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  1. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 550 E. Tyler Mall, Room PSF-686 (P.O. Box 871404), Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA (United States); Konstantopoulos, Iraklis [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde NSW 1670 (Australia); Knezek, Patricia M., E-mail: karen.knierman@asu.edu, E-mail: paul.scowen@asu.edu, E-mail: tveach@asu.edu, E-mail: cgroppi@asu.edu, E-mail: mullan@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: iraklis@aao.gov.au, E-mail: pknezek@noao.edu [WIYN Consortium, Inc., 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio {approx}4: 1 occurring {approx}200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and H{alpha} narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 {mu}m [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous H{alpha} sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter H{alpha} source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation.

  2. TIDAL TAILS OF MINOR MERGERS. II. COMPARING STAR FORMATION IN THE TIDAL TAILS OF NGC 2782

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knierman, Karen A.; Scowen, Paul; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Christopher; Mullan, Brendan; Charlton, Jane; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Knezek, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar spiral NGC 2782 is the result of a minor merger with a mass ratio ∼4: 1 occurring ∼200 Myr ago. This merger produced a molecular and H I-rich, optically bright eastern tail and an H I-rich, optically faint western tail. Non-detection of CO in the western tail by Braine et al. suggested that star formation had not yet begun. However, deep UBVR and Hα narrowband images show evidence of recent star formation in the western tail, though it lacks massive star clusters and cluster complexes. Using Herschel PACS spectroscopy, we discover 158 μm [C II] emission at the location of the three most luminous Hα sources in the eastern tail, but not at the location of the even brighter Hα source in the western tail. The western tail is found to have a normal star formation efficiency (SFE), but the eastern tail has a low SFE. The lack of CO and [C II] emission suggests that the western tail H II region may have a low carbon abundance and be undergoing its first star formation. The western tail is more efficient at forming stars, but lacks massive clusters. We propose that the low SFE in the eastern tail may be due to its formation as a splash region where gas heating is important even though it has sufficient molecular and neutral gas to make massive star clusters. The western tail, which has lower gas surface density and does not form high-mass star clusters, is a tidally formed region where gravitational compression likely enhances star formation

  3. DISSECTING GALAXY FORMATION. II. COMPARING SUBSTRUCTURE IN PURE DARK MATTER AND BARYONIC MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton; Hoffman, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    We compare the substructure evolution in pure dark matter (DM) halos with those in the presence of baryons, hereafter PDM and BDM models, respectively. The prime halos have been analyzed in the previous work. Models have been evolved from identical initial conditions which have been constructed by means of the constrained realization method. The BDM model includes star formation and feedback from stellar evolution onto the gas. A comprehensive catalog of subhalo populations has been compiled and individual and statistical properties of subhalos analyzed, including their orbital differences. We find that subhalo population mass functions in PDM and BDM are consistent with a single power law, M α sbh , for each of the models in the mass range of ∼2 x 10 8 M sun -2 x 10 11 M sun . However, we detect a nonnegligible shift between these functions, the time-averaged α ∼ -0.86 for the PDM and -0.98 for the BDM models. Overall, α appears to be a nearly constant in time, with variations of ±15%. Second, we find that the radial mass distribution of subhalo populations can be approximated by a power law, R γ sbh with a steepening that occurs at the radius of a maximal circular velocity, R vmax , in the prime halos. Here we find that γ sbh ∼ -1.5 for the PDM and -1 for the BDM models, when averaged over time inside R vmax . The slope is steeper outside this region and approaches -3. We detect little spatial bias (less than 10%) between the subhalo populations and the DM distribution of the main halos. Also, the subhalo population exhibits much less triaxiality in the presence of baryons, in tandem with the shape of the prime halo. Finally, we find that, counter-intuitively, the BDM population is depleted at a faster rate than the PDM one within the central 30 kpc of the prime halo. The reason for this is that although the baryons provide a substantial glue to the subhalos, the main halo exhibits the same trend. This assures a more efficient tidal disruption of the

  4. Comparing M31 and Milky Way satellites: The extended star formation histories of Andromeda II and Andromeda XVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Vía Láctea s/n., E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bernard, Edouard J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cassisi, Santi [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Cole, Andrew A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Irwin, Mike [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Universit de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Universit, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Mayer, Lucio [Institut für Theoretische Physik, University of Zurich, Zürich (Switzerland); Navarro, Julio F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    We present the first comparison between the lifetime star formation histories (SFHs) of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites. Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we obtained deep optical imaging of Andromeda II (And II; M{sub V} = –12.0; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 6.7) and Andromeda XVI (And XVI; M{sub V} = –7.5; log(M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ∼ 4.9) yielding color-magnitude diagrams that extend at least 1 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, and are similar in quality to those available for the MW companions. And II and And XVI show strikingly similar SFHs: both formed 50%-70% of their total stellar mass between 12.5 and 5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5-0.5) and both were abruptly quenched ∼5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 0.5). The predominance of intermediate age populations in And XVI makes it qualitatively different from faint companions of the MW and clearly not a pre-reionization fossil. Neither And II nor And XVI appears to have a clear analog among MW companions, and the degree of similarity in the SFHs of And II and And XVI is not seen among comparably faint-luminous pairs of MW satellites. These findings provide hints that satellite galaxy evolution may vary substantially among hosts of similar stellar mass. Although comparably deep observations of more M31 satellites are needed to further explore this hypothesis, our results underline the need for caution when interpreting satellite galaxies of an individual system in a broader cosmological context.

  5. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Stanciu, Lia A. [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  6. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils

  7. Comparative analysis of Carnaval II Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Bastos, W. dos

    1981-01-01

    The Carnaval II cross sections library from the french fast reactor calculation system is evaluated in two ways: 1 0 ) a comparative analysis of the calculations system for fast reactors at IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear) using a 'benchmark' model is done; 2 0 ) a comparative analysis in relation to the french system itself is also done, using calculations realized with two versions of the french library: the SETR-II and the CARNAVAL IV, the first one being anterior and the second one posterior to the Carnaval II version, the one used by IEN. (Author) [pt

  8. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  9. A comparative study of nitrite reduction by synthetic and biogenic Fe(II-III) hydroxysalts green rusts: Evidence for hydroxyl-nitrite green rust formation as an intermediate reaction product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona-Nguema, G.; Guerbois, D.; Morin, G.; Zhang, Y.; Noel, V.; Brest, J.

    2013-12-01

    -GR(Cl) led to the reduction of nitrite ions to ammonium, and that the production of ammonium depended on their Fe(II) content. XRD patterns indicated that both synthetic green rusts were fully oxidized into magnetite during the reaction with nitrite. For biogenic green rusts, the study revealed that both bio-GR(CO3)F and bio-GR(CO3)L were capable of reducing nitrite ions without ammonium production, suggesting the conversion of nitrite ions to nitrogen gas. Moreover, we provided evidence for the first time that the interactions of bio-GR(CO3)F with nitrite led to the formation of an hydroxy-nitrite green rust as a result of the incorporation of nitrite in the interlayer region of bio-GR(CO3)F; such an intercalation of nitrite ions was not observed in experiments with bio-GR(CO3)L. XRD analysis indicated that GR(NO2) was formed as an intermediate reaction product prior to the fully oxidation of GR to ferric oxyhydroxides. [1] Philips S., Laanbroek H. J. and Verstraete W. (2002). Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 1, 115-141.

  10. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  11. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Baumgärtel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50 were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users.

  12. ICC Type II large-format FPA detector assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Thomas H.; Powers, Thomas P.

    1997-08-01

    ICC presents a new addition to their integrated detector assembly product line with the announcement of their type II large format staring class FPA units. A result of internally funded research and development, the ICC type II detector assembly can accommodate all existing large format staring class PtSi, InSb and MCT focal planes, up to 640 by 480. Proprietary methodologies completely eliminate all FPA stresses to allow for maximum FPA survivability. Standard optical and cryocooler interfaces allow for the use of BEI, AEG, TI SADA Hughes/Magnavox and Joule Thompson coolers. This unit has been qualified to the current SADA II thermal environmental specifications and was tailored around ICC's worldwide industry standard type IV product. Assembled in a real world flexible manufacturing environment, this unit features a wide degree of adaptability and can be easily modified to a user's specifications via standard options and add-ons that include optical interfaces, electrical interfaces and window/filter material selections.

  13. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  14. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. II. THE FORMATION OF THE Mg II h and k LINES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenaarts, J.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Uitenbroek, H., E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.no, E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no, E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com, E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu [NSO/Sacramento Peak P.O. Box 62 Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer mission will study how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS contains an imaging spectrograph that covers the Mg II h and k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Mg II k. Understanding the observations requires forward modeling of Mg II h and k line formation from three-dimensional (3D) radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) models. This paper is the second in a series where we undertake this modeling. We compute the vertically emergent h and k intensity from a snapshot of a dynamic 3D RMHD model of the solar atmosphere, and investigate which diagnostic information about the atmosphere is contained in the synthetic line profiles. We find that the Doppler shift of the central line depression correlates strongly with the vertical velocity at optical depth unity, which is typically located less than 200 km below the transition region (TR). By combining the Doppler shifts of the h and k lines we can retrieve the sign of the velocity gradient just below the TR. The intensity in the central line depression is anti-correlated with the formation height, especially in subfields of a few square Mm. This intensity could thus be used to measure the spatial variation of the height of the TR. The intensity in the line-core emission peaks correlates with the temperature at its formation height, especially for strong emission peaks. The peaks can thus be exploited as a temperature diagnostic. The wavelength difference between the blue and red peaks provides a diagnostic of the velocity gradients in the upper chromosphere. The intensity ratio of the blue and red peaks correlates strongly with the average velocity in the upper chromosphere. We conclude that the Mg II h and k lines are excellent probes of the very upper chromosphere just below the TR, a height regime that is impossible to probe with other spectral lines. They also provide decent temperature and velocity diagnostics of the middle

  15. PROPERTY OF THE LARGE FORMAT DIGITAL AERIAL CAMERA DMC II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Z/I Imaging introduced with the DMC II 140, 230 and 250 digital aerial cameras with a very large format CCD for the panchromatic channel. The CCDs have with 140 / 230 / 250 mega pixel a size not available in photogrammetry before. CCDs in general have a very high relative accuracy, but the overall geometry has to be checked as well as the influence of not flat CCDs. A CCD with a size of 96mm × 82mm must have a flatness or knowledge of flatness in the range of 1μm if the camera accuracy in the range of 1.3μm shall not be influenced. The DMC II cameras have been evaluated with three different flying heights leading to 5cm, 9cm and 15cm or 20cm GSD, crossing flight lines and 60% side lap. The optimal test conditions guaranteed the precise determination of the object coordinates as well as the systematic image errors. All three camera types show only very small systematic image errors, ranging in the root mean square between 0.12μm up to 0.3μm with extreme values not exceeding 1.6μm. The remaining systematic image errors, determined by analysis of the image residuals and not covered by the additional parameters, are negligible. A standard deviation of the object point heights below the GSD, determined at independent check points, even in blocks with just 20% side lap and 60% end lap is standard. Corresponding to the excellent image geometry the object point coordinates are only slightly influenced by the self calibration. For all DMCII types the handling of image models for data acquisition must not be supported by an improvement of the image coordinates by the determined systematic image errors. Such an improvement up to now is not standard for photogrammetric software packages. The advantage of a single monolithic CCD is obvious. An edge analysis of pan-sharpened DMC II 250 images resulted in factors for the effective resolution below 1.0. The result below 1.0 is only possible by contrast enhancement, but this requires with low image noise

  16. Comparative evaluation of clays from Abakaliki Formation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of clays from Abakaliki Formation, Southeastern Nigeria was evaluated to establish its suitability as drilling mud when compared with commercial bentonite such as Wyoming bentonite. The chemical, mineralogical and geotechnical properties were employed in assessing the suitability of Abakaliki clay as ...

  17. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation in chlorinated and combined chlorine-chloraminated water systems. ... The capability of bacterial regrowth occurring on the surface of test pipe materials during this period was linked to the depletion of the concentration of monochloramine residual.

  18. THE SECOND SURVEY OF THE MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD BY NANTEN. II. STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Akiko; Mizuno, Yoji; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Fukui, Yasuo; Fillipovic, Miroslav D.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Kim, Sungeun; Mizuno, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied star formation activities in the molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have utilized the second catalog of 272 molecular clouds obtained by NANTEN to compare the cloud distribution with signatures of massive star formation including stellar clusters, and optical and radio H II regions. We find that the molecular clouds are classified into three types according to the activities of massive star formation: Type I shows no signature of massive star formation; Type II is associated with relatively small H II region(s); and Type III with both H II region(s) and young stellar cluster(s). The radio continuum sources were used to confirm that Type I giant molecular clouds (GMCs) do not host optically hidden H II regions. These signatures of massive star formation show a good spatial correlation with the molecular clouds in the sense that they are located within ∼100 pc of the molecular clouds. Among possible ideas to explain the GMC types, we favor that the types indicate an evolutionary sequence; i.e., the youngest phase is Type I, followed by Type II, and the last phase is Type III, where the most active star formation takes place leading to cloud dispersal. The number of the three types of GMCs should be proportional to the timescale of each evolutionary stage if a steady state of massive star and cluster formation is a good approximation. By adopting the timescale of the youngest stellar clusters, 10 Myr, we roughly estimate the timescales of Types I, II, and III to be 6 Myr, 13 Myr, and 7 Myr, respectively, corresponding to a lifetime of 20-30 Myr for the GMCs with a mass above the completeness limit, 5 x 10 4 M sun .

  19. A fluorescent chemosensor for Zn(II). Exciplex formation in solution and the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencini, Andrea; Berni, Emanuela; Bianchi, Antonio; Fornasari, Patrizia; Giorgi, Claudia; Lima, Joao C; Lodeiro, Carlos; Melo, Maria J; de Melo, J Seixas; Parola, Antonio Jorge; Pina, Fernando; Pina, Joao; Valtancoli, Barbara

    2004-07-21

    The macrocyclic phenanthrolinophane 2,9-[2,5,8-triaza-5-(N-anthracene-9-methylamino)ethyl]-[9]-1,10-phenanthrolinophane (L) bearing a pendant arm containing a coordinating amine and an anthracene group forms stable complexes with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) in solution. Stability constants of these complexes were determined in 0.10 mol dm(-3) NMe(4)Cl H(2)O-MeCN (1:1, v/v) solution at 298.1 +/- 0.1 K by means of potentiometric (pH metric) titration. The fluorescence emission properties of these complexes were studied in this solvent. For the Zn(II) complex, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies were performed in ethanol solution and in the solid state. In solution, intramolecular pi-stacking interaction between phenanthroline and anthracene in the ground state and exciplex emission in the excited state were observed. From the temperature dependence of the photostationary ratio (I(Exc)/I(M)), the activation energy for the exciplex formation (E(a)) and the binding energy of the exciplex (-DeltaH) were determined. The crystal structure of the [ZnLBr](ClO(4)).H(2)O compound was resolved, showing that in the solid state both intra- and inter-molecular pi-stacking interactions are present. Such interactions were also evidenced by UV-vis absorption and emission spectra in the solid state. The absorption spectrum of a thin film of the solid complex is red-shifted compared with the solution spectra, whereas its emission spectrum reveals the unique featureless exciplex band, blue shifted compared with the solution. In conjunction with X-ray data the solid-state data was interpreted as being due to a new exciplex where no pi-stacking (full overlap of the pi-electron cloud of the two chromophores - anthracene and phenanthroline) is observed. L is a fluorescent chemosensor able to signal Zn(II) in presence of Cd(II) and Hg(II), since the last two metal ions do not give rise either to the formation of pi-stacking complexes or to exciplex emission in solution.

  20. Morphogengineering roots: comparing mechanisms of morphogen gradient formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In developmental biology, there has been a recent focus on the robustness of morphogen gradients as possible providers of positional information. It was shown that functional morphogen gradients present strong biophysical constraints and lack of robustness to noise. Here we explore how the details of the mechanism which underlies the generation of a morphogen gradient can influence those properties. Results We contrast three gradient-generating mechanisms, (i) a source-decay mechanism; and (ii) a unidirectional transport mechanism; and (iii) a so-called reflux-loop mechanism. Focusing on the dynamics of the phytohormone auxin in the root, we show that only the reflux-loop mechanism can generate a gradient that would be adequate to supply functional positional information for the Arabidopsis root, for biophysically reasonable kinetic parameters. Conclusions We argue that traits that differ in spatial and temporal time-scales can impose complex selective pressures on the mechanism of morphogen gradient formation used for the development of the particular organism. PMID:22583698

  1. Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of Icariin and Icariside II in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To explore the pharmacokinetic properties of icariin (ICA and icariside II (ICA II following intragastric and intravenous administration in rats, a rapid and sensitive method by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ICA and ICA II in rat plasma. The quantification was performed by using multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 677.1/531.1 for ICA, 515.1/369.1 for ICA II and 463.1/301.1 for diosmetin-7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (IS. The assay showed linearity over the concentration range of 1.03–1032 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients of 0.9983 and 0.9977. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15%. The lower limit of quantification for both ICA and ICA II was 1.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery of ICA and ICA II was more than 86.2%. The LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used in the pharmacokinetic studies of ICA and ICA II in rats. The results indicated that 91.2% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after oral administration by rats, whereas only 0.4% of ICA was transformed into ICA II after intravenous administration. A comparison of the pharmacokinetics of ICA and ICA II after oral administration revealed that the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were 3.8 and 13.0 times higher, respectively, than those of ICA. However, after intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC0–t of ICA II were about only 12.1% and 4.2% of those of ICA. These results suggest that ICA and ICA II have distinct pharmacokinetic properties, and the insights obtained facilitate future pharmacological action studies.

  2. Dual pathway for angiotensin II formation in human internal mammary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, A. A.; Pinto, Y. M.; Buikema, H.; Urata, H.; Oosterga, M.; Rooks, G.; Grandjean, J. G.; Ganten, D.; van Gilst, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is thought to be the main enzyme to convert antiotensin I to the vasoactive angiotensin II. Recently, in the human heart, it was found that the majority of angiotensin II formation was due to another enzyme, identified as human heart chymase. In the human

  3. Acceptors in II-IV Semiconductors - Incorporation and Complex Formation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A strong effort is currently devoted to the investigation of defects and the electrical activation of dopant atoms in II-VI semiconductors. In particular, the knowledge about the behaviour of acceptors, prerequisite for the fabrication of p-type semiconductors, is rather limited. The perturbed $\\,{\\gamma\\gamma}$ -angular correlation technique (PAC) and the photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) using the radioactive isotopes $^{77}\\!$Br and $^{111}\\!$Ag will be applied for investigating the behaviour of acceptor dopant atoms and their interactions with defects in II-VI semiconductors. The main topic will be the identification of the technical conditions for the incorporation of electrically active acceptors in the II-VI semiconductors ~ZnS, ZnSe, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, and CdTe with particular emphasis on the compounds~ CdTe, ZnSe, and ZnTe. The investigations will be supplemented by first exploratory PL experiments with the group V acceptors $^{71}\\!$As and $^{121}\\!$Sb. With help of the probe $^{111}\\!$Ag, the pos...

  4. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.T.; Fels, van der Ine; Boekel, van Tiny

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after

  5. STRATUL DUBLU ELECTRIC AL MONTMORILONITULUI. II. ANALIZE COMPARATIVE ALE MODELELOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUSU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A fost analizată relaţia potenţial – distanţa de la suprafaţa solidului în volumul soluţiei în modelul Gouy-Chapman, modelul Stern şi modelul modificat Gouy-Chapman. Modelările efectuate conform modelului Stern pentru H-montmo­rilonit şi Al-montmorilonit intercalat cu oligomeri de aluminiu evidenţiază particularităţile stratului dublu electric în proximitatea suprafeţei bazale şi a suprafeţei laterale a montmorilonitului. Dinamica potenţialului în volumul soluţiei prin modelul modificat Gouy-Chapman devine identică modelului Stern, în condiţiile atribuirii caracteristicilor stratului compact din modelul Stern.EDL FOR MONTMORILLONITE. II. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MODELS The relationship potential - the distance from the surface of the solid towards the solution by the Gouy-Chapman model, the Stern model, and the modified Gouy-Chapman model were analyzed. Modeling performed according to the Stern model for H-montmorillonite and pillared Al-montmorillonite highlights the peculiarities of the double electric layer close to the basal and edge surfaces. The potential dynamics in the solution by the modified Gouy-Chapman model becomes identical to the Stern model if the main characteristics of Stern layer are attributed.

  6. Meniscus Dynamics in Bubble Formation. Part II: Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Marek; Bunganič, Radovan; Drahoš, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 10 (2009), s. 1357-1365 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200720801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : bubble formation * periodic bubbling * meniscus oscillations Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.223, year: 2009

  7. Sequestration and Distribution Characteristics of Cd(II by Microcystis aeruginosa and Its Role in Colony Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the sequestration and distribution characteristics of Cd(II by Microcystis aeruginosa and its role in Microcystis colony formation, M. aeruginosa was exposed to six different Cd(II concentrations for 10 days. Cd(II exposure caused hormesis in the growth of M. aeruginosa. Low concentrations of Cd(II significantly induced formation of small Microcystis colonies (P93% of Cd(II was sequestrated in the groups with lower added concentrations of Cd(II. More than 80% of the sequestrated Cd(II was bioadsorbed by bEPS. The Pearson correlation coefficients of exterior and interior factors related to colony formation of M. aeruginosa revealed that Cd(II could stimulate the production of IPS and bEPS via increasing Cd(II bioaccumulation and bioadsorption. Increased levels of cross-linking between Cd(II and bEPS stimulated algal cell aggregation, which eventually promoted the formation of Microcystis colonies.

  8. A study on complex formation of cadmium (II) ions, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo

    1984-01-01

    Formation constants of cadmium (11) complexes with dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic, malonic, methylmalonic, succinic, and glutaric acids were determined in aqueous solutions containing 3 mol.dm -3 LiClO 4 as a constan ionic medium at 25 0 C by potentiometric titrations. It was reported in the previous works that cadmium (11)- aspartic acid complexes contained two chelate rings. However, a problem remained whether the second chelate ring could be formed by six membered-ring containing -O-Cd-N- bond or by seven membered-ring containing -O-Cd-O- bond. The results of the present work suggested that it would be formed by a six membered ring. Cadmium (11) ions were coordinated with a carboxylic group of the dicarboxylic acids studied, and formed no chelate ring within the complexes. The white precipitate appeared in the solution containing cadmium (11) ion and oxalic acid, in the pH range below 3.0, therefore, the chelate formation was not ascertained in this case. The formation constants, log βsub(pr)= log([Cdsub(p)Lsub(r)sup((2p-2r)+)]/([Cd 2+ ]sup(p)[L 2- ]sup(r))), of the complexes were: log β 11 = 1.98, log β 12 = 3.05 for cadmium (11)-malonic acid; log β 11 = 2.28, log β 12 = 3.06 for cadmium (11)-methylmalonic acid; log β 11 = 1.78, log β 12 = 3.08 for cadmium (11)-succinic acid; log β 11 = 1.85, log β 12 = 3.28 for cadmium (11)-glutaric acid complexes. (author)

  9. Ring Formation in Lime Kilns; Ringbildning i Mesaugnar II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhak, Janice [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-07-15

    The key to a cost efficient and high performance pulp production is low variations in the production level. Despite the fact that all pulp mills always work with improvements to eliminate problems with ring formations, AaF has at several mill seen that the operation of a lime kiln still often is disturbed by ring formation. In 1999 AAF made an extensive investigation of more than 10 lime kilns in Sweden, considering operational data, kiln data and lime chemical analyzes. The result pointed out the importance of how the lime kiln is operated and that dead load and contaminants in the lime was less important. The report suggested that it is the difference in the temperature between the flue gas and the lime that is of importance. There are no quantified process values available that guides for a 'best practice' way to run a lime kiln to avoid ring formation. The goal with this project has been to develop a strategy for operation of a kiln in a way that lowers the risk for ring formation. The results from simulations of a number of lime kilns in this project could not proof that a low difference in the temperature between the flue gas and the lime was the main cause of problems with ring formation and thus it was not possible to quantify the optimal difference to avoid rings. Probably the most important information from the simulations was that it is not the temperature difference in number of degrees that is of importance, rather the fact that the temperature difference in the kalcining zone varies, and time to time reach below the critical level were lime occasionally is cooled down. It can be the case if the temperature profile of the flue gas temporarily changes or if the lime mud temperature profile is changed. The reason for changes in the temperature profile is discussed in the report. The most important factors discussed are: Variations in the energy input e.g. oil and methanol/strong gases in cocombustion. One single fuel is easier to control

  10. COMPAR: system to compare multigroup cross sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 AND XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1987-11-01

    A system, composed by the computer programs COMPAR and its interfaces, developed for comparing multigroup cross sections calculated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS, is presented. (author)

  11. COMPAR: A system for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1988-02-01

    A system consisting of the COMPAR computer program and its interfaces which was developed for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS is presented. (author). 13 refs

  12. The Reliability of [C II] as a Star Formation Rate Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Looze Ilse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a calibration of the star formation rate (SFR as a function of the [C II] 157.74 μm luminosity for a sample of 24 star-forming galaxies in the nearby universe. In order to calibrate the SFR against the line luminosity, we rely on both GALEX FUV data, which is an ideal tracer of the unobscured star formation, and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm, to probe the dust-enshrouded fraction of star formation. For this sample of normal star-forming galaxies, the [C II] luminosity correlates well with the star formation rate. However, the extension of this relation to more quiescent (Hα EW≤10 Å or ultra luminous galaxies (LTIR ≥1012 L⊙ should be handled with caution, since these objects show a non-linearity in the L[C II]-to-LFIR ratio as a function of LFIR (and thus, their star formation activity. Two possible scenarios can be invoked to explain the tight correlation between the [C II] emission and the star formation activity on a global galaxy-scale. The first interpretation could be that the [C II] emission from photo dissociation regions arises from the immediate surroundings of actively star-forming regions and contributes a more or less constant fraction on a global galaxy-scale. Alternatively, we consider the possibility that the [C II] emission is associated to the cold interstellar medium, which advocates an indirect link with the star formation activity in a galaxy through the Schmidt law.

  13. Simultaneous determination of Hg(II)-Ag(I)-Cd(II) by conductometric titration using the formation of ternary complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Ichiro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Taga, Mitsuhiko; Hikime, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    A conductometric determination of Hg(II), Ag(I) and Cd(II) was carried out by using the insoluble ternary complex formation of the metal ions with iodide ion in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Recommended procedure is as follows; An aliquot of sample solution containing (14 -- 29) mg of Hg(II), (8 -- 16) mg of Ag(I), and (9 -- 17) mg of Cd(II) transfered into a 100 ml beaker. Add to acetate buffer and stoichiometric amounts of phen (40% ethanol-water solution). Amounts of nitrate ion which was estimated separately by other titration with 0.1 M Ag(phen) 2 complex (40% ethanol-water solution) are adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0) mM. The sample solution is titrated with 0.1 M KI standard solution at the rate of 0.20 ml/min or less. The titration curve showed three end-points corresponding to the formation of (1) Hg(phen) 2 I 2 , (2) Ag(phen)I, and (3) Cd(phen) 2 I 2 . The relative standard deviation was less than 0.8%, when the pH value was controlled at 4.0 -- 4.5 (acetate buffer) and the nitrate concentration was adjusted in the range of (4.0 -- 6.0)mM. The effect of diverse ions on the determination was also investigated in detail. (author)

  14. Effects of lead(II) on the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and colony formation of cultured Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Shu-lin; Dai, Wei; Xing, Ke-zhing; Yang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of lead(II) on the production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), including bound extracellular polysaccharides (bEPS) and soluble extracellular polysaccharides (sEPS), and the colony formation of Microcystis aeruginosa, cultures of M. aeruginosa were exposed to four concentrations (5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L) of lead(II) for 10 d under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L lead(II) stimulated M. aeruginosa growth throughout the experiment while 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) inhibited M. aeruginosa growth in the first 2 d exposure and then stimulated it. As compared to the control group, significant increases in the bEPS and sEPS production were observed in 20.0 and 40.0 mg/L lead(II) treatments (P bEPS production, which conversely promoted colony formation, suggesting that heavy metals might be contributing to the bloom-forming of M. aeruginosa in natural conditions.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimala, R., E-mail: vimararagu@yahoo.co.in [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Das, Nilanjana [School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-08-30

    Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q{sub max} 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q{sub max} 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

  16. The Formation of Metal (M=Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)) Complexes by Aminosilanes Immobilized within Mesoporous Molecular Sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Choe, Sang Joon

    1999-01-01

    The immobilization of APTMS(3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane) and AAPTMS(3-(2-(2-aminoethyl) aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane) on the surface of high quality mesoporous molecular sieves MCM-41 and MCM-48 have been confirmed by F.T.-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, 29 Si solid state NMR, and a surface polarity measurement using Reichardt's dye. The formation of metal (Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II)) complexes by immobilized aminosilanes have been investigated by photoacoustic spectroscopy(PAS). The assignment of UV-Vis. PAS bands makes it possible to identify the structure of metal complexes within mesoporous molecular sieves. Co(II) ion may be coordinated mainly in a tetrahedral symmetry by two APTMS onto MCM-41, and in an octahedral one by two AAPTMS. Both Ni(II) and Cu(II) coordinated by aminosilanes within MCM-41 form possibly the octahedral complexes such as [Ni(APTMS) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ , [Ni(AAPTMS) 2 ] 2+ , [Cu(APTMS) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2+ , and [Cu(AAPTMS)(H 2 O) 3 ] 2+ , respectively. The PAS band shapes of complexes onto MCM-48 are similar to those of corresponding MCM-41 with the variation of PAS intensity. Most of metal ion(II) within MCM-41 and MCM-48 are coordinated by aminosilanes without the impregnation on the surface

  17. Comparative study of the influence of antimony oxide additives (III) and nickel hydroxide (II) on electrochemical behavior of cadmium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadnikova, N.V.; Lvova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative study of the influence of additives indicated that with partial or complete replacement in the active mass of the cadmium electrode of nickel hydroxide (II) by antimony oxide (III), the electrochemical characteristics do not significantly change. During prolonged storage of charged cadmium electrodes the presence of nickel hydroxide (II) and intermetal compound (IMC) of cadmium with nickel is formed and the specific surface increases. In the case of adding antimony (III) formation of noticeable quantities of IMC of cadmium with antimony is not observed. The specific surface is reduced during storage.

  18. Dual pathway for angiotensin II formation in human internal mammary arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, AA; Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; Urata, H; Oosterga, M; Roos, G; Grandjean, JG; Ganten, D; van Gilst, WH

    1 Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is thought to be the main enzyme to convect antiotensin I to the vasoactive angiotensin II. Recently, in the human heart, it was found that the majority of angiotensin ZI formation was due to another enzyme, identified as human heart chymase. In the human

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of the Fe(II-III) hydroxy-formate green rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, P.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M. R.; Jeannin, M.

