should be investigated further as an option for poor responders to retrieve more than one mature oocyte, and prevent premature ovulation. We believe this case to represent the patient with the highest serum FSH level, reflective of ovarian reserve at the time of treatment, to achieve a live birth. It is also the first case report to describe this modification on the traditional natural cycle.

  20. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh; Tuan, Phung Huy; Humaidan, Peter; Nelson, Scott M

    2013-12-26

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 363 women exposed to GnRHa triggering with intensive luteal support compared with 257 women exposed to conventional hCG triggering. Women at risk of OHSS were defined by ovarian response ≥15 follicles ≥12 mm on the day of the trigger. Live-birth rates were similar in both groups GnRHa vs hCG; 29.8% vs 29.2% (p = 0.69). One late onset severe OHSS case was observed in the GnRHa trigger group (0.3%) compared to 18 cases (7%) after hCG trigger. GnRHa trigger combined with intensive luteal steroid support in this group of OHSS high risk Asian patients can facilitate fresh embryo transfer, however, in contrast to previous reports the occurrence of late onset OHSS was not completely eliminated.

  1. Biofilm formation enables free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria to fix nitrogen under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Anming; Elmerich, Claudine; Ma, Luyan Z

    2017-07-01

    The multicellular communities of microorganisms known as biofilms are of high significance in agricultural setting, yet it is largely unknown about the biofilm formed by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here we report the biofilm formation by Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, a free-living rhizospheric bacterium, capable of fixing nitrogen under microaerobic and nitrogen-limiting conditions. P. stutzeri A1501 tended to form biofilm in minimal media, especially under nitrogen depletion condition. Under such growth condition, the biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (termed as pellicles) and the colony biofilms on agar plates exhibited nitrogenase activity in air. The two kinds of biofilms both contained large ovoid shape 'cells' that were multiple living bacteria embedded in a sac of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). We proposed to name such large 'cells' as A1501 cyst. Our results suggest that the EPS, especially exopolysaccharides enabled the encased bacteria to fix nitrogen while grown under aerobic condition. The formation of A1501 cysts was reversible in response to the changes of carbon or nitrogen source status. A1501 cyst formation depended on nitrogen-limiting signaling and the presence of sufficient carbon sources, yet was independent of an active nitrogenase. The pellicles formed by Azospirillum brasilense, another free-living nitrogen-fixing rhizobacterium, which also exhibited nitrogenase activity and contained the large EPS-encapsuled A1501 cyst-like 'cells'. Our data imply that free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria could convert the easy-used carbon sources to exopolysaccharides in order to enable nitrogen fixation in a natural aerobic environment.

  2. FORMATION OF LONG-LIVED REACTIVE SPECIES OF BLOOD SERUM PROTEINS BY THE ACTION OF HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proteins oxidized by the action of X-rays represent long-lived reactive species, which trigger the secondary generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. A change in the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content induced by various physical impacts may be an important factor of the therapeutic effect and the adaptation of the organism to unfavorable environmental conditions. Moderate hyperthermia and a number of physiotherapeutic procedures leading to a local warming of tissues are widely used in medical practice. However, the biological mechanisms of their curative effect are poorly understood. The prolonged generation of H2O2 long-lived reactive protein species (LRPS after heating may be one of the mechanisms of activation of protective cellular mechanisms and thus to contribute to overcoming the disease. Aim: To investigate if the serum proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA and bovine gamma-globulin (BGG can form LRPS under moderate hyperthermia and show that heat induces LRPS, which in turn continuously generate ROS, in particular H2O2. Materials and methods: LRPS were studied by measuring the heat-induced chemiluminescence of protein solutions using a specially elaborated highly sensitive photon-counting chemiluminometer Biotoks-7 AM. The Results: Here we studied the possibility of formation of long-lived species of the blood serum proteins BSA and BGG in air-saturated solutions under the action of heat. It is shown that heat induces the generation of long-lived protein species, which in turn generate ROS (1O2, О2-•, OH•, H2O2. The formation of the long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG with a half-life of about 4 h induced by moderate hyperthermia was revealed using the chemiluminescence of protein solutions. It was found that long-lived reactive species of BSA and BGG cause prolonged generation of H2O2. Conclusion: Thus, we found a new fundamental property of serum proteins: by the action of moderate heating, they are able to

  3. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  4. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  5. Cumulative incidence of infertility in a New Zealand birth cohort to age 38 by sex and the relationship with family formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel Patrick; Righarts, Alida Antoinette; Gillett, Wayne Richard

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the cumulative incidence of infertility for men and women in a population-based sample. Longitudinal study of a birth cohort. Research unit. A population-based birth cohort of 1,037 men and women born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between 1972 and 1973. None. Cumulative incidence of infertility by age 32 and 38, distribution of causes and service use for infertility, live birth subsequent to infertility, and live birth by age 38. The cumulative incidence of infertility by age 38 ranged from 14.4% to 21.8% for men and from 15.2% to 26.0% for women depending on the infertility definition and data used. Infertility, defined as having tried to conceive for 12 months or more or having sought medical help to conceive, was experienced by 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.7-26.2) of men and 26.0% (95% CI, 21.8-30.6) of women by age 38. For those who experienced infertility, 59.8% (95% CI, 48.3-70.4) of men and 71.8% (95% CI, 62.1-80.3) of women eventually had a live birth. Successful resolution of infertility and entry into parenthood by age 38 were much lower for those who first experienced infertility in their mid to late thirties compared with at a younger age. Comparison of reports from two assessments in this cohort study suggests infertility estimates from a single cross-sectional study may underestimate lifetime infertility. The lower rate of resolution and entry into parenthood for those first experiencing infertility in their mid to late thirties highlights the consequences of postponing parenthood and could result in involuntary childlessness and fewer children than desired. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From Birth to Death of Protoplanetary Disks: Modeling Their Formation, Evolution, and Dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Shigeo S; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z

    2016-01-01

    Formation, evolution, and dispersal processes of protoplanetary disks are investigated and the disk lifetime is estimated. Gravitational collapse of a pre-stellar core forms both a central star and a protoplanetary disk. The central star grows by accretion from the disk, and irradiation by the central star heats up the disk and generates thermal wind, which results in the disk dispersal. We calculate the evolution of protoplanetary disks from their parent pre-stellar cores to dispersal of the disks. We find that the disk lifetimes of typical pre-stellar cores are around 2--4 million years (Myr). A pre-stellar core with high angular momentum forms a larger disk whose lifetime is long, while a disk around a X-ray luminous star has a short lifetime. Integrating the disk lifetimes under various mass and angular velocity of prestellar cores and X-ray luminosities of young stellar objects, we obtain disk fraction at a given stellar age and mean lifetime of the disks. Our model indicates that the mean lifetime of pr...

  7. A live birth of activated one-day-old unfertilized oocyte for a patient who experienced repeatedly near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Qun; CHEN Xi; LI Yang; ZHANG Xiao-hong; LIANG Rong; ZHAO Yong-ping; WEI Li-hui; SHEN Huan

    2012-01-01

    Total or near-total fertilization failure after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a rare event,but it occurs repeatedly because of sperm defects in activating oocyte.The case presents a successful pregnancy and live birth after calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) activation on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes in a patient whose husband suffered oligoasthenoteratozoospermia,and who had experienced repeated near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.In the second ICSI cycle,only one oocyte was fertilized while nine were unfertilized.Oocyte activation with A23187 were performed on the one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI and resulted in fertilization and embryo transfer.A clinical pregnancy was achieved and a healthy baby was born.To our knowledge,this is the first reported case of a healthy birth after oocyte activation on the one-day-old unfertilized oocyte.This indicates that “rescue oocyte activation” on one-day-old unfertilized oocytes after ICSI may be helpful for preventing total or near-total fertilization failure after ICSI.

  8. Perfil dos nascidos vivos no Município de Belo Horizonte, 1992-1994 Profile of live births in Belo Horizonte, 1992-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste de Souza Rodrigues

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos ­ Sinasc ­ foi desenvolvido pelo Ministério da Saúde, objetivando a melhoria da qualidade das informações sobre estas crianças, no Brasil, e vem sendo usado no Município de Belo Horizonte, efetivamente, desde 1992. Com o objetivo de caracterizar as crianças nascidas vivas e permitir a utilização dos dados para subsidiar o planejamento, organização e avaliação de ações de saúde desenvolvidas, foi analisada a distribuição destas, através de todas as Declarações de Nascidos Vivos ­ DN, de mães residentes em Belo Horizonte, 1992/94, segundo características relativas ao parto,à gravidez e à mãe. Concluiu-se haver necessidade de estudos que aprofundem a análise da morbi-mortalidade materna e infantil e os custos das internações por partos operatórios, por uma atenção especial às adolescentes, além de acompanhamento pré-natal de boa qualidade para todas as gestantes. O Sinasc é um instrumento poderoso de informações rotineiras, devendo ser aprimorado e o seu uso difundido, incluindo a possibilidade não só de cruzamento de dados com os de outros sistemas, especialmente o SIM (Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e o banco de dados de AIH (Autorização para Internação Hospitalar, como também de sua utilização para intervenções específicas e diferenciadas em determinados grupos populacionais e microáreas de risco.The Information System on Live Births - SINASC - was developed by the Health Ministry and designed to improve quality of information on live births in Brazil. It has been effectively used in Belo Horizonte since 1992. The distribution of live births was analysed in order to characterise them and to allow use of existing data to support planning, organisation and evaluation of the health activities developed. It was conducted by using Declarations of Live Births of newborns of mothers resident in Belo Horizonte, in the period 1992-1994, in

  9. Live birth following vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes derived from sibling smaller follicles at follicle selection phase in the context of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Lv, Jie-Qiang; Ge, Hong-Shan; Wu, Xin-Mei; Xi, Hai-Tao; Chi, Hai-Hong; Zhu, Chun-Fang; Huang, Jian-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In ovarian stimulation, a 31-year-old woman with polycystic ovary syndrome was at the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, follicle aspiration was performed, and eight immature oocytes were collected from follicle fluids. After 28 h in vitro culture, six of them reached MII and were vitrified. The patient failed to conceive in her fresh in vitro fertilization cycle and next two replacement cycles. In the third replacement cycle, a successful pregnancy was obtained by vitrified-thawed oocytes. This case demonstrates that follicular aspiration during follicle selection phase has protective effects against developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and rescued immature oocytes are viable and could produce promising embryos for live birth.

  10. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-xian; Guo, Ping-ping; He, Yu-xia; Liu, Yu-dong; Ye, De-sheng; Chen, Shi-ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI.

  11. Web-streamed didactic instruction on substance use disorders compares favorably with live-lecture format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam-Hage, M; Maher, Karam-Hage; Brower, Kirk J; Mullan, Patricia B; Gay, Tamara; Gruppen, Larry D

    2013-05-01

    Education about substance use disorders in medical schools and, subsequently, physicians' identification of and intervention in these diagnoses lag behind that of most other disabling disorders. To reduce barriers and improve access to education about this major public health concern, medical schools are increasingly adopting web-based instruction on substance use and other psychiatric disorders as part of their curricula; however, it is not well known how a web-streamed lecture compares with a traditional one. The authors hypothesized that both these formats would be equally efficacious in terms of knowledge acquisition and student satisfaction. Authors conducted a prospective study to test this hypothesis among third-year medical students who received web-streamed lecture on substance use/addiction versus those who received a traditional live lecture. Of the 243 students, significantly more students completed the on-line lecture series. Of the 216 students in the final study sample, 130 (60%) were assigned to the web-streamed lecture and 86 (40%) to the live lecture. Within-subject comparisons of pre- and post-lecture scores for the entire cohort indicated a significant improvement in the percentage of correct answers (21.0% difference). Although no differences in improved scores between the two groups were found, students in the live-lecture group reported small, but significantly higher levels of satisfaction. This preliminary work supports the hypothesis that a web-streamed lecture can be at least equally efficacious as a traditional lecture in terms of knowledge acquisition. However, attention needs to be paid to the lower satisfaction levels associated with using the web-streamed format.

  12. Serial imaging of human embryonic stem-cell engraftment and teratoma formation in live mouse models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin G Pomper; Holly Hammond; Xiaobing Yu; Zhaohui Ye; Catherine A Foss; Doris D Lin; James J Fox; Linzhao Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new types of lentiviral vectors expressing a reporter transgene encoding either firefly lueiferase (fLue) for bioluminescence imaging or the HSV1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) for radiopharmaceutical-based imaging were constructed to monitor human embryonic stem cell (hESC) engraftment and proliferation in live mice after trans-plantation. The constitutive expression of either transgene did not alter the properties of hESCs in the culture. We next monitored the formation of teratomas in SCID mice to test (1) whether the gene-modified hESCs maintain their developmental pluripotency, and (2) whether sustained reporter gene expression allows noninvasive, whole-body im-aging of hESC derivatives in a live mouse model. We observed teratoma formation from both types of gene-modified cells as well as wild-type bESCs 2-4 months after inoculation. Using an optical imaging system, bioluminescence from the fLuc-transduced hESCs was easily detected in mice bearing teratomas long before palpable tumors could be de-tected. To develop a noninvasive imaging method more readily translatable to the clinic, we also utilized HSV1-TK and its specific substrate, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-[125I]iodouracil ([125I]FIAU), as a reporter/ probe pair. After systemic administration, [125I]FIAU is phosphorylated only by the transgene-encoded HSV1-TK enzyme and retained within transduced (and transplanted) cells, allowing sensitive and quantitative imaging by single-photon emission computed tomography. Noninvasive imaging methods such as these may enable us to moni-tor the presence and distribution of transplanted human stem cells repetitively within live recipients over a long term through the expression of a reporter gene.

  13. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Since most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy, and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.

  14. Live-birth in vipers (Viperidae) is a key innovation and adaptation to global cooling during the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Vincent J

    2009-09-01

    The identification of adaptations and key innovations has long interested biologists because they confer on organisms the ability to exploit previously unavailable ecological resources and respond to novel selective pressures. Although it can be extremely difficult to test for the effects of a character on the rate of lineage diversification, the convergent evolution of a character in multiple lineages provides an excellent opportunity to test for the effect of that character on lineage diversification. Here, I examine the effect of parity mode on the diversification of vipers, which have independently evolved viviparity in at least 13 lineages. I find strong statistical evidence that viviparous species diversify at a greater rate than oviparous species and correlate major decreases in the diversification rate of oviparous species with periods of global cooling, such as the Oligocene. These results suggest that the evolution of viviparity buffered live-bearing species against the negative effects of global climate change during the Cenozoic, and was a key innovation in the evolution and diversification of live-bearing vipers.

  15. An improved model for nucleation-limited ice formation in living cells during freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Yi

    Full Text Available Ice formation in living cells is a lethal event during freezing and its characterization is important to the development of optimal protocols for not only cryopreservation but also cryotherapy applications. Although the model for probability of ice formation (PIF in cells developed by Toner et al. has been widely used to predict nucleation-limited intracellular ice formation (IIF, our data of freezing Hela cells suggest that this model could give misleading prediction of PIF when the maximum PIF in cells during freezing is less than 1 (PIF ranges from 0 to 1. We introduce a new model to overcome this problem by incorporating a critical cell volume to modify the Toner's original model. We further reveal that this critical cell volume is dependent on the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing, i.e., surface-catalyzed nucleation (SCN and volume-catalyzed nucleation (VCN. Taken together, the improved PIF model may be valuable for better understanding of the mechanisms of ice nucleation in cells during freezing and more accurate prediction of PIF for cryopreservation and cryotherapy applications.

  16. Formation of long-lived radionuclides in the deuteron irradiation of zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A.V.; Kondratev, S.N.; Lobach, Y.N.; Nevskii, S.V.; Sklyarenko, V.D.; Tokarevskii, V.V. [Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    1994-03-01

    The total cross sections of nuclear reactions in the energy range between several MeV and several tens of MeV have not been sufficiently studied at the present time. In many cases there are no experimental data. There is often a question of accuracy with which the cross sections can be calculated using theoretical models. At the same time, these types of nuclear constants are essential for the development of every nuclear technology. In the present work, an excitation function of nuclear reactions has been experimentally studied by the formation of long-lived radionuclides from the interaction of 47 MeV deuterons with zirconium of natural isotopic abundance. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations performed within the framework of a preequilibrium emission model and the evaporation of particles from a compound nucleus. Earlier an analogous study of the excitation function of proton-induced reactions was conducted.

  17. Ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilisation who had discordant anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count measurements: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Lau, Estella Yee Lan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate ovarian response and cumulative live birth rate of women undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment who had discordant baseline serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level and antral follicle count (AFC). This is a retrospective cohort study on 1,046 women undergoing the first IVF cycle in Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. Subjects receiving standard IVF treatment with the GnRH agonist long protocol were classified according to their quartiles of baseline AMH and AFC measurements after GnRH agonist down-regulation and before commencing ovarian stimulation. The number of retrieved oocytes, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI) and cumulative live-birth rate for each classification category were compared. Among our studied subjects, 32.2% were discordant in their AMH and AFC quartiles. Among them, those having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate. Subjects discordant in AMH and AFC had intermediate OSI which differed significantly compared to those concordant in AMH and AFC on either end. OSI of those discordant in AMH and AFC did not differ significantly whether either AMH or AFC quartile was higher than the other. When AMH and AFC are discordant, the ovarian responsiveness is intermediate between that when both are concordant on either end. Women having higher AMH within the same AFC quartile had higher number of retrieved oocytes and cumulative live-birth rate.

  18. Cumulative live-birth rates per total number of embryos needed to reach newborn in consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles: a new approach to measuring the likelihood of IVF success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Nicolás; Bellver, José; Remohí, José; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    To report the use of cumulative live-birth rates (CLBRs) per ovarian stimulation cycle to measure the success of IVF is proving to be the most accurate method for advising couples who failed to conceive, although the accuracy yielded is relatively low, and cycle outcome is highly dependent on the number of embryos replaced. Our aim with this work is to report the CLBRs of IVF as a function of the number of embryos required to reach a live birth (EmbR), considering age, day of ET, and infertility etiology. Survival curves and Kaplan-Meier methods to analyze CLBR in a retrospective cohort with respect to the number of EmbR. University-affiliated infertility center. Infertile couples undergoing IVF using own oocytes. None. CLBR per embryo transferred. CLBRs increase rapidly between 1 and 5 EmbR, moderately between 5 and 15, and slowly thereafter. Live-birth rates rise more slowly when embryos are transferred on days 2-3 rather than on days 5-6, with comparable long-term results. Women's age is a negative factor from 35 to 37 years old, with a dramatic decrease in live-birth rates beyond age 40 years. In addition, there are significant worse results in endometriosis patients. The relationship between CLBR and number of EmbR provides realistic and precise information regarding IVF success and can be used to guide couples and practitioners. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum antimüllerian hormone measurements with second generation assay at two distinct menstrual cycle phases for prediction of cycle cancellation, pregnancy and live birth after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Carolina P; Rocha, Ana L; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Borges, Lavinia E; Del Puerto, Helen L; Reis, Fernando M

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) measurements at two distinct menstrual cycle phases to predict in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. This was a prospective observational study enrolling 135 consecutive patients referred for conventional IVF or ICSI in a university hospital. Blood samples were obtained for serum AMH measurements on days 3 and 18-20, while transvaginal ultrasound was performed for antral follicle count (AFC) at day 3 of the menstrual cycle immediately before treatment. AMH was measured with the new Beckman Coulter Generation II (GenII) assay. The main outcome measures were cycle cancellation due to poor ovarian response, clinical pregnancy, and live birth. There was a strong correlation between AMH levels measured at day 3 and day 18-20 of the menstrual cycle (r = 0.837; P live birth (area under ROC curve 0.71 for both), which was comparable to that of day 3 AMH; however, AFC had no predictive value for these outcomes. Day 18-20 AMH was comparable to day 3 AMH for the prediction of cycle cancellation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth after IVF. Both AMH measurements were accurate for the prediction of cancellation but were significantly less useful for the prediction of pregnancy or live birth.