    2006-01-01

    A new methodology was envisioned in order to prepare green rust compounds build on organic anions that could intervene in microbiologically influenced corrosion processes of iron and steel. The formate ion was chosen as an example. The formation of rust was simulated by the oxidation of aqueous suspensions of Fe(OH) 2 precipitated from Fe(II) lactate and sodium hydroxide, in the presence of sodium formate to promote the formation of the corresponding green rust. The evolution of the precipitate with time was followed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy at 15 K. It was observed that the initial hydroxide was transformed into a new GR compound. Its spectrum is composed of three quadrupole doublets, D 1 (δ = 1.28 mm s -1 , Δ = 2.75 mm s -1 ) and D 2 (δ = 1.28 mm s -1 , Δ 2.48 mm s -1 ) that correspond to Fe(II) and D 3 (δ = 0.49 mm s -1 , Δ = 0.37 mm s -1 ) that corresponds to Fe(III). The relative area of D 3 , close to the proportion of Fe(III) in the GR, was found at 28.5 ± 1.5% (∼2/7). Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the intermediate compound was a Fe(II-III) hydroxy-formate, GR(HCOO - ).

  20. Star Formation and Young Population of the H II Complex Sh2-294

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Pandey, B.

    2012-08-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass (<4 M ⊙) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (~9 M ⊙) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ~24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ~ 4.5 × 106 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ~4 × 106 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  1. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG POPULATION OF THE H II COMPLEX Sh2-294

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Chauhan, N.; Jose, J.; Ojha, D. K.; Pandey, B.

    2012-01-01

    The Sh2-294 H II region ionized by a single B0V star features several infrared excess sources, a photodissociation region, and also a group of reddened stars at its border. The star formation scenario in this region seems to be quite complex. In this paper, we present follow-up results of Sh2-294 H II region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), coupled with H 2 (2.12 μm) observation, to characterize the young population of the region and to understand its star formation history. We identified 36 young stellar object (YSO, Class I, Class II, and Class I/II) candidates using IRAC color-color diagrams. It is found that Class I sources are preferentially located at the outskirts of the H II region and associated with enhanced H 2 emission; none of them are located near the central cluster. Combining the optical to mid-infrared (MIR) photometry of the YSO candidates and using the spectral energy distribution fitting models, we constrained stellar parameters and the evolutionary status of 33 YSO candidates. Most of them are interpreted by the model as low-mass ( ☉ ) YSOs; however, we also detected a massive YSO (∼9 M ☉ ) of Class I nature, embedded in a cloud of visual extinction of ∼24 mag. Present analysis suggests that the Class I sources are indeed a younger population of the region relative to Class II sources (age ∼ 4.5 × 10 6 yr). We suggest that the majority of the Class I sources, including the massive YSOs, are second-generation stars of the region whose formation is possibly induced by the expansion of the H II region powered by a ∼4 × 10 6 yr B0 main-sequence star.

  2. SPITZER ANALYSIS OF H II REGION COMPLEXES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS: DETERMINING A SUITABLE MONOCHROMATIC OBSCURED STAR FORMATION INDICATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Bracker, S.; Meade, M.; Block, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Misselt, K.; Bolatto, A. D.; Carlson, L. R.; Hora, J. L.; Robitaille, T.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Vijh, U. P.

    2010-01-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 A) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ∼10 to ∼400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (∼70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ∼ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ∼220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the

  3. NVU dynamics. II. Comparing to four other dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Trond; Toxværd, Søren; Schrøder, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -potential-energy hypersurface. Here, simulations of NVU dynamics are compared to results for four other dynamics, both deterministic and stochastic. First, NVU dynamics is compared to the standard energy-conserving Newtonian NVE dynamics by simulations of the Kob-Andersen binary Lennard-Jones liquid, its WCA version (i.......e., with cut-off's at the pair potential minima), and the Lennard-Jones Gaussian liquid. We find identical results for all quantities probed: radial distribution functions, incoherent intermediate scattering functions, and mean-square displacement as function of time. Arguments are presented...... on the constant-potential-energy hypersurface, and to Nos-Hoover NVT dynamics. If time is scaled for the two stochastic dynamics to make single-particle diffusion constants identical to that of NVE dynamics, the simulations show that all five dynamics are equivalent at low temperatures except at short times....

  4. Investigation on the formation of monomethylmercury(II) in the Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Wilken, R.D.; Gisder, P.

    1994-01-01

    Very little is known about transformation reactions of pollutants attached to suspended materials in the Elbe. In the present study, the influence of bacteria present in suspended particulate matter and in Elbe sediments, on dynamic transformations of mercury species was investigated. The formation of highly toxic monomethylmercury is more effective in the presence of organotin, - lead and arsenic compounds, via transmethylation reactions, than in the presence of biogenic methyldonors. Under oxic conditions, bacteria isolated from suspended particulate matter decompose methlmercury very rapidly to inorganic Hg(II), which is immobilized by the cells. In sediments, redox potential and pH value are important for the formation of methylmercury. Under anoxic conditions a pH of 6.5 is advantageous for the methylation of mercury(II)ions. (orig.) [de

  5. Cross section library DOSCROS77 (in the SAND-II format)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Borg, N.J.C.M. van der.

    1977-08-01

    The dosimetry cross section library DOSCROS77 is documented with tables, plots and cross section values averaged over a few reference spectra. This library is based on the ENDF/B-IV dosimetry file, supplemented with some other evaluations. The total number of reaction cross section sets incorporated in this library is 49 (+3 cover cross sections sets). The cross section data are available in a format which is suitable for the program SAND-II

  6. Data base formation for important components of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, R.; Mavko, B.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper represents specific data base formation for reactor TRIGA MARK II in Podgorica. Reactor operation data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. Two groups of collected data were formed. The first group includes components data and the second group covers data of reactor scrams. Time related and demand related models were used for data evaluation. Parameters were estimated by classical method. Similar data bases are useful everywhere where components unavailabilities may have severe drawback. (author) [sl

  7. Comparative study of adsorption properties of Turkish fly ashes II. The case of chromium (VI) and cadmium (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Belgin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this paper was to compare the removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from an aqueous solution using two different Turkish fly ashes; Afsin-Elbistan and Seyitomer as adsorbents. The influence of four parameters (contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration in solution and ash quality) on the removal at 20±2 deg. C was studied. Fly ashes were found to have a higher adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Cd(II) as compared to Cr(VI) and both Cr(VI) and Cd(II) required an equilibrium time of 2 h. The adsorption of Cr(VI) was higher at pH 4.0 for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash (25.46%) and pH 3.0 for Seyitomer fly ash (30.91%) while Cd(II) was adsorbed to a greater extent (98.43% for Afsin-Elbistan fly ash and 65.24% for Seyitomer fly ash) at pH 7.0. The adsorption of Cd(II) increased with an increase in the concentrations of these metals in solution while Cr(VI) adsorption decreased by both fly ashes. The lime (crystalline CaO) content in fly ash seemed to be a significant factor in influencing Cr(VI) and Cd(II) ions removal. The linear forms of the Langmuir and Freundlich equations were utilised for experiments with metal concentrations of 55±2 mg/l for Cr(VI) and 6±0.2 mg/l for Cd(II) as functions of solution pH (3.0-8.0). The adsorption of Cr(VI) on both fly ashes was not described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms while Cd(II) adsorption on both fly ashes satisfied only the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacities of both fly ashes were nearly three times less than that of activated carbon for the removal of Cr(VI) while Afsin-Elbistan fly ash with high-calcium content was as effective as activated carbon for the removal of Cd(II). Therefore, there are possibilities for use the adsorption of Cd(II) ions onto fly ash with high-calcium content in practical applications in Turkey

  8. Endothelial microparticle formation by angiotensin II is mediated via Ang II receptor type I/NADPH oxidase/ Rho kinase pathways targeted to lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Dylan; Montezano, Augusto C; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; He, Ying; Carter, Anthony; Touyz, Rhian M

    2011-08-01

    Circulating microparticles are increased in cardiovascular disease and may themselves promote oxidative stress and inflammation. Molecular mechanisms underlying their formation and signaling are unclear. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Rho kinase, and lipid rafts in microparticle formation and examined their functional significance in endothelial cells (ECs). Microparticle formation from angiotensin II (Ang II)-stimulated ECs and apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice was assessed by annexin V or by CD144 staining and electron microscopy. Ang II promoted microparticle formation and increased EC O(2)(-) generation and Rho kinase activity. Ang II-stimulated effects were inhibited by irbesartan (Ang II receptor type I blocker) and fasudil (Rho kinase inhibitor). Methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin, which disrupt lipid rafts/caveolae, blocked microparticle release. Functional responses, assessed in microparticle-stimulated ECs, revealed increased O(2)(-) production, enhanced vascular cell adhesion molecule/platelet-EC adhesion molecule expression, and augmented macrophage adhesion. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor blocked the prooxidative and proinflammatory effects of microparticles. In vitro observations were confirmed in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice, which displayed vascular inflammation and high levels of circulating endothelial microparticles, effects that were reduced by apocynin. We demonstrated direct actions of Ang II on endothelial microparticle release, mediated through NADPH oxidase, ROS, and Rho kinase targeted to lipid rafts. Microparticles themselves stimulated endothelial ROS formation and inflammatory responses. Our findings suggest a feedforward system whereby Ang II promotes EC injury through its own endothelial-derived microparticles.

  9. Neutronics comparative analysis between MNSR and slowpoke-II reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Khattab, K.

    1999-01-01

    Neutronics analysis of both MNSR and Slowpoke reactors were made. Calculations including flux distribution, power estimation, excess and shutdown reactivity margins, flooding effects of irradiation sites, and initial investigation of fuel conversion from high to low enriched uranium were discussed. A neutronic 3-D model, dedicated mainly for the MNSR, has been developed to perform such neutronic calculations for both reactors. Well-known cell and core calculation codes such as WIMSD4 and CITATIONS have been used. It was found out that it is possible to lower the fuel enrichment of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) to 20% using U O 2 as fuel instead of U Al 4 . The number of fuel elements required for the new core is 199. The use of double thickness of the bottom reflector in Slowpoke reactor made it possible to load the reactor with lower enriched fuel compared to MNSR. Values of reactivity flooding effects for single or combination of inner irradiation sites were obtained accurately. Results show good agreement with reported data for MNSR. (author)

  10. Rape in World War II film: comparing narrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzadevych, Tetyana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to show how the filmmaker’s genre of choice shapes the main discourse of the film. The author compares Helke Sander’s documentary Liberators Take Liberties (1991-1992 and Max Farberbock’s narrative feature A Woman in Berlin (2008 both dealing with the dramatic effect of the end of WWII, in particular with the instances of German women having been raped by the Allied troops, a theme first publicized in the anonymous diary A Woman in Berlin (1953. There is a clear connection between the book and the two films, but if Sander focuses on the rape itself and on the extraordinary female experience of war, Farberbock is more concerned with cross-national revenge. The author looks closer at the genre elements, particularly at the genres of the diary, the (feminist documentary, and the narrative film. Then, the author draws some parallels between the Helke Sander film and the diary A Woman of Berlin and discusses the documentaries within the feminist framework inspired by Sander’s accomplishments.

  11. Single-case synthesis tools II: Comparing quantitative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Pustejovsky, James E; Ledford, Jennifer R; Barton, Erin E; Severini, Katherine E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-07

    Varying methods for evaluating the outcomes of single case research designs (SCD) are currently used in reviews and meta-analyses of interventions. Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes-overlap measures (percentage non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and Tau) and parametric within-case effect sizes (standardized mean difference and log response ratio [increasing and decreasing])-were compared to determine if choice of synthesis method within and across classes impacts conclusions regarding effectiveness. The effectiveness of sensory-based interventions (SBI), a commonly used class of treatments for young children, was evaluated. Separately from evaluations of rigor and quality, authors evaluated behavior change between baseline and SBI conditions. SBI were unlikely to result in positive behavior change across all measures except IRD. However, subgroup analyses resulted in variable conclusions, indicating that the choice of measures for SCD meta-analyses can impact conclusions. Suggestions for using the log response ratio in SCD meta-analyses and considerations for understanding variability in SCD meta-analysis conclusions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specification and comparative calculation of enthalpies and Gibbs formation energies of anhydrous lanthanide nitrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del' Pino, Kh.; Chukurov, P.M.; Drakin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are the results of experimental depermination of formation enthalpies of waterless nitrates of lanthane cerium, praseodymium, neodymium and samarium. Using method of comparative calculation computed are enthalpies of formation of waterless lanthanide and yttrium nitrates. Calculated values of enthalpies and Gibbs energies of waterless lanthanide nitrate formation are tabulated

  13. E-learning interventions are comparable to user's manual in a randomized trial of training strategies for the AGREE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durocher Lisa D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines (PGs are systematically developed statements intended to assist in patient and practitioner decisions. The AGREE II is the revised tool for PG development, reporting, and evaluation, comprised of 23 items, two global rating scores, and a new User's Manual. In this study, we sought to develop, execute, and evaluate the impact of two internet interventions designed to accelerate the capacity of stakeholders to use the AGREE II. Methods Participants were randomized to one of three training conditions. 'Tutorial'--participants proceeded through the online tutorial with a virtual coach and reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II. 'Tutorial + Practice Exercise'--in addition to the Tutorial, participants also appraised a 'practice' PG. For the practice PG appraisal, participants received feedback on how their scores compared to expert norms and formative feedback if scores fell outside the predefined range. 'AGREE II User's Manual PDF (control condition'--participants reviewed a PDF copy of the AGREE II only. All participants evaluated a test PG using the AGREE II. Outcomes of interest were learners' performance, satisfaction, self-efficacy, mental effort, time-on-task, and perceptions of AGREE II. Results No differences emerged between training conditions on any of the outcome measures. Conclusions We believe these results can be explained by better than anticipated performance of the AGREE II PDF materials (control condition or the participants' level of health methodology and PG experience rather than the failure of the online training interventions. Some data suggest the online tools may be useful for trainees new to this field; however, this requires further study.

  14. Comparing Numerical Spall Simulations with a Nonlinear Spall Formation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, L.; Melosh, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    Spallation accelerates lightly shocked ejecta fragments to speeds that can exceed the escape velocity of the parent body. We present high-resolution simulations of nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface. Initial results show the acceleration of near-surface material to velocities up to 1.8 times greater than the peak particle velocity in the detached shock, while experiencing little to no shock pressure. These simulations suggest a possible nonlinear spallation mechanism to produce the high-velocity, low show pressure meteorites from other planets. Here we pre-sent the numerical simulations that test the production of spall through nonlinear shock interactions in the near sur-face, and compare the results with a model proposed by Kamegai (1986 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report). We simulate near-surface shock interactions using the SALES_2 hydrocode and the Murnaghan equation of state. We model the shock interactions in two geometries: rectangular and spherical. In the rectangular case, we model a planar shock approaching the surface at a constant angle phi. In the spherical case, the shock originates at a point below the surface of the domain and radiates spherically from that point. The angle of the shock front with the surface is dependent on the radial distance of the surface point from the shock origin. We model the target as a solid with a nonlinear Murnaghan equation of state. This idealized equation of state supports nonlinear shocks but is tem-perature independent. We track the maximum pressure and maximum velocity attained in every cell in our simula-tions and compare them to the Hugoniot equations that describe the material conditions in front of and behind the shock. Our simulations demonstrate that nonlinear shock interactions in the near surface produce lightly shocked high-velocity material for both planar and cylindrical shocks. The spall is the result of the free surface boundary condi-tion, which forces a pressure gradient

  15. Triggering the formation of the supergiant H II region NGC 604 in M 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachihara, Kengo; Gratier, Pierre; Sano, Hidetoshi; Tsuge, Kisetsu; Miura, Rie E.; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Formation mechanism of a supergiant H II region NGC 604 is discussed in terms of collision of H I clouds in M 33. An analysis of the archival H I data obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA) reveals complex velocity distributions around NGC 604. The H I clouds are composed of two velocity components separated by ˜20 km s-1 for an extent of ˜700 pc, beyond the size of the the H II region. Although the H I clouds are not easily separated in velocity with some mixed component represented by merged line profiles, the atomic gas mass amounts to 6 × 106 M_{⊙} and 9 × 106 M_{⊙} for each component. These characteristics of H I gas and the distributions of dense molecular gas in the overlapping regions of the two velocity components suggest that the formation of giant molecular clouds and the following massive cluster formation have been induced by the collision of H I clouds with different velocities. Referring to the existence of a gas bridging feature connecting M 33 with M 31 reported by large-scale H I surveys, the disturbed atomic gas possibly represents the result of past tidal interaction between the two galaxies, which is analogous to the formation of the R 136 cluster in the LMC.

  16. Sequestration and Distribution Characteristics of Cd(II) by Microcystis aeruginosa and Its Role in Colony Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangdong; Yan, Ran; Li, Fenxiang; Dai, Wei; Jiao, Kewei; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the sequestration and distribution characteristics of Cd(II) by Microcystis aeruginosa and its role in Microcystis colony formation, M. aeruginosa was exposed to six different Cd(II) concentrations for 10 days. Cd(II) exposure caused hormesis in the growth of M. aeruginosa . Low concentrations of Cd(II) significantly induced formation of small Microcystis colonies ( P bEPS) contents of M. aeruginosa significantly ( P 93% of Cd(II) was sequestrated in the groups with lower added concentrations of Cd(II). More than 80% of the sequestrated Cd(II) was bioadsorbed by bEPS. The Pearson correlation coefficients of exterior and interior factors related to colony formation of M. aeruginosa revealed that Cd(II) could stimulate the production of IPS and bEPS via increasing Cd(II) bioaccumulation and bioadsorption. Increased levels of cross-linking between Cd(II) and bEPS stimulated algal cell aggregation, which eventually promoted the formation of Microcystis colonies.

  17. [C II] 158 μm EMISSION AS A STAR FORMATION TRACER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera-Camus, R.; Bolatto, A. D.; Wolfire, M. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Croxall, K. V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C.; Boquien, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Helou, G. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F.; Meidt, S. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Draine, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sandstrom, K. M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Aniano, G. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS (UMR8617) Université Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, Orsay (France); Hunt, L. K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-02-10

    The [C II] 157.74 μm transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [C II] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [C II] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The uncertainty of the Σ{sub [C} {sub II]} – Σ{sub SFR} calibration is ±0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted Σ{sub [C} {sub II]} – Σ{sub SFR} correlation is valid over almost five orders of magnitude in Σ{sub SFR}, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [C II] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [C II] finds that heating efficiencies are 1%-3% in normal galaxies.

  18. A comparative transcriptomic approach to understanding the formation of cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pau; Soler, Marçal; Sánchez, Anna; Hoede, Claire; Noirot, Céline; Paiva, Jorge Almiro Pinto; Serra, Olga; Figueras, Mercè

    2018-01-01

    The transcriptome comparison of two oak species reveals possible candidates accounting for the exceptionally thick and pure cork oak phellem, such as those involved in secondary metabolism and phellogen activity. Cork oak, Quercus suber, differs from other Mediterranean oaks such as holm oak (Quercus ilex) by the thickness and organization of the external bark. While holm oak outer bark contains sequential periderms interspersed with dead secondary phloem (rhytidome), the cork oak outer bark only contains thick layers of phellem (cork rings) that accumulate until reaching a thickness that allows industrial uses. Here we compare the cork oak outer bark transcriptome with that of holm oak. Both transcriptomes present similitudes in their complexity, but whereas cork oak external bark is enriched with upregulated genes related to suberin, which is the main polymer responsible for the protective function of periderm, the upregulated categories of holm oak are enriched in abiotic stress and chromatin assembly. Concomitantly with the upregulation of suberin-related genes, there is also induction of regulatory and meristematic genes, whose predicted activities agree with the increased number of phellem layers found in the cork oak sample. Further transcript profiling among different cork oak tissues and conditions suggests that cork and wood share many regulatory mechanisms, probably reflecting similar ontogeny. Moreover, the analysis of transcripts accumulation during the cork growth season showed that most regulatory genes are upregulated early in the season when the cork cambium becomes active. Altogether our work provides the first transcriptome comparison between cork oak and holm oak outer bark, which unveils new regulatory candidate genes of phellem development.

  19. Comparative study of poloidal field systems for the torus II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque, L.; Ghazal, S.; Leloup, C.; Pariente, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1976-11-01

    Three types of transformer for the TORUS II experiment are compared: a saturated iron core transformer with an entire magnetic circuit, an air core transformer and a saturated iron core transformer restricted to the central limb [fr

  20. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  1. 47 CFR 73.4082 - Comparative broadcast hearings-specialized programming formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comparative broadcast hearings-specialized programming formats. 73.4082 Section 73.4082 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Comparative broadcast hearings—specialized programming formats. (a) See Memorandum Opinion and Order, FCC 80...

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Lipid Droplet Formation and Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM, a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, is caused by insufficient insulin production due to excessive loss of pancreatic β cells (type I diabetes or impaired insulin signaling due to peripheral insulin resistance (type II diabetes. Pancreatic β cell is the only insulin-secreting cell type that has highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER to cope with high demands of insulin synthesis and secretion. Therefore, ER homeostasis is crucial to the proper function of insulin signaling. Accumulating evidence suggests that deleterious ER stress and excessive intracellular lipids in nonadipose tissues, such as myocyte, cardiomyocyte, and hepatocyte, cause pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance, leading to type II diabetes. The excessive deposition of lipid droplets (LDs in specialized cell types, such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, and macrophages, has been found as a hallmark in ER stress-associated metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. However, much work remains to be done in understanding the mechanism by which ER stress response regulates LD formation and the pathophysiologic role of ER stress-associated LD in metabolic disease. This paper briefly summarizes the recent advances in ER stress-associated LD formation and its involvement in type II diabetes.

  3. Melanoidin formation in ethanolic monosaccharide – arylamine – copper (II systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepanov I. S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of melanoidin formation regularities at interaction of D-glucose and D-xylose with p-amino benzoic acid (PABA in acidic ethanolic media have been presented; features of the chosen threefold systems are, firstly, existence of the low-active amino-compound of benzene series, secondly, presence of catalytic amounts of the biogenic metal. Regularities of melanoidins structure formation from similar systems are almost not studied, at the same time some important biological properties are predicted for them that demands research of reactions' kinetics and development of techniques of their directional synthesis. Studying has been carried out by synthetic methods in total with a sample drawing technique with UV-Vis-spectrophotometry filing and engaging of FTIR-spectroscopy. Based on electronic spectra analysis more intensive melanoidin formation in case of reaction from D-xylose has been shown, this can be bound to steric hindrance and to ability of aldopentoses to give more reactionary capable intermediates in comparison with aldohexoses. The accelerating role of copper (II ions as the complexing center catalyzing both formation and degradation of the intermediate products at different reaction stages has been confirmed, at the same time the accelerating action is considerably shown since copper ion concentrations about 60 mg/l, but Cu(II chelation degree by final products is low. The effect of solvent has been noted, in particular the influence of ethanol on nature of amino-carbonyl interactions manifested in strengthening of carbohydrates tendency to re-cyclization, it also probably accelerates melanoidin formation. The data obtained have shown the percent of carbohydrates direct destruction (caramelization in the presented conditions is insignificant, that allows developing based on the present researches target synthetic techniques for melanoidin products' preparation.

  4. Madumycin II inhibits peptide bond formation by forcing the peptidyl transferase center into an inactive state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterman, Ilya A.; Khabibullina, Nelli F.; Komarova, Ekaterina S.; Kasatsky, Pavel; Kartsev, Victor G.; Bogdanov, Alexey A.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Konevega, Andrey L.; Sergiev, Petr V.; Polikanov, Yury S. (InterBioScreen); (UIC); (MSU-Russia); (Kurchatov)

    2017-05-13

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is limiting the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotics, which spurs a renewed interest in revisiting older and poorly studied drugs. Streptogramins A is a class of protein synthesis inhibitors that target the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the large subunit of the ribosome. In this work, we have revealed the mode of action of the PTC inhibitor madumycin II, an alanine-containing streptogramin A antibiotic, in the context of a functional 70S ribosome containing tRNA substrates. Madumycin II inhibits the ribosome prior to the first cycle of peptide bond formation. It allows binding of the tRNAs to the ribosomal A and P sites, but prevents correct positioning of their CCA-ends into the PTC thus making peptide bond formation impossible. We also revealed a previously unseen drug-induced rearrangement of nucleotides U2506 and U2585 of the 23S rRNA resulting in the formation of the U2506•G2583 wobble pair that was attributed to a catalytically inactive state of the PTC. The structural and biochemical data reported here expand our knowledge on the fundamental mechanisms by which peptidyl transferase inhibitors modulate the catalytic activity of the ribosome.

  5. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ke-Jung [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Whalen, Daniel J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Portsmouth University, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: ken.chen@nao.ac.jp [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablative flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.

  6. EPR study of complex formation between copper (II) ions and sympathomimetic amines in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preoteasa, E.A. [Inst. of Atomic Physics, IFIN, Bucharest (Romania); Duliu, O.G.; Grecu, V.V. [Bucharest, Univ. (Romania). Dept. of Atomic and Nuclear Physics

    1997-07-01

    The complex formation between sympathomimetic amines (SA): adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), ephedrine (ED) and p-tyramine (pTA), and Cu(II) ion in aqueous solution has been studied by X-band EPR at room temperature. Excepting pTA, all investigated SA yielded two types of complexes in different pH domains. All complexes consistent with a ligand fields having a distorted octahedral symmetry, i.e., hexacoordination of Cu(II). The covalence coefficient calculated from the isotropic g and A values has shown strong ionic sigma-type ligand bonds. A structural model with the Cu(II) ion bound by four catecholic O(hydroxy) atoms for the low pH complexes of AD, NA and DA is proposed. For the high pH complexes of the former compounds as well as for both Ed complexes, the authors suppose Cu(II) bound by two N (amino) and two O (hydroxy) atoms. The spectra are consistent to water binding on the longitudinal octahedron axis in all compounds excepting the high pH complex of Ed, where OH2- ions are bound. Possible implications for the SA-cell receptors interactions are discussed.

  7. Flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma: The HYPER-II experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Aramaki, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawazu, F.; Furuta, K.; Takatsuka, N.; Masuda, M.; Nakano, R.

    2015-01-01

    The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.

  8. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H 2 Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H 2 MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H 2 O and Cd(HMP) 2 x 2H 2 O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H 2 MP give Cd(MP) x H 2 O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1 0 C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO 4 in dioxane-water medium is logβ = 10.25 +- 0.05. (Author)

  9. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C. (Valencia Univ. (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H/sub 2/Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H/sub 2/MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H/sub 2/O and Cd(HMP)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H/sub 2/MP give Cd(MP) x H/sub 2/O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1/sup 0/C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO/sub 4/ in dioxane-water medium is log..beta.. = 10.25 +- 0.05.

  10. Exogenous surfactant application in a rat lung ischemia reperfusion injury model: effects on edema formation and alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic exogenous surfactant therapy is a promising way to attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion (I/R injury associated with lung transplantation and thereby to decrease the clinical occurrence of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little information on the mode by which exogenous surfactant attenuates I/R injury of the lung. We hypothesized that exogenous surfactant may act by limiting pulmonary edema formation and by enhancing alveolar type II cell and lamellar body preservation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exogenous surfactant therapy on the formation of pulmonary edema in different lung compartments and on the ultrastructure of the surfactant producing alveolar epithelial type II cells. Methods Rats were randomly assigned to a control, Celsior (CE or Celsior + surfactant (CE+S group (n = 5 each. In both Celsior groups, the lungs were flush-perfused with Celsior and subsequently exposed to 4 h of extracorporeal ischemia at 4°C and 50 min of reperfusion at 37°C. The CE+S group received an intratracheal bolus of a modified natural bovine surfactant at a dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight before flush perfusion. After reperfusion (Celsior groups or immediately after sacrifice (Control, the lungs were fixed by vascular perfusion and processed for light and electron microscopy. Stereology was used to quantify edematous changes as well as alterations of the alveolar epithelial type II cells. Results Surfactant treatment decreased the intraalveolar edema formation (mean (coefficient of variation: CE: 160 mm3 (0.61 vs. CE+S: 4 mm3 (0.75; p 3 (0.90 vs. CE+S: 0 mm3; p 3 (0.39 vs. CE+S: 268 mm3 (0.43; p 3(0.10 and CE+S (481 μm3(0.10 compared with controls (323 μm3(0.07; p Conclusion Intratracheal surfactant application before I/R significantly reduces the intraalveolar edema formation and development of atelectases but leads to an increased development of

  11. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H ∼ 22 cm –2 in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N H ∼> 10 22 cm –2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds

  12. Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of some integral cross section values for several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross section values are calculated with aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. (author)

  13. Comparative validity of MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E A

    1996-06-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) overlapping and nonoverlapping scales were demonstrated to perform comparably to their original MMPI forms. They were then evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) personality disorder scales. The MMPI-2 and MCMI-II personality disorder scales demonstrated convergent and discriminant coefficients similar to their original forms. However, the MMPI-2 personality scales classified significantly more of the sample as Dramatic, whereas the MCMI-II diagnosed more of the sample as Anxious. Furthermore, single-scale and 2-point code type classification rates were quite low, indicating that at the level of the individual, the personality disorder scales are not measuring comparable constructs. Hence, each instrument is providing similar and unique information, justifying their continued use together for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders.

  14. Comparative familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Romano, Mia; Graham, Rebecca K; Ricciardi, Tahlia

    2018-05-01

    We sought to quantify the prevalence and differential prevalence of a bipolar disorder among family members of patients with a bipolar I or II disorder. The sample comprised 1165 bipolar and 1041 unipolar patients, with the former then sub-typed as having either a bipolar I or II condition. Family history data was obtained via an online self-report tool. Prevalence of a family member having a bipolar disorder (of either sub-type) was distinctive (36.8%). Patients with a bipolar I disorder reported a slightly higher family history (41.2%) compared to patients with a bipolar II disorder (36.3%), and with both significantly higher than the rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar depressed patients (18.5%). Findings support the view that bipolar disorder is heritable. The comparable rates in the two bipolar sub-types support the positioning of bipolar II disorder as a valid condition with strong genetic underpinnings.