  20. 活产婴儿低出生体重相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of low birth weight among live-born infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥娇; 邓长飞; 代礼; 周光萱; 李月花; 朱军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the related factors of Iow birth weight among live - born infants, provide a theoretical basis for making the direction of children's health care and intervention measures.Methods: Birth defect monitoring method on the basis of population was used in the study, the live -born infants in Tianjin city, Jian'ou city and Gongyi city were selected as study objects, SPSS 13.0 software was used, single factor x2 analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to screen the related effect factors of low birth weight infants.Results: The average birth weight of 86 982 live - born infants was 3 325.67 g, the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants was 2.8%, single factor analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, nunber of births, maternal age, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants; binary logistic regression analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, number of births, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants.Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight in the study areas is relatively low, premature delivery is the main effect factor of low birth weight; more attention should be paid to the rural pregnant women with polyembryony, avoiding premature delivery is an important measure to reduce the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants; strengthening publicity and education may be helpful to improve the maternal knowledge of pregnant women.%目的:探讨活产儿低出生体重相关因素,为制定儿童保健研究方向和干预措施提供理论依据.方法:采用以人群为基础的出生缺陷监测方法,以天津市、建瓯市和巩义市活产儿为研究对象,运用SPSS 13.0软件,采用单因X2分析和二分类Logistic回归分析方法,筛选低出生体重儿相关影响因素.结果:86 982例活产儿平均出生体重为3 325.67 g,活产儿

  1. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, Frederic; Renaud, Florent; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Teyssier, Romain; Amram, Philippe; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Epinat, Benoit; Gabor, Jared M; Juneau, Stephanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Floch', Emeric Le

    2013-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (<50Myr), like molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (~300Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7pc resolution AMR simulations of high-redshift disks including photo-ionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback (Renaud et al. 2013, and Perret et al., this astro-ph issue). Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by ti...

  2. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3‐year‐old children living in Cuba: A population‐based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundora‐Hernández, Hermes; Batista‐Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez‐Medina, Ramón; de la C. Mora‐Faife, Esperanza; García‐García, Gladys; del Valle‐Infante, Ileana; Gómez‐Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Methods Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population‐based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3‐years‐old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Results Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Conclusions Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:27859847

  3. Two new prediction rules for spontaneous pregnancy leading to live birth among subfertile couples, based on the synthesis of three previous models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunault, C C; Habbema, J D F; Eijkemans, M J C; Collins, J A; Evers, J L H; te Velde, E R

    2004-09-01

    Several models have been published for the prediction of spontaneous pregnancy among subfertile patients. The aim of this study was to broaden the empirical basis for these predictions by making a synthesis of three previously published models. We used the original data from the studies of Eimers et al. (1994), Collins et al. (1995) and Snick et al. (1997) on couples consulting for various forms of subfertility. We developed a so-called three-sample synthesis model for predicting spontaneous conception leading to live birth within 1 year after intake based on the three data sets. The predictors used are duration of subfertility, women's age, primary or secondary infertility, percentage of motile sperm, and whether the couple was referred by a general practitioner or by a gynaecologist (referral status). The performance of this model was assessed according to a 'jack-knife' analysis. Because the post-coital test (PCT) was not assessed in one of the samples, a synthesis model including the PCT was based on two samples only. The ability of the synthesis models to distinguish between women who became pregnant and those who did not was comparable to the ability of the one-sample models when applied in the other samples. The reliability of the predictions by the three-sample synthesis model was somewhat better. Predictions improved considerably by including the PCT. The synthesis models performed better and had a broader empirical basis than the original models. They are therefore better suitable for application in other centres.

  4. The effect of sperm DNA fragmentation on live birth rate after IVF or ICSI: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, A; Alsomait, H; Seshadri, S; El-Toukhy, T; Khalaf, Y

    2015-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the extent of sperm DNA damage and live birth rate (LBR) per couple and the influence of the method of fertilization on treatment outcome. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library. Six studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Overall, LBR increased signficantly in couples with low sperm DNA fragmentation compared with those with high sperm DNA fragmentation (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.28; P = 0.0005). After IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), men with low sperm DNA fragmentation had significantly higher LBR (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.52; P = 0.01) and (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23, P = 0.04), respectively. A sensitivity analysis showed no statistically significant difference in LBR between low and high sperm DNA fragmentation when ICSI treatment was used (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.39 to 2.96; P = 0.88). High sperm DNA fragmentation in couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques is associated with lower LBR. Well-designed randomized studies are required to assess the role of ICSI over IVF in the treatment of men with high sperm DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rates of 47, + 13 amd 46 translocation D/13 Patau syndrome in live births and comparison with rates in fetal deaths and at amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1980-11-01

    Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) is rare in newborns. Data on rates in 167,774 live births from 17 separate studies are reviewed, and the following pooled rates found for: (1) 47,trisomy 13, 8.3 X 10(-5) (1/12,000); and (2) 46, (D/13 Robertsonian translocations), 4.2 X 10(-5) (1/24,000)--mutants, 1.2 X 10(-5) (1/80,000) to 1.8 X 10(-5) (1/56,000); and familial cases, 2.4 X 10(-5) (1/42,000) to 3.0 X 10(-5) (1/33,000). The rate of trisomy 13 (47, + 13) in liveborns (ignoring possible biases in studies and heterogeneity in rates) is, with 95% confidence, between 4.6 X 10(-5) (1/21,700) and 14.0 X 10(-5) (1/7,000), with the most likely figure close to 8 X 10(-5) (1/12,000). Numbers are insufficient to construct a comparably narrow confidence interval for translocation cases. The rates of 47, + 13 may be estimated in (1) spontaneous abortuses, about 0.8%--1.0% (100-fold greater than in liveborns); (2) early neonatal deaths, about 0.4% (50-fold greater than in liveborns); and (3) amniocentesis, higher than in liveborns, at least for mothers 40 years and over.

  6. [Evaluation of the quality of data in the Live Birth Information System and the Information System on Mortality during the neonatal period in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, between 2007 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Laura Pedroza; Moreira, Claudia Maria Marques; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; de Castro, Denise Silveira; Zandonade, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    Health information systems make it possible to be aware of health problems and often represent the sole source of information, thereby making it essential to assess their quality. The scope of this paper was to evaluate the quality of data about live births and deaths in the neonatal period in the Live Births Information System (SINASC) and Mortality Information System (SIM) in the state of Espírito Santo during the period from 2007 to 2009. Descriptive methodology with secondary data obtained from the electronic address of the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System was used to analyze the dimensions of quality of information, namely accessibility, timeliness and completeness. The results indicate that the information is accessible and timely, with a lag of three years compared to the beginning of the study. The completeness of the variables analyzed in SINASC was predominantly classified as excellent. SIM revealed a high percentage of missing data on the number of the Live Birth Declaration, mother's education, age and reproductive history. The conclusion reached is that SINASC is an excellent source of information about births, though SIM reveals a marked need for improvements in the completeness of its information.

  7. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  8. 超低出生体重儿生存状况分析%Investigation of the extremely low birth weight infant living condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹芳; 童笑梅

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To investigate the extremely low birth weight infant's (ELBWI) quality of life and related intervention measures through review of ELBWI's living condition from a single centre NICU in recently years. 【Method】 It was retrospectively analyzed about the clinical data of 32 patients of ELBWI from February 2000 to January 2012. 【Results】 The ELBWI suvival rate, mortality rate, abandon rate were 34. 4%, 25. 0%,and 40. 6% respectively. The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) ELBWI suvival rate was 75. 0%. Female suvival rate(72. 7%) was higer than male's in all suvival patients. The common direct causes of death were pulmonary haemorrhage (62. 5%), hyaline membrane disease (12. 5%),intracranial haemorrhage(12. 5%) and gastrointestinal bleeding(12. 5%). The data were divided into two stages (February 2000~January 2006 vs February 2006~January 2012). Compared with the former group,the abandon rate of the later was obviously lower(28. 0% vs 85. 7%) and suvival rate was significantly higher (44% vs 0%). There was significant diffrence of ART between survival group and mortality/abandon group(P<0. 05) with single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis.【Conclusion】 Positive treatment and timely processing of complications can improve ELBWI survival rate and reduce mortality. The treatment of survival limits.ELBWI should weigh up pros and cons,and should elevated the living quality of ELBWI.%[目的] 通过对12年来中心NICU中超低出生体重儿(extremely low birth weight infant,ELBWI)的生存状况分析,探讨ELBWI的生存质量及相关干预措施. [方法]对本院新生儿病房NICU自2000年2月-2012年1月的32例ELBWI进行回顾性分析. [结果]12年来ELBWI存活率34.4%,病死率25.0%,放弃率40.6%,辅助生育的ELBWI均积极治疗,存活率75.0%.所有存活者中女性占72.7%,明显高于男性.直接死亡原因最常见肺出血(62.5%),其次为早产儿肺透明膜病(12.5

  9. Biogenic carbonate formation and sedimentation in the Xisha Islands:evidences from living Halimeda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong; WEI Kai; SHI Jian; ZHAO Xinwei; EBERLI GP; LIU Xinyu; ZHU Yurui; CAI Ying; LUO Wei; YAN Guijing; ZHANGBolin

    2015-01-01

    A recent island survey reveals that the Xuande Atoll and the Yongle Atoll in the Xisha Islands can be classified into one of two systems:the depleted atoll system and growth atoll system;the survey also indicates that the decreased area of several shoals is an unbearable burden for the Xisha Islands, of which the largest island area is 2.13 km2 and the minimum elevation is 1.4 m. According to a survey on the ecological characteristics of Halimeda in the Laolongtou breaker zone of Shidao Island in the Xisha Islands, the green and white living Halimeda are collected, the isotopic ages of 14C contained in the Halimeda are shown to be 27 years and 55 years, respectively, and carbonate mainly occurs in five types, i.e., luster, segment, sand, sand grain, and marl in the formation. The Halimeda segments mainly provide the carbonate sediments of long-term biogenic deposits in the reef environment and the annual productivity per area is 60–100 g/m2;the characteristics of the microstructure of the Halimeda are analyzed, the aragonite raphide carbonate is deposited and enriched in the cortexes, medullas and cysts, and the Halimeda generally contain major elements such as C, O, Ca, Cl, Mg, K, Na, S and Al, and are rich in trace elements such as tellurium (Te), rhodium (Rh) and strontium. It is believed that the Halimeda grow slowly, including the biotic community of reef corals in the reef areas, thus they possess an environmental remediation capacity, but it takes much time to remedy the environment, and it is necessary to make the law to protect the diversity and vulnerability of the Xisha marine ecology, the ecology of the reef community and the island environment in a scientific way. As indicated in the survey, under the background of global warming and sea-level rise, the discovery of large amounts of Halimeda in the Laolongtou sea area is significant for the natural increase of the depleted atoll system of the Xuande Atoll, while the Halimeda segments represent the

  10. Oocyte number as a predictor for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and live birth: an analysis of 256,381 in vitro fertilization cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Ryan G; Lan, Lan; Shah, Anish A; Yeh, Jason S; Price, Thomas M; Goldfarb, James M; Muasher, Suheil J

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between oocyte number and the rates of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and live birth (LB) in fresh autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. An academic reproductive medicine practice. We analyzed data from 256,381 IVF cycles using the 2008-2010 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology national registry. Patients were divided into five groups based on retrieved oocyte number. Rates of OHSS and LB were calculated for each group. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to assess differences in OHSS and LB between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate oocyte number as a predictor of OHSS and LB. None. The LB rate increased up to 15 oocytes, then plateaued (0-5: 17%, 6-10: 31.7%; 11-15: 39.3%; 16-20: 42.7%; 21-25: 43.8%; and >25 oocytes: 41.8%). However, the rate of OHSS became much more clinically significant after 15 oocytes (0-5: 0.09%; 6-10: 0.37%; 11-15: 0.93%; 16-20: 1.67%; 21-25: 3.03%; and >25 oocytes: 6.34%). These trends remained after adjustment with the use of GEE. ROC curves revealed that although oocyte number is not useful in the prediction of LB, 15 retrieved oocytes is the number that best predicts OHSS risk. Retrieval of >15 oocytes significantly increases OHSS risk without improving LB rate in fresh autologous IVF cycles. In general, less aggressive stimulation protocols should be considered, especially in high-responders, to optimize outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  12. Understanding the links between month of birth, body height, and longevity: why some studies reveal that shorter people live longer – further evidence of seasonal programming from the Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of agreement in the literature as to whether adult height depends on month of birth and whether height affects lifespan. Additionally, the relationship between stature and longevity involves conflicting findings and the results remain mixed due to several confounders, such as: year of birth, somatotype, relative body weight, genetic inheritance, diet, diseases, etc. Here, we hypothesize that the season of birth effect can also be involved in shaping the mysterious link between body height and longevity. To assess the links between month of birth, adult height, and longevity in the Polish population, data on 848,860 individuals, of whom 483,512 were men (57% and 365,348 were women (43%, born in the years 1896-1988 and died in the years 2004-2008, were collected from the ‘PESEL’ database and signalments in the censuses obtained from identity card offices throughout Poland. ANOVA and the LSD test were performed. A significant relationship between month of birth and lifespan was found. Individuals born in autumn and winter months lived significantly longer than those who were born in the middle of the year (May. The amplitudes of lifespan were 16 months in men and 14 months in women. As expected, subjects of both sexes born in autumn and winter months were significantly shorter than their peers born around the middle of the year. In conclusion, the results of the study not only corroborate the theory of seasonal programming of longevity and support the idea that some undetermined factors from early stages of ontogeny and associated with season of birth have long-term effects on phenotype in later life in terms of adult height and longevity, but also bear out the hypothesis that month of birth can be another important confounding factor with respect to the relationship between adult height and longevity.

  13. Dual trigger with combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin significantly improves the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Huei; Wu, Frank Shao-Ying; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Shyr-Yeu; Hwu, Yuh-Ming

    2013-11-01

    To investigate whether dual triggering of final oocyte maturation with a combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can improve the live-birth rate for normal responders in GnRH-antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Infertility unit of a university-affiliated medical center. Normal responders to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation who were undergoing IVF-ICSI with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Standard dosage of hCG trigger (6,500 IU of recombinant hCG) versus dual trigger (0.2 mg of triptorelin and 6,500 IU of recombinant hCG). Live-birth, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates per cycle. A total of 376 patients with 378 completed cycles with embryo transfer were enrolled (hCG trigger/control group: n = 187; dual trigger/study group: n = 191). The dual trigger group demonstrated statistically significantly higher implantation (29.6% vs. 18.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.7% vs. 40.1%), and live-birth (41.3% vs. 30.4%) rates as compared with the hCG trigger group. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of patient demographics, cycle parameters, or embryo quality. Dual trigger of final oocyte maturation with a GnRH-agonist and a standard dosage of hCG in normal responders statistically significantly improves implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live-birth rates in GnRH-antagonist IVF cycles. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Baixo peso ao nascer no Brasil de acordo com as informações sobre nascidos vivos do Ministério da Saúde, 2005 Low birth weight in Brazil according to live birth data from the Ministry of Health, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lourenço Tavares de Andrade

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Embora seja notório que a cobertura do Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC esteja crescendo e que a qualidade da informação venha melhorando, desde a sua implantação, sabe-se que a enumeração de nascidos vivos ainda não é completa no Brasil. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se analisar as desigualdades da proporção do baixo peso ao nascer no Brasil, em 2005, segundo alguns aspectos como o geográfico, o tamanho da população do município e a escolaridade da mãe. Analisou-se, igualmente, a influência da atenção pré-natal. Considerando a totalidade dos nascidos vivos, evidenciou-se o paradoxo do baixo peso ao nascer, ou seja, foram encontrados percentuais mais elevados nas áreas de maior desenvolvimento sócio-econômico. Os resultados paradoxais são explicados, principalmente, pela menor sobrevida e registro inadequado dos prematuros nos municípios mais pobres. Levando-se em conta os nascidos vivos a termo de gestação não-múltipla, foram encontradas desigualdades por grau de escolaridade da mãe. Sugere-se que o atendimento pré-natal abrangente e com qualidade poderia ter um impacto maior na redução dos resultados adversos da gestação, contribuindo para a diminuição das desigualdades sócio-econômicas da saúde perinatal no Brasil.Although the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC has expanded its coverage and improved its data quality since the system was implemented, the live birth count in Brazil is still not complete. The current study analyzes inequalities in low birth weight in Brazil in 2005, based on geographic factors, municipality of residence, maternal schooling, and prenatal care. An analysis of all live births showed a low birth weight paradox, namely high percentages in areas with the highest socioeconomic development. The main explanation for these paradoxical findings involves shorter neonatal survival and inadequate recording of premature births in poorer municipalities

  15. 基于二孩政策的活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量关系研究%Relationship between birth order of live neonates and premature and low birth weight:a cross-sectional study due to the two-child policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计德永; 王君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量的关系,为提高人口出生质量提供参考。方法选取2013年在某市妇幼保健院分娩的所有单胎活产儿为研究对象,资料收集于新生儿出生医学信息登记系统。结果活产儿出生顺序在1~8之间(1.4±0.6),出生顺序为1占65.9%(4055/6151),出生顺序为2占29.8%(1835/6151),出生顺序为3及以上占4.2%(261/6151)。出生顺序为1、2、3及以上的活产儿的早产检出率分别为8.2%、14.1%和27.2%(趋势χ2=113.620, P<0.05),低出生体质量检出率分别为6.2%、11.1%和26.8%(趋势χ2=132.228, P<0.05)。控制产妇年龄、文化程度及户口所在地后多因素分析显示,出生顺序为2、3及以上的活产儿出现早产的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.546倍和3.186倍,出现低出生体质量的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.991倍和5.530倍。结论高出生顺序为早产及低出生体质量发生的高危因素。%Objective To explore the relationship between birth order and premature, low birth weight among live neonates in order to provide the basis for improving birth quality. Methods All live neonates of single birth were selected from this hospital in 2013, and the data were collected from Medical Birth Register. Results The number of birth order was 1~8 (1. 4 ± 0. 6), the proportion of first birth or-der was 65. 9% (4 055/6 151), second birth order was 29. 8% (1 835/6 151), and third or more birth order was 4. 2% (261/6 151). The prevalence rate of premature birth was 8. 2% in first birth order, 14. 1% in second birth and 27. 2% in third or more birth (χ2 =113. 620, P<0. 05), and the prevalence rate of low birth weight was 6. 2 in first birth order, 11. 1% in second birth and 26. 8% in third or more birth (χ2 =132. 228, P<0. 05). The factors of maternal age, educational level and residence were controlled and multivariate analysis showed that, the risk of premature

  16. The Star Formation Histories of Disk Galaxies: the Live, the Dead, and the Undead

    CERN Document Server

    Oemler, Augustus; Gladders, Michael D; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca M; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We reexamine the systematic properties of local galaxy populations, using published surveys of star formation, structure, and gas content. After recalibrating star formation measures, we are able to reliably measure specific star formation rates well below the "main sequence" of star formation vs mass. We find an unexpectedly large population of galaxies with star formation rates intermediate between vigorously star-forming main sequence galaxies and passive galaxies, and with gas content disproportionately high for their star formation rates. Several lines of evidence suggest that these quiescent galaxies form a distinct population rather than a low star formation tail of the main sequence. We demonstrate that a tight main sequence, evolving with epoch, is a natural outcome of most histories of star formation and has little astrophysical significance, but that the quiescent population requires additional astrophysics to explain its properties. Using a simple model for disk evolution based on the observed dep...