  15. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH)2[ZnCl4] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radanović, Mirjana M.; Jelić, Miodrag G.; Romčević, Nebojša Ž.; Boukos, Nikos; Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M.; Hadžić, Branka B.; Bajac, Branimir M.; Nađ, Laslo F.; Chandrinou, Chrysoula; Baloš, Sebastian S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results

  16. MASS TRANSPORT AND TURBULENCE IN GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1205 W. Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Forbes, John C., E-mail: ngoldbau@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Self-gravity and stellar feedback are capable of driving turbulence and transporting mass and angular momentum in disk galaxies, but the balance between them is not well understood. In the previous paper in this series, we showed that gravity alone can drive turbulence in galactic disks, regulate their Toomre Q parameters to ∼1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to fuel star formation in the centers of present-day galaxies. In this paper we extend our models to include the effects of star formation feedback. We show that feedback suppresses galaxies’ star formation rates by a factor of ∼5 and leads to the formation of a multi-phase atomic and molecular interstellar medium. Both the star formation rate and the phase balance produced in our simulations agree well with observations of nearby spirals. After our galaxies reach steady state, we find that the inclusion of feedback actually lowers the gas velocity dispersion slightly compared to the case of pure self-gravity, and also slightly reduces the rate of inward mass transport. Nevertheless, we find that, even with feedback included, our galactic disks self-regulate to Q ∼ 1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to supply a substantial fraction of the inner disk star formation. We argue that gravitational instability is therefore likely to be the dominant source of turbulence and transport in galactic disks, and that it is responsible for fueling star formation in the inner parts of galactic disks over cosmological times.

  17. Formation of singlet oxygen by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in photosystem II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Pathak

    Full Text Available Singlet oxygen (1O2 is formed by triplet-triplet energy transfer from triplet chlorophyll to O2 via Type II photosensitization reaction in photosystem II (PSII. Formation of triplet chlorophyll is associated with the change in spin state of the excited electron and recombination of triplet radical pair in the PSII antenna complex and reaction center, respectively. Here, we have provided evidence for the formation of 1O2 by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex. Protein hydroperoxide is formed by protein oxidation initiated by highly oxidizing chlorophyll cation radical and hydroxyl radical formed by Type I photosensitization reaction. Under highly oxidizing conditions, protein hydroperoxide is oxidized to protein peroxyl radical which either cyclizes to dioxetane or recombines with another protein peroxyl radical to tetroxide. These highly unstable intermediates decompose to triplet carbonyls which transfer energy to O2 forming 1O2. Data presented in this study show for the first time that 1O2 is formed by decomposition of protein hydroperoxide in PSII membranes deprived of Mn4O5Ca complex.

  18. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE GALACTIC H II REGION Sh2-297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm –3 and 9.15 × 10 5 cm –6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ∼7.'5 × 7.'5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H – K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ∼0.1-2 M ☉ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V–I) and NIR (J/J–H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ∼1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  19. Formation of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Metals(II) with Monoamine Complexones and Amino Acids in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyreu, D. F.; Gridchin, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The formation of mixed-ligand complexes in the M(II)-Nta, Ida-L (M = Cu(II), Ni, Zn, Co(II), L = Ser, Thr, Asp, Arg, Asn) systems, where Ida and Nta are the residues of iminodiacetic and nitrilotriacetic acids, respectively, is studied using pH measurements, calorimetry and spectrophotometry. The thermodynamic parameters (log K, Δr G 0, Δr H, Δr S) of their formation at 298.15 K and ionic strength I = 0.5 (KNO3) are determined. The most likely scenario of amino acid residue coordination in the composition of mixed complexes is discussed.

  20. The Role of Angiotensin II in Parietal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Crescent Formation in Glomerular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Novelli, Rubina; Rota, Cinzia; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Rottoli, Daniela; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis, in the development of those lesions. Herein, we elucidated sequential events and cellular and molecular interactions occurring during crescentic lesion onset and evolution. By analyzing kidney biopsy specimens of patients with extracapillary GN, divided according to the grade of glomerular lesions, we found that the accumulation of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinase-12 started manifesting in glomeruli affected by early-stage lesions, whereas AT 1 receptor expression could not be detected. In glomeruli with advanced lesions, AT 1 receptor expression increased markedly, and the up-regulation of SDF-1, and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 7, was documented on podocytes and PECs, respectively. In vitro studies were instrumental to demonstrating the role of ang II in inducing podocyte SDF-1 production, which ultimately activates PECs. The present findings support the possibility that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment might limit PEC activation and reduce the frequency and extension of crescents in extracapillary GN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the H II complex Sh2-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jessy; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Ojha, D. K.; Ogura, K.; Kim, J. S.; Kobayashi, N.; Goyal, A.; Chauhan, N.; Eswaraiah, C.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, an extensive survey of the star-forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history for the first time. This complex is composed of five prominent embedded clusters associated with the subregions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. We used Two Micron All Sky Survey-near-infrared and Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer photometry to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs) by their infrared (IR) excess emission. Using the IR colour-colour criteria, we identified 577 YSOs, of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disc YSOs, suggesting a moderately rich number of YSOs in this complex. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the subregions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram-based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the subregions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (˜0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (˜1-2 Myr) and the clusters NGC 2175s and Teu 136 are slightly evolved (˜2-3 Myr). Morphology of the region in the 1.1 mm map shows a semicircular shaped molecular shell composed of several clumps and YSOs bordering the western ionization front of Sh2-252. Our analyses suggest that next generation star formation is currently under way along this border and that possibly fragmentation of the matter collected during the expansion of the H II region as one of the major processes is responsible for such stars. We observed the densest concentration of YSOs (mostly Class I, ˜0.5 Myr) at the western outskirts of the complex, within a molecular clump associated with water and methanol masers and we suggest that it

  2. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  3. The Mechanism of Redox Reaction between Palladium(II Complex Ions and Potassium Formate in Acidic Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojnicki M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics studies of redox reaction between palladium(II chloride complex ions and potassium formate in acidic aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown, that the reduction reaction of Pd(II is selective in respect to Pd(II complex structure. The kinetic of the process was monitored spectrophotometrically. The influence of chloride ions concentration, Pd(II initial concentration, reductant concentration, ionic strength as well as the temperature were investigated in respect to the process dynamics. Arrhenius equation parameters were determined and are equal to 65.8 kJ/mol, and A = 1.12×1011 s−1.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  6. Roles of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in long-term memory formation in crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    Full Text Available Ca(2+/calmodulin (CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a key molecule in many systems of learning and memory in vertebrates, but roles of CaMKII in invertebrates have not been characterized in detail. We have suggested that serial activation of NO/cGMP signaling, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, Ca(2+/CaM and cAMP signaling participates in long-term memory (LTM formation in olfactory conditioning in crickets, and here we show participation of CaMKII in LTM formation and propose its site of action in the biochemical cascades. Crickets subjected to 3-trial conditioning to associate an odor with reward exhibited memory that lasts for a few days, which is characterized as protein synthesis-dependent LTM. In contrast, animals subjected to 1-trial conditioning exhibited memory that lasts for only several hours (mid-term memory, MTM. Injection of a CaMKII inhibitor prior to 3-trial conditioning impaired 1-day memory retention but not 1-hour memory retention, suggesting that CaMKII participates in LTM formation but not in MTM formation. Animals injected with a cGMP analogue, calcium ionophore or cAMP analogue prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention, and co-injection of a CaMKII inhibitor impaired induction of LTM by the cGMP analogue or that by the calcium ionophore but not that by the cAMP analogue, suggesting that CaMKII is downstream of cGMP production and Ca(2+ influx and upstream of cAMP production in biochemical cascades for LTM formation. Animals injected with an adenylyl cyclase (AC activator prior to 1-trial conditioning exhibited 1-day retention. Interestingly, a CaMKII inhibitor impaired LTM induction by the AC activator, although AC is expected to be a downstream target of CaMKII. The results suggest that CaMKII interacts with AC to facilitate cAMP production for LTM formation. We propose that CaMKII serves as a key molecule for interplay between Ca(2+ signaling and cAMP signaling for LTM formation, a new role of Ca

  7. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of nickel(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Giera, Edward [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2} and bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(HttfaS){sub 2} were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpy of sublimation of the monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) complex was measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean nickel(II)-ligand molar dissociation enthalpies, (Ni-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(cr)/(kJ.mol{sup -1})Diaquobis(dibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbm){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-993.3+/-3.8Diaquobis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}-2452.0+/-8.3Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)nickel(II), Ni(dbmS){sub 2}-42.1+/-5.9Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate)nickel(II), Ni(ttfaS){sub 2}-1473.5+/-8.1.

  8. Comparative study of copper(II)-curcumin complexes as superoxide dismutase mimics and free radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Atanu; Mishra, Beena; Kunwar, Amit; Kadam, Ramakant M; Shen, Liang; Dutta, Sabari; Padhye, Subhash; Satpati, Ashis K; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2007-04-01

    Two stoichiometrically different copper(II) complexes of curcumin (stoichiometry, 1:1 and 1:2 for copper:curcumin), were examined for their superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, free radical-scavenging ability and antioxidant potential. Both the complexes are soluble in lipids and DMSO. The formation constants of the complexes were determined by voltammetry. EPR spectra of the complexes in DMSO at 77K showed that the 1:2 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is square planar and the 1:1 Cu(II)-curcumin complex is distorted orthorhombic. Cu(II)-curcumin complex (1:1) with larger distortion from square planar structure shows higher SOD activity. These complexes inhibit gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and react with DPPH acting as free radical scavengers. One-electron oxidation of the two complexes by radiolytically generated azide radicals in Tx-100 micellar solutions produced phenoxyl radicals, indicating that the phenolic moiety of curcumin in the complexes participates in free radical reactions. Depending on the structure, these two complexes possess different SOD activities, free radical neutralizing abilities and antioxidant potentials. In addition, quantum chemical calculations with density functional theory have been performed to support the experimental observations.

  9. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics.

  11. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, S. G. [Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Burshtein, A. I. [Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot (Israel)

    2014-09-21

    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics.

  12. Kinetics of exciplex formation/dissipation in reaction following Weller Scheme II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorenko, S. G.; Burshtein, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of exciplexes from the charged products of photoionization is considered by means of Integral Encounter Theory. The general kinetic equations of such a reaction following the Weller scheme II are developed. The special attention is given to the particular case of irreversible remote ionization of primary excited electron donor. Kinetics of exciplex formation is considered at fast biexponential geminate transformation of exciplexes in cage that gives way to subsequent bulk reaction of equilibrated reaction products controlled by power law recombination of ions. It is shown that the initial geminate stage of exciplex kinetics is observed only in diffusion controlled regime of the reaction and disappears with increasing mobility of ions in passing to kinetic regime. The quantum yield of exciplexes is studied along with their kinetics

  13. Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part II: Formation Structure of Optimality for robust design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.

  14. Data base formation for important components of reactor TRIGA MARK II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R; Mavko, B; Kozuh, M [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    The paper represents specific data base formation for reactor TRIGA MARK II in Podgorica. Reactor operation data from year 1985 to 1990 were collected. Two groups of collected data were formed. The first group includes components data and the second group covers data of reactor scrams. Time related and demand related models were used for data evaluation. Parameters were estimated by classical method. Similar data bases are useful everywhere where components unavailabilities may have severe drawback. (author) [Slovenian] V referatu smo prikazali raziskavo, v okviru katere smo za raziskovalni reaktor TRIGA MARK II v Podgorici izoblikovali specificno bazo podatkov. Zbrali smo podatke obratovanja reaktorja od leta 1985 do 1990. Rezultate raziskave dogodkov smo razdelili v dve glavni skupini. V prvo spadajo obratovalni podatki o komponentah, v drugo skupino pa spadajo zagoni oz. zaustavitve reaktorja. Podatke smo ovrednotili z modelom v casovnem prostoru in z modelom na zahtevo. Parametre modelov smo dolocili s klasicno metodo. Opisane baze podatkov so uporabne povsod, kjer so lahko posledice nezanesljivega delovanja sistemov velike. [author].

  15. Thermodynamic model of Ni(II) solubility, hydrolysis and complex formation with ISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Siso, Maria Rosa; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Amphos21, Barcelona (Spain); Gaona, Xavier; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    2018-04-01

    The solubility of β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) was investigated at T=(22±2) C in the absence and presence of α-isosaccharinic acid (ISA), the main degradation product of cellulose under alkaline pH conditions. Batch solubility experiments were performed from undersaturation conditions under inert gas (Ar) atmosphere. Solubility experiments in the absence of ISA were conducted in 0.5 and 3.0 M NaCl-NaOH solutions at 7.5 ≤ pH{sub m} ≤ 13 (with pH{sub m} = -log{sub 10}[H{sup +}]). XRD analyses of selected solid phases collected after completing the solubility experiments (∼300 days) confirmed that β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) remains as solid phase controlling the solubility of Ni(II) in all investigated conditions. Based on the slope analysis (log{sub 10}[Ni] vs. pH{sub m}) of the solubility data and solid phase characterization, the equilibrium reactions β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr)+2 H{sup +} <=> Ni{sup 2+}+2 H{sub 2}O(l) and β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) <=> Ni(OH){sub 2}(aq) were identified as controlling the solubility of Ni(II) within the investigated pH{sub m} region. The conditional equilibrium constants determined from the solubility experiments at different ionic strengths were evaluated with the specific ion interaction theory (SIT). In contrast to the current thermodynamic selection in the NEA-TDB, solubility data collected in the present work does not support the formation of the anionic hydrolysis species Ni(OH){sub 3}{sup -} up to pH{sub m} ≤ 13.0. Solubility experiments in the presence of ISA were conducted in 0.5 M NaCl-NaOH-NaISA solutions with 0.01 M ≤ [NaISA] ≤ 0.2 M and 9 ≤ pH{sub m} ≤ 13. XRD analyses confirmed that β-Ni(OH){sub 2}(cr) is also the solid phase controlling the solubility of Ni(II) in the presence of ISA. Solubility data of all investigated systems can be properly explained with chemical and thermodynamic models including the formation of the complexes NiOHISA(aq), Ni(OH){sub 2}ISA{sup -} and Ni(OH){sub 3}ISA{sup 2-}. The reported data confirm

  16. Telomerase deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells attenuates angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, Hannes M; Gizard, Florence; Zhao, Yue; Cohn, Dianne; Heywood, Elizabeth B; Jones, Karrie L; Lovett, David H; Howatt, Deborah A; Daugherty, Alan; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2011-02-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are an age-related vascular disease and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we sought to determine whether the catalytic component of telomerase, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), modulates angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA formation. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr-/-) mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow-derived cells from TERT-deficient (TERT-/-) mice or littermate wild-type mice. Mice were placed on a diet enriched in cholesterol, and AAA formation was quantified after 4 weeks of Ang II infusion. Repopulation of LDLr-/- mice with TERT-/- bone marrow-derived cells attenuated Ang II-induced AAA formation. TERT-deficient recipient mice revealed modest telomere attrition in circulating leukocytes at the study end point without any overt effect of the donor genotype on white blood cell counts. In mice repopulated with TERT-/- bone marrow, aortic matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity was reduced, and TERT-/- macrophages exhibited decreased expression and activity of MMP-2 in response to stimulation with Ang II. Finally, we demonstrated in transient transfection studies that TERT overexpression activates the MMP-2 promoter in macrophages. TERT deficiency in bone marrow-derived macrophages attenuates Ang II-induced AAA formation in LDLr-/- mice and decreases MMP-2 expression. These results point to a previously unrecognized role of TERT in the pathogenesis of AAA.

  17. Comparison of integral cross section values of several cross section libraries in the SAND-II format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.

    1976-09-01

    A comparison of some integral cross-section values for several cross-section libraries in the SAND-II format is presented. The integral cross-section values are calculated with the aid of the spectrum functions for a Watt fission spectrum, a 1/E spectrum and a Maxwellian spectrum. The libraries which are considered here are CCC-112B, ENDF/B-IV, DETAN74, LAPENAS and CESNEF. These 5 cross-section libraries used have all the SAND-II format. Discrepancies between cross-sections in the different libraries are indicated but not discussed

  18. Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part II--solids separation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-05-30

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. The nature of the solids formed in turn impacts on dewatering behaviour. The 'upstream' solids formation determines a set of suspension characteristics: solids concentration, particle size distribution, solution ionic strength and electrostatic surface potential. These characteristics together define the suspension's rheological properties. However, the complicated interdependence of these has precluded the prediction of suspension rheology from such a fundamental description of suspension characteristics. Recent shear yield stress models, applied in this study to compressive yield, significantly reduce the empiricism required for the description of compressive rheology. Suspension compressibility and permeability uniquely define the dewatering behaviour, described in terms of settling, filtration and mechanical expression. These modes of dewatering may be described in terms of the same fundamental suspension mechanics model. In this way, it is possible to link dynamically the processes of solids formation and dewatering of the resultant suspension. This, ultimately, opens the door to improved operability of these processes. In part I of this paper we introduced an integrated system model for solids formation and dewatering. This model was demonstrated for the upstream processes using experimental data. In this current paper models of colloidal interactions and dewatering are presented and compared to experimental results from batch filtration tests. A novel approach to predicting suspension compressibility and permeability using a single test configuration is presented and tested.

  19. Droplet formation in microfluidic T-junction generators operating in the transitional regime. II. Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawdel, Tomasz; Elbuken, Caglar; Ren, Carolyn L

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part study on the generation of droplets at a microfluidic T-junction operating in the transition regime. In the preceding paper [Phys. Rev. E 85, 016322 (2012)], we presented our experimental observations of droplet formation and decomposed the process into three sequential stages defined as the lag, filling, and necking stages. Here we develop a model that describes the performance of microfluidic T-junction generators working in the squeezing to transition regimes where confinement of the droplet dominates the formation process. The model incorporates a detailed geometric description of the drop shape during the formation process combined with a force balance and necking criteria to define the droplet size, production rate, and spacing. The model inherently captures the influence of the intersection geometry, including the channel width ratio and height-to-width ratio, capillary number, and flow ratio, on the performance of the generator. The model is validated by comparing it to speed videos of the formation process for several T-junction geometries across a range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios.

  20. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) {beta}-diketonates and monothio-{beta}-diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: risilva@fc.up.pt; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) {beta}-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, (Cu-L), were derived. {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (cr){delta}{sub cr}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup o} kJ.mol{sup -1}kJ.mol{sup -1}Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm){sub 2}-364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa){sub 2}-1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS){sub 2}35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS){sub 2}-1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15].

  1. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of copper(II) β-diketonates and monothio-β-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Santos, Luis M.N.B.F.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p o =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the crystalline complexes of dibenzoylmethane (Hdbm), thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Httfa), monothiodibenzoylmethane (HdbmS), and monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetone (HttfaS) of copper(II) were determined, at T=298.15K, by high precision solution-reaction calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the copper(II) β-diketonate complexes were measured by high-temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the complexes in the gaseous state, the mean molar dissociation enthalpies copper(II)-ligand, m >(Cu-L), were derived. Δ f H m o (cr)Δ cr g H m o kJ.mol -1 kJ.mol -1 Bis(dibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbm) 2 -364.0+/-3.9230.7+/-8.2Bis(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)copper(II), Cu(ttfa) 2 -1824.3+/-8.3167.9+/-7.4Bis(monothiodibenzoylmethanate)copper(II), Cu(dbmS) 2 35.6+/-7.7[241+/-15]Bis(monothiothenoyltrifluoroacetonate) copper(II), Cu(ttfaS) 2 -1405.7+/-8.3[177+/-15

  2. Mechanisms of bands and spirals formation during the drying of watery solutions of mercury (II) chloride with agar-agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-DomInguez, Edgardo Jonathan; Betancourt-Mar, Juvencio Alberto

    2005-01-01

    It is proposed two mechanisms to explain the formation of periodic and non periodic bands and spirals as thin films of gelatinous aqueous solutions of mercury (II) chloride are dried. The first mechanism supposes an homogeneous drying, where the height of the film decreases at constant rate, forming Liesegang bands. The second mechanism implies a non homogeneous drying where an evaporation front drives the formation of periodic bands and spirals

  3. Formation of iron (hydr)oxides during the abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) in the presence of arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Jia, Shao-Yi; Yu, Bo; Wu, Song-Hai; Han, Xu

    2015-08-30

    Abiotic oxidation of Fe(II) is a common pathway in the formation of Fe (hydr)oxides under natural conditions, however, little is known regarding the presence of arsenate on this process. In hence, the effect of arsenate on the precipitation of Fe (hydr)oxides during the oxidation of Fe(II) is investigated. Formation of arsenic-containing Fe (hydr)oxides is constrained by pH and molar ratios of As:Fe during the oxidation Fe(II). At pH 6.0, arsenate inhibits the formation of lepidocrocite and goethite, while favors the formation of ferric arsenate with the increasing As:Fe ratio. At pH 7.0, arsenate promotes the formation of hollow-structured Fe (hydr)oxides containing arsenate, as the As:Fe ratio reaches 0.07. Arsenate effectively inhibits the formation of magnetite at pH 8.0 even at As:Fe ratio of 0.01, while favors the formation of lepidocrocite and green rust, which can be latterly degenerated and replaced by ferric arsenate with the increasing As:Fe ratio. This study indicates that arsenate and low pH value favor the slow growth of dense-structured Fe (hydr)oxides like spherical ferric arsenate. With the rapid oxidation rate of Fe(II) at high pH, ferric (hydr)oxides prefer to precipitate in the formation of loose-structured Fe (hydr)oxides like lepidocrocite and green rust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    Callose formation in barley mutants, lines and varieties with different genes for resistance to powdery mildew in seven different loci was compared. Only barley with resistance genes in the ml-o locus showed so early a callose formation passing off at such a high rate that it prevented fungal...... penetration Ml-(La) resistant varieties and near-isogenic lines in 'Manchuria' with resistance genes in 5 other loci showed only a tendency to a larger callose formation than their susceptible counterparts after inoculation with avirulent as well as virulent powdery mildew. The callose formation in ml......-o resistant barley was independent of the powdery mildew culture applied. This supports the hypothesis set forth as to why the ml-o mutants are resistant against all known cultures or races of barley powdery mildew, and why this resistance may be more durable than other powdery mildew resistances...

  5. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nakamura, Fumitaka [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Loo, Sven Van [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Christie, Duncan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Collins, David [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate giant molecular cloud collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of 3D, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region models that span the atomic-to-molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, especially: relative orientations between magnetic fields and density structures, like filaments; {sup 13}CO( J = 2-1), {sup 13}CO( J = 3-2), and {sup 12}CO( J = 8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra; and cloud virial parameters. We compare these results to observed Galactic clouds.

  6. How well do commonly used data presentation formats support comparative effectiveness evaluations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G; Qian, Feng; Veazie, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Good decisions depend on an accurate understanding of the comparative effectiveness of decision alternatives. The best way to convey data needed to support these comparisons is unknown. To determine how well 5 commonly used data presentation formats convey comparative effectiveness information. The study was an Internet survey using a factorial design. Participants consisted of 279 members of an online survey panel. Study participants compared outcomes associated with 3 hypothetical screening test options relative to 5 possible outcomes with probabilities ranging from 2 per 5000 (0.04%) to 500 per 1000 (50%). Data presentation formats included a table, a "magnified" bar chart, a risk scale, a frequency diagram, and an icon array. Outcomes included the number of correct ordinal judgments regarding the more likely of 2 outcomes, the ratio of perceived versus actual relative likelihoods of the paired outcomes, the intersubject consistency of responses, and perceived clarity. The mean number of correct ordinal judgments was 12 of 15 (80%), with no differences among data formats. On average, there was a 3.3-fold difference between perceived and actual likelihood ratios (95% confidence interval = 3.0-3.6). Comparative judgments based on flowcharts, icon arrays, and tables were all significantly more accurate and consistent than those based on risk scales and bar charts (P charts, and flow diagrams. None of the data presentation formats studied can reliably provide patients, especially those with low subjective numeracy, with an accurate understanding of comparative effectiveness information.

  7. Bifunctional RuII -Complex-Catalysed Tandem C-C Bond Formation: Efficient and Atom Economical Strategy for the Utilisation of Alcohols as Alkylating Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Bivas Chandra; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Shee, Sujan; Paul, Subhadeep; Kundu, Sabuj

    2016-12-12

    Catalytic activities of a series of functional bipyridine-based Ru II complexes in β-alkylation of secondary alcohols using primary alcohols were investigated. Bifunctional Ru II complex (3 a) bearing 6,6'-dihydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine (6DHBP) ligand exhibited the highest catalytic activity for this reaction. Using significantly lower catalyst loading (0.1 mol %) dehydrogenative carbon-carbon bond formation between numerous aromatic, aliphatic and heteroatom substituted alcohols were achieved with high selectivity. Notably, for the synthesis of β-alkylated secondary alcohols this protocol is a rare one-pot strategy using a metal-ligand cooperative Ru II system. Remarkably, complex 3 a demonstrated the highest reactivity compared to all the reported transition metal complexes in this reaction. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparing Emerging XML Based Formats from a Multi-discipline Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D. M.; Reich, L. I.; Nikhinson, S.

    2002-12-01

    This paper analyzes the similarity and differences among several examples of an emerging generation of Scientific Data Formats that are based on XML technologies. Some of the factors evaluated include the goals of these efforts, the data models, and XML technologies used, and the maturity of currently available software. This paper then investigates the practicality of developing a single set of structural data objects and basic scientific concepts, such as units, that could be used across discipline boundaries and extended by disciplines and missions to create Scientific Data Formats for their communities. This analysis is partly based on an effort sponsored by the ESDIS office at GSFC to compare the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) and the eXtensible Data Format( XDF), two members of this new generation of XML based Data Description Languages that have been developed by NASA funded efforts in recent years. This paper adds FITSML and potentially CDFML to the list of XML based Scientific Data Formats discussed. This paper draws heavily a Formats Evolution Process Committee (http://ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/fep/) draft white paper primarily developed by Lou Reich, Mike Folk and Don Sawyer to assist the Space Science community in understanding Scientific Data Formats. One of primary conclusions of that paper is that a scientific data format object model should be examined along two basic axes. The first is the complexity of the computer/mathematical data types supported and the second is the level of scientific domain specialization incorporated. This paper also discusses several of the issues that affect the decision on whether to implement a discipline or project specific Scientific Data Format as a formal extension of a general purpose Scientific Data Format or to implement the APIs independently.

  9. Formation factor in Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones: Theory compared with pore-scale numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Berg, Carl F.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate quantification of formation resistivity factor F (also called formation factor) provides useful insight into connectivity and pore space topology in fully saturated porous media. In particular the formation factor has been extensively used to estimate permeability in reservoir rocks. One of the widely applied models to estimate F is Archie's law (F = ϕ- m in which ϕ is total porosity and m is cementation exponent) that is known to be valid in rocks with negligible clay content, such as clean sandstones. In this study we compare formation factors determined by percolation and effective-medium theories as well as Archie's law with numerical simulations of electrical resistivity on digital rock models. These digital models represent Bentheimer and Fontainebleau sandstones and are derived either by reconstruction or directly from micro-tomographic images. Results show that the universal quadratic power law from percolation theory accurately estimates the calculated formation factor values in network models over the entire range of porosity. However, it crosses over to the linear scaling from the effective-medium approximation at the porosity of 0.75 in grid models. We also show that the effect of critical porosity, disregarded in Archie's law, is nontrivial, and the Archie model inaccurately estimates the formation factor in low-porosity homogeneous sandstones.

  10. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  11. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II oxalate precursor layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rückriem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS. Helium ion microscopy (HIM reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor.

  12. Exciplex formation of copper(II) octaethylporphyrin revealed by pulsed x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.X.; Shaw, G.B.; Liu, T.; Jennings, G.; Attenkofer, K.

    2004-01-01

    The triplet excited structures of Cu(II) octaethylporphyrin (CuOEP) in toluene and in 1:1 mixture of toluene and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were investigated by time-domain laser pulse pump, X-ray pulse probe X-ray absorption spectroscopy (pump-probe XAS) at room temperature using X-rays from a third generation synchrotron source with 100-ps time resolution. The transient optical absorption measurements indicate a strong solvent dependency of the triplet excited state lifetime due to the presence of oxygen-containing solvent molecules. While the ground state CuOEP molecules remain square-planar in both solvents, the attenuation of a peak attributed to the 1s → 4p z transition at the Cu K-edge for the laser excited CuOEP in the THF/toluene mixture revealed the penta-coordinated exciplex formation which is responsible for the shortening of the triplet excited state lifetime. Meanwhile, the average Cu-N distance in the triplet excited state is lengthened by 0.03 (angstrom) due to ligation with a THF solvent molecule, which agrees with a domed coordination structure for copper in the penta-coordinated exciplex.

  13. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 10 11 M ☉ , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H 2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H 2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  14. Dwarf galaxies with ionizing radiation feedback. II. Spatially resolved star formation relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-11-15

    AWe investigate the spatially resolved star formation relation using a galactic disk formed in a comprehensive high-resolution (3.8 pc) simulation. Our new implementation of stellar feedback includes ionizing radiation as well as supernova explosions, and we handle ionizing radiation by solving the radiative transfer equation rather than by a subgrid model. Photoheating by stellar radiation stabilizes gas against Jeans fragmentation, reducing the star formation rate (SFR). Because we have self-consistently calculated the location of ionized gas, we are able to make simulated, spatially resolved observations of star formation tracers, such as Hα emission. We can also observe how stellar feedback manifests itself in the correlation between ionized and molecular gas. Applying our techniques to the disk in a galactic halo of 2.3 × 1011 M , we find that the correlation between SFR density (estimated from mock Hα emission) and H2 density shows large scatter, especially at high resolutions of ≲ 75 pc that are comparable to the size of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). This is because an aperture of GMC size captures only particular stages of GMC evolution and because Hα traces hot gas around star-forming regions and is displaced from the H2 peaks themselves. By examining the evolving environment around star clusters, we speculate that the breakdown of the traditional star formation laws of the Kennicutt-Schmidt type at small scales is further aided by a combination of stars drifting from their birthplaces and molecular clouds being dispersed via stellar feedback.

  15. Hydroxyl Radical Formation from HULIS and Fe(II) Interactions: Fulvic Acid-Fe(II) Complexes in Simulated and Human Lung Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D.