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  18. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Up to Date Additional Content Medical News Birth Injury By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, Professor of ... Problems in Newborns Overview of Problems in Newborns Birth Injury Prematurity Postmaturity Small for Gestational Age (SGA) ...

  19. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  20. Live-streaming: Time-lapse video evidence of novel streamer formation mechanism and varying viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvinzadeh Gashti, Mazeyar; Bellavance, Julien; Kroukamp, Otini; Wolfaardt, Gideon; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Greener, Jesse

    2015-07-01

    Time-lapse videos of growing biofilms were analyzed using a background subtraction method, which removed camouflaging effects from the heterogeneous field of view to reveal evidence of streamer formation from optically dense biofilm segments. In addition, quantitative measurements of biofilm velocity and optical density, combined with mathematical modeling, demonstrated that streamer formation occurred from mature, high-viscosity biofilms. We propose a streamer formation mechanism by sudden partial detachment, as opposed to continuous elongation as observed in other microfluidic studies. Additionally, streamer formation occurred in straight microchannels, as opposed to serpentine or pseudo-porous channels, as previously reported.

  1. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  2. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  3. Is there a reproductive basis to solitary living versus pair-formation in coral reef fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratchett, Morgan S.; Pradjakusuma, Oki. A.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2006-03-01

    Many species of coral reef fishes form pairs. While it is assumed that pairs represent the breeding unit of these species, the reproductive status of paired versus solitary individuals, and changes in status associated with pair-formation have seldom been investigated. In order to assess whether pairing is related to reproduction we examined whether the ontogenetic timing of pair formation coincided with the onset of maturation in four species of fishes: Chaetodon lunulatus and Chaetodon melannotus (family Chaetodontidae), and Valenciennea muralis and Valenciennea strigata (family Gobiidae). 65-78% of all fishes occurred in pairs. In C. lunulatus and V. muralis, pair-formation coincided with maturation, suggesting that these species form pairs for breeding. Further, C. lunulatus and V. muralis exhibited significant positive size-assortative pairing, which is often associated with monogamous mating. In contrast, pair formation in C. melannotus and V. strigata did not coincide with maturation. In both these species many solitary individuals were reproductive, and same sex pairs were common. While reproduction may be the basis for pairing in some species, both solitary and paired individuals are capable of breeding in others. We propose that non-reproductive mechanisms, such as predator vigilance, may explain pair-formation in coral reef fishes with non-monogamous breeding systems.

  4. Developing community-based intervention strategies to save newborn lives: lessons learned from formative research in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from formative research conducted in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Mali and Nepal to inform the development of newborn health interventions, mostly in the context of field trials. Current practices, constraints to the adoption of optimal practices and implications for implementing inventions to improve newborn survival are discussed for: optimal care during pregnancy; skilled care at birth; optimal delivery and newborn care practices; special care of low birth weight babies; and timely and appropriate care seeking for newborn illness. General lessons concerning target audiences and intervention strategy are also drawn. In brief, interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to start during pregnancy not only to promote birth preparedness and institutional delivery, but also to start the process of change concerning early newborn care practices. Their target audience should not only be pregnant or recently delivered women, but also include the main gatekeepers, particularly traditional birth attendants, grandmothers and other family members. Health providers' opinions also matter as care practices are less likely to change if families receive conflicting messages from different sources. Interventions are more likely to succeed if they are not simply message based, but include problem solving approaches, and a behavior change component to address community norms. Although antenatal care (ANC) is theoretically a good channel for newborn interventions, capitalising on its potential is not straightforward, and will require considerable investment and intervention development in its own right in order to improve ANC counselling, which will need to extend beyond training and tackle the many working day constraints encountered by ANC providers. Removing or subsidising the cost of deliveries may be a necessary action to increase institutional deliveries, but it is unlikely to be sufficient; measures will need to be put in place to ensure

  5. Births: preliminary data for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2013-09-01

    Objectives-This report presents preliminary data for 2012 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods-Data in this report are based on 99.96% of 2012 births.Records for the few states with less than 100% of records received are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2012. Comparisons are made with final 2011 data. Results-The preliminary number of births for the United States in 2012 was 3,952,937, essentially unchanged (not statistically significant) from 2011; the general fertility rate was 63.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44, down only slightly from 2011, after declining nearly 3% a year from 2007 through 2010. The number of births and fertility rate either declined or were unchanged for most race and Hispanic origin groups from 2011 to 2012; however, both the number of births and the fertility rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women rose in 2012 (7% and 4%, respectively). The birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 was down 6% in 2012 (29.4 births per 1,000 teenagers aged 15-19), yet another historic low for the United States, with rates declining for younger and older teenagers and for nearly all race and Hispanic origin groups. The birth rate for women in their early 20s also declined in 2012, to a new record low of 83.1 births per 1,000 women. Birth rates for women in their 30s rose in 2012, as did the birth rate for women in their early 40s. The birth rate for women in their late 40s was unchanged. The nonmarital birth rate declined in 2012 (to 45.3 birth per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44), whereas the number of births to unmarried women rose 1% and the percentage of births to unmarried women was unchanged (at 40.7%). The cesarean delivery rate for the United States was unchanged in 2012 at 32.8%. The preterm

  6. Effect analysis of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan%中山地区重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施的实施对降低唐氏综合征出生率的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 江陵; 吴剑波; 陈昂; 陈咏莲; 李莉敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analysize the effect of the surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan, 2010 -2011. Methods; Prenatal screening of Down's syndrome has been free in residents since January 1, 2010. The Surveillance and Intervention were carried out at the same time. Data of the surveillance were analyzed, 2008 -2011 , comparing the difference of the incidences. Results; After the surveillance and intervention, the rate of prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome increased significantly. The rate of live births with Down's syndrome decreased in 2010 -2011 (1. 63 -0. 64/ten thousand) compared with 2008 and 2009 (3. 5-3. 78/ten thousand). Conclusion; The Surveillance and intervention of severe birth defects on were effective on decreasing the incidence of live birth with Down's syndrome in Zhongshan.%目的 分析2010年-2011年中山地区对重大出生缺陷采取的监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面的实际效果.方法 2010年1月1日始中山市对户籍人口实施免费产前筛查唐氏综合征,并进行监控和干预措施,通过2008年-2011年中山市出生缺陷监测网监测唐氏综合征儿数据,比较唐氏综合征出生率的差异.结果 实施重大出生缺陷监控和干预措施后,唐氏综合征的产前诊断率显著提高,唐氏综合征出生率2010年-2011年(1.63-0.64/万)较2008年-2009年(3.5-3.78/万)有明显下降(P =0.001).结论 2010年-2011年中山市对重大出生缺陷采取监控和干预措施在降低唐氏综合征出生率方面起到很好的效果.

  7. Living in the Age of Imposed Amnesia: The Eclipse of Democratic Formative Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that under neoliberal casino capitalism there has been a wholesale attack not only on the social state but also on those public spheres that enable the formative cultures necessary to produce critical agents, engaged subjects, and the literacies necessary to make power and authority accountable. In this instance, the struggle…

  8. POLARON DYNAMICS. Long-lived photoinduced polaron formation in conjugated polyelectrolyte-fullerene assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rachel C; Ferreira, Amy S; Thompson, Robert; Kilbride, Daniel; Knutson, Nicholas S; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Toso, Daniel B; Challa, J Reddy; Zhou, Z Hong; Rubin, Yves; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2015-06-19

    The efficiency of biological photosynthesis results from the exquisite organization of photoactive elements that promote rapid movement of charge carriers out of a critical recombination range. If synthetic organic photovoltaic materials could mimic this assembly, charge separation and collection could be markedly enhanced. We show that micelle-forming cationic semiconducting polymers can coassemble in water with cationic fullerene derivatives to create photoinduced electron-transfer cascades that lead to exceptionally long-lived polarons. The stability of the polarons depends on the organization of the polymer-fullerene assembly. Properly designed assemblies can produce separated polaronic charges that are stable for days or weeks in aqueous solution.

  9. Astronomical Oxygen Isotopic Evidence for Supernova Enrichment of the Solar System Birth Environment by Propagating Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Edward D; Smith, Rachel L; Morris, Mark R; Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2010-01-01

    New infrared absorption measurements of oxygen isotope ratios in CO gas from individual young stellar objects confirm that the solar system is anomalously high in its 18O/17O ratio compared with extra-solar oxygen in the Galaxy. We show that this difference in oxygen isotope ratios is best explained by 1 per cent enrichment of the proto-solar molecular cloud by ejecta from type II supernovae from a cluster having of order a few hundred stars that predated the Sun by at least 10 to 20 Myr. The likely source of exogenous oxygen was the explosion of one or more B stars during a process of propagating star formation.

  10. Organized living: formation mechanisms and functions of plasma membrane domains in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natasza E; Christiano, Romain; Walther, Tobias C

    2012-03-01

    Plasma membrane proteins and lipids organize into lateral domains of specific composition. Domain formation is achieved by a combination of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions, membrane-binding protein scaffolds and protein fences. The resulting domains function in membrane protein turnover and homeostasis, as well as in cell signaling. We review the mechanisms generating plasma membrane domains and the functional consequences of this organization, focusing on recent findings from research on the yeast model system.

  11. Delving Deeper into the Tumultuous Lives of Galactic Dwarfs: Modeling Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, John A

    2008-01-01

    The paucity of observed dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and the relative overabundance of predicted dark matter halos remains one of the greatest puzzles of the LCDM paradigm. Solving this puzzle now requires not only matching the numbers of objects but also understanding the details of their star formation histories. We present a summary of such histories derived from HST data using the color-magnitude diagram fitting method. We interpret the new data by using and extending the phenomenological model of Kravtsov, Gnedin & Klypin (2004), which is based on the mass assembly histories of dark matter halos and the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of star formation. The model correctly predicts the radial distributions of dIrr and, separately, dSph galaxy types as well as the mean age of the stellar populations. However, in order to be consistent with the observations, the model needs a significant amount of recent star formation in the last 1 and 2 Gyr. Within the framework of our extended models, this prolonged star...

  12. 陕西省活产单胎新生儿低出生体重现况及其影响因素分析%Incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates and influencing factors in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张若; 李照青; 屈鹏飞; 赵亚玲; 颜虹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates and identify the influencing factors in Shaanxi province.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multi stage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes.Results A total of 28 164 childbearing aged women and their infants were investigated.The overall incidence of low birth weight among the single live birth neonates surveyed was 3.4% during 2010-2013 (4.1% in 2010, 4.4% in 2011,3.1% in 2012, 2.6% in 2013, respectively).The incidence of the low birth weight was 3.8% in southern Shaanxi, 3.4% in northem Shaanxi and 3.2% in central area of Shaanxi.The incidence of the low birth weight was 2.5% in urban area and 3.6% in rural area.Compared with the low birth weight incidence of 2.6% in full-term infant, the low birth weight incidence was 32.0% in preterm infants.The results of logistic regression analysis suggested that being female infant (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.36-1.81) , preterm delivery (OR =18.28, 95% CI: 15.23-21.96), lower educational level of mothers (OR =1.27, 95% CI:1.06-1.52), antenatal care times <4 (compared with 4-7,OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.14-1.63) ,antenatal care times ≥8 (compared with 4-7, OR=1.84, 95% Ch 1.48-2.29), gestational hypertension (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 2.12-4.43) , being multipara (OR=1.21,95% CI: 1.03-1.41) , taking no folic acid during pregnancy (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.52) were risk factors for the low birth weight of neonate.Conclusion The incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates was in decline in Shaanxi.The incidence of the low birth weight was higher in rural area than in urban area.The incidence of the low birth weight was lower than national level.Being female neonate, preterm delivery, lower education level of mothers, irregular antenatal

  13. Avoidance of weekend oocyte retrievals during GnRH antagonist treatment by simple advancement or delay of hCG administration does not adversely affect IVF live birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremellen, K P; Lane, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of GnRH antagonists in IVF treatment has many advantages over agonist long down-regulation, yet its uptake has been hampered by an inability to program the start date for gonadotrophin stimulation so as to minimize weekend oocyte retrievals (ORs). In this study, we retrospectively analyzed whether conducting a strict Monday to Friday OR program impacts on IVF outcomes. A total of 1642 non-programmed IVF antagonist cycles were analyzed to determine if advancing or delaying the OR by 1 day from 'ideal' to avoid Saturday or Sunday OR, respectively, had any impact on IVF outcomes. The IVF outcomes of Tuesday to Thursday served as a control as no modification in OR timing was required on these days. Advancing the OR by 1 day from the ideal resulted in a small but significant decrease in the number of oocytes collected and embryos created. Delaying the OR by 1 day from ideal resulted in a small increase in the number of oocytes collected and embryos created. However, deviation from the ideal day of OR had no significant effect on live birth rates. It is possible to safely avoid weekend ORs during GnRH antagonist cycles by simply advancing an ideal Saturday OR to Friday, and delaying an ideal Sunday OR to Monday, without adversely impacting on IVF live birth outcomes.

  14. Live birth after frozen-thawed oocytes matured in vitro in a PCOS patient: a model for improving implantation rates in IVM cycles and objectively assessing the real potential of development of frozen oocytes matured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hachem, Hady; Poulain, Marine; Finet, Astrid; Fanchin, Renato; Frydman, Nelly; Grynberg, Michael H

    2014-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes has emerged in the strategy of infertility treatment, with the main indication being in patients suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, IVM has been proposed as an option for fertility preservation in women having to undergo gonadotoxic treatments. However, despite the increasing application of IVM, the potential of development of in vitro matured oocytes after thawing remains ill-established and few pregnancies have been reported so far. We report herein a case of live birth after frozen-thawed oocytes matured in vitro and embryo transfer during an artificial cycle in a 29-year-old patient with primary infertility due to PCOS. The present case demonstrates that the transfer of frozen-thawed IVM oocytes during an artificial cycle in PCOS patients is feasible and leads to pregnancy and live birth. This strategy may also be an interesting option to objectively assess the developmental potential of these oocytes after freezing and thawing, which is a major concern for physicians who include the IVM approach in their fertility preservation program.

  15. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  16. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first birth and hope to have a vaginal delivery this time, there is a class for that, too. Choose ... t covered in your birthing class, it’s a good idea to take an individual class on it, especially if you are a first-time mother. The health benefits of breastfeeding your baby ...

  17. Avaliação de preditores do óbito neonatal em uma série histórica de nascidos vivos no Nordeste brasileiro An evaluation of the predictors of neonatal death in a time series of live births in the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar tendência dos preditores do óbito neonatal entre os nascidos vivos e qualidade do preenchimento do Sistema de Informações para Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc institucional. MÉTODOS: série histórica do Sinasc do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram avaliadas: completitude de preenchimento das variáveis e tendência dos indicadores de risco para mortalidade infantil (baixo peso ao nascer; anóxia; prematuridade; cesariana; ausência de pré-natal; mãe adolescente; analfabetismo e nenhum filho nascido vivo e morto. Significância estatística para teste t de Student foi de 5% em um modelo de regressão linear. RESULTADOS: 58.689 nascidos vivos com contínuo incremento a partir de 2002; baixo peso ao nascer, 22,8%; Apgar OBJECTVES: to evaluate predictors of neonatal death among live births and the quality of use of the institutional Live Birth Information System register (Sinasc. METHODS: a time serie based on data from the Sinasc of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 in the city Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The following were evaluated: the completeness of the forms and the tendency regarding risk factors for infant mortality (low birth weight; anoxia; premature birth; caesarian birth; lack of prenatal care; adolescent pregnancy; illiteracy; and having had no live or still born child. Statistical significance was tested using Student's t test with p<0.05 in a linear regression model. RESULTS: 58,689 live births occurred with a continued rise from 2002 onwards; low birth weight, 22.8%; Apgar <7 1º minute 15.3%; premature 22.4%; Caesarian birth 38,2%; adolescent mothers 27.2%; illiteracy 2.7% and 89% with no live or still born child. One percent of variables were not recorded. The following variables increased (p<0.05: Apgar in the 1st minute, low birth weight, premature birth and caesarian birth; and the following decreased (p<0

  18. Predicting the chances of a live birth after one or more complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation: population based study of linked cycle data from 113 873 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLernon, David J; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Te Velde, Egbert R; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-11-16

     To develop a prediction model to estimate the chances of a live birth over multiple complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) based on a couple's specific characteristics and treatment information.  Population based cohort study.  All licensed IVF clinics in the UK. National data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority register.  All 253 417 women who started IVF (including intracytoplasmic sperm injection) treatment in the UK from 1999 to 2008 using their own eggs and partner's sperm.  Two clinical prediction models were developed to estimate the individualised cumulative chance of a first live birth over a maximum of six complete cycles of IVF-one model using information available before starting treatment and the other based on additional information collected during the first IVF attempt. A complete cycle is defined as all fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers arising from one episode of ovarian stimulation.  After exclusions, 113 873 women with 184 269 complete cycles were included, of whom 33 154 (29.1%) had a live birth after their first complete cycle and 48 925 (43.0%) after six complete cycles. Key pretreatment predictors of live birth were the woman's age (31 v 37 years; adjusted odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.62 to 1.71) and duration of infertility (3 v 6 years; 1.09, 1.08 to 1.10). Post-treatment predictors included number of eggs collected (13 v 5 eggs; 1.29, 1.27 to 1.32), cryopreservation of embryos (1.91, 1.86 to 1.96), the woman's age (1.53, 1.49 to 1.58), and stage of embryos transferred (eg, double blastocyst v double cleavage; 1.79, 1.67 to 1.91). Pretreatment, a 30 year old woman with two years of unexplained primary infertility has a 46% chance of having a live birth from the first complete cycle of IVF and a 79% chance over three complete cycles. If she then has five eggs collected in her first complete cycle followed by a single cleavage stage embryo transfer (with no embryos left for

  19. Predicting the chances of a live birth after one or more complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation: population based study of linked cycle data from 113 873 women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyerberg, Ewout W; te Velde, Egbert R; Lee, Amanda J; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a prediction model to estimate the chances of a live birth over multiple complete cycles of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) based on a couple’s specific characteristics and treatment information. Design Population based cohort study. Setting All licensed IVF clinics in the UK. National data from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority register. Participants All 253 417 women who started IVF (including intracytoplasmic sperm injection) treatment in the UK from 1999 to 2008 using their own eggs and partner’s sperm. Main outcome measure Two clinical prediction models were developed to estimate the individualised cumulative chance of a first live birth over a maximum of six complete cycles of IVF—one model using information available before starting treatment and the other based on additional information collected during the first IVF attempt. A complete cycle is defined as all fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfers arising from one episode of ovarian stimulation. Results After exclusions, 113 873 women with 184 269 complete cycles were included, of whom 33 154 (29.1%) had a live birth after their first complete cycle and 48 925 (43.0%) after six complete cycles. Key pretreatment predictors of live birth were the woman’s age (31 v 37 years; adjusted odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.62 to 1.71) and duration of infertility (3 v 6 years; 1.09, 1.08 to 1.10). Post-treatment predictors included number of eggs collected (13 v 5 eggs; 1.29, 1.27 to 1.32), cryopreservation of embryos (1.91, 1.86 to 1.96), the woman’s age (1.53, 1.49 to 1.58), and stage of embryos transferred (eg, double blastocyst v double cleavage; 1.79, 1.67 to 1.91). Pretreatment, a 30 year old woman with two years of unexplained primary infertility has a 46% chance of having a live birth from the first complete cycle of IVF and a 79% chance over three complete cycles. If she then has five eggs collected in her first complete cycle followed by

  20. Impact of natural birth and cesarean section on female postpartum sexual function and living quality%顺产和剖宫产对女性产后性功能和生活质量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 齐静; 何艺