    2017-12-01

    Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has long been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the causative agents and underlying mechanisms for these health effects have yet to be identified. One hypothesis is that PM2.5 deposited in the alveoli produce an excess of highly reactive radicals, leading to oxidative stress. The OH radical may be the most physiologically damaging, capable of oxidizing of lipids, proteins and DNA. Due to the variability and uncertainty in PM2.5 composition, the components that contribute to OH formation are not well understood. Soluble Fe is a component of PM2.5that produces OH under physiological conditions. Humic-like substances are water soluble organics found in biomass burning and tobacco smoke. Humic-like substances are capable of binding to Fe and enhancing OH formation, but this chemistry is not well understood. In this work, we use soil derived fulvic acid as a surrogate for Humic-like substances and investigate its effect on OH formation from Fe(II) under conditions relevant to the lungs. We use a fluorescent OH trapping probe, chemical kinetics and thermodynamic modeling to investigate OH formation from fulvic acid and Fe(II) dissolved in simulated and human lung fluids. In simulated lung fluid, we find that fulvic acid binds to Fe(II) and enhances the rate of key reactions that form OH. When fulvic acid is added to human lung fluids containing Fe(II), an enhancement of OH formation is observed. In human lung fluid, fulvic acid and metal binding proteins compete for Fe binding. These metal binding proteins are typically not found in simulated lung fluids. Results show that fulvic acid strongly binds Fe(II) and catalyzes key reactions that form OH in both simulated and human lung fluids. These results may help explain the role of Humic-like substances and Fe in oxidative stress and adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, we suggest that future studies employ simulated lung fluids containing metal binding proteins

  16. An evolutionary model for collapsing molecular clouds and their star formation activity. II. Mass dependence of the star formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the evolution and dependence on cloud mass of the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of star-forming molecular clouds (MCs) within the scenario that clouds are undergoing global collapse and that the SFR is controlled by ionization feedback. We find that low-mass clouds (M {sub max} ≲ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) spend most of their evolution at low SFRs, but end their lives with a mini-burst, reaching a peak SFR ∼10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}, although their time-averaged SFR is only (SFR) ∼ 10{sup 2} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1}. The corresponding efficiencies are SFE{sub final} ≲ 60% and (SFE) ≲ 1%. For more massive clouds (M {sub max} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), the SFR first increases and then reaches a plateau because the clouds are influenced by stellar feedback since earlier in their evolution. As a function of cloud mass, (SFR) and (SFE) are well represented by the fits (SFR) ≈ 100(1 + M {sub max}/1.4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 1.68} M {sub ☉} Myr{sup –1} and (SFE) ≈ 0.03(M {sub max}/2.5 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}){sup 0.33}, respectively. Moreover, the SFR of our model clouds follows closely the SFR-dense gas mass relation recently found by Lada et al. during the epoch when their instantaneous SFEs are comparable to those of the clouds considered by those authors. Collectively, a Monte Carlo integration of the model-predicted SFR(M) over a Galactic giant molecular cloud mass spectrum yields values for the total Galactic SFR that are within half an order of magnitude of the relation obtained by Gao and Solomon. Our results support the scenario that star-forming MCs may be in global gravitational collapse and that the low observed values of the SFR and SFE are a result of the interruption of each SF episode, caused primarily by the ionizing feedback from massive stars.

  17. A High Sensitivity Micro Format Chemiluminescence Enzyme Inhibition Assay for Determination of Hg(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchanmala Deshpande

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive and specific enzyme inhibition assay based on alcohol oxidase (AlOx and horseradish peroxidase (HRP for determination of mercury Hg(II in water samples has been presented. This article describes the optimization and miniaturization of an enzymatic assay using a chemiluminescence reaction. The analytical performance and detection limit for determination of Hg(II was optimized in 96 well plates and further extended to 384 well plates with a 10-fold reduction in assay volume. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by dissolved Hg(II was found to be linear in the range 5–500 pg.mL−1 with 3% CVin inter-batch assay. Due to miniaturization of assay in 384 well plates, Hg(II was measurable as low as 1 pg.mL−1 within15 min. About 10-fold more specificity of the developed assay for Hg(II analysis was confirmed by challenging with interfering divalent metal ions such as cadmium Cd(II and lead Pb(II. Using the proposed assay we could successfully demonstrate that in a composite mixture of Hg(II, Cd(II and Pb(II, inhibition by each metal ion is significantly enhanced in the presence of the others. Applicability of the proposed assay for the determination of the Hg(II in spiked drinking and sea water resulted in recoveries ranging from 100–110.52%.

  18. Evaluation of Apical Vapor Lock Formation and comparative Evaluation of its Elimination using Three different Techniques: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anand; Deore, Rahul B; Rudagi, Kavitarani; Nanda, Zinnie; Baig, Mirza Osman; Fareez, Md Adil

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was (i) to evaluate the formation of air bubbles in the apical region of root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and (ii) comparative evaluation of the elimination of an established vapor lock by EndoActivator, ultrasonics, and manual dynamic agitation (MDA), using CBCT. A total of 60 extracted human single-rooted teeth were equally divided into three groups of 20 teeth each. The samples were decoronated 17 mm from the apex, cleaned, and shaped to size F4 Protaper using 3% sodium hypochlorite. Samples were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite + cesium chloride radiopaque dye, and preoperative CBCT images were obtained. After formation of apical vapor lock in the scanned teeth, EndoActivator (group I), passive ultrasonic irrigation (group II), and MDA with K-file (group III) were performed and the teeth were again placed in CBCT scanner and results analyzed using the chi-square test. The apical vapor lock was formed in all the samples. Out of the 20 teeth in each group, the apical vapor lock was eliminated in 18 samples of EndoActivator group (90%), 16 samples of ultrasonic group (80%), while it was eliminated in 10 samples by MDA (50%). It is concluded that (1) apical vapor lock is consistently formed during endodontic irrigation in closed canal systems and (2) sonic activation performs better than the ultrasonics and MDA in eliminating the apical vapor lock, with statistically significant difference between all the three groups (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the apical vapor lock (dead water zone) is consistently formed during routine endodontic irrigation which impedes irrigant penetration till the working length, thereby leading to inefficient debridement. Hence, to eliminate this vapor lock, techniques, such as sonics or ultrasonics should be used along with the irrigant after shaping and cleaning of the root canal.

  19. Management of peripheral arterial disease patients: comparing the ACC/AHA and TASC-II guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Emile; Giri, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular events. Despite this, PAD is often undiagnosed and, therefore, undertreated. The purpose of this review is to highlight and provide clinical insight into the similarities and differences between the available PAD treatment guidelines developed by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus II (TASC II) working group. Recommendations from the ACC/AHA 2005 Practice Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease (Lower Extremity, Renal, Mesenteric, and Abdominal Aortic) and TASC II Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial users for personal Disease, initiated in 2004 and published in 2007, were compared. Supplemental information was obtained by searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases using relevant terms. Unintentional bias may have been introduced into the manuscript by not performing a systematic review of the literature with pre-defined search terms. While some variation exists in the content of the recommendations, both documents agree on the need for aggressive management of patients with PAD. In spite of these recommendations, there is a general lack of adherence to the current guidelines-a critical concern considering the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. However, the results of ongoing clinical trials may serve to increase awareness of the importance of aggressive management of PAD.

  20. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of lineages I, II, and III strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hain Torsten

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes infections with a high-mortality rate and has served as an invaluable model for intracellular parasitism. Here, we report complete genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains belonging to serotype 4a (L99 and 4b (CLIP80459, and transcriptomes of representative strains from lineages I, II, and III, thereby permitting in-depth comparison of genome- and transcriptome -based data from three lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lineage III, represented by the 4a L99 genome is known to contain strains less virulent for humans. Results The genome analysis of the weakly pathogenic L99 serotype 4a provides extensive evidence of virulence gene decay, including loss of several important surface proteins. The 4b CLIP80459 genome, unlike the previously sequenced 4b F2365 genome harbours an intact inlB invasion gene. These lineage I strains are characterized by the lack of prophage genes, as they share only a single prophage locus with other L. monocytogenes genomes 1/2a EGD-e and 4a L99. Comparative transcriptome analysis during intracellular growth uncovered adaptive expression level differences in lineages I, II and III of Listeria, notable amongst which was a strong intracellular induction of flagellar genes in strain 4a L99 compared to the other lineages. Furthermore, extensive differences between strains are manifest at levels of metabolic flux control and phosphorylated sugar uptake. Intriguingly, prophage gene expression was found to be a hallmark of intracellular gene expression. Deletion mutants in the single shared prophage locus of lineage II strain EGD-e 1/2a, the lma operon, revealed severe attenuation of virulence in a murine infection model. Conclusion Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of L. monocytogenes strains from three lineages implicate prophage genes in intracellular adaptation and indicate that gene loss and decay may have led to the emergence

  1. Comparative three-dimensional analysis of initial biofilm formation on three orthodontic bracket materials

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Hellemann, Carolina Fuchslocher; Grade, Sebastian; Heuer, Wieland; Stiesch, Meike; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Demling, Anton Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare early biofilm formation on biomaterials, which are being used in contemporary fixed orthodontic treatment. Methods This study comprised 10 healthy volunteers (5 females and 5 males) with a mean age of 27.3?+?3.7?years. Three slabs of different orthodontic materials (stainless steel, gold and ceramic) were placed in randomized order on a splint in the mandibular molar region. Splints were inserted intraorally for 48?h...

  2. Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    materials are available upon request: • Online questionnaire for baseline data collection (9 pages) • Online parent survey for time point 1 (69 pages...web-based parenting intervention for military families with school-aged children, we expect to strengthen parenting practices in families and...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0143 TITLE: Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  3. The Structure of the Young Star Cluster NGC 6231. II. Structure, Formation, and Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Sills, Alison; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Medina, Nicolás; Borissova, Jordanka; Kurtev, Radostin

    2017-12-01

    The young cluster NGC 6231 (stellar ages ˜2-7 Myr) is observed shortly after star formation activity has ceased. Using the catalog of 2148 probable cluster members obtained from Chandra, VVV, and optical surveys (Paper I), we examine the cluster’s spatial structure and dynamical state. The spatial distribution of stars is remarkably well fit by an isothermal sphere with moderate elongation, while other commonly used models like Plummer spheres, multivariate normal distributions, or power-law models are poor fits. The cluster has a core radius of 1.2 ± 0.1 pc and a central density of ˜200 stars pc-3. The distribution of stars is mildly mass segregated. However, there is no radial stratification of the stars by age. Although most of the stars belong to a single cluster, a small subcluster of stars is found superimposed on the main cluster, and there are clumpy non-isotropic distributions of stars outside ˜4 core radii. When the size, mass, and age of NGC 6231 are compared to other young star clusters and subclusters in nearby active star-forming regions, it lies at the high-mass end of the distribution but along the same trend line. This could result from similar formation processes, possibly hierarchical cluster assembly. We argue that NGC 6231 has expanded from its initial size but that it remains gravitationally bound.

  4. Fungal oxidative dissolution of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite and the role of metabolites in manganese oxide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuanzhi; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Hansel, Colleen M

    2013-04-01

    Microbially mediated oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides influences the cycling of metals and remineralization of carbon. Despite the prevalence of Mn(II)-bearing minerals in nature, little is known regarding the ability of microbes to oxidize mineral-hosted Mn(II). Here, we explored oxidation of the Mn(II)-bearing mineral rhodochrosite (MnCO3 ) and characteristics of ensuing Mn oxides by six Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi. All fungal species substantially enhanced rhodochrosite dissolution and surface modification. Mineral-hosted Mn(II) was oxidized resulting in formation of Mn(III/IV) oxides that were all similar to δ-MnO2 but varied in morphology and distribution in relation to cellular structures and the MnCO3 surface. For four fungi, Mn(II) oxidation occurred along hyphae, likely mediated by cell wall-associated proteins. For two species, Mn(II) oxidation occurred via reaction with fungal-derived superoxide produced at hyphal tips. This pathway ultimately resulted in structurally unique Mn oxide clusters formed at substantial distances from any cellular structure. Taken together, findings for these two fungi strongly point to a role for fungal-derived organic molecules in Mn(III) complexation and Mn oxide templation. Overall, this study illustrates the importance of fungi in rhodochrosite dissolution, extends the relevance of biogenic superoxide-based Mn(II) oxidation and highlights the potential role of mycogenic exudates in directing mineral precipitation. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  6. Fe(II)-regulated moderate pre-oxidation of Microcystis aeruginosa and formation of size-controlled algae flocs for efficient flotation of algae cell and organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2018-06-15

    The coagulation/flocculation/flotation (C/F/F) process is becoming a popular method for algae-laden water treatment. However, the efficiency of flotation is highly dependent on the ability of the preceding coagulation/flocculation process to form flocculated algae flocs. This study aims to improve the Microcystis aeruginosa flotation efficiency from algae cell and organic matter aspects by applying Fe(II)-regulated pretreatment enhanced Al coagulation process. The ability of the C/F/F process to remove cyanobacterial cells can be enhanced from 8% to 99% at a Fe(II) dose of 30 μM. The Al dose needed can be reduced by more than half while achieving successful flotation. The introduced Fe(II) after KMnO 4 can not only realize moderate pre-oxidation of cyanobacterial cells, but also form in-situ Fe(III). The DOC value can also be decreased significantly due to the formation of in-situ Fe(III), which is more efficient in dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal compared with pre-formed Fe(III). In addition, the gradually hydrolyzed in-situ Fe(III) can facilitate the hydrolysis of Al as a dual-coagulant and promote the clustering and cross-linking of Al hydrolyzates, which can enhance the formation of size-controlled algae flocs. Finally, the size-controlled algae flocs can be effectively floated by the bubbles released in the flotation process due to the efficient collision and attachment between flocs and bubbles. Therefore, the efficient flotation of algae cell and organic matter can be realized by the Fe(II) regulated moderate pre-oxidation of M. aeruginosa and formation of size-controlled algae flocs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  8. Picosecond kinetics of the electron-hole layers formation in wide-bandgap II-VI type-II heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filatov, E.V.; Zaitsev, S.V.; Tartakovskii, I.I.; Maksimov, A.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D.R. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Experimentelle Physik II, Technische Universitaet Dortmund (Germany); Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Considerable slowdown of luminescence kinetics of the direct optical transition was discovered in ZnSe/BeTe type-II heterostructures under high levels of optical pumping. The effect is attributed to forming of a potential barrier for holes in the ZnSe layer due to band bending at high densities of spatially separated carriers. That results in a longer time of the photoexcited holes energy relaxation to their ground state in the BeTe layer. The decrease of overlapping of electron and hole wavefunctions in the ZnSe layer in thick ZnSe/BeTe structures at high levels of optical excitation reveals an additional important effect, that leads to sufficient retardation of radiative recombination time for photoexcited carriers (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City TN 37614 (United States); Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Struck, Curtis, E-mail: smithbj@etsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  10. Comparative effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, S.; Hayashi, T.

    1994-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine was irradiated in the state of a film or liposome with gamma-rays or electron beams, and the amount of peroxide was determined to compare the effects of the two types of radiation. The amounts of peroxide formed in both the film and liposome with gamma-rays were significantly larger than those with electron beams, when the samples were irradiated at the same dose. Proteins such as bacteriorhodopsin reduced the degree of peroxide formation in liposome, and the effect of gamma-rays was much larger than that of electron beams, even in the presence of protein. The results of the present investigation indicate that the effects of gamma-rays on peroxide formation in phosphatidylcholine were significantly larger than those of electron beams, irrespective of the state of the lipid

  11. A study on complex formation of cadmium(II) ions, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Haruo; Hirabayashi, Yoshihiro

    1984-01-01

    In the potentiometric titration of the solution containing a cadmium(II) ion and an amino acid, white precipitates often appear in the test solution, and they disturb the emf measurements. Such precipitates were formes in the solutions, pH ranging 7.5--8.5, during the course of titrations of the test solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and amino acid such as glycine, α-alanine. 2-aminobutanoic acid, 3-aminobutanoic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, 2-aminopentanoic acid, 5-aminopentanoic acid, 2-aminohexanoic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, or glutamine. The identification of the precipitates obtained from the solutions containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid, 4-aminobutanoic acid, or 6-aminohexanoic acid were carried out by both of elemental analysis and the infrared spectroscopy. These results indicated that the precipitate obtained from the solution containing cadmium(II) ion and L-aspartic acid was 1:1 cadmium(II)-L-aspartic acid complex and did not contain any cadmium(II) hydroxide, and other two precipitates were mostly cadmium(II) hydroxide and contained a little cadmium(II)-amino acid complexes. (author)

  12. IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION. V. [Ne ii], MULTIPLE CLUSTERS, HIGH EFFICIENCY STAR FORMATION, AND BLUE FLOWS IN HE 2–10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Sara; Turner, Jean; Lacy, John; Greathouse, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We measured the 12.8 μm [Ne ii] line in the dwarf starburst galaxy He 2–10 with the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the NASA IRTF. The data cube has a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of ∼1″ and a total velocity resolution, including thermal broadening, of ∼5 km s −1 . This makes it possible to compare the kinematics of individual star-forming clumps and molecular clouds in the three dimensions of space and velocity, and allows us to determine star formation efficiencies. The kinematics of the ionized gas confirm that the starburst contains multiple dense clusters. From the M/R of the clusters and the ≃30%–40% star formation efficiencies, the clusters are likely to be bound and long lived, like globulars. Non-gravitational features in the line profiles show how the ionized gas flows through the ambient molecular material, as well as a narrow velocity feature, which we identify with the interface of the H ii region and a cold dense clump. These data offer an unprecedented view of the interaction of embedded H ii regions with their environment

  13. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  14. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  15. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. II. Spatially Resolved Star Formation History of the Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Annibali, F.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Sabbi, E.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present a detailed study of the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 based on both archival and new photometric data from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3. Thanks to its proximity (D = 3.82 ± 0.27 Mpc), we reach stars 3 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch in the F814W filter. The recovered star formation history (SFH) spans the whole Hubble time, but due to the age–metallicity degeneracy of the red giant branch stars, it is robust only over the lookback time reached by our photometry, i.e., ∼3 Gyr. The most recent peak of star formation (SF) is around 10 Myr ago. The average surface density SF rate over the whole galaxy lifetime is 0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1 kpc‑2. From our study, it emerges that NGC 4449 has experienced a fairly continuous SF regime in the last 1 Gyr, with peaks and dips whose SF rates differ only by a factor of a few. The very complex and disturbed morphology of NGC 4449 makes it an interesting galaxy for studies of the relationship between interactions and starbursts, and our detailed and spatially resolved analysis of its SFH does indeed provide some hints on the connection between these two phenomena in this peculiar dwarf galaxy. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. C ii RADIATIVE COOLING OF THE GALATIC DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: INSIGHT INTO THE STAR FORMATION IN DAMPED Ly α SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Nirupam [Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Frank, Stephan; Mathur, Smita [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolfe, Arthur M., E-mail: nroy@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    The far-infrared [C ii] 158 μ m fine structure transition is considered to be a dominant coolant in the interstellar medium (ISM). For this reason, under the assumption of a thermal steady state, it may be used to infer the heating rate and, in turn, the star formation rate (SFR) in local as well as in high redshift systems. In this work, radio and ultraviolet observations of the Galactic ISM are used to understand whether C ii is indeed a good tracer of the SFR. For a sample of high Galactic latitude sightlines, direct measurements of the temperature indicate the presence of C ii in both the cold and the warm phases of the diffuse interstellar gas. The cold gas fraction (∼10%–50% of the total neutral gas column density) is not negligible even at high Galactic latitude. It is shown that to correctly estimate the SFR, C ii cooling in both phases should hence be considered. The simple assumption, that the [C ii] line originates only from either the cold or the warm phase, significantly underpredicts or overpredicts the SFR, respectively. These results are particularly important in the context of Damped Ly α systems for which a similar method is often used to estimate the SFR. The derived SFRs in such cases may not be reliable if the temperature of the gas under consideration is not constrained independently.

  17. Comparative review of foam formation in biogas plants and ruminant bloat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Lucie; Goersch, Kati; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Mueller, Roland Arno [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Environmental and Biotechnology Centre; Neuhaus, Juergen [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Bacteriology and Mycology

    2012-12-15

    This review gives an overview of the current knowledge concerning the problem of foam formation in the process of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants that utilize renewable resources or biogenic waste material for biogas production. Process upsets in biogas production induced by foam formation can have a negative impact on the efficiency of biogas plants. The foam can block gas pipes and cause severe damage to the bioreactor equipment, ranging from a failure of the feeders to a damage of the roof of the biogas plant. The most common foam removal methods - stirring in the foam, adding anti-foaming agents, diminishing substrate feeding, and altering the biogas reactor management - are not always successful. However, the reasons for the excessive foam formation during the biogas production process have not yet been elucidated in detail. In contrast, foam building in the rumen of ruminants as a cause for bloat has been studied thoroughly. In general, the interaction between proteins, polysaccharides (mucilage), and small plant particles is assumed to be the crucial factor. As the fermentation process in the rumen has many similarities with the biogas production process, the current research results on bloat in ruminants are summarized and compared with the process of foaming in biogas plants. (orig.)

  18. Comparing Person-Centered Communication Education in Long-Term Care Using Onsite and Online Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carissa K; Fanning, Kim; Williams, Kristine N

    2015-11-01

    Educating nursing home (NH) staff to provide person-centered care is complicated by scheduling, costs, and other feasibility issues. The current study compared outcomes for an in-service program focused on person-centered communication provided in onsite and online formats. The Changing Talk program was provided onsite in seven NHs (n = 327 staff). The online program included eight NHs (n = 211 staff). Analysis of variance revealed an interaction between format type and pre-/post-test scores with improved recognition of person-centered communication in the onsite group only. Group program evaluations based on the modified Diffusion of Innovation in Long-Term Care Battery indicated no significant differences between training formats. Staff perception of the program was similar. Although statistically significant gains were noted in posttest scores indicating awareness of person-centered communication for the onsite group, gains were of limited clinical significance. Feasibility and effectiveness are important considerations for in-service education supporting NH culture change. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Coefficient of Friction at the Fingertips in Type II Diabetics Compared to Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Beatriz H; Gorniak, Stacey L

    2017-07-01

    Clinical observations suggest that type II diabetes patients are more susceptible to skin changes, which may be associated with reduced coefficient of friction at the fingertips. Reduced coefficient of friction may explain recent reports of fine motor dysfunction in diabetic patients. Coefficient of friction was evaluated using slip force evaluation in a cross-sectional cohort of diabetic patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Covariates of tactile sensation, disease duration, glycated hemoglobin, and clinical diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy were also assessed. A significant decrease in fingertip coefficient of friction in the diabetic group was found as compared to controls. Health state covariates did not alter the strength of between-group differences in statistical analyses. This finding of between-group differences for fingertip frictional properties suggests that causative factors of reported manual motor dysfunction lie in both the distal and proximal portions of the nervous system.

  20. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    OpenAIRE

    David Westhuis; Philip M. Ouellette; Corey L. Pfahler

    2006-01-01

    Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically ...

  1. Soviet and American Airwomen During World War II: A Comparison of Their Formation, Treatment and Dismissal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Beth

    2003-01-01

    .... World War II provides an interesting setting to study women and warfare because the belligerent countries mobilized millions of women for the war effort, both in civilian and military capacities...

  2. Large Format LW Type-II SLS FPAs for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained...

  3. FORMATION OF TOILET HABITS IN CHILDREN IN MOSCOW. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Karkashadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first Russian study of toilet habits formation in children have been obtained. The article was planned to be published in 2 subsequent parts due to the extensiveness of the material. This article is the 2nd part*. It presents and comments on the remaining part of results in the form of the connection between main parameters and characteristics of toilet habits training processes and physiological, psychological and social factors; it also presents the discussion and conclusions. Comparative data (with foreign studies is given. A multitude of both physiological and social factors affect the process of children’s toilet habits training. The following physiological factors have been revealed: stool frequency, physiological involuntary night urination, peculiarities of falling asleep and pernicious habits – processes, which reflect the intestinal motility regulation and defecation states, urination control and neuropsychic activity. The selected training strategy and tactics, style of communication with a child also affect the training process. The most influential family-social factors in terms of toilet habits training processes are: two- or one-parent family, mother’s education and twins in the family. 

  4. Pathological involvement of chymase-dependent angiotensin II formation in the development of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hidenori Urata

    2000-01-01

    Summary Chymase is a potent and specific angiotensin II (Ang II)-forming enzyme in vitro. There is also strong evidence to suggest its importance in vivo. Recent clinical studies have suggested that high serum cholesterol levels are associated with increased vascular chymase activity and this may assist in the development of atherosclerosis. This clinical finding has been reproduced in hamster models. Studies with transgenic mice overexpressing the human chymase gene suggest a direct associat...

  5. Periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai, India: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kesavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, thereby compromising a patient's ability to maintain a proper diet and affecting the quality of life. Aim: To assess the periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among diabetics and nondiabetic population attending a government hospital in Chennai city. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997 was used to assess the periodontal status. The final sample size of the study was 1000 which included 500 diabetics and 500 nondiabetics. Results: This study showed a significant association between the diabetic status and periodontal disease. The severity of periodontal disease was high among diabetics when compared to nondiabetics. The mean number of sextants with shallow pockets was 0.76 ± 1.20 among diabetics and 0.49 ± 0.86 among nondiabetics (P < 0.0001. The mean number of sextants with Loss of Attachment score of 1 (4–5 mm was 0.67 ± 1.05 among diabetics and 0.32 ± 0.70 among nondiabetics. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more frequent and severe in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetics although there are a number of questions need to be answered in future research.

  6. Calculating Heat of Formation Values of Energetic Compounds: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Elioff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat of formation is one of several important parameters used to assess the performance of energetic compounds. We evaluated the ability of six different methods to accurately calculate gas-phase heat of formation (ΔfH298,go values for a test set of 45 nitrogen-containing energetic compounds. Density functional theory coupled with the use of isodesmic or other balanced equations yielded calculated results in which 82% (37 of 45 of the ΔfH298,go values were within ±2.0 kcal/mol of the most recently recommended experimental/reference values available. This was compared to a procedure using density functional theory (DFT coupled with an atom and group contribution method in which 51% (23 of 45 of the ΔfH298,go values were within ±2.0 kcal/mol of these values. The T1 procedure and Benson’s group additivity method yielded results in which 51% (23 of 45 and 64% (23 of 36 of the ΔfH298,go values, respectively, were within ±2.0 kcal/mol of these values. We also compared two relatively new semiempirical approaches (PM7 and RM1 with regard to their ability to accurately calculate ΔfH298,go. Although semiempirical methods continue to improve, they were found to be less accurate than the other approaches for the test set used in this investigation.

  7. Formation of Hg(II) Tetrathiolate Complexes with Cysteine at Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Thomas; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2016-04-01

    Mercury(II) ions precipitate from aqueous cysteine (H 2 Cys) solutions containing H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 2.0 as Hg( S -HCys) 2 . In absence of additional cysteine, the precipitate dissolves at pH ~12 with the [Hg( S,N -Cys) 2 ] 2- complex dominating. With excess cysteine (H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratio ≥ 4.0), higher complexes form and the precipitate dissolves at lower pH values. Previously, we found that tetrathiolate [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complexes form at pH = 11.0; in this work we extend the investigation to pH values of physiological interest. We examined two series of Hg(II)-cysteine solutions in which C Hg(II) varied between 8 - 9 mM and 80 - 100 mM, respectively, with H 2 Cys/Hg(II) mole ratios from 4 to ~20. The solutions were prepared in the pH range 7.1 - 8.8, at the pH at which the initial Hg( S -HCys) 2 precipitate dissolved. The variations in the Hg(II) speciation were followed by 199 Hg NMR, X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Our results show that in the dilute solutions ( C Hg(II) = 8 - 9 mM), mixtures of di-, tri- (major) and tetrathiolate complexes exist at moderate cysteine excess ( C H2Cys ~ 0.16 M) at pH 7.1. In the more concentrated solutions ( C Hg(II) = 80 - 100 mM) with high cysteine excess ( C H2Cys > 0.9 M), tetrathiolate [Hg( S -cysteinate) 4 ] m -6 ( m = 0 - 4) complexes dominate in the pH range 7.3 - 7.8, with lower charge than for the [Hg( S -Cys) 4 ] 6- complex due to protonation of some ( m ) of the amino groups of the coordinated cysteine ligands. The results of this investigation could provide a key to the mechanism of biosorption and accumulation of Hg(II) ions in biological / environmental systems.

  8. STAR FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECT OF STAR FORMATION AND PHOTOELECTRIC HEATING ON THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasker, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of star formation and diffuse photoelectric heating on the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in high-resolution (∼ H,c >100 cm -3 are identified as GMCs. Between 1000 and 1500 clouds are created in the simulations with masses M>10 5 M sun and 180-240 with masses M>10 6 M sun in agreement with estimates of the Milky Way's population. We find that the effect of photoelectric heating is to suppress the fragmentation of the interstellar medium, resulting in a filamentary structure in the warm gas surrounding clouds. This environment suppresses the formation of a retrograde rotating cloud population, with 88% of the clouds rotating prograde with respect to the galaxy after 300 Myr. The diffuse heating also reduces the initial star formation rate (SFR), slowing the conversation of gas into stars. We therefore conclude that the interstellar environment plays an important role in the GMC evolution. Our clouds live between 0 and 20 Myr with a high infant mortality (t' < 3 Myr) due to cloud mergers and star formation. Other properties, including distributions of mass, size, and surface density, agree well with observations. Collisions between our clouds are common, occurring at a rate of ∼ 1/4 of the orbital period. It is not clear whether such collisions trigger or suppress star formation at our current resolution. Our SFR is a factor of 10 higher than observations in local galaxies. This is likely due to the absence of localized feedback in our models.

  9. OLD MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF PHOTOMETRY IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND ITS SPATIAL GRADIENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Noelia E. D.; Gallart, Carme; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A.

    2009-01-01

    (t) in our fields of the wing area. This is not an exceptional increment as compared with the average ψ(t) but is very significant in the sense that these eastern fields are the only ones of this study in which star formation is currently going on. There is also a strong dichotomy between east/southeast and west in the current irregular shape of the SMC. We find that this dichotomy is produced by the youngest population and began ∼1.0 Gyr ago or later. The age of the old population is similar at all radii and at all azimuth, and we constrain the age of this oldest population to be more than ∼12 Gyr. We do not find yet a region dominated by a true, old, Milky-Way-like, halo at 4.5 kpc from the SMC center, indicating either that this old stellar halo does not exist in the SMC or that its contribution to the stellar populations, at the galactocentric distances of our outermost field, is negligible. Finally, we derive the age-metallicity relation and find that, in all fields, the metallicity increased continuously from early epochs until the present. This is in good agreement with the results from the Ca II triplet, a completely independent method, constituting an external consistency proof of IAC-pop in determining the chemical enrichment law.

  10. STAR FORMATION AND FEEDBACK IN SMOOTHED PARTICLE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS. II. RESOLUTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Charlotte R.; Quinn, Thomas; Bellovary, Jillian; Stinson, Gregory; Wadsley, James

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effect of mass and force resolution on a specific star formation (SF) recipe using a set of N-body/smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations of isolated galaxies. Our simulations span halo masses from 10 9 to 10 13 M sun , more than 4 orders of magnitude in mass resolution, and 2 orders of magnitude in the gravitational softening length, ε, representing the force resolution. We examine the total global SF rate, the SF history, and the quantity of stellar feedback and compare the disk structure of the galaxies. Based on our analysis, we recommend using at least 10 4 particles each for the dark matter (DM) and gas component and a force resolution of ε ∼ 10 -3 R vir when studying global SF and feedback. When the spatial distribution of stars is important, the number of gas and DM particles must be increased to at least 10 5 of each. Low-mass resolution simulations with fixed softening lengths show particularly weak stellar disks due to two-body heating. While decreasing spatial resolution in low-mass resolution simulations limits two-body effects, density and potential gradients cannot be sustained. Regardless of the softening, low-mass resolution simulations contain fewer high density regions where SF may occur. Galaxies of approximately 10 10 M sun display unique sensitivity to both mass and force resolution. This mass of galaxy has a shallow potential and is on the verge of forming a disk. The combination of these factors gives this galaxy the potential for strong gas outflows driven by supernova feedback and makes it particularly sensitive to any changes to the simulation parameters.