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨顺产和剖宫产对女性产后性功能以及生活质量的影响。方法:利用横断面分析法分析2012年12月至2013年12月于我院分娩的200名初产妇的临床资料,按照分娩方式分为顺产组(100名)和剖宫产组(100名),分别对这两组产妇产后45d,3个月,6个月内的性生活恢复比例、性交痛发生率、性生活满意程度以及产后生活质量进行比较。结果:产后45 d和产后3个月,顺产组和剖宫产组在恢复性生活的比例,性交痛发生率,性生活满意程度三方面有显著差异,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);产后6个月,两组在恢复性生活比例,性交痛的发生率,对性生活满意程度三方面没有显著差异(P>0.05);顺产组的生活质量评分显著高于剖宫产组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:产后3个月内,顺产和剖宫产对女性产后性功能有显著差异;而产后6个月,两种方式对性功能无显著差异;相比于剖宫产组,顺产组生活质量更高。因此,女性为保护性能力而选择剖宫产不科学。%Objectives:To investigate the impact of natural birth and cesarean section on female sexual function and living quality.Methods:A cross-sectional investigation of the clinical data of 200 primipara who delivered live births in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013 was conducted.According to the different modes of delivery, primipara were divided into natural birth group (100)and cesarean section group (100).The restore ratio of sexual life, incidence of sexual intercourse pain,sexual life and their living quality 45 days,3 months and 6 months after of all pri-mipara was compared respectively.Results:45 days and 3 months after delivery,the difference in restore ratio of sexual life,the incidence of sexual intercourse pain and quality of sexual life between the two groups was statistically significant (P0.05);scores of living

  1. Análise dos registros de nascimentos vivos em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil Analysis of legal registration of live births in an urban area of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena P. de Mello Jorge

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os nascimentos vivos de mulheres residentes em Londrina, Paraná, (Brasil, ocorridos entre abril e setembro de 1994 (4259, a partir das duas vias das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DN - vias brancas (provindas dos hospitais onde ocorreram os nascimentos e amarelas (vindas dos Cartórios onde houve o registro - recebidas pelo Serviço Municipal de Saúde. Visitas domiciliárias foram realizadas nos casos em que não houve o pareamento das respectivas vias da DN de cada criança (possível caso de sub-registro ou parto domiciliar. A taxa de sub-registro de nascimento vivo foi estimada entre 5,3% e 6,6%; o custo foi o principal motivo alegado para o não registro, seguido da negligência e legitimidade. Dos que foram registrados, em 88,7% o mesmo ocorreu até 60 dias após o parto e o tempo médio para o registro foi de 26,5 dias (com desvio-padrão de 52 dias.Variáveis estatisticamente associadas aos fatos de registrar e ter sido no tempo legal (60 dias foram tipo de parto, instrução e idade materna. Estimativa da proporção de partos domiciliares entre os nascimentos registrados foi um valor entre 0,1 e 0,3%, sendo as razões alegadas: "opção por parte da mãe", "falta de condução para ser removida para o hospital" e "não deu tempo de chegar no hospital".Live births which occurred in the period from April to September of 1994 were analysed, using the two copies of the Birth Declaration-BD-( the white copy coming from the hospital where the child was born and the yellow copy sent by the Legal Registry Office where the birth was registered received by the Londrina Municipal Health Service. After the "cross matching"of both copies (for each child, household interviews were performed in cases without matched pairs (only a white or only a yellow copy indicating possibly unregistered or home deliveries. Results showed that the proportion of births not legally registered was of from 5.3 to 6.6% of the hospital births. Cost

  2. Dark-ages Reionization & Galaxy Formation Simulation I: The dynamical lives of high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Gregory B; Mutch, Simon J; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R; Geil, Paul M; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) program and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation program upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programs is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z=35 to z=5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from "universal" behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (~20%) of galactic halos are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: i) halo...

  3. Formation of long-lived resonances in hexagonal cavities by strong coupling of superscar modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Ge, Li; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui

    2013-08-01

    The recent progresses in single crystalline wide bandgap hexagonal disk have stimulated intense research attention on pursuing ultraviolet (UV) laser diodes with low thresholds. While whispering-gallery modes based UV lasers have been successfully obtained in GaN, ZnO nanorods, and nanopillars, the reported thresholds are still very high, due to the low-quality (Q) factors of the hexagonal resonances. Here we demonstrate resonances whose Q factors can be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the hexagonal modes, promising the reduction of the energy consumption. The key to our finding is the avoided resonance crossing between superscar states along two sets of nearly degenerated triangle orbits, which leads to the formation of hexagram modes. The mode couplings suppress the field distributions at the corners and the deviations from triangle orbits simultaneously and therefore enhance the Q factors significantly.

  4. Emerging adults' lived experience of formative family stress: the family's lasting influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carmen R; Chavez, Tom; Woulfe, Julie

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we use a phenomenology framework to explore emerging adults' formative experiences of family stress. Fourteen college students participated in a qualitative interview about their experience of family stress. We analyzed the interviews using the empirical phenomenological psychology method. Participants described a variety of family stressors, including parental conflict and divorce, physical or mental illness, and emotional or sexual abuse by a family member. Two general types of parallel processes were essential to the experience of family stress for participants. First, the family stressor was experienced in shifts and progressions reflecting the young person's attempts to manage the stressor, and second, these shifts and progressions were interdependent with deeply personal psychological meanings of self, sociality, physical and emotional expression, agency, place, space, project, and discourse. We describe each of these parallel processes and their subprocesses, and conclude with implications for mental health practice and research.

  5. Photochemical formation and chemistry of long-lived adamantylidene-quinone methides and 2-adamantyl cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarić, Nikola; Zabcić, Ivana; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Wan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxymethylphenols strategically substituted with the 2-hydroxy-2-adamantyl moiety, AdPh 8-10, were synthesized, and their photochemical reactivity was investigated. On excitation to the singlet excited state, AdPh 8 undergoes intramolecular proton transfer coupled with a loss of H(2)O giving quinone methide 8QM. The presence of 8QM has been detected by laser flash photolysis (CH(3)CN-H(2)O 1:1, tau = 0.55 s) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Singlet excited states of AdPh 9 and 10 in the presence of H(2)O dehydrate giving 9QM and 10QM. Photochemically formed QMs are trapped by nucleophiles giving the addition products (e.g., Phi for methanolysis of 8 is 0.55). In addition, the zwitterionic 9QM undergoes an unexpected rearrangement involving transformation of the 2-phenyl-2-adamantyl cation into the 4-phenyl-2-adamantyl cation (Phi approximately 0.03). An analogous rearrangement was observed with methoxy derivatives 9a and 10a. Zwitterionic 9QM was characterized by LFP in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (tau = 1 mus). In TFE, in the ground state, AdPh 10 is in equilibrium with 10QM, which allowed for recording the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of the QM. Introduction of the adamantyl substituent into the o-hydroxymethylphenol moiety increased the quantum yield of the associated QM formation by up to 3-fold and significantly prolonged their lifetimes. Furthermore, adamantyl substituent made the study of the alkyl-substituted quinone methides easier by LFP by prolonging their lifetimes and increasing the quantum yields of formation.

  6. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation simulation - I. The dynamical lives of high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Angel, Paul W.; Mutch, Simon J.; Power, Chris; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, Stuart B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme and Tiamat, the collisionless N-body simulation programme upon which DRAGONS is built. The primary trait distinguishing Tiamat from other large simulation programme is its density of outputs at high redshift (100 from z = 35 to z = 5; roughly one every 10 Myr) enabling the construction of very accurate merger trees at an epoch when galaxy formation is rapid and mergers extremely frequent. We find that the friends-of-friends halo mass function agrees well with the prediction of Watson et al. at high masses, but deviates at low masses, perhaps due to our use of a different halo finder or perhaps indicating a break from `universal' behaviour. We then analyse the dynamical evolution of galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization finding that only a small fraction (˜20 per cent) of galactic haloes are relaxed. We illustrate this using standard relaxation metrics to establish two dynamical recovery time-scales: (i) haloes need ˜1.5 dynamical times following formation, and (ii) ˜2 dynamical times following a major (3:1) or minor (10:1) merger to be relaxed. This is remarkably consistent across a wide mass range. Lastly, we use a phase-space halo finder to illustrate that major mergers drive long-lived massive phase-space structures which take many dynamical times to dissipate. This can yield significant differences in the inferred mass build-up of galactic haloes and we suggest that care must be taken to ensure a physically meaningful match between the galaxy formation physics of semi-analytic models and the halo finders supplying their input.

  7. Creating stories to live by: caring and professional identity formation in a longitudinal integrated clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkin, Jill; Suddards, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Building on other models of longitudinal integrated clerkships (LIC), the University of Alberta developed its Integrated Community Clerkship with guiding principles of continuity of care, preceptor and learning environment. Professionalism is an important theme in medical education. Caring is important in professional identity formation and an ethic of caring is a moral framework for caring. This study explored the development of an ethic of caring in an LIC using empathy, compassion and taking responsibility as descriptors of caring. Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study, the authors focused on students' accounts of being with patients. Following an iterative process of successive analyses and explorations of the relevant literature, sensitizing concepts related to physician identity, and an ethic of caring were used to make sense of these accounts following the principles of constructivist grounded theory methodology. Continuity afforded by the LIC results in a safe environment in which students can meaningfully engage with patients and take responsibility for their care under the supervision of a physician teacher. Together these attributes foster an emerging physician identity born at the site of patient-student interaction and grounded in an ethic of caring. A medical student's evolving professional identity in the clerkship includes the emergence of an ethic of caring. Student accounts of being with patients demonstrate that the LIC at the University of Alberta affords opportunities for students be receptive to and responsible for their patients. This ethic of caring is part of an emerging physician identity for the study participants.

  8. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  9. Birth cohort differences in the prevalence of longevity-associated variants in APOE and FOXO3A in Danish long-lived individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Gene variants found to associate with human longevity in one population rarely replicate in other populations. The lack of consistent findings may partly be explained by genetic heterogeneity among long-lived individuals due to cohort differences in survival probability. In most high-income count...

  10. Trends in Antibiotic Use by Birth Season and Birth Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinlaw, Alan C; Stürmer, Til; Lund, Jennifer L; Pedersen, Lars; Kappelman, Michael D; Daniels, Julie L; Frøslev, Trine; Mack, Christina D; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-09-01

    We examined 2 birth cohort effects on antibiotic prescribing during the first year of life (henceforth, infancy) in Denmark: (1) the birth season effect on timing and overall occurrence of antibiotic prescribing, and (2) the birth year effect amid emerging nationwide pneumococcal vaccination programs and changing prescribing guidelines. We linked data for all live births in Denmark from 2004 to 2012 (N = 561 729) across the National Health Service Prescription Database, Medical Birth Registry, and Civil Registration System. Across birth season and birth year cohorts, we estimated 1-year risk, rate, and burden of redeemed antibiotic prescriptions during infancy. We used interrupted time series methods to assess prescribing trends across birth year cohorts. Graphical displays of all birth cohort effect data are included. The 1-year risk of having at least 1 redeemed antibiotic prescription during infancy was 39.5% (99% confidence interval [CI]: 39.3% to 39.6%). The hazard of a first prescription increased with age throughout infancy and varied by season; subsequently, Kaplan-Meier-derived risk functions varied by birth season cohort. After rollout of a first vaccination program and new antibiotic prescribing guidelines, 1-year risk decreased by 4.4% over 14 months (99% CI: 3.4% to 5.5%); it decreased again after rollout of a second vaccination program by 6.9% over 3 years (99% CI: 4.4% to 9.3%). In Denmark, birth season and birth year cohort effects influenced timing and risk of antibiotic prescribing during infancy. Future studies of antibiotic stewardship, effectiveness, and safety in children should consider these cohort effects, which may render some children inherently more susceptible than others to downstream antibiotic effects. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2014: A new format, and hopefully a new era of diminishing animal experimentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2014 reports a welcome decline in animal experimentation in the UK. However, caution has to be exercised when interpreting these most recent figures, due to the significant changes made to satisfy the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU as to what information is reported and how it is reported. Comparisons to the figures and trends reported in previous years is difficult, so this paper focuses on the specifics of the current report, providing information on overall animal use and highlighting specific issues associated with genetically-altered animals, fish and primates. There is a detailed discussion of the extent of the changes, commenting on the benefits and disadvantages of the new format, in areas such as severity of procedures, legislation and techniques of special interest. It also considers the consequences of the changes on the effective monitoring of laboratory animal use, the openness and transparency regarding the impacts of animal use, and the implementation of Three Rs initiatives. In addition, suggestions for further improvements to the new format are made to the Home Office.

  12. Concomitant ovarian drilling and oocyte retrieval by laparoendoscopic single-site surgery led to live birth using in vitro maturation of oocyte and transfer of frozen-thawed blastocyst in woman with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    This case report describes a case of concomitant ovarian drilling and retrieval of oocytes using laparoendoscopic single-site surgery and the resultant birth of a healthy infant after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocyst from in vitro matured oocyte in a woman with polycystic ovary syndrome. A 33-year-old woman presented with anovulatory, clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome, and 1-year history of infertility. Thirty-seven immature oocytes were retrieved and multiperforation of ovaries was performed at the same time by laparoendoscopic single-site surgery. Twenty-three oocytes reached metaphase II after 24-h culture in in vitro maturation medium, which was followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Eventually, seven embryos were vitrified and spontaneous ovulation was restored after the operation. Although the first single frozen-thawed blastocyst transferred in a natural cycle ended up a biochemical pregnancy, the second frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer resulted in successful pregnancy, followed by live birth of a healthy male infant. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  14. Comparison of acupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone on live birth in anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Wu, Wanting; Lai, Maohua; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be one of the major pathophysiological changes in PCOS that leads to anovulatory infertility. We hypothesise that electroacupuncture pretreatment improves insulin sensitivity and leads to a higher ovulation rate and greater chances of live birth after the induction of ovulation. The effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS has not been investigated before, and we present here a randomised controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone in anovulatory women with PCOS. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, randomised,and controlled trial. A total of 384 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomly allocated by a central randomisation system to the treatment group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will undergo 16 weeks of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by 4 cycles of letrozole, and the control group will only undergo 4 cycles of letrozole. The primary outcome will be the live birth rate. All statistical analyses will be performed using the SPSS program V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), and a p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Ethics/dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Written consent will be obtained from each patient and her husband before any study procedure is performed. Adverse events will be categorised, and the percentage of patients experiencing adverse events or serious adverse events during the treatment period will be documented. The results of this trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02491333. PMID:27855085

  15. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  16. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defe

  17. The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio--a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero Fernández, Silvia Josefina; Medina, Ramon Suárez; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2011-12-15

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis suggests that populations respond to scarcity by decreasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. Cuba experienced an extreme economic depression in the 1990s called the "special period." Using time-series analysis, the authors studied the impact of this event on the male:female sex ratio at birth in Cuba from 1960 to 2008. From 1990 to 1993, the per capita gross domestic product in Cuba decreased by 36%. By use of a definition of the special period from 1991 to 1998, there was a prolonged increase in the male:female ratio of livebirths during this period of economic depression (P Cuba, contrary to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, the human population responded to conditions of scarcity by increasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. These data may be relevant in the modeling of demographic projections in countries that experience prolonged economic depression and in understanding adaptive human reproductive responses to environmental change.

  18. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Neuropsychological assessment at school-age and prenatal low-level exposure to mercury through fish consumption in an Italian birth cohort living near a contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroma, L; Parpinel, M; Tognin, V; Channoufi, L; Tratnik, J; Horvat, M; Valent, F; Barbone, F

    2013-07-01

    The relative effects of prenatal and postnatal low-level mercury exposure and fish intake on child neurodevelopment are still controversial. Limited evidence is available from Mediterranean populations. In this prospective study, we measured the Verbal and Performance IQ in Italian children at school-age who were resident in an area declared as a National contaminated site because of mercury pollution, taking into account the possible beneficial effect of fish consumption and potential confounders. A mother-child cohort made up of 242 children was established at birth in Northeastern Italy in 2001. Their mothers were interviewed approximately 2 months after delivery to determine type, quantity, and origin of fish consumed during pregnancy and about a number of mother, child and family characteristics. Total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) were assessed in maternal hair and breast milk and in the child's hair. When children reached 7-9 years of age, 154 (63.6%) parents gave consent to participate in a follow-up evaluation. On that occasion, a child's hair sample was collected to determine the current concentration of THg, mothers were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, and children underwent neuropsychological testing. Verbal IQ, performance IQ and full scale IQ were measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC III) administered by psychologists at school or local health centers. Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle information, medical information of the child's family and the child's dietary habits were collected using a questionnaire filled in by mothers. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between prenatal THg exposure through fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy and children's IQ after adjustment for possible confounders such as fish consumption of mothers in pregnancy, child's fish consumption at follow-up, child's birthweight, maternal cigarette smoking during

  20. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  1. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  2. Issues with the High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) ExoEarth Biosignature Case: A Critique of the 2015 AURA Report "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths: the future of UVOIR Astronomy"

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths" advocates a 12-meter optical/near-IR space telescope for launch ~2035. The goal that sets this large size is the detection of biosignatures from Earth-like planets in their habitable zones around G-stars. The discovery of a single instance of life elsewhere in the universe would be a profound event for humanity. But not at any cost. At 8-9B USD this High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) would take all the NASA astrophysics budget for nearly 20 years, unless new funds are found. For a generation NASA could build no "Greater Observatories" matching JWST in the rest of the spectrum. This opportunity cost prompted me to study the driving exobiosphere detection case for HDST. I find that: (1) the focus on G-stars is not well justified; (2) only G-stars require the use of direct imaging; (3) in the chosen 0.5 - 2.5 micron band, the available biosignatures are ambiguous and a larger sample does not help; (4) the expected number of exobiospheres is 1, with a 5% chance of zero; (5...

  3. Live Birth Pregnancy Outcome after First In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Isolated High Positive IgA Anti-β2glycoprotein I Antibodies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Hristina; Seip, Marit; Koycheva, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI) seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI) were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS.

  4. Live imaging of Drosophila gonad formation reveals roles for Six4 in regulating germline and somatic cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarman Andrew P

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement of cells, either as amoeboid individuals or in organised groups, is a key feature of organ formation. Both modes of migration occur during Drosophila embryonic gonad development, which therefore provides a paradigm for understanding the contribution of these processes to organ morphogenesis. Gonads of Drosophila are formed from three distinct cell types: primordial germ cells (PGCs, somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs, and in males, male-specific somatic gonadal precursors (msSGPs. These originate in distinct locations and migrate to associate in two intermingled clusters which then compact to form the spherical primitive gonads. PGC movements are well studied, but much less is known of the migratory events and other interactions undergone by their somatic partners. These appear to move in organised groups like, for example, lateral line cells in zebra fish or Drosophila ovarian border cells. Results We have used time-lapse fluorescence imaging to characterise gonadal cell behaviour in wild type and mutant embryos. We show that the homeodomain transcription factor Six4 is required for the migration of the PGCs and the msSGPs towards the SGPs. We have identified a likely cause of this in the case of PGCs as we have found that Six4 is required for expression of Hmgcr which codes for HMGCoA reductase and is necessary for attraction of PGCs by SGPs. Six4 affects msSGP migration by a different pathway as these move normally in Hmgcr mutant embryos. Additionally, embryos lacking fully functional Six4 show a novel phenotype in which the SGPs, which originate in distinct clusters, fail to coalesce to form unified gonads. Conclusion Our work establishes the Drosophila gonad as a model system for the analysis of coordinated cell migrations and morphogenesis using live imaging and demonstrates that Six4 is a key regulator of somatic cell function during gonadogenesis. Our data suggest that the initial association of SGP clusters

  5. 362例活产新生儿出生状况及相关因素分析%Birth status and influencing factors of 362 live-born infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵梓文; 刘桂英

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To research the methods of childbearing, birth weight, length, complications of live newborns and identify the influence factors. [Methods] Collecting the datas of presentation, birth weight, length, complications and resuscitation of live newborns during September 2009 to March 2010 in obstetrics of Anzhen Hospital. [Results]362 newborns were investigated, cesarean section 227 ( 62. 71% ), perineotomy 99 ( 27. 35% ), spontaneous delivery 26 (7.18%), forceps delivery 10(2.76%); average length (49.92±1.52)cm, average birth weight (3 376. 24±465. 198)g,fetal macrosomia 37 ( 10. 22 % ), premature infant 28 ( 7.73 % ), low birth weight infant 16 ( 4. 42 % ). The complications of newborn were abnormality of umbilical cord in 70( 19.34 % ), intrauterine asphyxia in 68( 18.78 % ), meconium-stained amniotic fluid in 51(14. 09 % ), asphyxia in 18(4.97 % ), abnormity in 14 (3.87 % ), pneumonia in 14(3.87 % ), pustular eruption in 14(3.87 % ), polycythemia in 2 (0. 55 % ). There were 18 asphyxial newborns resuscitated, all of them were treated artificial respiration of positive pressure(100%), among them 3 (16. 67%) were treated endotracheal intubation, 5 (27.78%) were treated chest compression, 6(33.33%) were applied medicine. [Conclusions] The cesarean section rate is high. The birth weight of newborn is on the high side, and the incidence of fetal macrosomia increased. Artificial respiration of positive pressure is the most important measure in the resuscitations of asphyxia newborn.%[目的]了解活产新生儿的生产方式、出生体重、身长、合并症及可能的相关因素.[方法]收集2009年9月-2010年3月安贞医院产科出生的新生儿其生产方式、出生体重、身长;有无合并症及窒息复苏抢救措施等资料.[结果]362例新生儿中,剖宫产:227例(62.71%),侧切分娩:99例(27.35%),自然分娩:26例(7.18%),产钳助娩:10例(2.76%).平均出生身长:(49.92±1.52)cm

  6. Qualidade do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc: análise crítica da literatura Quality of the Information System on Live Births /SINASC: a critical analysis of published studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre os estudos de avaliação da qualidade dos dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc. MÉTODOS: As bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO foram pesquisadas. Os artigos foram caracterizados segundo revista escolhida para publicação, local e período de estudo, parâmetros de avaliação, metodologia e principais resultados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 13 artigos foi revisado. A avaliação da cobertura foi tema de análise em oito estudos, a completitude em quatro e a confiabilidade em sete. A maioria deles apresentou resultados de cobertura superior a 90%, indicando sua viabilidade para o cálculo de indicadores. Entretanto, prevaleceu o sub-registro dos nascimentos no Sinasc com variação entre 75,8% e 99,5%. As variáveis instrução materna, paridade e número de consultas de pré-natal foram as que mostraram maior inconsistência. Por sua vez, a variável paridade foi a que mostrou maior incompletitude. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento de estudos para encontrar novas formas de avaliar o Sinasc é destacado como estratégia privilegiada para a melhoria da qualidade do sistema.The scope of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature about the quality of data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. Studies in the Medline, Lilacs and SciELO databases were then reviewed. The articles were characterized according to journal of publication, location and period of the study, evaluation parameters, methodology and main results. A total of thirteen articles were reviewed. Eight studies analyzed coverage, four assessed completeness and seven evaluated reliability. Coverage higher than 90% was presented in the majority of the studies, indicating its viability for the calculation of indicators. However, the under-reporting of births in SINASC prevailed with variation between 75.8% and 99.5%. The mother's educational level, number of prior childbirths and

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  8. Infant Deaths per Thousand Live Births 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  9. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  10. Live birth pregnancy outcome after first in vitro fertilization treatment in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and isolated high positive IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Hristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS.

  11. Live Birth Pregnancy Outcome after First In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Isolated High Positive IgA Anti-β2glycoprotein I Antibodies: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Hristina; Seip, Marit; Koycheva, Stanislava

    2017-01-01

    Abstract IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI) seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI) were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS. PMID:28401195

  12. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  13. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  14. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  15. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  16. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  17. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  18. EXPOSURE TO AREA-LEVEL PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY AND EFFECTS ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...

  19. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  20. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  1. Traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedam, E

    1985-09-01

    In many countries 60-80% of deliveries are assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs). Over the last several decades efforts have been made to regulate, upgrade through training or replace the TBA. The strength of the TBA stems from the fact that she is part of the cultural and social life of the community in which she lives. Her weakness lies in the traditional practices which may have dangers for her clients. With suitable training and supervision these dangers can be minimized and her potential used to improve the health of mothers and babies. Increasingly countries are recognizing that the TBA will represent a major resource where women do not have access to services for either cultural or geographic barriers. The effective use of this resource will require an understanding and appreciation of the TBA's role and contribution by all health authorities, flexibility in the development of training programs and the co-operation of the TBAs themselves.

  2. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  3. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  4. Avaliação da implantação do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc em Pernambuco Evaluation of the Live Birth Information System (SINASC in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Correia de Barros Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o estágio de implantação do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc em Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: trata-se de uma pesquisa avaliativa do tipo análise de implantação, que relaciona o grau de implantação aos resultados. Para aferição do grau de implantação foi realizada uma avaliação normativa, segundo a abordagem de Donabedian (1980. O estudo foi desenvolvido em duas etapas: 1ª Foi construído o modelo lógico expondo os componentes do sistema, após consulta aos documentos, e elaborada a matriz de indicadores e de julgamento; 2ª Foram realizadas: entrevistas individuais e observação direta, de acordo com a matriz de indicadores no âmbito estadual e regional; análise dos documentos e do banco de dados do Sinasc. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram o Sinasc como "implantado" (80,8% no nível central estadual, enquanto no âmbito regional o grau de implantação variou entre "parcialmente implantado avançado" (69,3% e "parcialmente implantado incipiente" (43,3%. CONCLUSÕES: este estudo revelou aspectos organizacionais e operacionais do Sinasc que precisam ser implementados para manter o padrão de cobertura ideal e excelente qualidade das informações.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the implantation stage of the Live Birth Information System (Sinasc in the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. METHODS: an implantation analysis type evaluative study was carried out relating the degree of implantation with the results. The degree of implantation was measured by way of normative assessment, using the approach developed by Donabedian (1980. The study was divided into two stages: 1 a logical model was built up, revealing the components of the system, after consultation of documents and the development of a matrix of indicators and judgments; 2 individual interviews and direct observations were carried out using the matrix of indicators at State and regional level, along with analysis of documents and the SINASC

  5. Births: Preliminary Data for 2011. National Vital Statistics Reports. Volume 61, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E.; Martin, Joyce A.; Ventura, Stephanie J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents preliminary data for 2011 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight are also presented. Methods: Data in this report are based on approximately 100…

  6. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  7. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  8. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  9. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  10. Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women With Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Margaret A; Dawson, April L; Petersen, Emily E; Jones, Abbey M; Lee, Ellen H; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Ahmad, Nina; Macdonald, Jennifer; Evert, Nicole; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Oduyebo, Titilope; Fine, Anne D; Brown, Catherine M; Sommer, Jamie N; Gupta, Jyoti; Cavicchia, Philip; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Owen, S Michele; Petersen, Lyle R; Boyle, Coleen; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-01-03

    Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments. Laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection in a maternal, placental, fetal, or infant sample. Birth defects potentially Zika associated: brain abnormalities with or without microcephaly, neural tube defects and other early brain malformations, eye abnormalities, and other central nervous system consequences. Among 442 completed pregnancies in women (median age, 28 years; range, 15-50 years) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection, birth defects potentially related to Zika virus were identified in 26 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-8%) fetuses or infants. There were 21 infants with birth defects among 395 live births and 5 fetuses with birth defects among 47 pregnancy losses. Birth defects were reported for 16 of 271 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-9%) pregnant asymptomatic women and 10 of 167 (6%; 95% CI, 3%-11%) symptomatic pregnant women. Of the 26 affected fetuses or infants, 4 had microcephaly and no reported neuroimaging, 14 had microcephaly and brain abnormalities, and 4 had brain abnormalities without microcephaly; reported brain abnormalities included intracranial calcifications, corpus callosum abnormalities, abnormal cortical formation, cerebral atrophy, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephaly, and cerebellar abnormalities

  11. Kairos time at the moment of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb

    2015-04-01

    there is something extraordinary in the lived experience of being there at the time of birth. Yet the meaning and significance of this special time, named Kairos time in this paper, have received little attention. to describe the lived-experience of Kairos time at birth and surface its meaning. this is an interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology study informed by the writings of Heidegger and Gadamer. 14 in-depth interviews with mothers, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians were transcribed and stories from the data were hermeneutically analysed. there is a time, like no other, at the moment of birth that is widely known and valued. This paper reveals and names this phenomenon Kairos time. This is a felt-time that is lineal, process and cyclic time and more. Kairos time describes an existential temporal experience that is rich in significant sacred meaning; a time of emergent insight rarely spoken about in practice yet touches everyone present. The notion of Kairos time in relation to the moment of birth is introduced as a reminder of something significant that matters. Kairos time is revealed as a moment in and beyond time. It has a temporal enigmatic mystery involving spiritual connectedness. Kairos time is a time of knowing and remembrance of our shared natality. In this time life is disclosed as extraordinary and beyond everyday personal and professional concerns. It is all this and more. Kairos time at birth is precious and powerful yet vulnerable. It needs to be safeguarded to ensure its presence continues to emerge. This means maternity care providers and others at birth need to shelter and protect Kairos time from the sometimes harsh realities of birth and the potentially insensitive ways of being there at the moments of birth. Those who find themselves at birth need to pause and allow the profundity of its meaning to surface and inspire their actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. STUDY POPULATION: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous...... support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy...

  13. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  14. Living in Salt: The formation and development of extremophile habitats and biosignatures within salt crusts of the hyperarid Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, K. M.; Amundson, R.

    2013-12-01

    It has become increasing apparent that salt-rich deposits are present on the Martian surface and that aqueous alteration has occurred sometime during the planet's past. In the hyperarid Atacama Desert in Chile, an important Earth-based analogue to Mars, microbial life has been discovered inhabiting halite (NaCl) surface crust deposits. Is it possible that similar salt deposits on Mars once harbored microbial life? If so, what adaptations were likely necessary for survival in such an environment and what biosignatures are expected to remain? Although this fascinating ecosystem in the Atacama Desert has been recognized, neither the physical processes of halite crust formation, nor the microorganisms residing within the salts have been extensively studied. To better understand the formation and geochemical dynamics of this unique habitat, we chose two sites within the Atacama Desert which exhibit both active crust formation as well as the presence of microbial communities: one site is on a dry Holocene age lake bed, while the other is of Pleistocene age. At each site soil profiles were excavated and total geochemical analyses were performed. Field observations clearly showed that the soils exhibited transitions of carbonate to sulfate to chloride salt deposition with decreasing depth, and that the thickness and mass of halite in the surficial crust was related to the age of the soil. Isotope profiles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur from these soils were also analyzed. Once exposed to the atmosphere, the halite crusts reside in a dynamic state of dissolution and erosion by wind and fog, and reformation due to fog and dew. In the crust nodules, microbial communities were sampled, in centimeter increments from the surface, for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope/concentration profiles. Our analyses help elucidate the physical and geochemical processes linked to the formation and evolution of these dynamic salt crusts, and the imprint of microbial life within them. A

  15. [Formation of biological and sociopsychological adaptation in weak-eyed and weak-eared children living in boarding schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvashennikova, E A; Ivzhenko, E V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation was undertaken to study the specific features of formation of biological and sociopsychological adaptation in primary boarding school children with poor vision and poor hearing, by examining their physical development and the functioning of major organs and systems of the body, as well as the level of schooling uneasiness (anxiety) in the pupils. The studies established that the educational environmental factors of specialized boarding schools had a considerable complex influence on the pupils' body, by reducing school performance and adaptability, and lower reserve capacities, which is likely to result in worse health and progression of the existing hearing and visual disturbances.

  16. After birth abortion: why should the baby live? Alcune note su un seminario di riflessione sulle questioni della procreazione a partire dall’articolo di Alberto Giubilini e Francesca Minerva. Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica di Napoli - Università l’Orientale, Palazzo Giusso, Napoli 17 gennaio 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Speranza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the publication of the paper by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva, two Italian researchers currently active in Australia, entitled After birth abortion: Why Should the baby live?, published in 2012, there was a great debate among scholars and journalists that induced many people to rethink the current conditions of life and death. The mass media have reported a strong controversy on this topic. Fitting into this heated exchange of views, the University Orientale of Naples, in the presence of the authors of the paper, hosted a seminar organized by CIRB (Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica of Naples to reflect on post-birth abortion, which was attended by doctors, lawyers and philosophers. The meeting generated an interesting discussion on the main topics of bioethics, but left many unanswered questions.

  17. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  18. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine the association between serum progesterone levels on the day of hCG administration and birth weight among singleton live births after fresh embryo transfer...

  19. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  20. Adolescent perceptions of teen births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W

    2008-01-01

    To investigate teens' perceptions of the costs and rewards of teen births, potential interventions to prevent teen pregnancy, and the presence of someone with whom teens could discuss sexuality. Seventeen focus groups were conducted to solicit individual views, group interactions, and shared meanings. Purposive methods accessed a sample of teens considered at risk of teen pregnancy based on their membership in selected community service and teen groups. Teen parents and nonparents (n = 120), from 12 to 19 years of age, were asked about their lives and stresses and the costs and rewards related to teen births. This study yielded rich data about the consequences of teen births. Data were organized in the domains of Impact on relationships, Impact on vocation, and Impact on self. The data reflected the cost and reward themes in each domain. Though teens believed that there were positives of teen births, early childbearing was considered "hard" in many aspects. These perceptions may be used to guide programs, policies, messages, and curricula with the intent to prevent teen pregnancy. These initiatives may be more effective if informed by teens and guided by their perceptions.

  1. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    albumin, indicating that the tertiary structure of the target protein plays an important role in determining the rate of radical transfer and/or the stability of the resultant species. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the HRP/H2O2/no free tyrosine system involving radical transfer...... to the albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction......Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...

  2. Declaração de nascido vivo: análise do seu preenchimento no Município de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil Certificates of live birth: analysis of completion in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristiane Mishima

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem como objetivos identificar o fluxo de preenchimento das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos (DNs e analisar a consistência das informações contidas nas mesmas. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se uma DN-Controle, preenchida com base nas informações contidas nos prontuários do recém-nascido e da mãe, as quais foram comparadas com os dados contidos na DN-Oficial, disponível no Departamento de Informática da Secretaria Municipal da Saúde de Ribeirão Preto. A amostragem constitui-se de 911 DNs dos nascimentos ocorridos no mês de julho de 1996. Da análise dos dados verificou-se que o fluxo de preenchimento da DN é heterogêneo entre os hospitais, envolvendo desde o pediatra até a escriturária, e às vezes, funcionários administrativos. Em relação à consistência das informações, identificou-se uma concordância elevada, acima de 90% em 13 das 18 variáveis comparadas nas DNs e em metade dos hospitais investigados; a discordância ocorreu, principalmente, naquelas informações referentes ao número de filhos tidos, número de consultas pré-natal, grau de instrução da mãe e nome do pai.The study aims to identify the frequency with which certificates of live birth are filled out and to analyze the data they provide. To gather the data, the authors used a model birth certificate filled out by research assistants based on information obtained from the reports on mothers and newborns. This information was then compared to data contained in the official birth certificates available in the Information Technology Division of the Municipal Health Department. The sample consisted of 911 certificates of live birth from July 1996 in the ten maternity wards of the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data analysis showed that frequency of completion of birth certificates differs by hospital, involving both physicians and administrative personnel. The authors identified a high level of agreement in the data, i.e., over 90% in 13 of 18

  3. Vivenciando a experiência da parturição em um modelo assistencial humanizado Viviendo la experiencia de la parturición en un modelo asistencial humanizado Living the birth process in a humanized assistance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Mandarano da Silva

    2011-02-01

    humanización y generar innovación en la asistenciaThat was a qualitative study with phenomenological approach that aimed at understanding women's post-partum experiences in a humanized assistance. Data were collected in a hospital from São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Eight women in post-partum period were interviewed. From data analysis two themes were extracted: Bearing the labor and Having the opportunity rescuing autonomy, being disclosed the phenomenon: "Living the ambiguity on the birth process in a humanized assistance model". The reports show feelings like pain, fear and anxiety, however, it allowed a participation and rescuing autonomy. Although the study have been realized in a humanized assistance, the women's experiences reveals that they are far from an effective humanization, according to its principles. This study can be used to guide educative actions target to humanization and to generate managerial changes

  4. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  5. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  6. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  7. The Formation of Molecular Clouds: Insights from Numerical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitsch, Fabian

    2010-10-01

    Galactic star formation occurs at a surprisingly low rate. Yet, recent large-scale surveys of dark clouds in the Galaxy show that one rarely finds molecular clouds without young stellar objects, suggesting that star formation should occur rapidly upon molecular cloud formation. This rapid onset challenges the traditional concept of ``slow'' star formation in long-lived molecular clouds. It also imposes strong constraints on the physical properties of the parental clouds, mandating that a cloud's structure and dynamics controlling stellar birth must arise during its formation. This requires a new approach to study initial conditions of star formation, namely addressing the formation of molecular clouds. Taking into account the observational constraints, I will outline the physics of flow-driven molecular cloud formation. I will discuss the relevance and the limitations of this scenario for setting the star formation efficiency in our Galaxy and beyond.

  8. Excitation functions for the formation of some short-lived products in proton-induced reactions on silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S.; Latif, S.K.A. [Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Baba, M.; Hagiwara, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Qaim, S.M. [Inst. fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Excitation functions of the {sup nat}Ag(p, xn){sup 104,} {sup 105}Cd and {sup nat}Ag(p, pxn){sup 103,} {sup 104m,g,} {sup 104g}Ag reactions were measured for the first time over the proton energy range of 32 to about 60 MeV. The data were compared with the results of precompound-hybrid model calculations, whereby only partial agreement was obtained. The contribution of the {sup 103}Ag precursor decay to the total formation of the therapeutic radionuclide {sup 103}Pd in proton activation of silver was estimated: it amounted to about 70%. The various possible routes for the production of {sup 103}Pd were also considered: the {sup nat}Ag(p, x){sup 103}Pd and {sup 103}Rh(p, n){sup 103}Pd processes were found to be most interesting. Despite its somewhat lower yield, the latter process is preferred because it can be applied at a low-energy cyclotron. (orig.)