  11. Spectrophotometric Determination of Metoprolol Tartrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms on Complex Formation with Cu(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cesme

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the assay of metoprolol tartrate (MPT, which is based on the complexation of drug with copper(II [Cu(II] at pH 6.0, using Britton-Robinson buffer solution, to produce a blue adduct. The latter has a maximum absorbance at 675 nm and obeys Beer’s law within the concentration range 8.5-70 mg/mL. Regression analysis of the calibration data showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.998 with a limit of detection of 5.56 mg/mL. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of this drug in its tablets. In addition, the spectral data and stability constant for the binuclear copper(II complex of MPT (Cu2MPT2Cl2 have been reported.

  12. MODELING PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS: ROLE OF GAS DISK AND STATISTICS COMPARED TO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigen; Zhou Jilin; Wang Su

    2011-01-01

    During the late stage of planet formation, when Mars-sized cores appear, interactions among planetary cores can excite their orbital eccentricities, accelerate their merging, and thus sculpt their final orbital architecture. This study contributes to the final assembling of planetary systems with N-body simulations, including the type I or II migration of planets and gas accretion of massive cores in a viscous disk. Statistics on the final distributions of planetary masses, semimajor axes, and eccentricities are derived and are comparable to those of the observed systems. Our simulations predict some new orbital signatures of planetary systems around solar mass stars: 36% of the surviving planets are giant planets (>10 M + ). Most of the massive giant planets (>30 M + ) are located at 1-10 AU. Terrestrial planets are distributed more or less evenly at J in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.3-0.4). The average eccentricity (∼0.15) of the giant planets (>10 M + ) is greater than that (∼0.05) of the terrestrial planets ( + ). A planetary system with more planets tends to have smaller planet masses and orbital eccentricities on average.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome and Microscopy Analyses Provide Insights into Flat Shape Formation in Peach (Prunus persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit shape is an important external characteristic that consumers use to select preferred fruit cultivars. In peach, the flat fruit cultivars have become more and more popular worldwide. Genetic markers closely linking to the flat fruit trait have been identified and are useful for marker-assisted breeding. However, the cellular and genetic mechanisms underpinning flat fruit formation are still poorly understood. In this study, we have revealed the differences in fruit cell number, cell size, and in gene expression pattern between the traditional round fruit and modern flat fruit cultivars. Flat peach cultivars possessed significantly lower number of cells in the vertical axis because cell division in the vertical direction stopped early in the flat fruit cultivars at 15 DAFB (day after full bloom than in round fruit cultivars at 35 DAFB. This resulted in the reduction in vertical development in the flat fruit. Significant linear relationship was observed between fruit vertical diameter and cell number in vertical axis for the four examined peach cultivars (R2 = 0.9964 at maturation stage, and was also observed between fruit vertical diameter and fruit weight (R2 = 0.9605, which indicated that cell number in vertical direction contributed to the flat shape formation. Furthermore, in RNA-seq analysis, 4165 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were detected by comparing RNA-seq data between flat and round peach cultivars at different fruit development stages. In contrast to previous studies, we discovered 28 candidate genes potentially responsible for the flat shape formation, including 19 located in the mapping site and 9 downstream genes. Our study indicates that flat and round fruit shape in peach is primarily determined by the regulation of cell production in the vertical direction during early fruit development.

  14. COSA II Further benchmark exercises to compare geomechanical computer codes for salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.J.S.; Knowles, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    Project COSA (COmputer COdes COmparison for SAlt) was a benchmarking exercise involving the numerical modelling of the geomechanical behaviour of heated rock salt. Its main objective was to assess the current European capability to predict the geomechanical behaviour of salt, in the context of the disposal of heat-producing radioactive waste in salt formations. Twelve organisations participated in the exercise in which their solutions to a number of benchmark problems were compared. The project was organised in two distinct phases: The first, from 1984-1986, concentrated on the verification of the computer codes. The second, from 1986-1988 progressed to validation, using three in-situ experiments at the Asse research facility in West Germany as a basis for comparison. This document reports the activities of the second phase of the project and presents the results, assessments and conclusions

  15. Comparative three-dimensional analysis of initial biofilm formation on three orthodontic bracket materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Marc Philipp; Hellemann, Carolina Fuchslocher; Grade, Sebastian; Heuer, Wieland; Stiesch, Meike; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Demling, Anton Phillip

    2015-04-10

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare early biofilm formation on biomaterials, which are being used in contemporary fixed orthodontic treatment. This study comprised 10 healthy volunteers (5 females and 5 males) with a mean age of 27.3 +-3.7 years. Three slabs of different orthodontic materials (stainless steel, gold and ceramic) were placed in randomized order on a splint in the mandibular molar region. Splints were inserted intraorally for 48 h. Then the slabs were removed from the splints and the biofilms were stained with a two color fluorescence assay for bacterial viability (LIVE/DEAD BacLight-Bacterial Viability Kit 7012, Invitrogen, Mount Waverley, Australia). The quantitative biofilm formation was analyzed by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The biofilm coverage was 32.7 ± 37.7% on stainless steel surfaces, 59.5 ± 40.0% on gold surfaces and 56.8 ± 43.6% on ceramic surfaces. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in biofilm coverage between the tested materials (p=0.033). The Wilcoxon test demonstrated significantly lower biofilm coverage on steel compared to gold (p=0.011). Biofilm height on stainless steel surfaces was 4.0 ± 7.3 μm, on gold surfaces 6.0 ± 6.6 μm and on ceramic 6.5 ± 6.0 μm. The Friedman test revealed no significant differences between the tested materials (p=0.150). Pairwise comparison demonstrated significant differences between stainless steel and gold (p=0.047). Our results indicate that initial biofilm formation seemed to be less on stainless steel surfaces compared with other traditional materials in a short-term observation. Future studies should examine whether there is a difference in long-term biofilm accumulation between stainless steel, gold and ceramic brackets.

  16. Autonomous Supervisory Engine for Multi-Spacecraft Formation Flying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to develop an onboard, autonomous Multi-spacecraft Supervisory Engine (MSE) for formation-flying guidance, navigation and control...

  17. Biofilm formation and binding specificities of CFA/I, CFA/II and CS2 adhesions of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Cfae-R181A mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Iram; Sakellaris, Harry

    2012-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are leading causes of childhood diarrhea in developing countries. Adhesion is the first step in pathogenesis of ETEC infections and ETEC pili designated colonization factor antigens (CFAs) are believed to be important in the biofim formation, colonization and host cell adhesions. As a first step, we have determined the biofilm capability of ETEC expressing various types of pili (CFA/I, CfaE-R181A mutant/CfaE tip mutant, CFA/II and CS2). Further, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay were developed to compare the binding specificity of CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1 - CS3) and CS2 of ETEC, using extracted pili and piliated bacteria. CFA/II strain (E24377a) as well as extracted pili exhibited significantly higher binding both in biofilm and ELISA assays compared to non piliated wild type E24377a, CFA/I and CS2 strains. This indicates that co-expression of two or more CS2 in same strain is more efficient in increasing adherence. Significant decrease in binding specificity of DH5αF'lacI (q)/∆cotD (CS2) strain and MC4100/pEU2124 (CfaE-R181A) mutant strain indicated the important contribution of tip proteins in adherence assays. However, CS2 tip mutant strain (DH5αF'lacI (q)/pEU5881) showed that this specific residue may not be important as adhesions in these strains. In summary, our data suggest that pili, their minor subunits are important for biofilm formation and adherence mechanisms. Overall, the functional reactivity of strains co expressing various antigens, particularly minor subunit antigen observed in this study suggest that fewer antibodies may be required to elicit immunity to ETEC expressing a wider array of related pili.

  18. A steady-state study on the formation of Compounds II and III of myeloperoxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, H.; Dekker, H. L.; van Riel, C.; van Kuilenburg, A.; Muijsers, A. O.; Wever, R.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction between native myeloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide, yielding Compound II, was investigated using the stopped-flow technique. The pH dependence of the apparent second-order rate constant showed the existence of a protonatable group on the enzyme with a pKa of 4.9. This group is

  19. Temperature-dependent structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins: formation of alpha-helices or loss of polyproline II?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    temperature, which most likely reflects formation of transient alpha-helices or loss of polyproline II (PPII) content. Using three IDPs, ACTR, NHE1, and Spd1, we show that the temperature-induced structural change is common among IDPs and is accompanied by a contraction of the conformational ensemble...... with increasing temperature, and accordingly these were not responsible for the change in the CD spectra. In contrast, the nonhelical regions exhibited a general temperature-dependent structural change that was independent of long-range interactions. The temperature-dependent CD spectroscopic signature of IDPs...

  20. Synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of (PLAGH){sub 2}[ZnCl{sub 4}] and comparative analysis of photoluminescence properties with tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radanović, Mirjana M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Jelić, Miodrag G., E-mail: jelicmgm@uns.ac.rs [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Romčević, Nebojša Ž. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Boukos, Nikos [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S.; Leovac, Vukadin M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Hadžić, Branka B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Bajac, Branimir M. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Novi Sad (Serbia); Nađ, Laslo F. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia); Chandrinou, Chrysoula [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Materials Science, Athens (Greece); Baloš, Sebastian S. [University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New zinc(II) complex with pyridoxalaminoguanidine was synthesized. • The enhancement of the photoluminescence due to the compound formation was achieved. • Very high photoluminescence of Zn(II) compound was noticed. • Comparative analysis of photoluminescence with tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) was provided. - Abstract: The first compound of zinc(II) containing pyridoxalaminoguanidine has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra, conductometric measurements and X-ray crystallography. Single crystals of the compound were obtained in the reaction of methanolic solution of zinc(II) chloride and pyridoxalaminoguanidine hydrochloride. In this compound the coordination of chelate ligand is absent and tetrachlorido complex of zinc(II) with pyridoxalaminuguanidinium cation as contraion is obtained. Photoluminescence spectra were measured. Lorentzian multipeak technique was used to determine peak wavelengths and their intensities. Photoluminescence spectroscopy upon 325, 488 and 514 nm laser excitation light was used to obtain results. This novel compound of zinc(II) was compared to the well-known organic light emitting diode material—ruthenium(II) complex with bypiridine i.e., tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), under the same circumstances and the identical experimental setup. A scheme of energy levels and transitions is proposed to explain the obtained experimental results.

  1. Surface Mn(II) oxidation actuated by a multicopper oxidase in a soil bacterium leads to the formation of manganese oxide minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Zhongming; Chen, Hong; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chang; Ni, Hong; Zhao, Changsong; Ali, Muhammad; Liu, Fan; Li, Lin

    2015-06-03

    In this manuscript, we report that a bacterial multicopper oxidase (MCO266) catalyzes Mn(II) oxidation on the cell surface, resulting in the surface deposition of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) oxides and the gradual formation of bulky oxide aggregates. These aggregates serve as nucleation centers for the formation of Mn oxide micronodules and Mn-rich sediments. A soil-borne Escherichia coli with high Mn(II)-oxidizing activity formed Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxide deposit layers and aggregates under laboratory culture conditions. We engineered MCO266 onto the cell surfaces of both an activity-negative recipient and wild-type strains. The results confirmed that MCO266 governs Mn(II) oxidation and initiates the formation of deposits and aggregates. By contrast, a cell-free substrate, heat-killed strains, and intracellularly expressed or purified MCO266 failed to catalyze Mn(II) oxidation. However, purified MCO266 exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity when combined with cell outer membrane component (COMC) fractions in vitro. We demonstrated that Mn(II) oxidation and aggregate formation occurred through an oxygen-dependent biotic transformation process that requires a certain minimum Mn(II) concentration. We propose an approximate electron transfer pathway in which MCO266 transfers only one electron to convert Mn(II) to Mn(III) and then cooperates with other COMC electron transporters to transfer the other electron required to oxidize Mn(III) to Mn(IV).

  2. Study of complex formation of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailova, M.M.; Egorova, L.A.; Khamidov, B.O.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to study of complex formation of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel. The condition of cobalt in various rate of oxidation in acrylamide aqueous solutions was studied. The concentration conditions of stability of system Co(II)-Co(III) were defined. The composition of coordination compounds of cobalt (II) and cobalt (III) in acrylamide aqueous solutions and in the phase of acrylamide hydrogel was determined.

  3. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  4. PROPERTIES OF BULGELESS DISK GALAXIES. II. STAR FORMATION AS A FUNCTION OF CIRCULAR VELOCITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Linda C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martini, Paul; Wong, Man-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lisenfeld, Ute [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Boeker, Torsten [European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Schinnerer, Eva, E-mail: lwatson@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-06-01

    We study the relation between the surface density of gas and star formation rate in 20 moderately inclined, bulgeless disk galaxies (Sd-Sdm Hubble types) using CO(1-0) data from the IRAM 30 m telescope, H I emission line data from the VLA/EVLA, H{alpha} data from the MDM Observatory, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission data derived from Spitzer IRAC observations. We specifically investigate the efficiency of star formation as a function of circular velocity (v{sub circ}). Previous work found that the vertical dust structure and disk stability of edge-on, bulgeless disk galaxies transition from diffuse dust lanes with large scale heights and gravitationally stable disks at v{sub circ} < 120 km s{sup -1} (M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }) to narrow dust lanes with small scale heights and gravitationally unstable disks at v{sub circ} > 120 km s{sup -1}. We find no transition in star formation efficiency ({Sigma}{sub SFR}/{Sigma}{sub Hi+H{sub 2}}) at v{sub circ} = 120 km s{sup -1} or at any other circular velocity probed by our sample (v{sub circ} = 46-190 km s{sup -1}). Contrary to previous work, we find no transition in disk stability at any circular velocity in our sample. Assuming our sample has the same dust structure transition as the edge-on sample, our results demonstrate that scale height differences in the cold interstellar medium of bulgeless disk galaxies do not significantly affect the molecular fraction or star formation efficiency. This may indicate that star formation is primarily affected by physical processes that act on smaller scales than the dust scale height, which lends support to local star formation models.

  5. Pathological involvement of chymase-dependent angiotensin II formation in the development of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Urata

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Chymase is a potent and specific angiotensin II (Ang II-forming enzyme in vitro. There is also strong evidence to suggest its importance in vivo. Recent clinical studies have suggested that high serum cholesterol levels are associated with increased vascular chymase activity and this may assist in the development of atherosclerosis. This clinical finding has been reproduced in hamster models. Studies with transgenic mice overexpressing the human chymase gene suggest a direct association between vascular chymase upregulation and atherogenesis. There is also increased chymase activity following various cardiac diseases such as myocardial ischaemia, volume overload cardiac failure, cardiomyopathy and viral myocarditis, suggesting that increased cardiac chymase activity appears to be involved in cardiac remodelling.

  6. Pathological involvement of chymase-dependent angiotensin II formation in the development of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Urata

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Chymase is a potent and specific angiotensin II (Ang II-forming enzyme in vitro. There is also strong evidence to suggest its importance in vivo. Recent clinical studies have suggested that high serum cholesterol levels are associated with increased vascular chymase activity and this may assist in the development of atherosclerosis. This clinical finding has been reproduced in hamster models. Studies with transgenic mice overexpressing the human chymase gene suggest a direct association between vascular chymase upregulation and atherogenesis. There is also increased chymase activity following various cardiac diseases such as myocardial ischaemia, volume overload cardiac failure, cardiomyopathy and viral myocarditis, suggesting that increased cardiac chymase activity appears to be involved in cardiac remodelling.

  7. Electron internal transport barrier formation and dynamics in the plasma core of the TJ-II stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, T [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Krupnik, L [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Dreval, N [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Melnikov, A [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Khrebtov, S M [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Hidalgo, C [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Milligen, B van [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Castejon, F [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); AscasIbar, E [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion por Confinamiento Magnetico, Asociacion Euratom-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Eliseev, L [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow, Russia (Russian Federation); Chmyga, A A [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Komarov, A D [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Kozachok, A S [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC ' KIPT' , Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-01-01

    The influence of magnetic topology on the formation of electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) has been studied experimentally in electron cyclotron heated plasmas in the stellarator TJ-II. e-ITB formation is characterized by an increase in core electron temperature and plasma potential. The positive radial electric field increases by a factor of 3 in the central plasma region when an e-ITB forms. The experiments reported demonstrate that the formation of an e-ITB depends on the magnetic configuration. Calculations of the modification of the rotational transform due to plasma current lead to the interpretation that the formation of an e-ITB can be triggered by positioning a low order rational surface close to the plasma core region. In configurations without any central low order rational, no barrier is formed for any accessible value of heating power. Different mechanisms associated with neoclassical/turbulent bifurcations and kinetic effects are put forward to explain the impact of magnetic topology on radial electric fields and confinement.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Lipid Droplet Formation and Type II Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuebao; Zhang, Kezhong

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, is caused by insufficient insulin production due to excessive loss of pancreatic β cells (type I diabetes) or impaired insulin signaling due to peripheral insulin resistance (type II diabetes). Pancreatic β cell is the only insulin-secreting cell type that has highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to cope with high demands of insulin synthesis and secretion. Therefore, ER homeostasis is crucial to the proper fu...

  9. Comparative Analysis between preoperative Radiotherapy and postoperative Radiotherapy in Clinical Stage I and II Endometrial Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Ki Chang; Lee, Chang Geol; Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Sang Wook; Kim, Woo Cheol; Chang, Sei Kyung; Oh, Young Taek; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To obtain the optical treatment method in patients with endometrial carcinoma(clinical stage FIGO I, II) by comparative analysis between preoperative radiotherapy(pre-op R) and postoperative radiotherapy(post-op RT). Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of 62 endometrial carcinoma patients referred to the Yonsei Cancer Center for radiotherapy between 1985 and 1991 was undertaken. Of 62 patients, 19 patients(Stage I; 12 patients, Stage II; 7 patients) received pre-op RT before TAH(Total Abdominal Hysterectomy) and BSO(Bilateral Salphingoophorectomy) (Group 1) and 43 patients( Stage 1; 32 patients, Stage 2; 11 patients) received post-op RT after TAH and BSO (Group 2). Pre-op irradiation was given 4-6 weeks prior to surgery and post-op RT was administered on 4-5 weeks following surgery. All patients exept 1 patient(Group2; ICR alone) received external irradiation. Seventy percent(13/19) of pre-op RT group and 54 percent(23/42) of post-op RT group received external pelvic irradiation and intracavitary radiation therapy(ICR). External radiation dose was 39.6-55Gy(median 45Gy) in 5-6 week through opposed AP/PA fields or 4-field box technique treating daily, five days per week, 180cGy per fraction. ICR doses were prescribed to point A(20-39.6 Gy, median 39Gy) in Group 1 and 0.5cm depth from vaginal surface (18-30 Gy, median 21Gy) in Group2. Results : The overall 5 year survival rate was 95%. No survival difference between pre-op and post-op RT group.(89.3% vs 97.7%, p>0.1) There was no survival difference by stage, grade and histology between two groups. The survival rate was not affected by presence of residual tumor of surgical specimen after pre-op RT in Group 1(p>0.1), but affected by presence of lymph node metastasis in post-op RT group(p<0.5). The complication rate of pre-op RT group was higher than post-op RT.(16% vs 5%) Conclusion : Post-op radiotherapy offers the advantages of accurate surgical-pathological staging and low complication rate

  10. A phase II randomized trial comparing radiotherapy with concurrent weekly cisplatin or weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geara, Fady B; Shamseddine, Ali; Khalil, Ali; Abboud, Mirna; Charafeddine, Maya; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2010-01-01

    This is a prospective comparison of weekly cisplatin to weekly paclitaxel as concurrent chemotherapy with standard radiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 31 women with FIGO stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer or with postsurgical pelvic recurrence were enrolled into this phase II study and randomized to receive on a weekly basis either 40 mg/m 2 Cisplatin (group I; 16 patients) or 50 mg/m 2 paclitaxel (group II; 15 patients) concurrently with radiotherapy. Median total dose to point A was 74 Gy (range: 66-92 Gy) for group I and 66 Gy (range: 40-98 Gy) for group II. Median follow-up time was 46 months. Patient and tumor characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean number of chemotherapy cycles was also comparable with 87% and 80% of patients receiving at least 4 doses in groups I and II, respectively. Seven patients (44%) of group I and 8 patients (53%) of group II developed tumor recurrence. The Median Survival time was not reached for Group I and 53 months for group II. The proportion of patients surviving at 2 and 5 years was 78% and 54% for group I and 73% and 43% for group II respectively. This small prospective study shows that weekly paclitaxel does not provide any clinical advantage over weekly cisplatin for concurrent chemoradiation for advanced carcinoma of the cervix

  11. Formation and Transformation of Iron Oxide-Kaolinite Associations in the Presence of Iron(II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, S.Y.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Tan, W.F.; Koopal, L.K.

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxide-kaolinite associations are important components of tropical and subtropical soils and have significant influence on the physical and chemical properties of soils. In this study, the formation and transformation of Fe oxide-kaolinite associations as a function of pH, temperature, and time

  12. THE X-FACTOR IN GALAXIES. II. THE MOLECULAR-HYDROGEN-STAR-FORMATION RELATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Robert; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-10-08

    There is ample observational evidence that the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Sigma_SFR, is closely correlated with the surface density of molecular hydrogen, Sigma_H2. This empirical relation holds both for galaxy-wide averages and for individual >=kpc sized patches of the interstellar medium (ISM), but appears to degrade substantially at a sub-kpc scale. Identifying the physical mechanisms that determine the scale-dependent properties of the observed Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation remains a challenge from a theoretical perspective. To address this question, we analyze the slope and scatter of the Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation using a set of cosmological, galaxy formation simulations with a peak resolution of ~100 pc. These simulations include a chemical network for molecular hydrogen, a model for the CO emission, and a simple, stochastic prescription for star formation that operates on ~100 pc scales. Specifically, star formation is modeled as a Poisson process in which the average SFR is directly proportional to the present mass of H2. The predictions of our numerical model are in good agreement with the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt and Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relations. We show that observations based on CO emission are ill suited to reliably measure the slope of the latter relation at low (<20 M_sun pc^-2) H2 surface densities on sub-kpc scales. Our models also predict that the inferred Sigma_H2-Sigma_SFR relation steepens at high H2 surface densities as a result of the surface density dependence of the CO/H2 conversion factor. Finally, we show that on sub-kpc scales most of the scatter in the relation is a consequence of discreteness effects in the star formation process. In contrast, variations of the CO/H2 conversion factor are responsible for most of the scatter measured on super-kpc scales.

  13. Double-stranded DNA translocase activity of transcription factor TFIIH and the mechanism of RNA polymerase II open complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, James; Tomko, Eric; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2015-03-31

    Formation of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) open complex (OC) requires DNA unwinding mediated by the transcription factor TFIIH helicase-related subunit XPB/Ssl2. Because XPB/Ssl2 binds DNA downstream from the location of DNA unwinding, it cannot function using a conventional helicase mechanism. Here we show that yeast TFIIH contains an Ssl2-dependent double-stranded DNA translocase activity. Ssl2 tracks along one DNA strand in the 5' → 3' direction, implying it uses the nontemplate promoter strand to reel downstream DNA into the Pol II cleft, creating torsional strain and leading to DNA unwinding. Analysis of the Ssl2 and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of TFIIH suggests that Ssl2 has a processivity of approximately one DNA turn, consistent with the length of DNA unwound during transcription initiation. Our results can explain why maintaining the OC requires continuous ATP hydrolysis and the function of TFIIH in promoter escape. Our results also suggest that XPB/Ssl2 uses this translocase mechanism during DNA repair rather than physically wedging open damaged DNA.

  14. Comparative study of Hg(II) adsorption by thiol- and hydroxyl-containing bifunctional montmorillonite and vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Lytuong [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); QuangBinh University, QuangBinh (Viet Nam); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions (China); Zhu, Yajie; Liu, Shuai; Zhu, Nengwu [College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel adsorbents were prepared by functionalization with BAL to remove Hg(II). • Thiol and hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhancement of Hg(II) removal. • BAL-Vm showed the most adsorption capacity of Hg(II). • The adsorption mechanism was discussed based on the adsorption behaviors. - Abstract: A novel approach to prepare adsorbents for Hg(II) uptake from aqueous media based on the grafting of dimercaprol (BAL), containing thiol and hydroxyl groups, onto the natural montmorillonite and vermiculite was investigated concerning the evaluation of the adsorption capacity. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption process abided by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Hg(II) onto the obtained samples fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model, exhibiting an enhanced maximum adsorption capacity of 8.57 and 3.21 mg g{sup −1} for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt, respectively. The feasibility of Hg(II) uptake onto the the samples was studied thermodynamically and the calculated coefficients such as ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicated a physical and spontaneous process. The pH values and coexisting cations had a great influence on Hg(II) removal, confirming the optimal pH value of 4.0–5.0 and the negative correlation between the ionic strength and the adsorption capacity of Hg(II). In general, BAL-Vm possessed a higher efficiency of Hg(II) uptake than BAL-Mt, contrary to that of the pristine clays. The pristine and functionalized materials were investigated by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and zeta potential analysis to gain in-depth insight into the structure and surface morphology. The results showed that BAL was successful grafted on montmorillonite and vermiculite surface, providing plentiful adsorption sites as chelating ligands. The mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on these samples could be further explained as ion exchange and electrostatic attraction for Vm and Mt, and formation of complexes for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt.

  15. Comparative study of Hg(II) adsorption by thiol- and hydroxyl-containing bifunctional montmorillonite and vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lytuong; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Liu, Shuai; Zhu, Nengwu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel adsorbents were prepared by functionalization with BAL to remove Hg(II). • Thiol and hydroxyl groups contributed to the enhancement of Hg(II) removal. • BAL-Vm showed the most adsorption capacity of Hg(II). • The adsorption mechanism was discussed based on the adsorption behaviors. - Abstract: A novel approach to prepare adsorbents for Hg(II) uptake from aqueous media based on the grafting of dimercaprol (BAL), containing thiol and hydroxyl groups, onto the natural montmorillonite and vermiculite was investigated concerning the evaluation of the adsorption capacity. The kinetic study showed that the adsorption process abided by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption behavior of Hg(II) onto the obtained samples fitted well with Langmuir isotherm model, exhibiting an enhanced maximum adsorption capacity of 8.57 and 3.21 mg g −1 for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt, respectively. The feasibility of Hg(II) uptake onto the the samples was studied thermodynamically and the calculated coefficients such as ΔH, ΔS and ΔG indicated a physical and spontaneous process. The pH values and coexisting cations had a great influence on Hg(II) removal, confirming the optimal pH value of 4.0–5.0 and the negative correlation between the ionic strength and the adsorption capacity of Hg(II). In general, BAL-Vm possessed a higher efficiency of Hg(II) uptake than BAL-Mt, contrary to that of the pristine clays. The pristine and functionalized materials were investigated by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and zeta potential analysis to gain in-depth insight into the structure and surface morphology. The results showed that BAL was successful grafted on montmorillonite and vermiculite surface, providing plentiful adsorption sites as chelating ligands. The mechanisms of Hg(II) adsorption on these samples could be further explained as ion exchange and electrostatic attraction for Vm and Mt, and formation of complexes for BAL-Vm and BAL-Mt.

  16. Influence of Exciplex formation on the electroluminescent properties of dimeric Zn (II) bis-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole complex and monomeric Zn (II) 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sattey; Anand, R. S.; Manoharan, S. Sundar

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present the factors affecting electroluminescent properties of Zinc complexes of oxazole & thiazole derivatives. Electroluminescent spectra of the Zinc (II) complex of bis-[2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole], [Zn (HPBO)2]2 and 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] show unusual broadening and shows structural and photophysical similarity with [Zn (HPBT)2]2, a dimeric complex. The [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex as an emissive layer in the device structure ITO /PEDOT:PSS /TPD (30nm) /[Zn (HPBO)2]2 (60nm) /BCP (6nm) /Ca (3nm) /Al (200nm) shows a broad bluish green emission, with a full width at half maxima (FWHM1˜70nm). The EL spectra is much broader compared to the PL spectra because of exciplex formation at the interfacial region between the emissive layer (EML) & hole transport layer (HTL). We also show the device performance of Zinc 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] complex as emissive layer. Distinctly this device shows a broad greenish yellow emission with a peak maxima at 535nm and 690nm, owing to the exciplex formation between electron transport layer (ETL) and emissive layer (EML), which is in sharp contrast to the exciplex formation across the HTL-EML interface observed for the [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex.

  17. Urotensin II increases foam cell formation by repressing ABCA1 expression through the ERK/NF-κB pathway in THP-1 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Wu, Jian-Feng [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Tang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuan [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Chen, Kong; Zeng, Meng-Ya [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Zheng, Xi-Long [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1 (Canada); Zeng, Gao-Feng, E-mail: qichingnudou@tom.com [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Tang, Chao-Ke, E-mail: tangchaoke@qq.com [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • U II reduces cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. • U II decreases the expression of ABCA1. • Inhibition of the ERK/NF-κB pathway reduces U II effects on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. - Abstract: Objective: Foam cell formation in the arterial wall plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies showed that Urotensin II (U II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of human U II on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the underlying mechanism in THP-1 macrophages. Methods and results: Cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with U II, followed by measuring the intracellular lipid contents, cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 levels. The results showed that U II dramatically decreased ABCA1 levels and impaired cholesterol efflux. However, the effects of U II on ABCA1 protein expression and cellular cholesterol efflux were partially reversed by inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, suggesting the potential roles of ERK1/2 and NF-κB in ABCA1 expression, respectively. Conclusion: Our current data indicate that U II may have promoting effects on the progression of atherosclerosis, likely through suppressing ABCA1 expression via activation of the ERK/NF-κB pathway and reducing cholesterol efflux to promote macrophage foam cell formation.

  18. Comparative Study on Adsorption of Mn(II from Aqueous Solutions on Various Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Mn(II on indigenously prepared activated carbons (IPAC from Bombax malabaricum, Pithecelobium dulse, Ipomea batatas and Peltaforum ferraginium have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters have been investigated using batch adsorption technique. The extent of Mn(II removal increased with decrease in initial concentration of the Mn(II, particle size of the adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, amount of adsorbent used and the initial pH of the solution. Adsorption data were modeled using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms and first order kinetic equations. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be first order with regard to intra-particle diffusion rate. The results indicate that such carbons could be employed as low cost adsorbents in waste water treatment for the removal of Mn(II.

  19. Anisotropic formation and distribution of stacking faults in II-VI semiconductor nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven M; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2013-01-09

    Nanocrystals of cadmium selenide exhibit a form of polytypism with stable forms in both the wurtzite and zinc blende crystal structures. As a result, wurtzite nanorods of cadmium selenide tend to form stacking faults of zinc blende along the c-axis. These faults were found to preferentially form during the growth of the (001) face, which accounts for 40% of the rod's total length. Since II-VI semiconductor nanorods lack inversion symmetry along the c-axis of the particle, the two ends of the nanorod may be identified by this anisotropic distribution of faults.