  9. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  10. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  11. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  12. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  13. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  14. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Sport for You Healthy School Lunch Planner Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A What's in ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  15. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  16. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  17. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  18. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  19. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  20. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Paulina O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  1. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  2. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  3. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  4. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  5. Midwife-attended births in the United States, 1990-2012: results from revised birth certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Data on attendance at birth by midwives in the United States have been available on the national level since 1989, allowing for the documentation of long-term trends. New items on payer source and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) from a 2003 revision of the birth certificate provide an opportunity to examine additional aspects of US midwifery practice. The data in this report are based on records on birth attendant gathered as part of the US National Standard Certificate of Live Birth from a public use Web site, Vital Stats (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/VitalStats.htm), which allows users to create and download specialized tables. Analysis of new items on prepregnancy BMI and birth payer source are limited to the 38 states (86% of US births) that adopted the revised birth certificate by 2012. Between 1989 and 2012, the proportion of all births attended by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) increased from 3.3% to 7.9%. The proportion of vaginal births attended by CNMs reached an all-time high of 11.9%. Births attended by "other midwives" (typically certified professional midwives) rose to a peak of 28,343, or 0.7% of all US births. The distribution of payer source for CNM-attended births (44% Medicaid; 44% private insurance; 6% self-pay) is very similar to the national distribution, whereas the majority (53%) of births attended by other midwives are self-pay. Women whose births are attended by other midwives are less likely (13%) to have a prepregnancy BMI in the obese range than women attended by CNMs (19%) or overall (24%). The total number of births attended by CNMs and other midwives has remained steady or grown at a time when total US births have declined, resulting in the largest proportions of midwife-attended births in the quarter century that such data have been collected. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  6. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara

    2017-07-13

    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  7. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  8. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  9. Out-of-hospital births in the United States 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Amos; Chervenak, Frank A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate recent trends of out-of-hospital births in the US from 2009 to 2014. We accessed data for all live births occurring in the US from the National Vital Statistics System, Natality Data Files for 2009-2014 through the interactive data tool, VitalStats. Out-of-hospital (OOH) births in the US increased from 2009 to 2014 by 80.2% from 32,596 to 58,743 (0.79%-1.47% of all live births). Home births (HB) increased by 77.3% and births in freestanding birthing centers (FBC) increased by 79.6%. In 2014, 63.8% of OOH births were HB, 30.7% were in FBC, and 5.5% were in other places, physicians offices, or clinics. The majority of women who had an OOH birth in 2014 were non-Hispanic White (82.3%). About in one in 47 non-Hispanic White women had an OOH in 2014, up from 1 in 87 in 2009. Women with a HB were older compared to hospital births (age ≥35: 21.5% vs. 15.4%), had a higher live birth order(≥5: 18.9% vs. 4.9%), 3.48% had infants birthing centers has significantly increased in the US making it the country with the most out of hospital births among all developed countries. The root cause of the increase in planned OOH births should be identified and addressed by the medical community.

  10. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  11. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  12. HOSPITAL BIRTHS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ THE PERIOD 2000 TO 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sampaio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocurrence of low birth weight infants varies among contries, and even a general inidcator of health status of a population to be highly associated with socieconomic conditions(3. Newborns with low birth weight are more vulnerable to problems that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality(9. Several factors may be associated with low newborn weight among mothers with less than 20 years or over 35 years(16,17. Objectives: To describe the low-weight births in hospitals in the city of Cuiaba in the period 2000 to 2008 using the variables of the birth certificate (race, sex of infant and maternal age Method: a quantitative study, cross-sectional, restrospective and described with the use of secundary sources of data obtained from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. The study population was constituted by the set of all vital statistics records of hospital deliveries of low birth weight infants n= 6.523, in the municipality of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008. Included only information from births and hospital births only, and with body weight equal to or less than 2,500g, this criterion is basead on the WHO classification. Results/Conclusion: The low birth weight hospital in the city of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008, has a prevalence of 6,6%, ocurred among newborns with GA between 37 and 41 weeks (43,3% n= 2827. The low weight births in the state of MT, evolve with the growing reduction of body weight, the highest prevalence being concentrated in the range of 1500 to 2499g weight. The low birth weight are more prevalent in females (53,7%, n=3506 and mullattos (70.4% n= 4595. 49% of mother of lbw infants are those who are aged 21 to 35 years of age (49,7%, n= 3240.

  13. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2000-01-01

    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  14. DNA oxidation as a potential molecular mechanism mediating drug-induced birth defects: phenytoin and structurally related teratogens initiate the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in vitro and in vivo in murine maternal hepatic and embryonic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Wells, P G

    1995-11-01

    A considerable number of teratogens, including the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin and structurally related drugs and environmental chemicals, may be bioactivated by peroxidases, such as prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) and lipoxygenases (LPOs), to a reactive free radical intermediate that initiates birth defects. However, the molecular targets of the reactive free radical intermediates mediating chemical teratogenesis, and hence the fundamental determinants of susceptibility, are poorly understood. In these studies, a teratogenic dose of phenytoin (65 mg/kg), when injected into pregnant CD-1 mice during organogenesis on gestational day 12, initiated the oxidation of DNA in maternal hepatic and embryonic nuclei, forming 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Significant maternal and embryonic DNA oxidation occurred at 6 and 3 h, respectively, suggesting relative embryonic deficiencies in free radical-related cytoprotective enzymes, although the rates appeared similar. Maximal DNA oxidation in both maternal and embryonic tissues occurred at 6 h, presumably reflecting the balance of DNA oxidation and repair, the latter of which appeared similar in both tissues. Inhibition of phenytoin-initiated embryonic DNA oxidation by the free radical spin trapping agent alpha-phenyl-N-t-butylnitrone (41.5 mg/kg), and by acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg), an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase component of PHS, was consistent with the previously reported reduction by these inhibitors of phenytoin-initiated murine birth defects. In vitro studies using a horseradish peroxidase (0.5 mg/ml)-H2O2 (5.45 micrograms/ml) bioactivating system for drug-initiated oxidation of 2'-deoxyguanosine (3.74 mM), indicated that the potency of xenobiotic-initiated formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine for the structurally related drugs and metabolites phenytoin, 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, trimethadione, dimethadione, l-mephenytoin, l-nirvanol, d-nirvanol (80 microM each), or thalidomide (64 micro

  15. A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF SHORT-LIVED {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming-Chang [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chaussidon, Marc [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CNRS, Nancy (France); Srinivasan, Gopalan [Center for Earth Science, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); McKeegan, Kevin D., E-mail: mcliu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The short-lived radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.

  16. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  17. Human births and the phase of the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, G O; Greenspan, B

    1979-01-11

    Published studies on the frequency of births as related to the lunar cycle are inconsistent with each other. The distribution of all births during 51 lunar cycles, from March 17, 1974, to April 30, 1978, was analyzed by the authors at the University of California, Los Angeles, Hospital. There were 11.691 live births, of which 8142 were natural, 141 multiple, and 168 stillbirths. In none of the 4 samples was the mean number of births occurring on the date of the full moon above average, showing that the birthrate during the period surveyed did not in any way correlate with the cycle of lunar phases.

  18. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home ... FAQ022, May 2016 PDF Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception ...

  19. Disparities in perinatal medicine: preterm birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y; Iams, Jay; Goldenberg, Robert; Hauck, Fern R; Willinger, Marian

    2011-04-01

    Infant mortality, stillbirths, and preterm births are major public health priorities with significant disparities based on race and ethnicity. Interestingly, when evaluating the rates over the past 30 to 50 years, the disparity persists in all three and is remarkably consistent. In the United States, the infant mortality rate is 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the stillbirth rate is 6.2 per 1,000 deliveries, and the preterm birth rate is 12.8% of live births. The rates among non-Hispanic African Americans are dramatically higher, nearly double the infant mortality at 13.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, nearly double the stillbirth rate at 11.1 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries, and one third higher with preterm births at 18.4% of live births. Despite numerous conferences, workshops, articles, and investigators focusing on this line of work, the disparities persist and, in some cases, are growing. In this article, we summarize a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop that focused on these disparities to identify the associated factors to determine their relative contributions, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop specific strategies to address the disparities in the short-term and long-term.

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Prenatal Care Utilization Between First and Second Births and Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Christine T; Stewart, Orion T; Hensley, Mark D; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Hawes, Stephen E

    2015-12-01

    Because previous analyses of prenatal care (PNC) utilization and risk of low birth weight (LBW) may have been influenced by selection bias, we conducted a study using longitudinal data of women with repeat pregnancies. We analyzed Washington State birth certificates of first and second live births (2003-2012). We estimated relative risk (RR) of LBW at second birth associated with Kotelchuck Index PNC level among women stratified by level of PNC in their first birth (n = 67,571). Among women with inadequate PNC prior to their first birth (n = 10,355), women with intermediate or adequate PNC before their second birth (n = 7464) had a reduced risk of LBW (adjusted RR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.78) compared to those whose PNC level remained inadequate. Likewise, among women with intermediate or adequate PNC prior to their first birth (n = 57,216), those with inadequate PNC before the second birth (n = 7095) had higher risk of LBW (adjusted RR 1.59, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.85) compared to those who remained at intermediate or adequate PNC. Our findings support the hypothesis that PNC decreases LBW risk at second birth, independent of factors related to the utilization of PNC at first birth.

  1. Birth attendant choice and satisfaction with antenatal care: the role of birth philosophy, relational style, and health self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, K. L.; Sirois, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of women’s birth‐related beliefs and expectations with the choice of a midwife or obstetrician birth attendant, and her satisfaction with antenatal care. Data were collected from 133 women with a low‐risk pregnancy who had consultations with their chosen birth attendant, and who lived in one of four Canadian provinces that publicly funded midwifery. A new birth philosophy scale was developed and tested, with natural and medical birth ph...

  2. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  3. Politics, power, and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  4. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  5. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  6. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  7. Accuracy of Birth Certificate Data for Classifying Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Molly J; Macones, George A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-05-01

    Classifying preterm birth as spontaneous or indicated is critical both for clinical care and research, yet the accuracy of classification based on different data sources is unclear. We examined the accuracy of preterm birth classification as spontaneous or indicated based on birth certificate data. This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 birth certificates from preterm births in Missouri. Correct classification of spontaneous or indicated preterm birth subtype was based on multi-provider (RN, MFM Fellow, MFM attending) consensus after full medical record review. A categorisation algorithm based on clinical data available in the birth certificate was designed a priori and classification was performed by a single investigator according to the algorithm. Accuracy of birth certificate classification as spontaneous or indicated was compared to the consensus classification. Errors in misclassification were explored. Classification based on birth certificates was correct for 66% of preterm births. Most errors in classification by birth certificate occurred in classifying a birth as spontaneous when it was in fact indicated. The vast majority of errors occurred when preterm rupture of membranes (≥12 h) was checked on the birth certificate causing classification as spontaneous when there was a maternal or fetal indication for delivery. Birth certificate classification overestimated spontaneous preterm birth and underestimated indicated preterm birth compared to classification performed from medical record review. Revisions to birth certificate clinical data would allow more accurate population level surveillance of preterm birth subtypes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modifying the risk of recurrent preterm birth: influence of trimester-specific changes in smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica L; Aland, Kristen L; Blatt, Kaitlin; Moore, Elizabeth; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-03-01

    Women with at least 1 prior occurrence of premature birth often have demographic and medical risk factors that are not modifiable. However, smoking cessation could be a targeted intervention in which a woman with a history of premature birth may be able to reduce her future risk of recurrence. This study aims to assess how trimester-specific smoking patterns influence the risk of recurrent premature birth. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton nonanomalous live births in Ohio, 2006-2012 using vital statistics birth records. This analysis was limited to women with at least 1 prior premature birth. Rates of birth preterm birth has been studied extensively, and it is widely accepted that smoking in pregnancy increases preterm birth rates. However, this study provides novel information quantifying the risk of recurrent preterm birth and stratifies the increased risk of recurrent preterm birth by trimester-specific smoking behavior. Although women with even 1 prior premature birth are at an inherently high risk of recurrence, women who stopped smoking early in the first 2 trimesters experienced similar preterm birth rates compared with nonsmokers. However, delayed smoking cessation or smoking throughout pregnancy significantly increased recurrent premature birth risk. Smoking cessation is a potential modifiable risk factor for recurrent preterm birth in high-risk pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of early pregnancy smoking cessation in those at especially high risk, women with a prior preterm birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  10. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remohí, J; Gartner, B; Gallardo, E; Yalil, S; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-04-01

    To determine accumulated conception and live birth rates in ovum donation. Retrospective study from a computer database. Pregnancies with one gestational sac observed by ultrasound have been included as conceptional cycles and pregnancies that resulted in one live child were recorded for the analysis of the live birth rates. Life table analysis was applied. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Three hundred ninety-seven recipients undergoing a total of 627 ETs were analyzed. Ovarian stimulation and ovum pick-up in donors. Uterine ET in recipients after appropriate exogenous steroid replacement. Accumulated and estimated (95% confidence intervals [CI]) conception and live birth rates in the oocyte donation program as well as considering age and cause of infertility of the recipients. Pregnancy rate after one cycle was 53.4% (CI 50.9% to 55.9%), with a delivery rate of 42.6% (CI 40.1% to 45.1%). Accumulated pregnancy rate increased up to 94.8% (CI 90.6% to 99.0%) after four transfers. Similarly, live birth rates reached 88.7% (CI 88.1% to 89.3%) after four attempts of ET by ovum donation. Cycle fecundity rates were maintained at approximately 50% after each attempt. Implantation rate was 18.3% (430/2,340 replaced embryos). Age and cause of entering the program did not influence the overall results of ovum donation. Oocyte donation is a successful treatment modality for infertile couples that offers even higher success rates than natural conception. No difference in cumulative pregnancy rate was observed regardless of recipient age, indication for oocyte donation, or number of cycles attempted.

  11. the z-transform applied to a birth-death process having varying birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    The analysis of a birth-death process using the z-transform was recently reported for processes hav- ... Examples include the performance degradation arising from imperfect power control in land based satellite ... living things (Karev et al., 2004). ... 2010 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST).

  12. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  13. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  14. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  15. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  16. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson CB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charlotte Brix Andersson,1 Christina Flems,2 Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia, delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data: Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion: Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. Keywords: DNQDB, Denmark, childbirth, anesthesia

  17. Trends and determinants of birthweight among live births in Beijing, 1996-2010%1996至2010年北京市活产新生儿出生体重变化趋势及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳芳; 蒋京伟; 米杰; 王文鹏; 滕红红; 赵娟; 滕越; 武明辉; 张雪; 侯冬敏; 谢争

    2012-01-01

    目的 描述1996至2010年北京市新生儿出生体重变化趋势,并分析其影响因素.方法 采用病例回顾分析方法,选取北京妇产医院和北京市海淀区妇幼保健院1996、1997、1998、1999、2000、2005、2010出生的活产新生儿63 661例,描述1996至2010年低出生体重发生率变化趋势.以2010年北京妇产医院出生的活产新生儿11 006例为研究对象分析出生体重的影响因素.结果 1996至2010年,北京市新生儿出生体重变化趋势表现为2000年以前快速递增,2000年以后缓慢递减,2010年新生儿出生体重均值为3 331 g,高于2005年全国九城市儿童体格发育调查城市出生体重水平.多元回归分析显示,新生儿出生体重与产妇年龄、文化程度、孕前BMI、孕期增重、胎数、孕次、产次、早产、羊水量、新生儿性别、妊娠糖尿病和妊娠高血压均有相关性.结论 北京市新生儿出生体重变化趋势表现为2000年前快速递增,2000年后缓慢递减.应加强孕前保持正常BMI范围、控制孕期增重、避免早产、预防妊娠糖尿病和妊娠高血压的科普宣传教育.%Objective To describe and analyze the trends and determinants of birthweight in Beijing from 1996 to 2010. Methods 63 661 babies born in two hospitals in Beijing in 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2005, 2010 were included to describe the trend of birthweight. The 11 006 birth records of those babies bom in Beijing obstetric and gynecologic hospital in 2010 were collected to analyze the determinants of birthweight. The chi-square test and chi-square test for trend were used to estimate the distribution of categorical variables between groups, analysis of variance was used to test the difference of birthweight among years, linear regression analysis was applied to analyze the determinants of birthweight. Results The birthweight increased from 1996 to 2000 rapidly, and then decreased slowly. The mean value of birthweight in 2010 was 3 331 g

  18. Formation of short-lived radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F

    2010-11-30

    The origin of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.

  19. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against sexually transmitted infections (STIs)? • What is the birth control pill? • What is the skin patch? • What is the ... birth control? • What are the types of emergency birth control pills? • Where can I get emergency birth control? •Glossary ...

  20. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  1. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  2. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  3. Swimming and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Northstone, Kate; Golding, Jean

    2002-11-01

    Swimmers can be exposed to high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of chlorination disinfection. There are no published studies on the relation between swimming and birth weight. We explored this relation in a large birth cohort, the Avon (England) Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), in 1991-1992. Information on the amount of swimming per week during the first 18-20 weeks of pregnancy was available for 11,462 pregnant women. Fifty-nine percent never swam, 31% swam up to 1 hour per week, and 10% swam for longer. We used linear regression to explore the relation between birth weight and the amount of swimming, with adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, parity, maternal education level, ethnicity, housing tenure, drug use, smoking and alcohol consumption. We found little effect of the amount of swimming on birth weight. More highly educated women were more likely to swim compared with less educated women, whereas smokers were less likely to swim compared with nonsmokers. There appears to be no relation between the duration of swimming and birth weight.

  4. Racial differences in IGF1 methylation and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Straughen, Jennifer K.; Sipahi, Levent; Uddin, Monica; Misra, Dawn P; Misra, Vinod K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The birth weight of Black neonates in the United States is consistently smaller than that of their White counterparts. Epigenetic differences between the races may be involved in such disparities. The goal of these analyses was to model the role of IGF1 methylation in mediating the association between race and birth weight. Data was collected on a cohort of 87 live born infants. IGF1 methylation was measured in DNA isolated from the mononuclear fraction of umbilical cord blood coll...

  5. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  6. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  7. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  9. Reference birthweight range for multiple birth neonates in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Noriko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.

  10. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  11. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  12. Prematuridade e fatores associados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, no ano de 2005: análise dos dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos Prematurity and associated factors in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2005: an analysis based on data from the Information System on Live Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Morales Cascaes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou estimar a prevalência da prematuridade no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e identificar seus fatores associados. Os dados foram obtidos no banco de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC de Santa Catarina. Foram aplicados os testes qui-quadrado e de tendência linear de Wald entre a variável dependente (prematuridade e as independentes. Para verificar a associação dos fatores estudados à prematuridade realizou-se a análise de regressão logística múltipla. Em 2005, a prevalência de prematuridade foi igual a 6,1% (IC95%: 5,9-6,2. A chance de prematuridade foi maior quanto menor o número de consultas pré-natal, em mães com idade superior a 40 e inferior a 20 anos e em mães submetidas ao parto cesariano. A prevalência de prematuridade parece estar aumentando em Santa Catarina. Dado o atual panorama no estado, é possível sugerir que o incentivo à assistência pré-natal e o desestímulo à cesariana eletiva poderiam contribuir com a redução da prematuridade. Mais estudos utilizando os bancos de dados existentes e apontando suas fragilidades podem contribuir para a melhoria da qualidade dessas informações.The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of preterm birth in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and identify associated factors. Data were obtained from the SINASC database (Information System on Live Births. The qui-squared test and Wald linear trend test between the dependent variable (prematurity and the covariates were applied. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between factors. In 2005, the preterm birth rate was 6.1% (95%CI: 5.9-6.2. Odds of prematurity were higher among mothers under 20 and over 40 years old, those with fewer prenatal consultations, and those undergoing cesarean sections. Prevalence of prematurity in Santa Catarina appears to be increasing. This scenario suggests the need to encourage prenatal care and

  13. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Melville

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.

  14. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  15. 94 β -Decay Half-Lives of Neutron-Rich Cs 55 to Ho 67 : Experimental Feedback and Evaluation of the r -Process Rare-Earth Peak Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Nishimura, S.; Lorusso, G.; Möller, P.; Ideguchi, E.; Regan, P.-H.; Simpson, G. S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Walker, P. M.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, Z. Y.; Baba, H.; Browne, F.; Daido, R.; Doornenbal, P.; Fang, Y. F.; Gey, G.; Isobe, T.; Lee, P. S.; Liu, J. J.; Li, Z.; Korkulu, Z.; Patel, Z.; Phong, V.; Rice, S.; Sakurai, H.; Sinclair, L.; Sumikama, T.; Tanaka, M.; Yagi, A.; Ye, Y. L.; Yokoyama, R.; Zhang, G. X.; Alharbi, T.; Aoi, N.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Benzoni, G.; Bruce, A. M.; Carroll, R. J.; Chae, K. Y.; Dombradi, Z.; Estrade, A.; Gottardo, A.; Griffin, C. J.; Kanaoka, H.; Kojouharov, I.; Kondev, F. G.; Kubono, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuti, I.; Lalkovski, S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, E. J.; Lokotko, T.; Lotay, G.; Moon, C.-B.; Nishibata, H.; Nishizuka, I.; Nita, C. R.; Odahara, A.; Podolyák, Zs.; Roberts, O. J.; Schaffner, H.; Shand, C.; Taprogge, J.; Terashima, S.; Vajta, Z.; Yoshida, S.

    2017-02-01

    The β -decay half-lives of 94 neutron-rich nuclei Cs-151144 , Ba-154146 , La-156148 , Ce-158150 , Pr-160153 , Nd-162156 , Pm-163159 , Sm-166160 , Eu-168161 , Gd-170165 , Tb-172166 , Dy-173169 , Ho-175172 , and two isomeric states Erm174 , Dym172 were measured at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory, providing a new experimental basis to test theoretical models. Strikingly large drops of β -decay half-lives are observed at neutron-number N =97 for Ce 58 , Pr 59 , Nd 60 , and Sm 62 , and N =105 for Eu 63 , Gd 64 , Tb 65 , and Dy 66 . Features in the data mirror the interplay between pairing effects and microscopic structure. r -process network calculations performed for a range of mass models and astrophysical conditions show that the 57 half-lives measured for the first time play an important role in shaping the abundance pattern of rare-earth elements in the solar system.

  16. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  17. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  18. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  19. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  20. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  1. Neurobehavioral Assessment before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A.

    2005-01-01

    The complexities of neurobehavioral assessment of the fetus, which can be neither directly viewed nor manipulated, cannot be understated. Impetus to develop methods for measuring fetal neurobehavioral development has been provided by the recognition that individual differences in neurobehavioral functioning do not originate with birth and…

  2. Seasonality of birth weight in Chile: environmental and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Research suggests a relationship between birth weight and season of birth, but findings vary across countries and underlying factors are not well understood. We examine the seasonality of birth weight and explore alternative hypotheses for its etiology-exposure to environmental factors and varying socioeconomic composition of mothers-in Chile. Birth weight of approximately 5 million Chilean singleton live births 37 of 41 weeks of gestation between 1987 and 2007 were analyzed for seasonality by using regression models with month dummies and parametric sinusoidal specifications. Multivariate models with socioeconomic covariates and interactions across geographic regions examine potential factors accounting for seasonal variation. Marked 12-month and 6-month periodic cycles were found. The amplitude and phase of the seasonal variation change across geographic regions. In the low-latitude northern region, there is a spring peak and a fall nadir, while in middle-latitude colder regions, a bimodal periodicity emerges with peaks in spring and fall, a pronounced winter nadir, and smaller nadir in the summer. Socioeconomic composition of mothers is found to vary with annual periodicity, but it does not account for the seasonality in birth weight. Environmental factors rather than the socioeconomic composition of mothers likely account for seasonal variation in birth weight. The change in periodicity of birth weight across latitudes is consistent with a beneficial exposure to sunlight both early and late in the pregnancy, and a detrimental late exposure to cold temperatures only in areas with low winter temperatures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  4. Monitoring Reactive Oxygen Species formation and localization in living cells by use of the fluorescent probe CM-H2DCFDA and confocal laser microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Jensen, Poul Erik; Møller, Ian Max

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) develop as a consequence of wounding, light stress and chemical imbalances but act also as signals in living cells. The integrity of cells is seriously endangered, if ROS cannot be controlled by scavenging molecules and other repair mechanisms of the cell. For studying...

  5. Chaotic Star Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Poster VersionClick on the image for IRAS 4B Inset Located 1,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Perseus, a reflection nebula called NGC 1333 epitomizes the beautiful chaos of a dense group of stars being born. Most of the visible light from the young stars in this region is obscured by the dense, dusty cloud in which they formed. With NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, scientists can detect the infrared light from these objects. This allows a look through the dust to gain a more detailed understanding of how stars like our sun begin their lives. The young stars in NGC 1333 do not form a single cluster, but are split between two sub-groups. One group is to the north near the nebula shown as red in the image. The other group is south, where the features shown in yellow and green abound in the densest part of the natal gas cloud. With the sharp infrared eyes of Spitzer, scientists can detect and characterize the warm and dusty disks of material that surround forming stars. By looking for differences in the disk properties between the two subgroups, they hope to find hints of the star and planet formation history of this region. The knotty yellow-green features located in the lower portion of the image are glowing shock fronts where jets of material, spewed from extremely young embryonic stars, are plowing into the cold, dense gas nearby. The sheer number of separate jets that appear in this region is unprecedented. This leads scientists to believe that by stirring up the cold gas, the jets may contribute to the eventual dispersal of the gas cloud, preventing more stars from forming in NGC 1333. In contrast, the upper portion of the image is dominated by the infrared light from warm dust, shown as red.

  6. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001946.htm Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  7. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  8. Avaliação da qualidade das variáveis epidemiológicas e demográficas do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, 2002 Evaluation of quality of epidemiological and demographic variables in the Live Births Information System, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia E. Romero

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avalia a qualidade da informação do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC quanto à clareza metodológica da documentação, completitude do preenchimento e consistência para o país, grandes regiões e Unidades da Federação no ano 2002. Adicionalmente, correlaciona-se a completitude com indicadores de pobreza, desigualdade e recursos humanos. As variáveis analisadas são: raça/cor do recém-nascido, instrução materna, estado civil materno, ocupação materna, idade materna, consulta pré-natal, filhos nascidos vivos, filhos nascidos mortos e peso do bebê ao nascer. Mostrou-se que o SINASC possui boa completitude de preenchimento e consistência da informação na maioria das variáveis; porém, observaram-se sérios problemas de qualidade nas variáveis sobre filhos anteriores e ocupação. Quanto à raça, encontraram-se tanto problemas metodológicos de definição da variável como incompletitude do preenchimento no Distrito Federal, São Paulo, Bahia e Sergipe, Brasil. Por intermédio da análise estatística, confirmou-se a relação significativa entre completitude e indicadores de pobreza e desigualdade. Espera-se que melhorias da qualidade da informação do SINASC possam contribuir para que esse sistema seja uma robusta fonte de dados epidemiológicos que permita identificar fatores de risco e condicionantes sócio-econômicos.This study evaluates the quality of data in the Brazilian Live Births Information System (SINASC, focusing on the methodological clarity of documentation and adequate data completeness and consistency at the national, regional, and State levels in 2002. The variables analyzed were: skin color/race of newborn, maternal schooling, maternal marital status, maternal occupation, maternal age, prenatal visits, live births, stillbirths, and birth weight. For most of the variables, SINASC shows good data completeness and consistency, but there were serious problems with the quality of

  9. Validity of Health Plan and Birth Certificate Data for Pregnancy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Susan E.; Scott, Pamela E.; Davis, Robert L.; Li, De-Kun; Getahun, Darios; Cheetham, T. Craig; Raebel, Marsha A.; Toh, Sengwee; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Hammad, Tarek A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katherine; Cooper, William O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U.S. health plans, and corresponding birth certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard. Results PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were ≥ 93%. Our findings indicated considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. PMID:22753079

  10. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  11. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  12. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  13. Birth of a Second Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Birth of a Second Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Birth of a Second Child Print A A A ... pregnant takes a lot of energy. After the birth, expect the first 6 to 8 weeks to ...

  14. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  15. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  16. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  17. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  18. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-03-01

    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  19. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...

  20. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  1. Wrongful life and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgenia, Smyrnaki

    2012-03-01

    The main scope of the article is the bioethical and legal issues of wrongful birth and wrongful life with reference to doctors' medical liability. Nowadays, prenatal tests tend to substitute the eugenic practice of Spartan inspection to raise a strong and healthy child. Should the doctor misinform the parents that the child is healthy and the parents do not exercise the right to abort the pregnancy, the doctor can be held liable and claims on wrongful life or birth are raised against him. "Wrongful life" is an oxymoron itself since "life" which has an intrinsic value and sanctity is attributed a negative aspect and is regarded as damage. Courts around the world have awarded parents compensation on that legal ground. In the Perruche affair (2000), where the mother was wrongly diagnosed and gave birth to Nicholas, who had serious neurological problems, the court conferred the right on the child itself, causing an uproar in France. The decision was criticized for encouraging eugenics and diminishing the value of handicapped people. The different approaches to the above issues by different courts around the world (US, EU) with reference to (bio) ethical concerns are going to be examined. We will try to give an answer on whether it is possible for courts to support on legal and bioethical grounds that a child with disabilities should not have been born as a result of the doctor's negligent conduct. In such cases, the limits of normality and the value of life are challenged

  2. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes among Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Wyszynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine pregnancy and birth outcomes among women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or chronic ITP (cITP diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Methods. A linkage of mothers and babies within a large US health insurance database that combines enrollment data, pharmacy claims, and medical claims was carried out to identify pregnancies in women with ITP or cITP. Outcomes included preterm birth, elective and spontaneous loss, and major congenital anomalies. Results. Results suggest that women diagnosed with ITP or cITP prior to their estimated date of conception may be at higher risk for stillbirth, fetal loss, and premature delivery. Among 446 pregnancies in women with ITP, 346 resulted in live births. Women with cITP experienced more adverse outcomes than those with a pregnancy-related diagnosis of ITP. Although 7.8% of all live births had major congenital anomalies, the majority were isolated heart defects. Among deliveries in women with cITP, 15.2% of live births were preterm. Conclusions. The results of this study provide further evidence that cause and duration of maternal ITP are important determinants of the outcomes of pregnancy.

  3. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  4. Ex-Corporation: On Male Birth Fantasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Kanz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Between 1890 and 1933, male birth fantasies became a widespread phenomenon in European culture. One of the key examples of male birth fantasies is Filippo Tommaso Marinetti’s “African” novel Mafarka the Futurist. The novel’s protagonist, Mafarka, gives birth to a child by his will power and by drawing on diverse formations of knowledge, from alchemy to theories of evolution. In addition to the consideration given the psycho-historical, cultural, and scientific contexts of male birth fantasies in the avant-garde, the contribution reflects on sibling encryptment within the relationship to the mother as one more aspect of a span of genealogy one might term “Maternal Modernity.” Christine Kanz is Professor of German Literature at Ghent University in Belgium. Her contribution refers to her 2009 book Maternale Moderne. Männliche Gebärphantasien zwischen Kultur und Wissenschaft, 1890- 1933. In addition she edited several collections and authored another book on Ingeborg Bachmann, and numerous articles and reviews in the area of interdisciplinary studies. Before entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe, class of Daniel Roth, in 2008, Adam Cmiel trained in various media in Bad Dürkheim, Hamburg, Mannheim, and Trier. He has participated in nine exhibitions since the onset of his studies in Karlsruhe.

  5. Distributions of Long-Lived Radioactive Nuclei Provided by Star Forming Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Fatuzzo, M

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive nuclei play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary --- but not sufficient --- for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on short-lived nuclei, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive nuclei to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive nuclei through this distributed enrichment scenario. This...

  6. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (plow birth weight) infants among cases with hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68......AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...

  7. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  8. Factors Associated with Recurrent Infant Feeding Practices in Subsequent Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jason P; Bond, Diana; de Vroome, Michelle; Yip, Elizabeth; Nassar, Natasha

    2016-11-01

    Previous breastfeeding experience has been associated with subsequent infant feeding practices. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated formula-only feeding patterns or the full range of potentially associated characteristics. This study aimed to determine the recurrence of infant feeding practices and maternal, birthing, and infant characteristics associated with recurrent formula-only feeding and changes between exclusive breastfeeding and formula-only feeding across subsequent births. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of 317 027 mothers, with a term singleton live-birth in 2007-2011, New South Wales, Australia. Infant feeding patterns were described using sequential birth pairs. For mothers with a first and second birth, robust Poisson regression was used to investigate the association between maternal, birthing, and infant characteristics and infant feeding patterns. Combined relative risks (RRs) were calculated for selected maternal characteristics. Across 69 994 sequential birth pairs, the recurrence rate of formula-only feeding was 71%, and 92% for exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal characteristics breastfeeding to formula-only feeding (RR, 9.0; 95% CI, 7.4-10.7), and being less likely to change from formula-only feeding to exclusive breastfeeding (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.38-0.59). Infant feeding practices were strongly recurrent, highlighting the importance of successful breastfeeding for first-time mothers. Additional support for young mothers from disadvantaged backgrounds accounting for infant feeding history, experiences, and common barriers could improve recurrent exclusive breastfeeding and positively affect infant and maternal health.

  9. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  10. Organisation of obstetric services for very preterm births in Europe: results from the MOSAIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blondel, B; Papiernik, E; Delmas, D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the organisation of obstetric services on the regionalisation of care for very preterm births. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Ten European regions covering 490 000 live births. POPULATION: All children born in 2003 between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation. METHOD......: The rate of specialised maternity units per 10 000 total births, the proportion of total births in specialised units and the proportion of very preterm births by referral status in specialised units were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Birth in a specialised maternity unit (level III unit or unit...... with a large neonatal unit (at least 50 annual very preterm admissions). RESULTS: The organisation of obstetric care varied in these regions with respect to the supply of level III units (from 2.3 per 10 000 births in the Portuguese region to 0.2 in the Polish region), their characteristics (annual number...

  11. Seasonality of births in a rural Zapotec municipio, 1945-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, R M; Himes, J H

    1977-05-01

    The monthly distribution of live births were analyzed over a 26-year period from 1945-70 for a rural Zapotec-speaking community in Oaxaca, Mexico. Monthly distributions of births were not what would be expected by chance (p.001). High monthly percentages of births coincided closely with the rainy season in the Oaxaca Valley. The number of births during the rainy season exceeded that which was expected, while the number of births during the dry season was less than expected (p.001). Ethnographic observations for Zapotec communities suggest that the seasonal distribution of births may reflect the cultural pattern associated with the annual agricultural cycle. The 3 highest birth months were June, July, and August. Much rain falls in June and July after the crops have been planted in May. There is much anxiety about the rain and the crops which decreases sexual activity and fertility. Clinical observations indicate anxiety as a significant factor in male infertility.

  12. Births in wild black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in Northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peker, Silvana; Kowalewski, Martin M; Pavé, Romina E; Zunino, Gabriel E

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies on births in nonhuman primates suggest that births are expected to occur at night to avoid predators. Here, we describe birth-related behaviors in wild black and gold howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya and address the various ideas proposed in the literature about the timing of births in group-living nonhuman primates. We collected data on females' birth-related behaviors through continuous focal observations and scan samples. Focal observations on females giving birth were taken for the remainder of the day after noticing a female was in labor. We recorded behaviors and the spatial distribution of the whole group using scan samples taken every 10 min from sunrise to sunset the same day of birth. We recorded five births at the continuous forest (CF) over a 25 months period (January 2004-December 2004 and September 2005-September 2006) and two births in the fragmented forest (FF) over a 13 months period (September 2005-September 2006). From these, four births were during daylight (two at CF and two at FF) and three during the night at CF. Our descriptions of A. caraya births contribute to a growing data set on the timing of parturition in wild nonhuman primates and suggest that a clear pattern of nocturnal births is not universal across nonhuman primate species. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Organisation of obstetric services for very preterm births in Europe: results from the MOSAIC project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondel, B.; Papiernik, E.; Delmas, D.; Kunzel, W.; Weber, T.; Maier, R.F.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Zeitlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the organisation of obstetric services on the regionalisation of care for very preterm births. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Ten European regions covering 490 000 live births. POPULATION: All children born in 2003 between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation. METHOD: The

  14. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: A study of 19 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Szamotulska, K.; Drewniak, N.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Chalmers, J.; Sakkeus, L.; Irgens, L.; Gatt, M.; Gissler, M.; Blondel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of pr

  15. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: A study of 19 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Szamotulska, K.; Drewniak, N.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Chalmers, J.; Sakkeus, L.; Irgens, L.; Gatt, M.; Gissler, M.; Blondel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of

  16. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  17. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  18. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  19. Imaging protein complex formation in the autophagy pathway: analysis of the interaction of LC3 and Atg4BC74A in live cells using Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Lewis J.; Kenworthy, Anne K.

    2012-01-01

    The protein microtubule-associated protein 1, light chain 3 (LC3) functions in autophagosome formation and plays a central role in the autophagy pathway. Previously, we found LC3 diffuses more slowly in cells than is expected for a freely diffusing monomer, suggesting it may constitutively associate with a macromolecular complex containing other protein components of the pathway. In the current study, we used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to investigate the interactions of LC3 with Atg4BC74A, a catalytically inactive mutant of the cysteine protease involved in lipidation and de-lipidation of LC3, as a model system to probe protein complex formation in the autophagy pathway. We show Atg4BC74A is in FRET proximity with LC3 in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of living cells, consistent with previous biochemical evidence that suggests these proteins directly interact. In addition, overexpressed Atg4BC74A diffuses significantly more slowly than predicted based on its molecular weight, and its translational diffusion coefficient is significantly slowed upon coexpression with LC3 to match that of LC3 itself. Taken together, these results suggest Atg4BC74A and LC3 are contained within the same multiprotein complex and that this complex exists in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of living cells.

  20. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifuji Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  1. The increasing trend in preterm birth in public hospitals in northern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Emily H; Gibbons, Luz; Belizán, José M; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    To identify factors associated with the increasing incidence of preterm birth in northern Argentina. In an observational study, data were reviewed from a prospective, population-based registry of pregnancy outcomes in six cities in 2009-2012. The primary outcome was preterm birth (at 20-37 weeks). Bivariate tests and generalized estimating equations were used within a conceptual hierarchical framework to estimate the cluster-corrected annual trend in odds of preterm birth. The study reviewed data from 11 433 live births. There were 484 (4.2%) preterm births. The incidence of preterm births increased by 38% between 2009 and 2012, from 37.5 to 51.7 per 1000 live births. Unadjusted risk factors for preterm birth included young or advanced maternal age, normal body mass index, nulliparity, no prenatal care, no vitamins or supplements during pregnancy, multiple gestation, and maternal hypertension or prepartum hemorrhage. The prevalence of many risk factors increased over the study period, but variations in these factors explained less than 1% of the increasing trend in preterm birth. The incidence of preterm births in six small cities in northern Argentina increased greatly between 2009 and 2012. This trend was unexplained by the risk factors measured. Other factors should be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Birth rites: redefining the visual language of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a review of a Birth Rites organisation event to launch its new website and art competition. Birth Rites is the first and only collection of contemporary artwork dedicated to the subject of childbirth. The collection aims to redefine visual language in contemporary art around the subject of birth, making women the protagonists, with more choice and a greater understanding of the process. The organisation was founded by two women, Phoebe Mortimer and curator Helen Knowles.

  3. A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde Ejaculated Sperm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This case report describes the identification and successful treatment of a couple ... Keywords: Retrograde ejaculation, ICSI, infertility, Africa ... Diagnostic clues to retrograde ejaculation ... normal hormone profile and patent fallopian tubes.

  4. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to quantify the occurrence of the congenital eye malformations anophthalmia (AO), microphthalmia (MO) and coloboma among liveborn infants in Denmark, and to estimate the rate of chromosomal abnormalities in this group of patients. METHODS: A cohort of patients born in 1995...