  20. On the formation of Mg II h and k lines in solar prominences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Vial, J. C.; Anzer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 564, April (2014), A132/1-A132/10 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2463; GA ČR GA205/09/1705 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : line: profiles * line: formation * Sun: filaments, prominences Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  1. Spiral structure and star formation. II. Stellar lifetimes and cloud kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, M.A.; Roberts, W.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    We present further results of our model, introduced in Paper I, of star formation and star-gas interactions in the cloud-dominated ISMs of spiral density wave galaxies. The global density distribution and velocity field of the gas clouds are virtually independent of stellar parameters and even of mean free path for the wide range of values studied, but local density variations are found which superficially resemble cloud complexes. Increasing the average life span of ''spiral tracer'' stellar associations beyond about 20 Myr washes out the spiral pattern which younger associations show. Allowing clouds to form several successive associations (sequential star formation) slightly increases the frequency of interarm, young-star spurs and substantially increases the average star formation rate. The mean velocity field of clouds shows tipped oval streamlines, similar to both continuum gas dynamical models and stellar-kinematic models of spiral density waves. These streamlines are almost ballistic orbits except close to the spiral arms. Newly formed stellar associations leave the spiral density peak with initial tangential velocitie shigher than ''postshock'' values and do not fall back into the ''preshock'' region. By varying our stellar parametes within physically reasonable limits, we may reproduce spiral galaxies with a wide range of morphological appearaces

  2. Formation flying for electric sails in displaced orbits. Part II: Distributed coordinated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Yuan, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    We analyze a cooperative control framework for electric sail formation flying around a heliocentric displaced orbit, aiming at observing the polar region of a celestial body. The chief spacecraft is assumed to move along an elliptic displaced orbit, while each deputy spacecraft adjusts its thrust vector (that is, both its sail attitude and characteristic acceleration) in order to track a prescribed relative trajectory. The relative motion of the electric sail formation system is formulated in the chief rotating frame, where the control inputs of each deputy are the relative sail attitude angles and the relative lightness number with respect to those of the chief. The information exchange among the spacecraft, characterized by the communication topology, is represented by a weighted graph. Two typical cases, according to whether the communication graph is directed or undirected, are discussed. For each case, a distributed coordinated control law is designed in such a way that each deputy not only tracks the chief state, but also makes full use of information from its neighbors, thus increasing the redundancy and robustness of the formation system in case of failure among the communication links. Illustrative examples show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. UNDERSTANDING COMPACT OBJECT FORMATION AND NATAL KICKS. II. THE CASE OF XTE J1118 + 480

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragos, T.; Willems, B.; Kalogera, V.; Ivanova, N.; Rockefeller, G.; Fryer, C. L.; Young, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of proper motions have been measured for Galactic X-ray binaries. When supplemented with accurate determinations of the component masses, orbital period, and donor effective temperature, these kinematical constraints harbor a wealth of information on the system's past evolution. Here, we consider all this available information to reconstruct the full evolutionary history of the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1118 + 480, assuming that the system originated in the Galactic disk and the donor has solar metallicity. This analysis accounts for four evolutionary phases: mass transfer through the ongoing X-ray phase, tidal evolution before the onset of Roche lobe overflow, motion through the Galactic potential after the formation of the black hole, and binary orbital dynamics due to explosive mass loss and possibly a black hole natal kick at the time of core collapse. We find that right after black hole formation, the system consists of a ≅6.0-10.0 M sun black hole and a ≅1.0-1.6 M sun main-sequence star. We also find that that an asymmetric natal kick is not only plausible but required for the formation of this system, and derive a lower and upper limit on the black hole natal kick velocity magnitude of 80 km s -1 and 310 km s -1 , respectively.

  4. Formation of Radio Type II Bursts During a Multiple Coronal Mass Ejection Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Firas; Pohjolainen, Silja; Valtonen, Eino

    2017-12-01

    We study the solar event on 27 September 2001 that consisted of three consecutive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originating from the same active region, which were associated with several periods of radio type II burst emission at decameter-hectometer (DH) wavelengths. Our analysis shows that the first radio burst originated from a low-density environment, formed in the wake of the first, slow CME. The frequency-drift of the burst suggests a low-speed burst driver, or that the shock was not propagating along the large density gradient. There is also evidence of band-splitting within this emission lane. The origin of the first shock remains unclear, as several alternative scenarios exist. The second shock showed separate periods of enhanced radio emission. This shock could have originated from a CME bow shock, caused by the fast and accelerating second or third CME. However, a shock at CME flanks is also possible, as the density depletion caused by the three CMEs would have affected the emission frequencies and hence the radio source heights could have been lower than usual. The last type II burst period showed enhanced emission in a wider bandwidth, which was most probably due to the CME-CME interaction. Only one shock that could reliably be associated with the investigated CMEs was observed to arrive near Earth.

  5. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared.

  6. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middelveen MJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B StrickerInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is serological and clinical evidence linking this phenomenon to Lyme borreliosis and coinfecting tick-borne agents. Although the microscopy of Morgellons filaments has been described in the medical literature, the structure and pathogenesis of these fibers is poorly understood. In contrast, most microscopy of digital dermatitis has focused on associated pathogens and histology rather than the morphology of late-stage filamentous fibers. Clinical, laboratory, and microscopic characteristics of these two diseases are compared.Keywords: Digital dermatitis, Morgellons disease, Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, spirochetes

  7. Does PEEK/HA Enhance Bone Formation Compared With PEEK in a Sheep Cervical Fusion Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William R; Pelletier, Matthew H; Bertollo, Nicky; Christou, Chris; Tan, Chris

    2016-11-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has a wide range of clinical applications but does not directly bond to bone. Bulk incorporation of osteoconductive materials including hydroxyapatite (HA) into the PEEK matrix is a potential solution to address the formation of a fibrous tissue layer between PEEK and bone and has not been tested. Using in vivo ovine animal models, we asked: (1) Does PEEK-HA improve cortical and cancellous bone ongrowth compared with PEEK? (2) Does PEEK-HA improve bone ongrowth and fusion outcome in a more challenging functional ovine cervical fusion model? The in vivo responses of PEEK-HA Enhanced and PEEK-OPTIMA ® Natural were evaluated for bone ongrowth in the form of dowels implanted in the cancellous and cortical bone of adult sheep and examined at 4 and 12 weeks as well as interbody cervical fusion at 6, 12, and 26 weeks. The bone-implant interface was evaluated with radiographic and histologic endpoints for a qualitative assessment of direct bone contact of an intervening fibrous tissue later. Gamma-irradiated cortical allograft cages were evaluated as well. Incorporating HA into the PEEK matrix resulted in more direct bone apposition as opposed to the fibrous tissue interface with PEEK alone in the bone ongrowth as well as interbody cervical fusions. No adverse reactions were found at the implant-bone interface for either material. Radiography and histology revealed resorption and fracture of the allograft devices in vivo. Incorporating HA into PEEK provides a more favorable environment than PEEK alone for bone ongrowth. Cervical fusion was improved with PEEK-HA compared with PEEK alone as well as allograft bone interbody devices. Improving the bone-implant interface with a PEEK device by incorporating HA may improve interbody fusion results and requires further clinical studies.

  8. Conditions for the formation of pure birnessite during the oxidation of Mn(II) cations in aqueous alkaline medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boumaiza, Hella [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université El Manar (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Département de Génie Biologique et Chimique, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologies (INSAT), Université de Carthage, Tunis (Tunisia); Coustel, Romain [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Medjahdi, Ghouti [Institut Jean Lamour, Centre de Compétences Rayons X et Spectroscopie (X-Gamma), UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine (France); Ruby, Christian, E-mail: Christian.ruby@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    Birnessite was synthetized through redox reaction by mixing MnO{sub 4}{sup -}, Mn{sup 2+} and OH{sup -} solutions. The Mn(VII): Mn(II) ratio of 0.33 was chosen and three methods were used consisting in a quick mixing under vigorous stirring of two of the three reagents and then on the dropwise addition of the third one. The obtained solids were characterized by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopies. Their average oxidation states were determined from ICP and CEC measurements while their surface properties were investigated by XPS. This study provides an increased understanding of the importance of dissolved oxygen in the formation of birnessite and hausmannite and shows the ways to obtain pure birnessite. The role of counter-ion ie. Na{sup +} or K{sup +} was also examined. - Graphical abstract: Pathways of birnessite formation. - Highlights: • Pure birnessite is prepared through a redox reaction. • Hausmannite formation is prevented by controlling dissolved O2. • The employed counterion influences the purity of birnessite. • Initial Mn(OH){sub 2} is oxidized by both MnO{sub 4}{sup -} and dissolved O{sub 2}.

  9. Massive star formation by accretion. II. Rotation: how to circumvent the angular momentum barrier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlé, L.; Eggenberger, P.; Meynet, G.; Maeder, A.; Charbonnel, C.; Klessen, R. S.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Rotation plays a key role in the star-formation process, from pre-stellar cores to pre-main-sequence (PMS) objects. Understanding the formation of massive stars requires taking into account the accretion of angular momentum during their PMS phase. Aims: We study the PMS evolution of objects destined to become massive stars by accretion, focusing on the links between the physical conditions of the environment and the rotational properties of young stars. In particular, we look at the physical conditions that allow the production of massive stars by accretion. Methods: We present PMS models computed with a new version of the Geneva Stellar Evolution code self-consistently including accretion and rotation according to various accretion scenarios for mass and angular momentum. We describe the internal distribution of angular momentum in PMS stars accreting at high rates and we show how the various physical conditions impact their internal structures, evolutionary tracks, and rotation velocities during the PMS and the early main sequence. Results: We find that the smooth angular momentum accretion considered in previous studies leads to an angular momentum barrier and does not allow the formation of massive stars by accretion. A braking mechanism is needed in order to circumvent this angular momentum barrier. This mechanism has to be efficient enough to remove more than two thirds of the angular momentum from the inner accretion disc. Due to the weak efficiency of angular momentum transport by shear instability and meridional circulation during the accretion phase, the internal rotation profiles of accreting stars reflect essentially the angular momentum accretion history. As a consequence, careful choice of the angular momentum accretion history allows circumvention of any limitation in mass and velocity, and production of stars of any mass and velocity compatible with structure equations.

  10. H ii REGION G46.5-0.2: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN IONIZING RADIATION, MOLECULAR GAS, AND STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju; Wu, Yuefang

    2015-01-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey ( 13 CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive ( 12 CO, 13 CO, C 18 O J = 3–2, HCO + , and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10′ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution

  11. H ii REGION G46.5-0.2: THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN IONIZING RADIATION, MOLECULAR GAS, AND STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Yuan, Jing-Hua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang, E-mail: sparon@iafe.uba.ar [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)

    2015-06-15

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey ({sup 13}CO J = 1–0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive ({sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, C{sup 18}O J = 3–2, HCO{sup +}, and HCN J = 4–3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10′ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  12. H II Region G46.5-0.2: The Interplay between Ionizing Radiation, Molecular Gas, and Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Dubner, G.; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Petriella, A.; Giacani, E.; Zeng Li, Jin; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Hongli; Huang, Ya Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2015-06-01

    H ii regions are particularly interesting because they can generate dense layers of gas and dust, elongated columns or pillars of gas pointing toward the ionizing sources, and cometary globules of dense gas where triggered star formation can occur. Understanding the interplay between the ionizing radiation and the dense surrounding gas is very important to explain the origin of these peculiar structures, and hence to characterize triggered star formation. G46.5-0.2 (G46), a poorly studied galactic H ii region located at about 4 kpc, is an excellent target for performing this kind of study. Using public molecular data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey (13CO J = 1-0) and from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope data archive (12CO, 13CO, C18O J = 3-2, HCO+, and HCN J = 4-3), and infrared data from the GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys, we perform a complete study of G46, its molecular environment, and the young stellar objects (YSOs) placed around it. We found that G46, probably excited by an O7V star, is located close to the edge of the GRSMC G046.34-00.21 molecular cloud. It presents a horse-shoe morphology opening in the direction of the cloud. We observed a filamentary structure in the molecular gas likely related to G46 and not considerable molecular emission toward its open border. We found that about 10‧ to the southwest of G46 there are some pillar-like features, shining at 8 μm and pointing toward the H ii region open border. We propose that the pillar-like features were carved and sculpted by the ionizing flux from G46. We found several YSOs likely embedded in the molecular cloud grouped in two main concentrations: one, closer to the G46 open border consisting of Class II type sources, and another mostly composed of Class I type YSOs located just ahead of the pillar-like features, strongly suggesting an age gradient in the YSO distribution.

  13. Comparative Study of Optical and RF Communication Systems for a Mars Mission - Part II. Unified Value Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Layland, J.; Lesh, J.; Wilson, K.; Sue, M.; Rascoe, D.; Lansing, F.; Wilhelm, M.; Harcke, L.; Chen, C.; hide

    1997-01-01

    In this Par-II report of the Advanced Communications Benefits study, two critical metrics for comparing the benefits of utilizing X-band, Ka-band and Optical frequencies for supporting generic classes of Martian exploration missions have been evaluated.

  14. Automated measurement of serum thyroxine with the ''AIRA II,'' as compared with competitive protein binding and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.V.R.

    1978-01-01

    Two conventional serum thyroxine assays, run in separate laboratories, one by competitive protein binding and one by radioimmunoassay, were used to evaluate the automated ARIA II (Becton Dickinson Immunodiagnostics) serum thyroxine assay. Competitive protein binding as compared to ARIA II with 111 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.04 and a correlation coefficient of 0.94. The radioimmunoassay comparison to ARIA II with 53 clinical serum samples gave a slope of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.92. The ARIA II inter-assay coefficient of variation for 10 replicates of low, medium, and high thyroxine serum samples was 6.2, 6.0, and 2.9%, respectively, with an inter-assay coefficient of variation among 15 different assays of 15.5, 10.1, and 7.9%. The automated ARIA II, with a 2.2-min cycle per sample, gives results that compare well with those by manual methodology

  15. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  16. Thermodynamics of mixed-ligand complex formation of mercury (II) ethylenediaminetetraacetate with amino acids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyreu, Dmitrii, E-mail: pyreu@mail.ru [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Kozlovskii, Eugenii [Department of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry, Ivanovo State University, Ermak 39, Ivanovo 153025 (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, Matvei; Kumeev, Roman [Institute of Solution Chemistry, Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable mixed ligand complexes of HgEdta with amino acids at physiological pH value. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic and NMR data evident the ambidentate coordination mode of arginine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Participation of the guanidinic group of Arg in coordination process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binuclear complexes (HgEdta){sub 2}L with the bridging function of amino acid. - Abstract: The mixed-ligand complex formation in the systems Hg{sup 2+} - Edta{sup 4-} - L{sup -}(L = Arg, Orn, Ser) has been studied by means of calorimetry, pH-potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy in aqueous solution at 298.15 K and the ionic strength of I = 0.5 (KNO{sub 3}). The thermodynamic parameters of formation of the HgEdtaL, HgEdtaHL and (HgEdta){sub 2}L complexes have been determined. The most probable coordination mode for the complexone and the amino acid in the mixed-ligand complexes was discussed.

  17. S-Substituted cysteine derivatives and thiosulfinate formation in Petiveria alliacea-part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Kim, Seokwon; Musah, Rabi A

    2002-11-01

    Three cysteine derivatives, (R)-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine, together with (R(S)R(C))- and (S(S)R(C))-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine sulfoxides, have been isolated from the roots of Petiveria alliacea. Furthermore, three additional amino acids, S-methyl-, S-ethyl-, and S-propylcysteine derivatives, were detected. They were present only in trace amounts (<3 microg g(-1) fr. wt), precluding determination of their absolute configurations and oxidation states. In addition, four thiosulfinates, S-(2-hydroxyethyl) (2-hydroxyethane)-, S-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenylmethane-, S-benzyl (2-hydroxyethane)- and S-benzyl phenylmethanethiosulfinates, have been found in a homogenate of the roots. The formation pathways of various benzyl/phenyl-containing compounds previously found in the plant were also discussed.

  18. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M sun , raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M sun ) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M sun ) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ∼>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M B /M A ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.

  19. A Comparative Study on SN II Progenitors for the Synthesis of Li and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these two elements for SN II progenitors with 8, 10 and 20 solar masses. The process considered ... explain their origin. Interaction of ... universe expansion rate either due to cosmological term or due to increased 'grav- itational constant' ..... elevate Li production or to suppress B production in early solar system events. The.

  20. Next generation sequencing analysis reveals that the ribonucleases RNase II, RNase R and PNPase affect bacterial motility and biofilm formation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobre, Vânia; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2015-02-14

    The RNA steady-state levels in the cell are a balance between synthesis and degradation rates. Although transcription is important, RNA processing and turnover are also key factors in the regulation of gene expression. In Escherichia coli there are three main exoribonucleases (RNase II, RNase R and PNPase) involved in RNA degradation. Although there are many studies about these exoribonucleases not much is known about their global effect in the transcriptome. In order to study the effects of the exoribonucleases on the transcriptome, we sequenced the total RNA (RNA-Seq) from wild-type cells and from mutants for each of the exoribonucleases (∆rnb, ∆rnr and ∆pnp). We compared each of the mutant transcriptome with the wild-type to determine the global effects of the deletion of each exoribonucleases in exponential phase. We determined that the deletion of RNase II significantly affected 187 transcripts, while deletion of RNase R affects 202 transcripts and deletion of PNPase affected 226 transcripts. Surprisingly, many of the transcripts are actually down-regulated in the exoribonuclease mutants when compared to the wild-type control. The results obtained from the transcriptomic analysis pointed to the fact that these enzymes were changing the expression of genes related with flagellum assembly, motility and biofilm formation. The three exoribonucleases affected some stable RNAs, but PNPase was the main exoribonuclease affecting this class of RNAs. We confirmed by qPCR some fold-change values obtained from the RNA-Seq data, we also observed that all the exoribonuclease mutants were significantly less motile than the wild-type cells. Additionally, RNase II and RNase R mutants were shown to produce more biofilm than the wild-type control while the PNPase mutant did not form biofilms. In this work we demonstrate how deep sequencing can be used to discover new and relevant functions of the exoribonucleases. We were able to obtain valuable information about the

  1. Star Formation Histories of the LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies. I. Recent History of NGC 1705, NGC 4449, and Holmberg II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, M.; Sacchi, E.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope observations from the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey to reconstruct the recent star formation histories (SFHs) of three actively star-forming dwarf galaxies, NGC 4449, Holmberg II, and NGC 1705, from their UV color–magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We apply a CMD fitting technique using two independent sets of stellar isochrones, PARSEC-COLIBRI and MIST, to assess the uncertainties related to stellar evolution modeling. Irrespective of the adopted stellar models, all three dwarfs are found to have had almost constant star formation rates (SFRs) in the last 100–200 Myr, with modest enhancements (a factor of ∼2) above the 100 Myr averaged SFR. Significant differences among the three dwarfs are found in terms of the overall SFR, the timing of the most recent peak, and the SFR/area. The initial mass function of NGC 1705 and Holmberg II is consistent with a Salpeter slope down to ≈5 M ⊙, whereas it is slightly flatter, s = ‑2.0, in NGC 4449. The SFHs derived with the two different sets of stellar models are consistent with each other, except for some quantitative details, attributable to their input assumptions. They also share the drawback that all synthetic diagrams predict a clear separation in color between the upper main-sequence and helium-burning stars, which is not apparent in the data. Since neither differential reddening, which is significant in NGC 4449, nor unresolved binaries appear to be sufficient to fill the gap, we suggest this calls for a revision of both sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. REM sleep enhancement and behavioral cataplexy following orexin (hypocretin)-II receptor antisense perfusion in the pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, M M; Ramesh, V; Cape, E G; Winston, S; Strecker, R E; McCarley, R W

    1999-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing neurons of the hypothalamus project to brainstem sites that are involved in the neural control of REM sleep, including the locus coeruleus, the dorsal raphe nucleus, the cholinergic zone of the mesopontine tegmentum, and the pontine reticular formation (PRF). Orexin knockout mice exhibit narcolepsy/cataplexy, and a mutant and defective gene for the orexin type II receptor is present in dogs with an inherited form of narcolepsy/cataplexy. However, the physiological systems mediating these effects have not been described. We reasoned that, since the effector neurons for the majority of REM sleep signs, including muscle atonia, were located in the PRF, this region was likely implicated in the production of these orexin-related abnormalities. To test this possibility, we used microdialysis perfusion of orexin type II receptor antisense in the PRF of rats. Ten to 24 hours after antisense perfusion, REM sleep increased two- to three-fold during both the light period (quiescent phase) and the dark period (active phase), and infrared video showed episodes of behavioral cataplexy. Moreover, preliminary data indicated no REM-related effects following perfusion with nonsense DNA, or when perfusion sites were outside the PRF. More work is needed to provide precise localization of the most effective site of orexin-induced inhibition of REM sleep phenomena.

  3. Permian plants from the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, Northern Altiplano of Bolivia: II. The morphogenus Glossopteris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iannuzzi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil plants belonging to the morphogenera Glossopteris, Pecopteris and Asterotheca were collected from the upper part of the Chutani Formation (Titicaca Group, near the town of San Pablo de Tiquina, on the southeastern shore of Lake Titicaca (northern Altiplano, Bolivia. This paper presents the first description of specimens of the morphogenus Glossopteris from Bolivia. The Bolivian specimens of Glossopteris consist of poorly-preserved impressions, although they present the diagnostic features of this morphogenus. They are fragments of leaves with secondary veins of taeniopterid-type, typical of glossopterids from Late Permian deposits of Gondwana. The only species of Pecopteris confirmed in the first part of this study, i.e. P. dolianitii Rösler and Rohn (see Vieira et al. 2004, was previously reported from the Late Permian beds of the Rio do Rasto and Estrada Nova formations in the Paraná Basin (southern Brazil. Therefore, a Late Permian age is proposed for the fossil plant-bearing beds of the Chutani Formation based on the analyzed assemblage. The phytogeographic implications of this new find are briefly analyzed.Plantas fósseis, pertencentes aos morfo-gêneros Glossopteris, Pecopteris e Asterotheca, foram coletadas na porção superior da seção aflorante da Formação Chutani, próxima ao povoado de San Pablo de Tiquina, sudeste do lago Titicaca (Altiplano norte, Bolívia. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira descrição de espécimes do morfo-gênero Glossopteris provenientes da Bolívia. Os espécimes estudados de Glossopteris consistem em impressões foliares pobremente preservadas nas quais feições diagnósticas estão presentes. Os fragmentos foliares apresentam venação secundária do tipo teniopteróide, uma característica típica de glossopterídeas encontradas em depósitos do Permiano Superior do Gondwana. Por sua vez, a única espécie de Pecopteris confirmada para estes níveis da Formação Chutani, i.e. P. dolianitii

  4. A test of star formation laws in disk galaxies. II. Dependence on dynamical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwannajak, Chutipong; Tan, Jonathan C.; Leroy, Adam K.

    2014-01-01

    We use the observed radial profiles of the mass surface densities of total, Σ g , and molecular, Σ H2 , gas, rotation velocity, and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Σ sfr , of the molecular-rich (Σ H2 ≥ Σ HI /2) regions of 16 nearby disk galaxies to test several star formation (SF) laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S)' law, Σ sfr =A g Σ g,2 1.5 ; a 'Constant Molecular' law, Σ sfr = A H2 Σ H2,2 ; the turbulence-regulated laws of Krumholz and McKee (KM05) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT09); a 'Gas-Ω' law, Σ sfr =B Ω Σ g Ω; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) Collision' law, Σ sfr = B CC Σ g Ω(1-0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v circ /d ln r. If allowed one free normalization parameter for each galaxy, these laws predict the SFR with rms errors of factors of 1.4-1.8. If a single normalization parameter is used by each law for the entire galaxy sample, then rms errors range from factors of 1.5-2.1. Although the Constant Molecular law gives the smallest rms errors, the improvement over the KMT, K-S, and GMC Collision laws is not especially significant, particularly given the different observational inputs that the laws utilize and the scope of included physics, which ranges from empirical relations to detailed treatment of interstellar medium processes. We next search for systematic variation of SF law parameters with local and global galactic dynamical properties of disk shear rate (related to β), rotation speed, and presence of a bar. We demonstrate with high significance that higher shear rates enhance SF efficiency per local orbital time. Such a trend is expected if GMC collisions play an important role in SF, while an opposite trend would be expected if the development of disk gravitational instabilities is the controlling physics.

  5. Prognostic relevance of gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma: gemistocytic component and MR imaging features compared to non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Eun; Kim, Ho Sung; Lee, Ji Ye; Jung, Seung Chai; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soo Jeong [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine if gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (GemA) and its MR imaging characteristics are associated with a shorter time-to-progression (TTP) compared with non-gemistocytic grade II astrocytoma (non-GemA). We enrolled 78 patients who were followed up more than 5 years (29 pathologically proven GemA and 49 non-GemA) during a 10-year period. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical and MR imaging features were analyzed as possible prognostic factors of high-grade transformation, and multivariate analysis of TTP was performed using Cox proportional modeling. GemA showed more frequent high-grade features than non-GemA, including diffusion restriction (P <.001), increased choline/creatine (P =.02), and increased choline/NAA ratio (P =.015). Patients with GemA had a significantly shorter median TTP (53.1 vs 68 months; P <.001). A gemistocytic histopathology (hazard ratio = 3.42; P =.015) and low ADC (hazard ratio = 3.61; P =.001) were independently associated with a shorter TTP. GemA can present with MR imaging findings mimicking high-grade glioma at initial diagnosis and transforms to high-grade disease earlier than non-GemA. Low ADC on DWI might be useful in stratifying the risk of progression in patients with grade II astrocytoma. (orig.)

  6. THE ROLE OF PEBBLE FRAGMENTATION IN PLANETESIMAL FORMATION. II. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Karl Wahlberg; Johansen, Anders [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Syed, Mohtashim Bukhari; Blum, Jürgen [Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Mendelssohnstraße 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    Some scenarios for planetesimal formation go through a phase of collapse of gravitationally bound clouds of millimeter- to centimeter-size pebbles. Such clouds can form, for example, through the streaming instability in protoplanetary disks. We model the collapse process with a statistical model to obtain the internal structure of planetesimals with solid radii between 10 and 1000 km. During the collapse, pebbles collide, and depending on their relative speeds, collisions have different outcomes. A mixture of particle sizes inside a planetesimal leads to better packing capabilities and higher densities. In this paper we apply results from new laboratory experiments of dust aggregate collisions (presented in a companion paper) to model collision outcomes. We find that the internal structure of a planetesimal is strongly dependent on both its mass and the applied fragmentation model. Low-mass planetesimals have no/few fragmenting pebble collisions in the collapse phase and end up as porous pebble piles. The number of fragmenting collisions increases with increasing cloud mass, resulting in wider particle size distributions and higher density. The collapse is nevertheless “cold” in the sense that collision speeds are damped by the high collision frequency. This ensures that a significant fraction of large pebbles survive the collapse in all but the most massive clouds. Our results are in broad agreement with the observed increase in density of Kuiper Belt objects with increasing size, as exemplified by the recent characterization of the highly porous comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

  7. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  8. Formation of the Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxysulphate green rust during marine corrosion of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refait, Ph.; Memet, J.-B.; Bon, C.; Sabot, R.; Genin, J.-M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Rust layers formed on steel sheet piles immersed 1 m above the mud line for 25 years were analysed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and elemental X-ray mappings (Fe, S, O). They consist of three main strata, the inner one mainly composed of magnetite, the intermediate one of iron(III) oxyhydroxides and the outer one of hydroxysulphate green rust GR(SO 4 2- ). Simulations of GRs formation in solutions having large [Cl - ]/[SO 4 2- ] ratios revealed that the hydroxysulphate GR(SO 4 2- ) was obtained instead of the hydroxychloride GR(Cl - ), as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy analyses. Measurements of the [S], [Fe] and [Cl] concentrations allowed us to establish that GR(SO 4 2- ) formed along with a drastic impoverishment of the solution in sulphate ions; the [Cl - ]/[SO 4 2- ] ratio increased from 12 to 240. The GR, acting like a 'sulphate pump', may favour the colonisation of the rust layers by sulphate reducing bacteria

  9. Heterometallic Pd(II)-Ni(II) complexes with meso-substituted dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene: double C-H bond activation and formation of a rectangular tetradibenzotetraaza[14]annulene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaledi, Hamid; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Fukuda, Takamitsu; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2014-11-03

    Three isomeric 2[Pd(II)-Ni(II)] metal complexes, derived from indoleninyl meso-substituted dibenzotetraaza[14]annulene, were synthesized. The resulting dimers feature Ni···Ni or, alternatively, Ni···π interactions in staggered or slipped cofacial structures. A remarkable insertion of palladium into two different C-H bonds yielded a 4[Pd(II)-Ni(II)] rectangular complex with dimensions of 8.73 × 10.38 Å.

  10. Enhancement of CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratios and star formation efficiencies in supergiant H II regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Rie E.; Espada, Daniel; Komugi, Shinya; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Hirota, Akihiko; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1805 (Japan); Okumura, Sachiko K. [Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Japan Woman' s University, Mejirodai 2-8-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Onodera, Sachiko [Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: rie.miura@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Meisei University, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506 (Japan)

    2014-06-20

    We present evidence that super giant H II regions (GHRs) and other disk regions of the nearby spiral galaxy, M33, occupy distinct locations in the correlation between molecular gas, Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, and the star formation rate surface density, Σ{sub SFR}. This result is based on wide-field and high-sensitivity CO(3-2) observations at 100 pc resolution. Star formation efficiencies (SFEs), defined as Σ{sub SFR}/Σ{sub H{sub 2}}, in GHRs are found to be ∼1 dex higher than in other disk regions. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) integrated intensity ratio, R {sub 3-2/1-0}, is also higher than the average over the disk. Such high SFEs and R {sub 3-2/1-0} can reach the values found in starburst galaxies, which suggests that GHRs may be the elements building up a larger-scale starburst region. Three possible contributions to high SFEs in GHRs are investigated: (1) the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor, (2) the dense gas fraction traced by R {sub 3-2/1-0}, and (3) the initial mass function (IMF). We conclude that these starburst-like properties in GHRs can be interpreted by a combination of both a top-heavy IMF and a high dense gas fraction, but not by changes in the I {sub CO}-N(H{sub 2}) conversion factor.