  5. Comparative primate obstetrics: Observations of 15 diurnal births in wild gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada) and their implications for understanding human and nonhuman primate birth evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga; Lee, Laura M; Fashing, Peter J; Nurmi, Niina O; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Barry, Tyler S; Callingham, Kadie R; Goodale, C Barret; Kellogg, Bryce S; Burke, Ryan J; Bechtold, Emily K; Claase, Megan J; Eriksen, G Anita; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kraus, Jacob B; Miller, Carrie M; Trew, Thomas H; Zhao, Yi; Beierschmitt, Evan C; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Venkataraman, Vivek V

    2017-05-01

    The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date. Over a recent ∼10-year period, we directly observed 15 diurnal births (13 live births and 2 stillbirths) among geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. During each birth, we recorded the occurrence (or absence) of 16 periparturitional events, chosen for their potential to provide comparative evolutionary insights into the factors that shaped birth behaviors in humans and other primates. We found that several events (e.g., adopting standing crouched positions, delivering infants headfirst) occurred during all births, while other events (e.g., aiding the infant from the birth canal, licking infants following delivery, placentophagy) occurred during, or immediately after, most births. Moreover, multiparas (n = 9) were more likely than primiparas (n = 6) to (a) give birth later in the day, (b) isolate themselves from nearby conspecifics while giving birth, (c) aid the infant from the birth canal, and (d) consume the placenta. Our results suggest that prior maternal experience may contribute to greater competence or efficiency during the birth process. Moreover, face presentations (in which infants are born with their neck extended and their face appearing first, facing the mother) appear to be the norm for geladas. Lastly, malpresentations (in which infants are born in the occiput anterior position more typical of human infants) may be associated with increased mortality in this species. We compare the birth process in geladas to those in other primates (including humans) and discuss several key implications of our study for advancing understanding of obstetrics and the mechanism of labor in humans and nonhuman primates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooki S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syuichi OokiDepartment of Health Science, Ishikawa Prefectural Nursing University, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART. This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART.Methods: Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25–29, 30–34 (reference, 35–39, and 40+ years.Results: Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25–29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30–35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed.Conclusion: Maternal age is

  8. Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents\\' lived experience of providing kangaroo care to their preterm infants. ... While there is good evidence to demonstrate the benefits of kangaroo care in low ... experience of birth; anxiety and barriers; an intimate connection; adjustments, ...

  9. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  10. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Birth after cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velemínský, Miloš; Velemínský, Miloš; Piskorzová, Martina; Bašková, Martina; Tóthová, Valérie; Stránský, Pravoslav

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women, iterative cesarean sections were indicated. To evaluate knowledge of educational material designed for women being prepared for the iterative delivery, we used information compiled on experience from 2002 to 2003; the same approach was used to evaluate the nursing process on interventions and diagnoses of cesarean sections. Results From 2004 to 2008, 11 279 deliveries were performed in the Perinatological Center in České Budějovice; this was significant (Pcesarean section. The number of iterative cesarean sections in women who had already experienced the cesarean section (828) and delivered by cesarean section again is 620. Other data were not significant. Only 2 to 3 pregnancies next to the first cesarean section were statistically significant in 2004 and 2005. Conclusions If a trial of labor after cesarean does not proceed to vaginal birth, the woman will need support and encouragement to express feelings about another cesarean birth. PMID:21278695

  12. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  13. Atomic bomb testing and its effects on global male to female ratios at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Fallout from atomic bomb testing may travel great distances before precipitating. Males are born in excess of females in a ratio that approximates 0.515 (M/T: male live births divided by total live births. Radiation increases M/T by causing lethal malformations that affect female more than male foetuses, decreasing total births. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the effects of increased background radiation levels from atomic weapon testing had any widespread effects on M/T and births in the Americas, Europe, Asia and Australasia in relation to the Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963. Annual live births by gender were obtained from a World Health Organization dataset and annual number of atomic bomb tests were also obtained (historical data). Overall, 94.5% of births studied showed a uniform reduction in M/T between the early 1950s to the late 1960s, followed by an increase to the mid-1970s, with a subsequent decline. A negative correlation of M/T with total births was found in 66% of births studied, and these were the regions which exhibited the rising M/T pattern in the 1970s. The birth deficit for countries with significant correlations of total births with M/T (North America, Europe and Asia) was estimated at 10090701. A rising M/T was found in most regions in temporal association with atomic weapon testing. Most of these regions also had an associated decline in total births. Elevated levels of man-made ambient radiation may have reduced total births, affecting pregnancies carrying female pregnancies more than those carrying male pregnancies, thereby skewing M/T toward a higher male proportion.

  14. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdt-Losavio, M L; Lin, S; Chapman, B R; Hooiveld, M; Olshan, A; Liu, X; DePersis, R D; Zhu, J; Druschel, C M

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated dates of delivery from 1 October 1997 through 31 December 2003 were included. A computer-assisted telephone interview with mothers was conducted. Occupational coding using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification System and the 1997 North American Industry Classification System was completed for all jobs held by mothers. Jobs held from 1 month before pregnancy to the end of the third pregnancy month were considered exposures. Logistic regression models were run, adjusted for potential confounders. We also used a Bayesian approach to logistic regression. Approximately 72% of case mothers and 72% of control mothers in the NBDPS were employed. Several occupational groups were positively associated with one or more birth defects, including janitors/cleaners, scientists and electronic equipment operators. Using standard logistic regression, we found 42 (26 for Bayesian) significantly elevated risks of birth defects in offspring of working mothers. In addition, several other occupational groups were found to be negatively associated with one or more birth defects, including teachers and healthcare workers. Using standard logistic regression, we found 12 (11 for Bayesian) significantly reduced risks of birth defects among offspring of working women. Results from these analyses can be used for hypothesis generating purposes and guiding future investigations of occupational exposures and birth defects.

  15. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baghdasarians

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  16. Measurement of formation cross sections of short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutron. Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1997-03-01

    Eight neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 3 min and 24 min were obtained at the energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV by activation method. The cross sections were {sup 146}Nd(n,p){sup 146}Pr, {sup 154}Sm(n,{alpha}){sup 151}Nd, {sup 162}Dy(n,p){sup 162}Tb, {sup 163}Dy(n,np){sup 162}Tb, {sup 163}Dy(n,p){sup 163}Tb, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb, {sup 170}Er(n,{alpha}){sup 167}Dy, {sup 174}Yb(n,p){sup 170}Tm. {sup 163}Dy(n,np){sup 162}Tb (T{sub 1/2}=7.7 min) was obtained for the first time. Present results are compared with previous results and the evaluated data of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI. There are some discrepancies between present results and the JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  17. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  18. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  19. Pre-Pregnancy Dating Violence and Birth Outcomes Among Adolescent Mothers in a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W

    2014-07-01

    Although infants born to adolescent mothers are at increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, little is known about contributors to birth outcomes in this group. Given past research linking partner abuse to adverse birth outcomes among adult mothers, we explored associations between pre-pregnancy verbal and physical dating violence and the birth weight and gestational age of infants born to adolescent mothers. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Waves I (1995/1996), II (1996), and IV (2007/2008) were analyzed. Girls whose first singleton live births occurred after Wave II interview and before age 20 (N = 558) self-reported infants' birth weight and gestational age at Wave IV. Dating violence victimization (verbal and physical) in the 18 months prior to Wave II interview was self-reported. Controls included Wave I age, parent education, age at pregnancy, time between reporting abuse and birth, and childhood physical and sexual abuse. Weighted multivariable regression models were performed separately by race (Black/non-Black).On average, births occurred 2 years after Wave II interview. Almost one in four mothers reported verbal dating violence victimization (23.6%), and 10.1% reported physical victimization. Birth weight and prevalence of verbal dating violence victimization were significantly lower in Black compared with non-Black teen mothers. In multivariable analyses, negative associations between physical dating abuse and birth outcomes became stronger as time increased for Black mothers. For example, pre-pregnancy physical dating abuse was associated with 0.79 kilograms lower birth weight (p< .001) and 4.72 fewer weeks gestational age (p< .01) for Black mothers who gave birth 2 years post-reporting abuse. Physical dating abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes among non-Black mothers, and verbal abuse was unassociated with birth outcomes for all mothers. Reducing physical dating violence in adolescent relationships prior to

  20. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  1. Birth control over 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnes, M

    1994-07-01

    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  2. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  3. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if needs change. Assisted living costs less than nursing home care. It is still fairly expensive. Older people or their families usually pay for it. Health and long-term care insurance policies may cover ...

  4. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...

  5. After-birth and before-birth personhood: why the baby should live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepffler, Nikolaus Johannes; O'Malley, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    The basic human experience of the atrocities in the first half of the 20th century has significantly strengthened the recognition of human dignity and human rights for all born people at the political level. Therefore, the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 and its Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, Article 1 affirms: 'All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights'. This article provides an ethical justification of why we in this political consensus should not waver, and why we should grant the right to life to all born human infants. Moreover, there is an ethical justification to granting the right to life even to unborn human beings, who already bear a human face.

  6. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo,Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler’s theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler’s birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) A...

  7. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  8. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  9. Risk factors for preterm births in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão Vânia Maria de Farias; Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da; Aragão Lívia Farias de; Barbieri Marco Antônio; Bettiol Heloísa; Coimbra Liberata Campos; Ribeiro Valdinar Sousa

    2004-01-01

    Preterm birth continues to be one of the main causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. The sample consisted of hospital births at 10 public and private hospitals from March 1, 1997 to February 28, 1998. A total of 2,443 live births were randomly selected, excluding multiple deliveries and stillbirths. Preterm birth rate in São Luís was 12.7%. Risk factors for preterm delivery we...

  10. Left behind by Birth Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Ingeborg Foldøy

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative data from Norway I investigate long-term birth month effects. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are larger for low-SES children. Furthermore, I find that the youngest children in class are lagging significantly…

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  12. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  13. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  14. Rapid transition to long-lived deep crustal magmatic maturation and the formation of giant porphyry-related mineralization (Yanacocha, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Merino, Daniel; Spikings, Richard

    2009-11-01

    needed to understand whether the association of adakite-like magmas with ore, which is typical of other giant porphyry-systems, is the result of the build-up of incompatible volatiles and metals in oxidized magmas that evolve under high-pressure conditions, of recycling of lower crustal sulfide-rich cumulates, and/or of a long-lived, focused transfer of magmas from deep to shallow crustal levels.

  15. Advanced maternal age increases the risk of very preterm birth, irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, U; Cnattingius, S; Vixner, L; Norman, M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. Population-based registry study. Swedish Medical Birth Register. First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for year of birth, education, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, and history of preterm birth. Age-related risks of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births were also investigated. Very preterm (22-31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32-36 weeks) births. Risks of very preterm birth increased with maternal age, irrespective of parity: adjusted ORs in first, second, and third births ranged from 1.18 to 1.28 at 30-34 years, from 1.59 to 1.70 at 35-39 years, and from 1.97 to 2.40 at ≥40 years. In moderately preterm births, age-related associations were weaker, but were statistically significant from 35-39 years in all parity groups. Advanced maternal age increased the risks of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, irrespective of parity, especially very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older, expecting their first, second, or third births, should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth, irrespective of parity. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-05-19

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  17. Ocean acidification does not affect magnesium composition or dolomite formation in living crustose coralline algae, Porolithon onkodes in an experimental system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, M. C.; Uthicke, S.; Negri, A. P.; Cantin, N. E.

    2015-09-01

    There are concerns that Mg-calcite crustose coralline algae (CCA), which are key reef builders on coral reefs, will be most susceptible to increased rates of dissolution under higher pCO2 and ocean acidification. Due to the higher solubility of Mg-calcite, it has been hypothesised that magnesium concentrations in CCA Mg-calcite will decrease as the ocean acidifies, and that this decrease will make their skeletons more chemically stable. In addition to Mg-calcite, CCA Porolithon onkodes, the predominant encrusting species on tropical reefs, can have dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3) infilling cell spaces which increases their stability. However, nothing is known about how bio-mineralised dolomite formation responds to higher pCO2. Using P. onkodes grown for 3 and 6 months in tank experiments, we aimed to determine (1) if mol % MgCO3 in new crust and new settlement was affected by increasing CO2 levels (365, 444, 676 and 904 μatm), (2) whether bio-mineralised dolomite formed within these time frames, and (3) if so, whether this was effected by CO2. Our results show that there was no significant effect of CO2 on mol % MgCO3 in any sample set, indicating an absence of a plastic response under a wide range of experimental conditions. Dolomite within the CCA cells formed within 3 months and dolomite abundance did not vary significantly with CO2 treatment. While evidence mounts that climate change will impact many sensitive coral and CCA species, the results from this study indicate that reef-building P. onkodes will continue to form stabilising dolomite infill under near-future acidification conditions, thereby retaining its higher resistance to dissolution.

  18. Ocean acidification does not affect magnesium composition or dolomite formation in living crustose coralline algae, Porolithon onkodes in an experimental system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Nash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are concerns that Mg-calcite crustose coralline algae (CCA, which are key reef builders on coral reefs, will be most susceptible to increased rates of dissolution under higher pCO2 and ocean acidification. Due to the higher solubility of Mg-calcite, it has been hypothesized that magnesium concentrations in CCA Mg-calcite will decrease as the ocean acidifies, and that this decrease will make their skeletons more chemically stable. In addition to Mg-calcite, CCA Porolithon onkodes the predominant encrusting species on tropical reefs, can have dolomite (Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 infilling cell spaces which increases their stability. However, nothing is known about how bio-mineralised dolomite formation responds to higher pCO2. Using P. onkodes grown for 3 and 6 months in tank experiments, we aimed to determine (1 if mol % MgCO3 in new crust and new settlement affected by increasing pCO2 levels (365, 444, 676 and 904 ppm, (2 whether bio-mineralised dolomite formed within these time frames, and (3 if so, whether this was effected by pCO2. Our results show there was no significant effect of pCO2 on mol % MgCO3 in any sample set, indicating an absence of a plastic response under a wide range of experimental conditions. Dolomite within the CCA cells formed within 3 months and dolomite abundance did not vary significantly with pCO2 treatment. While evidence mounts that climate change will impact many sensitive coral and CCA species, the results from this study indicate that reef-building P. onkodes will continue to form stabilising dolomite infill under near-future acidification conditions, thereby retaining its higher resistance to dissolution.

  19. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  20. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  1. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  2. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.

  3. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk.This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled "Birth in Brazil", performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services.Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8% when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%, regardless of obstetric risk-adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5-3.6 for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1-2.3 for women of high obstetric risk.The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care.

  4. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  5. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  7. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  8. A Time Series Analysis of Outdoor Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Shanghai,China.Methods We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on preterm birth using time-series approach in Shanghai in 2004. This method can eliminate potential confounding by individual risk factors that do not change over a short period of time. Daily numbers of preterm births were obtained from the live birth database maintained by Shanghai Municipal Center of Disease Control and Prevention. We used the generalized additive model (GAM) with penalized splines to analyze the relation between preterm birth,air pollution,and covariates.Results We observed a significant effect of outdoor air pollution only with 8-week exposure before preterm births. An increase of 10 μg/m3 of 8-week average PM10,SO2,NO2,and O3 corresponded to 4.42% (95%CI 1.60%,7.25%),11.89% (95%CI 6.69%,17.09%),5.43% (95%CI 1.78%,9.08%),and 4.63% (95%CI 0.35%,8.91%)increase of preterm birth. We did not find any significant acute effect of outdoor air pollution on preterm birth in the week before birth.Conclusion Ambient air pollution may contribute to the risk of preterm birth in Shanghai. Our analyses also strengthen the rationale for further limiting air pollution level in the city.

  9. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  10. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  11. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  12. Outdoor Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  13. How menstrual shame affects birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  15. A dream birth? Try hypnobirthing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Katharine

    2013-09-01

    Hypnobirthing is often regarded as a method of pain relief without drugs. This is to miss the point, as it presupposes that pain is there in the first place. When a woman learns to release the preconceptions, fears and worries about birth that are endemic in our society, her experience of giving birth to her baby can be the most wonderful and empowering experience of her life. Mind and body working together can be a powerful and efficient combination. This is how birth is designed to be, as midwives and hospitals are beginning to discover. Thus hypnobirthing can provide a service that women want as well as save scarce NHS funds.

  16. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  17. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Maghuyop-Butalid R; Mayo NA; Polangi HT

    2015-01-01

    Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...

  18. Birth in Italy between outcomes, appropriateness and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ettore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality and morbidity related to perinatal events are increasingly rare in advanced countries. Maternal death events represent an indicator of the overall health and development conditions of a country. In Italy, similarly to other industrialized countries, the maternal mortality ratio has been approximately 3 cases per 100,000 live births. However, recently, it has been measured as 11 cases per 100,000 live births, with a severe maternal morbidity rate of 2‰. The neonatal mortality rate has been, instead, constant at approximately 2.4‰ live births, with a rate of childhood cerebral palsy of 2‰. The incidence of caesarean section in Italy is 38% on average. It is the highest in Europe, with significant regional differences. The higher incidence is observed in the birth centres of South-Italy and in those with a fewer number of deliveries. The whole “birth pathway” should be organized and planned on a regional basis according to the models of organizational network of perinatal care by Hub & Spoke and according to the principles ratified by the GL (guidelines on the Charter of Services N. 2/95, such as: equity, accountability, participation, quality and safety of care, humanization. However, an obstacle to the implementation of this program is represented by the exponential and manufactured increase of medico-legal controversies (+ 250% of complaints over the last 15 years with over 98% of acquittal in favour of the doctors for the Supreme Court. This issue discredits the entire medical profession and is responsible for the recourse to defensive medicine which drains each year 10bn euros. Therefore, a joined action among the legislature, the professional associations and the civil society is needed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa

  19. Congenital malformations at birth in Central India: A rural medical college hospital based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna; Chaturvedi, Pushpa; Jain, Manish

    2010-09-01

    To study the incidence of congenital anomalies and the associated risk factors in Department of Pediatrics at Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, a rural medical college hospital in central Maharashtra. All the intramural deliveries between 1 January 2005 and 31 July 2007 comprised 9386 births and their 9324 mothers (62 mothers gave birth to twin babies). The newborns were examined and assessed systematically for the presence of congenital anomalies, system wise distribution of anomalies and risk factors attributable. Out of the total 9386 deliveries, 9194 were live births and 192 were stillbirths. The total number of babies with congenital malformations was 179 (1.91%). Out of the 9262 singleton births, 177 (1.05%) were malformed, whereas 2 of the 62 pairs of twins had birth defects. Nine of the 179 malformed babies (5.02%) were still born. Prematurity, increased maternal age, increasing birth order and low birth weight were found to have a higher risk of congenital anomalies. Cardiovascular malformations were most common in live births, followed by musculoskeletal and genitourinary anomalies. Congenital anomalies are a major cause of stillbirths and infant mortality. Evaluation of cardiovascular system to rule out congenital heart disease in high-risk mothers' babies is the important factor to be considered.

  20. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen; McNeil, Debbie; Yee, Wendy; Siever, Jodie; Rose, Sarah

    2014-09-16

    To evaluate a possible association between neighbourhood socio-economic status and spontaneous premature birth in Alberta births. The study design was a retrospective cohort of all births in Alberta for the years 2001 and 2006. The primary outcome was spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation. Neighbourhood socio-economic status was measured by the Pampalon Material Deprivation Index for each Statistics Canada census dissemination area. Births were linked to dissemination area using maternal postal codes. The analysis comprised 73,585 births, in which the rate of spontaneous preterm delivery at <37 weeks was 5.3%. The rates of spontaneous preterm delivery for each neighbourhood socio-economic category ranged from 4.9% (95% CI 4.5%-5.2%) in the highest category to 6.3% (95% CI 6.0%-6.7%) in the lowest (p<0.001). After controlling for smoking, parity, maternal age and year, we found that women living in the highest socio-economic status neighbourhoods had an adjusted spontaneous preterm birth rate of 5.1% (95% CI 4.7%-5.5%) compared to 6.0% (95% CI 5.6%-6.4%) for women living in the lowest (p=0.003). This study documented a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth with low socio-economic status. The possibility of confounding bias cannot be ruled out.