  11. By-products formation during degradation of isoproturon in aqueous solution. II: Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, G; Lopez, A; James, H; Fielding, M

    2001-05-01

    After a previous study in which the considered oxidant was ozone (Part I), a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the degradation of the herbicide isoproturon during its reaction with another oxidant, i.e. chlorine, in aqueous solution (Part II; this paper). The specific aim was to identify the by-products formed. The effects of pH and the presence of bromide ions were studied. Reactions have been carried out at room temperature, in phosphate buffered aqueous solutions, at four pHs (6, 7, 8 and 9). By-products identification was first performed using relatively high initial reagent concentrations which were analytically convenient ([isoproturon] = 40 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 160 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 80 mg/l). In follow-up studies, the by-products identified during this preliminary step were searched for when using concentration values closer to those actually encountered at real water treatment plants ([isoproturon] = 0.4 and 0.004 mg/l, [HClO + ClO-] = 1.6 mg Cl/l, [Br-] = 0.8 and 0.008 mg/l). Under all of the studied conditions, the results showed that isoproturon is completely degraded and that it decays much faster in the presence of bromide. The pH has a negligible influence when bromide ions are absent. On the contrary, if bromide ions are present, the isoproturon decay is slower at higher pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analyses have led to the identification of several by-products as a result of simultaneous oxidation and substitution reactions, both occurring on the aromatic ring of the herbicide. However, the more abundant by-products are those resulting from the oxidation of the isoproturon aromatic ring. As far as halogenated by-products are concerned, the higher the bromide ion concentration the higher the ratio of brominated to chlorinated by-products. On the basis of the analytical results, a pathway for isoproturon degradation under the studied conditions is proposed.

  12. ROTATING STARS AND THE FORMATION OF BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE. II. TIDAL SPIN-UP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860, Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Manchado, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    We present new binary stellar evolution models that include the effects of tidal forces, rotation, and magnetic torques with the goal of testing planetary nebulae (PNs) shaping via binary interaction. We explore whether tidal interaction with a companion can spin-up the asymptotic giant brach (AGB) envelope. To do so, we have selected binary systems with main-sequence masses of 2.5 M {sub ⊙} and 0.8 M {sub ⊙} and evolve them allowing initial separations of 5, 6, 7, and 8 au. The binary stellar evolution models have been computed all the way to the PNs formation phase or until Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) is reached, whatever happens first. We show that with initial separations of 7 and 8 au, the binary avoids entering into RLOF, and the AGB star reaches moderate rotational velocities at the surface (∼3.5 and ∼2 km s{sup −1}, respectively) during the inter-pulse phases, but after the thermal pulses it drops to a final rotational velocity of only ∼0.03 km s{sup −1}. For the closest binary separations explored, 5 and 6 au, the AGB star reaches rotational velocities of ∼6 and ∼4 km s{sup −1}, respectively, when the RLOF is initiated. We conclude that the detached binary models that avoid entering the RLOF phase during the AGB will not shape bipolar PNs, since the acquired angular momentum is lost via the wind during the last two thermal pulses. This study rules out tidal spin-up in non-contact binaries as a sufficient condition to form bipolar PNs.

  13. Micronucleus formation compared to the survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray and neutron irradiation and hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beuningen, D.; Streffer, C.; Bertholdt, G.

    1981-09-01

    After neutron and X-ray irradiation and combined X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia (3 hours, 42/sup 0/C), the survival rate of human melanoma cells was measured by means of the colony formation test and compared to the formation of micronuclei. Neutrons had a stronger effect on the formation of micronuclei than the combination of X-rays and hyperthermia. X-rays had the lowest effect. The dose effect curve showed a break at that dose level at which a reduction of cells was observed in the cultures. A good relation between survival rate and formation of micronuclei was found for the X-ray irradiation, but not for the neutron irradiation and the combined treatment. These observations are discussed. At least for X-rays, the micronucleus test has turned out to be a good screening method for the radiosensitivity of a biologic system.

  14. German Politics "auf Deutsch": Teaching Comparative Politics in a Language across the Curriculum Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallerberg, Mark; Cothran, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    Explores how language and political science professors can co-teach a course using the Language Across the Curriculum format to increase student understanding of a country's language and politics. Describes a Georgia Tech course taught in German on post-war German politics. Addresses the elements of a successful course and student and course…

  15. Comparing simulations of ionization triggered star formation and observations in RCW 120

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Walch, S.; Whitworth, A.; Bisbas, T.; Hubber, D.A.; Wünsch, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 452, č. 3 (2015), s. 2794-2803 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hydrodynamics * stars formation * ISM bubbles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015

  16. Comparative study of the formation of fenchenes and of their N.M.R. spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulombeau, A.

    1970-01-01

    The dehydration of α-fenchyl alcohol and α-iso-fenchyl alcohol is studied in detail: two new techniques (chromatography on silica with silver nitrate, and nuclear magnetic resonance) permit to analyse the formation of various fenchenes and to achieve the synthesis of α- and β-fenchenes. (author) [fr

  17. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speranza, Anna; Leopold, Kerstin; Maier, Marina; Taddei, Anna Rita; Scoccianti, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L -1 . Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  18. Pd-nanoparticles cause increased toxicity to kiwifruit pollen compared to soluble Pd(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speranza, Anna, E-mail: anna.speranza@unibo.i [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 42, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Leopold, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.leopold@lrz.tu-muenchen.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Maier, Marina, E-mail: marina.maier@ch.tum.d [Arbeitsgruppe fuer Analytische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Taddei, Anna Rita, E-mail: artaddei@unitus.i [CIME, Universita della Tuscia, Viterbo (Italy); Scoccianti, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.scoccianti@uniurb.i [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Uomo, dell' Ambiente e della Natura, Universita di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Urbino (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    In the present study, endpoints including in vitro pollen performance (i.e., germination and tube growth) and lethality were used as assessments of nanotoxicity. Pollen was treated with 5-10 nm-sized Pd particles, similar to those released into the environment by catalytic car exhaust converters. Results showed Pd-nanoparticles altered kiwifruit pollen morphology and entered the grains more rapidly and to a greater extent than soluble Pd(II). At particulate Pd concentrations well below those of soluble Pd(II), pollen grains experienced rapid losses in endogenous calcium and pollen plasma membrane damage was induced. This resulted in severe inhibition and subsequent cessation of pollen tube emergence and elongation at particulate Pd concentrations as low as 0.4 mg L{sup -1}. Particulate Pd emissions related to automobile traffic have been increasing and are accumulating in the environment. This could seriously jeopardize in vivo pollen function, with impacts at an ecosystem level. - Nanoparticulate Pd - which resembles emissions from automobile catalysts - affects pollen to a higher extent than soluble Pd.

  19. Improvement of the excavation damaged zone in saliferous formations. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Simo Kuate, E.; Borstel, L. von; Engelhardt, H.J.

    2016-01-15

    In Germany, salt formations are considered to be suitable to host a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. However, local stress changes adjacent to man-made openings lead to the evolution of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) during and after excavation. Such an EDZ can have a major impact on the operation of a radioactive waste repository since it represents a region where progressive failure occurs. This decreases the material strength and thus increases the permeability of the originally tight host rock. The objective of this investigation is determined by the need to develop a modeling strategy that can be applied to simulate the permeability increase due to mechanical deterioration of rock salt, in particular that occurring in the EDZ. The identification of material parameters is often conducted by back-calculation of laboratory experiments. However, standard laboratory tests, e.g. compression tests, are only applicable to provide information about the macroscopic deformation. For this purpose, further laboratory tests were conducted to derive material parameters used in the constitutive models. Combined acoustic emission and uniaxial compression tests as well as microstructural analyses were carried out to dissolve the macroscopic behavior micromechanically. The information obtained was then used for parameter identification utilizing optimization methods. The objective was to identify the best estimate of the micro-parameter values that can be applied to simulate the laboratory results performed. To make a qualitative comparison between the numerical analysis and the acoustic emission (AE) testing, the onset of failure at contacts was equated with events detected by AE testing. The onset of failure is identified at stress levels above 3 MPa. The number of tensile fractures increases continuously and the maximum is reached between 10 and 12 MPa axial stress. At the beginning of loading, tensile fractures appear more frequently than shear fractures

  20. Hepatic glycogen in humans. II. Gluconeogenetic formation after oral and intravenous glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of glycogen that is formed by gluconeogenetic pathways during glucose loading was quantitated in human subjects. Oral glucose loading was compared with its intravenous administration. Overnight-fasted subjects received a constant infusion or [3- 3 H]glucose and a marker for gluconeogenesis, [U- 14 C]lactate or sodium [ 14 C]bicarbonate [ 14 C]bicarbonate. An unlabeled glucose load was then administered. Postabsorptively, or after glucose infusion was terminated, a third tracer ([6- 3 H]glucose) infusion was initiated along with a three-step glucagon infusion. Without correcting for background stimulation of [ 14 C]glucose production or for dilution of 14 C with citric acid cycle carbon in the oxaloacetate pool, the amount of glycogen mobilized by the glucagon infusion that was produced by gluconeogenesis during oral glucose loading was 2.9 +/- 0.7 g calculated from [U- 14 C]-lactate incorporation and 7.4 +/- 1.3 g calculated using [ 14 C]bicarbonate as a gluconeogenetic marker. During intravenous glucose administration the latter measurement also yielded 7.2 +/- 1.1 g. When the two corrections above are applied, the respective quantities became 5.3 +/- 1.7 g for [U- 14 C]lactate as tracer and 14.7 +/- 4.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.6 g for oral and intravenous glucose with [ 14 C]bicarbonate as tracer (P less than 0.05, vs. [ 14 C]-lactate as tracer). When [2- 14 C]acetate was infused, the same amount of label was incorporated into mobilized glycogen regardless of which route of glucose administration was used. Comparison with previous data also suggests that 14 CO 2 is a potentially useful marker for the gluconeogenetic process in vivo

  1. Comparing Formation or Non-Formation of Bladder Flap at Cesarean Section on Perioperative and Postoperative Complications: Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Akhlaghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigating formation or non-formation of bladder flap at Cesarean section on the complications during and after surgery.Materials and methods: This is a double-blind clinical trial study conducted during February 2014 to May 2015 on 64 pregnant women with gestational age of 36 weeks or more who were delivered by Cesarean section for the first time. They were randomly divided into two groups (intervention group: non-formation of bladder flap; control group: formation of bladder flap. The time to cut out the baby by Cesarean section, total duration of operation, bladder injury, intraoperative bleeding, hematocrit changes expected prior to during and following operation, postoperative pain, macroscopic and microscopic hematuria, postoperative complications and duration of  hospitalization were compared between two groups. The data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 using and statistics tests. p < 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Time to cut out the baby for the intervention group (124.9 ± 40.5 seconds and for control group 155.1 ± 42.9 seconds and total duration of the operation (intervention group: 27.7 ± 5.2 min and control group: 34 ± 4.73 min were significantly different (p = 0.000. Number of gauze consumption during operation and postoperative hematocrit drop in the intervention group was significantly lower in the intervention group compared the control group (p = 0.000. The postoperative pain score in the intervention group (4.8 ± 1.1 and in control group (6.3 ± 0.9 were significantly different (p = 0.000.Conclusion: Omission of the bladder flap at Cesarean section leads to short-term benefits such as reducing the time to cut out the fetus, duration of surgery, decreasing postoperative bleeding and lowering pain.

  2. Boundaries and opportunities: comparing slave family formation in the antebellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargas, Damian Alan

    2008-07-01

    Our understanding of the marriage strategies and family formation of enslaved people remains clouded by disagreement among contemporary scholars. A perusal of the historical literature suggests that two issues lay at the root of this disagreement: First, scholars disagree over the extent to which slave family life was shaped by the external factors of slavery, or rather slave agency; and second, scholars appear reluctant to abandon their singular views of the slave family. This article addresses both of these gaps by formulating a middle ground in the slave agency debate and by redefining the slave family in plural form. An analysis of the boundaries and opportunities for family formation in northern Virginia and lowcountry South Carolina, this study shows that while the establishment of co-residential two-parent households was the ideal for slaves, not all were able to realize that ideal, and those that could not adapted their marriage strategies and family lives accordingly.

  3. Reanalysing children's responses on shadow formation: a comparative approach to bodily expressions and verbal discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Herakleioti, Evagelia; Chachlioutaki, Maria-Eleni

    2017-12-01

    The present article contains a reanalysis of data resulting from a research project carried out on a group of five preschool-aged children. The data were collected from a class of 16 children participating in a pre/post research design that focused on the shadow formation phenomenon. The findings of the previous research project, based on a speech plus deictic gesture analysis, indicated that the five children had shown regression or no change in their reasoning. In the light of an embodied perspective into science teaching and learning, the current study examines whether we should use a bodily analysis to reassess the extent of knowledge about shadows among these five students. It demonstrates that most of the children selected improved their reasoning about shadow formation by using iconic gestures. Such conflicting results indicate that bodily expression has its own grammar and, to some extent, communicates a meaning that differs from that of verbal discourse.

  4. Kinetics and equilibria for the formation of a new DNA metal-intercalator: the cyclic polyamine Neotrien/copper(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Tarita; Secco, Fernando; Tinè, Maria Rosaria; Venturini, Marcella

    2004-01-01

    A study has been performed of the kinetics and equilibria involved in complex formation between the macrocyclic polyamine 2,5,8,11-tetraaza[12]-[12](2,9)[1,10]-phenanthrolinophane (Neotrien) and Cu(II) in acidic aqueous solution and ionic strength 0.5 M (NaCl), by means of the stopped-flow method and UV spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometric titrations and kinetic experiments revealed that the binding of Cu(II) to Neotrien gives rise to several 1:1 complexes differing in their degree of protonation. Under the experimental hydrogen ion concentration range investigated, complexation occurs by two parallel paths: (a) M2+ + (H4L)4+ (MH4L)6+ and (b) M2+ + (H3L)3+ (MH3L)5+. The rate constants values found for complex formation, by paths (a) and (b), are much lower than the values expected from water exchange at copper(II) and other amine/Cu(II) complexation kinetic constants. Kinetic experiments at different NaCl concentrations indicated that this finding was not due to chloride ion competition in complex formation with Neotrien, but it was related to a ring rigidity effect. As the phenanthroline moiety could, in principle, interact with nucleic acids by intercalation or external binding, some preliminary measurements concerned with the possible interactions occurring between the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have also been carried out. The absorption spectra of the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex change upon addition of CT-DNA at pH 7.0, revealing the occurrence of complex-nucleic acid interactions. Moreover, fluorescence titrations, carried out by adding the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex to CT-DNA, previously saturated with ethidium bromide (EB), show that the Cu(II)/Neotrien complex is able to displace EB from DNA, suggesting the complex is able to intercalate into the polynucleotide and then to cleave the phosphodiester bond of DNA.

  5. Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease

    OpenAIRE

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2011-01-01

    Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B StrickerInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coi...

  6. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Westhuis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically significant differences between the two class formats for eight out of eleven outcome student performance activities and ten out of 13 pedagogical strategies. There were large effect size differences based on class format on four of the student performance activities and for student satisfaction with six of the pedagogical methods. When statistically significant differences were found, it was determined that student performance on learning activities and satisfaction with pedagogical methods were higher for the students in the traditional class. The findings support the conclusions of several studies concerning the effectiveness of online teaching. Limitations and implications for further studies are also suggested.

  7. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Muller, Lisette; Tempelaars, Marcel; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2015-05-04

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS) as a surface as compared to polystyrene (PS). For a selection of strains, the total CFU and spore counts in biofilms were determined and showed a good correlation between CFU counts and total biomass of these biofilms. Sporulation was favoured in the biofilm over the planktonic state. To substantiate whether iron availability could affect B. cereus biofilm formation, the free iron availability was varied in BHI by either the addition of FeCl3 or by depletion of iron with the scavenger 2,2-Bipyridine. Addition of iron resulted in increased air-liquid interface biofilm on polystyrene but not on SS for strain ATCC 10987, while the presence of Bipyridine reduced biofilm formation for both materials. Biofilm formation was restored when excess FeCl3 was added in combination with the scavenger. Further validation of the iron effect for all 23 strains in microtiter plate showed that fourteen strains (including ATCC10987) formed a biofilm on PS. For eight of these strains biofilm formation was enhanced in the presence of added iron and for eleven strains it was reduced when free iron was scavenged. Our results show that stainless steel as a contact material provides more favourable conditions for B. cereus biofilm formation and maturation compared to polystyrene. This effect could possibly be linked to iron availability as we show that free iron availability affects B. cereus biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EMBEDDED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AROUND (SUB-)SOLAR STARS. II. DISK MASSES, SIZES, DENSITIES, TEMPERATURES, AND THE PLANET FORMATION PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-01-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 M sun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M mean d,C0 = 0.12 M sun , M mdn d,C0 = 0.09 M sun and M mean d,CI = 0.18 M sun , M mdn d,CI = 0.15 M sun , respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M * = 0.05-0.1 M sun . Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase.

  9. Validation of the LOD score compared with APACHE II score in prediction of the hospital outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-01-01

    The Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (LOD) is an organ dysfunction score that can predict hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the LOD score compared with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary referral university hospital in Thailand. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24 month period from July1, 2004 until June 30, 2006. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H statistic. The overall fit of the model was evaluated by the Brier's score. Overall, 1,429 patients were enrolled during the study period. The mortality in the ICU was 20.9% and in the hospital was 27.9%. The median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3 and 18 days, respectively, for all patients. Both models showed excellent discrimination. The AUROC for the LOD and APACHE II were 0.860 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.882] and 0.898 (95% Cl = 0.879-0.917), respectively. The LOD score had perfect calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 10 (p = 0.44). However, the APACHE II had poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 75.69 (p < 0.001). Brier's score showed the overall fit for both models were 0.123 (95%Cl = 0.107-0.141) and 0.114 (0.098-0.132) for the LOD and APACHE II, respectively. Thus, the LOD score was found to be accurate for predicting hospital mortality for general critically ill patients in Thailand.

  10. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  11. Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation compared to layered deposits on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowe, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Gross, C.; Walter, S.

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of the Peruvian Pisco Formation are morphologically similar to the mounds of Juventae Chasma at the equatorial region on Mars (Fig. 1). By analyzing these deposits, we hope to gain information about the environmental conditions that prevailed during sediment deposition and erosion, hence conditions that might be applicable to the Martian layered and hydrated deposits. Mariner 9 data of the Martian mid-latitudes have already shown evidence of the wind-sculptured landforms that display the powerful prevailing eolian regime [1]. In addition, [2] reported on similarities between Martian erosional landforms and those of the rainless coastal desert of central Peru from the Paracas peninsula to the Rio Ica. As indicated by similar erosional patterns, hyper-arid conditions and unidirectional winds must have dominated at least after deposition of the sediments, which are intermixed volcaniclastic materials and evaporate minerals at both locations. Likewise, variations in composition are displayed by alternating layers of different competence. The Pisco formation bears yardangs on siltstones, sandstones and clays with volcaniclastic admixtures [3] whereas the presence of sulphate minerals and the omnipresent mafic mineralogy has been reported for the layered mounds of Juventae Chasma equally [4]. Likewise, a volcanic airfall deposition and lacustrine formation have been proposed for the sulphate-rich deposits of Juventae Chasma [5,6]. In order to find out about potential spectral similarities, we performed a detailed spectral analysis of the surface by using LANDSAT and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) VNIR/ SWIR data (visible to near-infrared and shortwave infrared region).

  12. Formation of a stable oligomer of beta-2 microglobulin requires only transient encounter with Cu(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Matthew F; Miranker, Andrew D

    2007-03-16

    Beta-2 Microglobulin (beta2m) is a small, globular protein, with high solubility under conditions comparable to human serum. A complication of hemodialysis in renal failure patients is the deposition of unmodified beta2m as amyloid fibers. In vitro, exposure of beta2m to equimolar Cu(2+) under near-physiological conditions can result in self-association leading to amyloid fiber formation. Previously, we have shown that the early steps in this process involve a catalyzed structural rearrangement followed by formation of discrete oligomers. These oligomers, however, have a continued requirement for Cu(2+) while mature fibers are resistant to addition of metal chelate. Here, we report that the transition from Cu(2+) dependent to chelate resistant states occurs in the context of small oligomers, dimeric to hexameric in size. These species require Cu(2+) to form, but once generated, do not need metal cation for stability. Importantly, this transition occurs gradually over several days and the resulting oligomers are isolatable and kinetically stable on timescales exceeding weeks. In addition, formation is enhanced by levels of urea similar to those found in hemodialysis patients. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that transient encounter of full-length wild-type beta2m with transition metal cation at the dialysis membrane interface is causal to dialysis related amyloidosis.

  13. STAR FORMATION AT VERY LOW METALLICITY. V. THE GREATER IMPORTANCE OF INITIAL CONDITIONS COMPARED TO METALLICITY THRESHOLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jappsen, Anne-Katharina; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Kitsionas, Spyridon

    2009-01-01

    The formation of the first stars out of metal-free gas appears to result in stars at least an order of magnitude more massive than in the present-day case. We here consider what controls the transition from a primordial to a modern initial mass function. It has been proposed that this occurs when effective metal line cooling occurs at a metallicity threshold of Z/Z sun > 10 -3.5 . We study the influence of low levels of metal enrichment on the cooling and collapse of initially ionized gas in small protogalactic halos using three-dimensional, smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with particle splitting. Our initial conditions represent protogalaxies forming within a previously ionized H II region that has not yet had time to cool and recombine. These differ considerably from those used in simulations predicting a metallicity threshold, where the gas was initially cold and only partially ionized. In the centrally condensed potential that we study here, a wide variety of initial conditions for the gas yields a monolithic central collapse. Our models show no fragmentation during collapse to number densities as high as 10 5 cm -3 , for metallicities reaching as high as 10 -1 Z sun , far above the threshold suggested by previous work. Rotation allows for the formation of gravitationally stable gas disks over large fractions of the local Hubble time. Turbulence slows the growth of the central density slightly, but both spherically symmetric and turbulent initial conditions collapse and form a single sink particle. We therefore argue that fragmentation at moderate density depends on the initial conditions for star formation more than on the metal abundances present. The actual initial conditions to be considered still need to be determined in detail by observation and modeling of galaxy formation. Metal abundance may still drive fragmentation at very high densities due to dust cooling, perhaps giving an alternative metallicity threshold.

  14. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II, 4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol, and Nitron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya Vassileva Racheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II, 4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR, 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt, water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+[Co3+(PAR2], were found. The following key equilibrium constants were calculated: constant of association (Log β=4.77±0.06, constant of distribution (LogKD=1.34±0.01, and constant of extraction (LogKex=6.11±0.07. Beer’s law was obeyed for Co concentrations up to 1.7 μg mL−1 with a molar absorptivity of 6.0×104 L mol−1 cm−1 at λmax=520 nm. Some additional characteristics, such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, and Sandell’s sensitivity, were estimated as well.

  15. Influence of ionic strength and OH(-) ion concentration on the Cu(II) complex formation with EDTA in alkaline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkus, E; Vaskelis, A; Zakaite, I

    1996-03-01

    D.c. polarographic data show that the complex formation of copper ions with EDTA depends markedly on the ionic strength of the solution at pH 8-10. This is primarily associated with the dependence of the fourth deprotonization constant of EDTA on the solution ionic strength: when it increases from 0.4 to 3.4, the pK(a4) value decreases from 9.5 to 8.2. According to polarographic and spectrophotometric data the degree of Cu(II) complexation increases at pH>10 due to transformation of the complex CuY(2-) to the more stable CuY(OH)(3-) (Y(4-), a fully deprotonized anion of EDTA), but it decreases with increase in alkalinity in a highly alkaline solution (pH>13.5). The latter result could be explained by the decrease in the EDTA anion activity. The calculated values of the activity coefficient are lower than 0.05 at pH>14.

  16. Ceramide content is higher in type I compared to type II fibers in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ditte Bech; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Larsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated fiber-type-specific muscle ceramide content in obese subjects and type 2 diabetes patients. Two substudies, one which compared type 2 diabetes patients to both lean- and obese BMI-matched subjects and the other study which compared lean body-matched post-obese, obese......, and control subjects, were performed. A fasting blood sample was obtained and plasma insulin and glucose determined. A muscle biopsy was obtained from deltoideus and vastus lateralis, and fiber-type ceramide content was determined by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Insulin sensitivity estimated by Quicki...... index was higher in lean compared to type 2 diabetes patients and obese controls. Also in control and post-obese subjects, a higher insulin sensitivity was observed compared to obese subjects. Ceramide content was consistently higher in type I than in type II muscle fibers and higher in deltoideus than...

  17. Radical polymerization in holographic grating formation in PQ-PMMA photopolymer part II: Consecutive exposure and dark decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Hongpeng; Geng, Yaohui; Wang, Weibo; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2014-11-01

    Photochemical radical polymerization in phenathrenequinone doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer are investigated theoretically and experimentally under consecutive exposure. The detailed photochemical mechanisms are analyzed. Based on the rate equations of photochemical reactions, the diffusion models with nonlocal response are proposed to describe the kinetic process of radical polymerization and the significance of photochemical processes for the grating formation. In experiments, the temporal evolution of diffraction efficiency in grating formation is measured under consecutive exposure and after exposure. The percentages of these radical polymerizations, namely the polymerization of PQ with matrix, the bimolecular combination of MMA molecules, and the disproportionation of MMA molecules, are extracted quantitatively by comparing theory with experiments. It is indicated that the polymerization of PQ with matrix is primary photochemical process which dominated the grating formation under consecutive exposure. In this period, the contribution of chain polymerization of MMA radicals is weak for the grating formation. After reaching the peak values of grating strength, the influence of the free MMA molecules and photoproduct macromolecules on the grating decay is discussed in a long-term period. The diffusion coefficients of MMA and photoproduct are extracted by fitting the curves using double exponential function. MMA’s diffusion contributed to the fast decay process of grating after exposure and photoproduct’s diffusion contributed to the slow and long decay of grating. The results break previous understanding about the diffusion of single photoproduct macromolecules lead to the dark decay of grating. This investigation can provide a significant foundation for improving modulation depth and long-term stability by photochemical mechanism.

  18. Comparative clinical characteristics of depression in bipolar affective disorders types I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tyuvina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the clinical features of depression within bipolar affective disorders types I and II (BADI and BADII.Patients and methods. An examination was made in 100 depressive patients, including 25 with BADI, 37 with BADII, and 38 with recurrent depressive disorder (RDD (a comparison group. The patients' status was evaluated in accordance with the ICD-10 and DSM-V affective disorder criteria, by using a specially developed questionnaire.Results. BAD-related depression has features distinguishing it from RDD: sexual preference (men; an earlier age of disease onset; a shorter duration, but a higher frequency of exacerbations; a greater tendency for the continuum; a more marked decrease in social and family adaptation; development in people with predominantly hyperthymic premorbid; more frequently a family history of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and alcoholism; high comorbidity with metabolic diseases and psychoactive substance abuse; worse health more commonly in autumn and winter; a predominant anxious affect and an obviously decreasing interest in the structure of depression; a higher incidence of atypical sleep, appetite, and weight disorders; high suicidal activity; higher motor retardation (in BADI; relatively small involvement of somatic complaints in BAD I and frequent panic attacks in BADII.Conclusion. Knowledge of the specific features of BAD-related depression will be able to make a more accurate differential diagnosis and to perform more effective treatment in these patients.

  19. Iron(III) species formed during iron(II) oxidation and iron-core formation in bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, C.; Treffry, A.; Mackey, J.; Williams, J.M.; Andrews, S.C.; Guest, J.R.; Harrison, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation of the mechanisms of Fe(II) oxidation and storage of Fe(III) in the bacterioferritin of Escherichia coli (EcBFR). Using Moessbauer spectroscopy to examine the initial oxidation of iron by EcBFR it is confirmed that this ferritin exhibits 'ferroxidase' activity and is shown that dimeric and monomeric iron species are produced as intermediates. The characteristics of ferroxidase activity in EcBFR is compare d with those of human H-chain ferritin (HuHF) and discuss the different Moessbauer parameters of their dimeric iron with reference to the structures of their di-metal sites. In addition, it is presented preliminary findings suggesting that after an initial 'burst', the rate of oxidation is greatly reduced, possibly due to blockage of the ferroxidase centre by bound iron. A new component, not found in HuHF and probably representing a small cluster of Fe(III) atoms, is reported

  20. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Comparative clinical evaluation of removable partial dentures made of two different materials in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Maninder; Madan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Cast Chromium Cobalt alloy has been the material of choice for fabricating Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs) but has certain drawbacks. Newer materials like the flexible Nylon based Super Polyamide have been introduced to overcome these drawbacks. The present study has compared the above two materials for nine clinical parameters. The study was carried out on 30 patients presenting with a Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation who were divided into two equal groups and clinically assessed. Statistically significant results were obtained in favor of flexible RPDs, in the parameters of 'aesthetics' and 'overall patient satisfaction'. Both groups showed more or less similar values for 'frequency of fracture of the prosthesis during usage' with the incidence being slightly higher for patients wearing the cast RPDs. The clinical parameters of 'oral soft tissue tolerance', 'gingival health', 'periodontal health' and 'adaptability in areas with undercut' were statistically at par for all the 30 patients thus suggesting the comparable biocompatibility of the two materials. The highlight of this study was the relative ease in fabrication of the flexible RPDs as compared to the cast RPDs. Based on the favorable clinical results of this study, it can be summarized that the flexible RPDs is a viable alternative to cast RPDs in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation in the short term.

  2. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Emotional reactions of different interface formats: Comparing digital and traditional board games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Fang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some games provide both traditional board games and digital versions at the same time in the market. Why the rise of virtual games has not forced traditional physical board games to disappear? Do traditional physical games evoke different emotional reactions and interpersonal relationships? This article explored the subjects’ preferences toward traditional and digital versions of the same game and investigated social interaction while playing games. Based on Norman’s three emotional design levels—visceral, behavioral, and reflective levels—this study examined players’ satisfaction degree. This study also applied Positive and Negative Affect Schedule to measure subjects’ emotional reactions. Monopoly and Jenga games were selected as stimuli. A total of 77 subjects received tests of three different interface formats (physical, desktop, and tablet and then filled out the questionnaire. The findings successfully evidenced the significant differences between digital and traditional board games. The statistical results indicated that satisfaction degrees of digital games declined in visceral, behavioral, and reflective levels. Traditional games not only evoked users’ stronger emotional reactions but also received higher preferences. Traditional games could improve interpersonal relationships as well.

  4. Formation and elasticity of membranes of the class II hydrophobin Cerato-ulmin at oil-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Kirby, Stephanie M; Chen, Yuwu; Anna, Shelley L; Walker, Lynn M; Hung, Francisco R; Russo, Paul S

    2018-04-01

    Protein surfactants show great potential to stabilize foams, bubbles, and emulsions. An important family of surface active proteins, the hydrophobins, is secreted by filamentous fungi. Two hydrophobin classes have been recognized, with Class II exhibiting slightly better solubility than Class I, although neither is very soluble in water. Hydrophobins are small proteins (8-14 kDa), but they are larger and more rigid than typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. This rigidity seems to be manifested in the strength of adsorbed hydrophobin layers on oil droplets or air bubbles. A particular Class II hydrophobin, Cerato-ulmin, was characterized at the oil-water interface (the oil was squalane). The results are compared to measurements at the air-water interface, newly extended to lower Cerato-ulmin concentrations. For both oil-water and air-water interfaces, static and dynamic properties were measured during the evolution of the membrane structure. The static measurements reveal that dilute Cerato-ulmin solution efficiently decreases the interfacial tension, whether at oil-water or air-water interfaces. The reduction in surface tension requires several hours. Interfacial mechanics were characterized too, and the dilatational modulus was found to reach large values at both types of interfaces: 339 ± 19 mN/m at the squalane-water interface and at least 764 ± 45 mN/m at the air-water interface. Both values well exceed those typical of small-molecule surfactants, but come closer to those expected of particulate-loaded interfaces. Circular dichroism provides some insight to adsorption-induced molecular rearrangements, which seem to be more prevalent at the oil-water interface than at the air-water interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Making comparative performance information more comprehensible: an experimental evaluation of the impact of formats on consumer understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; De Jong, Anco; Hibbard, Judith H; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate how different presentation formats influence comprehension and use of comparative performance information (CPI) among consumers. An experimental between-subjects and within-subjects design with manipulations of CPI presentation formats. We enrolled both consumers with lower socioeconomic status (SES)/cognitive skills and consumers with higher SES/cognitive skills, recruited through an online access panel. Respondents received fictitious CPI and completed questions about interpretation and information use. Between subjects, we tested (1) displaying an overall performance score (yes/no); (2) displaying a small number of quality indicators (5 vs 9); and (3) displaying different types of evaluative symbols (star ratings, coloured dots and word icons vs numbers and bar graphs). Within subjects, we tested the effect of a reduced number of healthcare providers (5 vs 20). Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, analyses of variance and paired-sampled t tests. A total of 902 (43%) respondents participated. Displaying an overall performance score and the use of coloured dots and word icons particularly enhanced consumer understanding. Importantly, respondents provided with coloured dots most often correctly selected the top three healthcare providers (84.3%), compared with word icons (76.6% correct), star ratings (70.6% correct), numbers (62.0%) and bars (54.2%) when viewing performance scores of 20 providers. Furthermore, a reduced number of healthcare providers appeared to support consumers, for example, when provided with 20 providers, 69.5% correctly selected the top three, compared with 80.2% with five providers. Particular presentation formats enhanced consumer understanding of CPI, most importantly the use of overall performance scores, word icons and coloured dots, and a reduced number of providers displayed. Public report efforts should use these formats to maximise impact on consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  6. Ectopic bone formation in bone marrow stem cell seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to autograft and (cell seeded allograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J O Eniwumide

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements to current therapeutic strategies are needed for the treatment of skeletal defects. Bone tissue engineering offers potential advantages to these strategies. In this study, ectopic bone formation in a range of scaffolds was assessed. Vital autograft and devitalised allograft served as controls and the experimental groups comprised autologous bone marrow derived stem cell seeded allograft, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP and tricalcium phosphate (TCP, respectively. All implants were implanted in the back muscle of adult Dutch milk goats for 12 weeks. Micro-computed tomography (µCT analysis and histomorphometry was performed to evaluate and quantify ectopic bone formation. In good agreement, both µCT and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in bone formation by cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds as compared to the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants. An extensive resorption of the autograft, allograft and cell-seeded allograft implants was observed by histology and confirmed by histomorphometry. Cell-seeded TCP implants also showed distinct signs of degradation with histomorphometry and µCT, while the degradation of the cell-seeded BCP implants was negligible. These results indicate that cell-seeded calcium phosphate scaffolds are superior to autograft, allograft or cell-seeded allograft in terms of bone formation at ectopic implantation sites. In addition, the usefulness of µCT for the efficient and non-destructive analysis of mineralised bone and calcium phosphate scaffold was demonstrated.

  7. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO₂ concentrations compared to primordial values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-13

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO₂ concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO₂ concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO₂ concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO₂ concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO₂ concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  8. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago. PMID:25583135

  9. Comparing Web, Group and Telehealth Formats of a Military Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    spots, social media , community events and military partners. A ‘refer a friend’ campaign is currently being reviewed by our IRB. Once approved, a...postcard asking current study families to ‘refer a friend’ as one method to assist with our overall recruitment. We know that word of mouth , especially...as the individualized ADAPT web-facilitated condition 2 2. KEY WORDS Parenting, military, comparative effectiveness, children, randomized trial

  10. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II. The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J.L.; Rydgren, A.E.; Vrba, F.; Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO; Computer Sciences Corp., El Segundo, CA; Naval Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ)

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a naked T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars. 49 references

  11. Therapeutic songwriting in music therapy, Part II: Comparing the literature with practice across diverse clinical populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Felicity; Wigram, Tony; Stott, Dave

    2009-01-01

      A growing body of literature on therapeutic songwriting with diverse clinical populations indicates that clinicians employ a wide range of approaches. The purpose of this research was to establish trends in the clinical practice of songwriting as implemented across a range of clinical populations....... Responses to a 21-question on-line survey were obtained from 419 professional music therapists practicing in 29 countries which focused on approaches to songwriting within their practice with a single clinical population. Results suggest that in general, the literature provides good representation for what...... is occurring in clinical practice. Generally, songs were composed with individual clients in single sessions, with lyrics created prior to the music. Clinicians had a significant role in creating the music with improvised and pre-determined musical structures being equally employed.  Chi-square or comparable...

  12. COLLISIONS BETWEEN GRAVITY-DOMINATED BODIES. II. THE DIVERSITY OF IMPACT OUTCOMES DURING THE END STAGE OF PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Sarah T.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the stochastic end stage of planet formation typically begin with a population of embryos and planetesimals that grow into planets by merging. We analyzed the impact parameters of collisions leading to the growth of terrestrial planets from recent N-body simulations that assumed perfect merging and calculated more realistic outcomes using a new analytic collision physics model. We find that collision outcomes are diverse and span all possible regimes: hit-and-run, merging, partial accretion, partial erosion, and catastrophic disruption. The primary outcomes of giant impacts between planetary embryos are approximately evenly split between partial accretion, graze-and-merge, and hit-and-run events. To explore the cumulative effects of more realistic collision outcomes, we modeled the growth of individual planets with a Monte Carlo technique using the distribution of impact parameters from N-body simulations. We find that fewer planets reached masses >0.7 M Earth using the collision physics model compared to simulations that assumed every collision results in perfect merging. For final planets with masses >0.7 M Earth , 60% are enriched in their core-to-mantle mass fraction by >10% compared to the initial embryo composition. Fragmentation during planet formation produces significant debris (∼15% of the final mass) and occurs primarily by erosion of the smaller body in partial accretion and hit-and-run events. In partial accretion events, the target body grows by preferentially accreting the iron core of the projectile and the escaping fragments are derived primarily from the silicate mantles of both bodies. Thus, the bulk composition of a planet can evolve via stochastic giant impacts.

  13. A randomised study to compare salivary pH, calcium, phosphate and calculus formation after using anticavity dentifrices containing Recaldent(®) and functionalized tri-calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ena; Vishwanathamurthy, Ramesh Alampalli; Nadella, Manjari; Savitha, A N; Gundannavar, Gayatri; Hussain, M Ahad

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the pH of saliva, concentration of calcium and inorganic phosphate, and calculus formation before and after usage of Recaldent(®) (GC Tooth Mousse Plus™), Functionalized Tricalcium Phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Crème) and standard dentifrice (Colgate dental cream). Randomized double-blind study. A total of 50 subjects were recruited, the subjects were assessed at their first visit, on the 21(st) day and on the 42(nd) day. At the first visit, scaling was carried out and oral hygiene instructions were given. After 21 days, the subjects were given coded dentifrices where the operator and the subjects both were unaware of the type of dentifrice. Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque index, Gingival index, and Calculus index. Salivary samples were obtained to measure calcium, phosphate levels, and pH at 21(st) day and 42(nd) day. ANOVA test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean salivary calcium level and mean salivary phosphate level were higher in Group III (functionalized tricalcium phosphate (3M ESPE ClinPro™ Tooth Creme) as compared to Group II (Recaldent(®) GC Tooth Mousse Plus™) and Group I (Colgate dental cream) on the 42(nd) day after using dentifrices, which was statistically significant. This showed that the usage of remineralizing dentifrices led to an increase in the salivary calcium, phosphate, and pH but it did not reach the level of super saturation of the ions caused by elevated pH which could lead to calculus formation. Thought here was a statistically significant increase in salivary calcium and phosphate level in all three groups from baseline to 42(nd) day, there was no calculus formation.

  14. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Racanella, Gaia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marras, Roberto [Unicalce S.p.A., R and D Department, Via Tonio da Belledo 30, 23900 Lecco (Italy); Rigamonti, Lucia [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Two scenarios of acid gases removal in WTE plants were compared in an LCA study. • A detailed inventory based on primary data has been reported for the production of the new dolomitic sorbent. • Results show that the comparison between the two scenarios does not show systematic differences. • The potential impacts are reduced only if there is an increase in the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. - Abstract: The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO{sub 2} emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in

  15. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part II: Comparative life cycle assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Marras, Roberto; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The performances of a new dolomitic sorbent, named Depurcal®MG, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber of Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants as a preliminary stage of deacidification, were experimentally tested during full-scale commercial operation. Results of the experimentations were promising, and have been extensively described in Biganzoli et al. (2014). This paper reports the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study performed to compare the traditional operation of the plants, based on the sole sodium bicarbonate feeding at low temperature, with the new one, where the dolomitic sorbent is injected at high temperature. In the latter the sodium bicarbonate is still used, but at lower rate because of the decreased load of acid gases entering the flue gas treatment line. The major goal of the LCA was to make sure that a burden shifting was not taking place somewhere in the life cycle stages, as it might be the case when a new material is used in substitution of another one. According to the comparative approach, only the processes which differ between the two operational modes were included in the system boundaries. They are the production of the two reactants and the treatment of the corresponding solid residues arising from the neutralisation of acid gases. The additional CO2 emission at the stack of the WTE plant due to the activation of the sodium bicarbonate was also included in the calculation. Data used in the modelling of the foreground system are primary, derived from the experimental tests described in Biganzoli et al. (2014) and from the dolomitic sorbent production plant. The results of the LCA show minor changes in the potential impacts between the two operational modes of the plants. These differences are for 8 impact categories in favour of the new operational mode based on the addition of the dolomitic sorbent, and for 7 impact categories in favour of the traditional operation. A final evaluation was conducted on the potential

  16. Effect of the oxidation rate and Fe(II) state on microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(III) mineral formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, John M.; Dewers , Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems.

  17. Comparing Binaural Pre-processing Strategies II: Speech Intelligibility of Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgärtel, Regina M; Hu, Hongmei; Krawczyk-Becker, Martin; Marquardt, Daniel; Herzke, Tobias; Coleman, Graham; Adiloğlu, Kamil; Bomke, Katrin; Plotz, Karsten; Gerkmann, Timo; Doclo, Simon; Kollmeier, Birger; Hohmann, Volker; Dietz, Mathias

    2015-12-30

    Several binaural audio signal enhancement algorithms were evaluated with respect to their potential to improve speech intelligibility in noise for users of bilateral cochlear implants (CIs). 50% speech reception thresholds (SRT50) were assessed using an adaptive procedure in three distinct, realistic noise scenarios. All scenarios were highly nonstationary, complex, and included a significant amount of reverberation. Other aspects, such as the perfectly frontal target position, were idealized laboratory settings, allowing the algorithms to perform better than in corresponding real-world conditions. Eight bilaterally implanted CI users, wearing devices from three manufacturers, participated in the study. In all noise conditions, a substantial improvement in SRT50 compared to the unprocessed signal was observed for most of the algorithms tested, with the largest improvements generally provided by binaural minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming algorithms. The largest overall improvement in speech intelligibility was achieved by an adaptive binaural MVDR in a spatially separated, single competing talker noise scenario. A no-pre-processing condition and adaptive differential microphones without a binaural link served as the two baseline conditions. SRT50 improvements provided by the binaural MVDR beamformers surpassed the performance of the adaptive differential microphones in most cases. Speech intelligibility improvements predicted by instrumental measures were shown to account for some but not all aspects of the perceptually obtained SRT50 improvements measured in bilaterally implanted CI users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Comparative action spectra for pyrimidine dimer formation in Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma and EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, H Z [New Jersey, Medical School, Newark (USA); Setlow, R B [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1982-05-01

    Pyrimidine dimer formation in melanotic mouse melanoma cells, Cloudman S91H-, and in mouse mammary carcinoma cells, EMT6, was compared as a function of wavelength by irradiating equal numbers of cells from the two cell lines simultaneously. More dimers were formed in EMT6 than in S91H- by light of wavelengths less than 289nm, while light of higher wavelengths caused equivalent dimer formation, as measured by the Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease assay. The cells of S91H- are lightly melanotic, yet shielding at lower wavelengths is considerable. It is speculated that melanin pigmentation arose by selection during an evolutionary period when UV-C light reaching the earth's surface was significantly greater than it is today.

  19. Comparative studies on P-vanillin and O-vanillin of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, T. A.; El-Reash, G. M. Abu; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis of complexes derived from hydrazones derived from both P-vanillin (H2L1) and its isomer O-vanillin (H2L2) of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide that coordinated with high magnetic metal ions of both Mn(II) and Co(II) were performed and characterized by different physicochemical methods, elemental analysis, (1H NMR, IR, and UV-visible spectra), also thermal analysis (TG and DTG) techniques and magnetic measurements. The molecular structures of the ligands and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes were optimized theoretically and the quantum chemical parameters were calculated. IR spectra suggest that the H2L1 behaved in a mononegative bidentate manner with both but H2L2 coordinated as mononegative tridentate with both Mn(II) and Co(II). The electronic spectra of the complexes as well as their magnetic moments suggested octahedral geometries for all the isolated complexes. The calculated values of binding energies indicated the stability of complexes is higher than that of ligand. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in complexes were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. Moreover, the prepared ligands and their Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes were individually tested against a panel of gram positive Bacillus Subtilis and negative Escherichia coli microscopic organisms. Additionally cytotoxicity assay of two human tumor cell lines namely; hepatocellular carcinoma (liver) HePG-2, and mammary gland (breast) MCF-7 were tested.

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PERSONALITY CORRELATES OF REFLEXIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF PROFESSIONAL FORMATION OF THE TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Mayasova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the reflexive, the most important professional quality of a teacher's personality in the context of professional development. Reflexivity is a basic property of the individual, whereby the awareness and regulation of the subject of their activities. As a personal correlates of reflexivity studied mental stability, individual styles of decision making (vigilance and avoidance, spontaneity, emotional intelligence (empathy and the ability to manage emotions of other people. The paper conducts a comparative analysis of reflexivity and qualities correlated with her young teachers, working in the specialty from 1 to 5 years and students from different areas of training of pedagogical University. Obtained in the course of the empirical research results confirmed that the process of professional development of teachers is the development of these qualities. Were no significant differences in the indicators options system the reflexivity, alertness,spontaneity, empathy, which differ among teachers and students.

  1. Dependence of the enthalpies of formation of glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) on the composition of a mixed water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, V. V.; Kovaleva, Yu. A.; Isaeva, V. A.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2014-06-01

    The heat effects of the complexation reactions of nickel(II) with a glycylglycinate ion in a water-dimethylsulfoxide solvent in a range of compositions of 0.00-0.60 molar parts of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (an ionic strength of 0.1 was maintained using sodium perchlorate) were determined by means of calorimetry at 298.15 K. It is established that the exothermicity of complexation reactions rises by the first two steps and falls upon the addition of a third glycylglycinate anion with an increase in the concentration of DMSO. It is shown that the formation of mono- and bis-glycylglycinate complexes of nickel(II) in a water-DMSO solvent is determined mostly by the enthalpic contribution. It is concluded that the formation of tris-ligand complexes is more associated with the entropic contribution.

  2. An uncertainty principle for star formation - II. A new method for characterising the cloud-scale physics of star formation and feedback across cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Schruba, Andreas; Hygate, Alexander P. S.; Hu, Chia-Yu; Haydon, Daniel T.; Longmore, Steven N.

    2018-05-01

    The cloud-scale physics of star formation and feedback represent the main uncertainty in galaxy formation studies. Progress is hampered by the limited empirical constraints outside the restricted environment of the Local Group. In particular, the poorly-quantified time evolution of the molecular cloud lifecycle, star formation, and feedback obstructs robust predictions on the scales smaller than the disc scale height that are resolved in modern galaxy formation simulations. We present a new statistical method to derive the evolutionary timeline of molecular clouds and star-forming regions. By quantifying the excess or deficit of the gas-to-stellar flux ratio around peaks of gas or star formation tracer emission, we directly measure the relative rarity of these peaks, which allows us to derive their lifetimes. We present a step-by-step, quantitative description of the method and demonstrate its practical application. The method's accuracy is tested in nearly 300 experiments using simulated galaxy maps, showing that it is capable of constraining the molecular cloud lifetime and feedback time-scale to <0.1 dex precision. Access to the evolutionary timeline provides a variety of additional physical quantities, such as the cloud-scale star formation efficiency, the feedback outflow velocity, the mass loading factor, and the feedback energy or momentum coupling efficiencies to the ambient medium. We show that the results are robust for a wide variety of gas and star formation tracers, spatial resolutions, galaxy inclinations, and galaxy sizes. Finally, we demonstrate that our method can be applied out to high redshift (z≲ 4) with a feasible time investment on current large-scale observatories. This is a major shift from previous studies that constrained the physics of star formation and feedback in the immediate vicinity of the Sun.

  3. THE PROPAGATION OF UNCERTAINTIES IN STELLAR POPULATION SYNTHESIS MODELING. II. THE CHALLENGE OF COMPARING GALAXY EVOLUTION MODELS TO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Gunn, James E.; White, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Models for the formation and evolution of galaxies readily predict physical properties such as star formation rates, metal-enrichment histories, and, increasingly, gas and dust content of synthetic galaxies. Such predictions are frequently compared to the spectral energy distributions of observed galaxies via the stellar population synthesis (SPS) technique. Substantial uncertainties in SPS exist, and yet their relevance to the task of comparing galaxy evolution models to observations has received little attention. In the present work, we begin to address this issue by investigating the importance of uncertainties in stellar evolution, the initial stellar mass function (IMF), and dust and interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the translation from models to observations. We demonstrate that these uncertainties translate into substantial uncertainties in the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared colors of synthetic galaxies. Aspects that carry significant uncertainties include the logarithmic slope of the IMF above 1 M sun , dust attenuation law, molecular cloud disruption timescale, clumpiness of the ISM, fraction of unobscured starlight, and treatment of advanced stages of stellar evolution including blue stragglers, the horizontal branch, and the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch. The interpretation of the resulting uncertainties in the derived colors is highly non-trivial because many of the uncertainties are likely systematic, and possibly correlated with the physical properties of galaxies. We therefore urge caution when comparing models to observations.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  5. U-Pb (SHRIMP II) Age of zircons from ash tuffs of the upper vendian Chernyi Kamen formation (Sylvitsa group, Middle Urals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronkin, Yu.L.; Grazhdankin, D.V.; Maslov, A.V.; Mizens, G.A.; Matukov, D.I.; Krupenin, M.T.; Petrov, G.A.; Lepikhina, O.P.; Kornilova, A.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    To make more precise the model of correlation of the Middle Urals western slope upper vendian layers with the White Sea remote layers one carried out the SHRIMP-II procedure base U-Pb-dating of the volcanogenic zircons from the ash tuffs and of the volcanogenic zircon enclosing argillites of the Middle Urals Chernyi Kamen formation. The obtained age value of the studied zircons equal to 557+-13 million years is in line with the geological data [ru

  6. The investigation formation of complexes of Fe(III) and Fe(II) in the water solution of imidazole at 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radjabov, U.R.; Yusupov, Z.N.; Sharipov, I.Kh.

    2001-01-01

    C H lm=0.1 mol/l, C F e(II)=1·10 - 4 m ol/l and iron sterns: 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mol/l. It is established that in the investigated systems form at different on composition mono-, polynuclear, homo-- and heterovalent coordination compounds. In aids of the oxidation function accurate the composition, defined the constants formation and domination sphere of complex forms

  7. The Impact of Exogenous Factors on Business Elite’s Formation: Comparing Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Prijon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Country’s historical heritage, represented by social, political and economical factors, merely define society’s cultural base, which further define its potentials within all its spheres. In the article we focused on a specific phenomenon i.e. business elites, which we understand as crucial stakeholders for society’s development. Socio-cultural and socio-economic factors on the macro level (i.e. society as a whole shape a specific environment, which facilitate or hinder the emergence of a specific business elite’s type. These components affect business elite’s cultural profile and define whether they act as promoters of development or as reent-seekers. In order to highliht the idea of the research and the results, we compared macro components within different societies, characterized by different paradigmatic models (i.e. Switzerland, the USA, the EU-3, Slovenia, the Ukraine and BRIC countries. The study revield how socio-cultural and socio-economic factors affect society’s development (toward a free market economy or toward socialistic type of society which further define the type of business elite that emerges in a specific society.

  8. An explanation of closed-flux formation and sustainment using coaxial helicity injection on HIT-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T R

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of the closed-flux operation on HIT-II is given. This method of operation generated flux amplification and closed flux on HIT-II without the presence of n = 1 or any large amplitude mode as measured from the outside shell. The method of operating also prevents hard absorber arcs and maximizes the toroidal current.

  9. Absorption of gamma-ray photons in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere: II. The formation of “lightnings”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, Ya. N.; Sob’yanin, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    The absorption of a high-energy photon from the external cosmic gamma-ray background in the inner neutron star magnetosphere triggers the generation of a secondary electron-positron plasma and gives rise to a lightning—a lengthening and simultaneously expanding plasma tube. It propagates along magnetic fields lines with a velocity close to the speed of light. The high electron-positron plasma generation rate leads to dynamical screening of the longitudinal electric field that is provided not by charge separation but by electric current growth in the lightning. The lightning radius is comparable to the polar cap radius of a radio pulsar. The number of electron-positron pairs produced in the lightning in its lifetime reaches 10 28 . The density of the forming plasma is comparable to or even higher than that in the polar cap regions of ordinary pulsars. This suggests that the radio emission from individual lightnings can be observed. Since the formation time of the radio emission is limited by the lightning lifetime, the possible single short radio bursts may be associated with rotating radio transients (RRATs).

  10. Absorption of gamma-ray photons in a vacuum neutron star magnetosphere: II. The formation of "lightnings"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomin, Ya. N.; Sob'yanin, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    The absorption of a high-energy photon from the external cosmic gamma-ray background in the inner neutron star magnetosphere triggers the generation of a secondary electron-positron plasma and gives rise to a lightning—a lengthening and simultaneously expanding plasma tube. It propagates along magnetic fields lines with a velocity close to the speed of light. The high electron-positron plasma generation rate leads to dynamical screening of the longitudinal electric field that is provided not by charge separation but by electric current growth in the lightning. The lightning radius is comparable to the polar cap radius of a radio pulsar. The number of electron-positron pairs produced in the lightning in its lifetime reaches 1028. The density of the forming plasma is comparable to or even higher than that in the polar cap regions of ordinary pulsars. This suggests that the radio emission from individual lightnings can be observed. Since the formation time of the radio emission is limited by the lightning lifetime, the possible single short radio bursts may be associated with rotating radio transients (RRATs).

  11. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.

  12. Not-for-profit versus for-profit health care providers--Part II: Comparing and contrasting their records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.

  13. Formation of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries. II. Common Envelope Evolution of Primordial Binaries with Extreme Mass Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogera, Vassiliki; Webbink, Ronald F.

    1998-01-01

    We study the formation of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) through helium star supernovae in binary systems that have each emerged from a common envelope phase. LMXB progenitors must satisfy a large number of evolutionary and structural constraints, including survival through common envelope evolution, through the post-common envelope phase, where the precursor of the neutron star becomes a Wolf-Rayet star, and survival through the supernova event. Furthermore, the binaries that survive the explosion must reach interaction within a Hubble time and must satisfy stability criteria for mass transfer. These constraints, imposed under the assumption of a symmetric supernova explosion, prohibit the formation of short-period LMXBs transferring mass at sub-Eddington rates through any channel in which the intermediate progenitor of the neutron star is not completely degenerate. Barring accretion-induced collapse, the existence of such systems therefore requires that natal kicks be imparted to neutron stars. We use an analytical method to synthesize the distribution of nascent LMXBs over donor masses and orbital periods and evaluate their birthrate and systemic velocity dispersion. Within the limitations imposed by observational incompleteness and selection effects, and our neglect of secular evolution in the LMXB state, we compare our results with observations. However, our principal objective is to evaluate how basic model parameters (common envelope ejection efficiency, rms kick velocity, primordial mass ratio distribution) influence these results. We conclude that the characteristics of newborn LMXBs are primarily determined by age and stability constraints and the efficiency of magnetic braking and are largely independent of the primordial binary population and the evolutionary history of LMXB progenitors (except for extreme values of the average kick magnitude or of the common envelope ejection efficiency). Theoretical estimates of total LMXB birthrates are not credible

  14. Molar cusp deformation evaluated by micro-CT and enamel crack formation to compare incremental and bulk-filling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Rani Sales; Braga, Stella Sueli Lourenço; Bicalho, Aline Arêdes; Ribeiro, Maria Tereza Hordones; Price, Richard Bengt; Soares, Carlos José

    2018-07-01

    To describe a method of measuring the molar cusp deformation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), the propagation of enamel cracks using transillumination, and the effects of hygroscopic expansion after incremental and bulk-filling resin composite restorations. Twenty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-occlusal-distal cavity preparations. They were restored with either a bulk-fill resin composite, X-tra fil (XTRA), or a conventional resin composite, Filtek Z100 (Z100). The resin composites were tested for post-gel shrinkage using a strain gauge method. Cusp deformation (CD) was evaluated using the images obtained using a micro-CT protocol and using a strain-gauge method. Enamel cracks were detected using transillumination. The post-gel shrinkage of Z100 was higher than XTRA (P cracks than XTRA (P = 0.012). Micro-CT was an effective method for evaluating the cusp deformation. Transillumination was effective for detecting enamel cracks. There were fewer negative effects of polymerization shrinkage in bulk-fill resin restorations using XTRA than for the conventional incremental filling technique using conventional composite resin Z100. Shrinkage and cusp deformation are directly related to the formation of enamel cracks. Cusp deformation and crack propagation may increase the risk of tooth fracture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative assessment of TRU waste forms and processes. Volume II. Waste form data, process descriptions, and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Thornhill, R.E.; Timmerman, C.L.; Treat, R.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1982-09-01

    This volume contains supporting information for the comparative assessment of the transuranic waste forms and processes summarized in Volume I. Detailed data on the characterization of the waste forms selected for the assessment, process descriptions, and cost information are provided. The purpose of this volume is to provide additional information that may be useful when using the data in Volume I and to provide greater detail on particular waste forms and processes. Volume II is divided into two sections and two appendixes. The first section provides information on the preparation of the waste form specimens used in this study and additional characterization data in support of that in Volume I. The second section includes detailed process descriptions for the eight processes evaluated. Appendix A lists the results of MCC-1 leach test and Appendix B lists additional cost data. 56 figures, 12 tables

  16. Acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet compares favorably to a step II diet in a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Neal D; Scialli, Anthony R; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Lanou, Amy J

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the acceptability of a low-fat vegan diet, as compared with a more typical fat-modified diet, among overweight and obese adults. Through newspaper advertisements, 64 overweight, postmenopausal women were recruited, 59 of whom completed the study. The participants were assigned randomly to a low-fat vegan diet or, for comparison, to a National Cholesterol Education Program Step II (NCEP) diet. At baseline and 14 weeks later, dietary intake, dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, as well as the acceptability and perceived benefits and adverse effects of each diet were assessed. Dietary restraint increased in the NCEP group (P vegan group. Disinhibition and hunger scores fell in each group (P vegan group participants rated their diet as less easy to prepare than their usual diets (P vegan diet is high and not demonstrably different from that of a more moderate low-fat diet among well-educated, postmenopausal women in a research environment.

  17. Comparative evaluation of methods for the detection of biofilm formation in coagulase-negative staphylococci and correlation with antibiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha LB

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Characterization up to species level was done using biochemical tests, and biofilm formation was detected by tube adherence, Congo red agar, and tissue culture plate method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Results: A total of 71 CNS isolates, comprising of seven species were obtained. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. We detected biofilm formation in 71.8% of isolates. Considering the fact that tissue culture plate method is the gold standard, sensitivity of tube adherence method and Congo red agar method was found as 82% and 78%, respectively. The isolates exhibited high resistance toward penicillin (90%, azithromycin (60%, co-trimoxazole (60%, and ceftriaxone (40%, while all were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Biofilm former isolates showed higher resistance than the non-formers.Conclusion: Among 71 CNS isolated, S. epidermidis was the most common isolate followed by S. saprophyticus and S. haemolyticus. Biofilm formation was detected in 71.8% of the isolates. All of the methods were effective in detecting biofilm-producing CNS strains. The

  18. Feedback components of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled compared to a U10Zr-fueled EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.; Kucera, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated feedback components of the regional contributions of the power reactivity decrements (PRDs) and of the temperature coefficients of reactivity of a U20Pu10Zr-fueled and of a U10Zr-fueled Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are compared. The PRD components are also separated into power-to-flow dependent and solely power dependent parts. The effects of these values upon quantities useful for indicating the comparative potential inherent safety characteristics of these EBR-II loadings are presented

  19. Ru(II)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Cyclopropenes with Diazo Compounds: Formation of Olefins from Two Different Carbene Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yi, Heng; Zhang, Hang; Sun, Tong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-01-19

    Formal carbene dimerization is a convergent method for the synthesis of alkenes. Herein, we report a Ru(II)-catalyzed carbene dimerization of cyclopropenes and diazo compounds. The yields are up to 97% and the stereoselectivity are up to >20:1. Mechanistically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the catalyst reacts with cyclopropene first to generate a Ru(II)-carbene species, which is attacked by nucleophilic diazo substrate, followed by dinitrogen extrusion to form the double bond.

  20. Study on cell survival, induction of apoptosis and micronucleus formation in SCL-II and RTiV3 cells after exposure to the Auger electron emitter Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadenbach, K.; Kriehuber, R.; Weiss, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cell survival, induction of apoptosis and micronucleus (MN) formation have been investigated in the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCL-II and in the rat tracheal cell line RTiV3 after exposure to the Auger electron emitter Tc-99m. Cells were either acutely gamma(Co-60)-irradiated (0.78 Gy/min) or exposed to Tc-99m-Pertechnetate (25-300 MBq/20ml) for 24 h under cell culture conditions and assayed for cell survival (Colony-forming assay), micronucleus formation (Cytochalasin B assay) and the frequency of apoptotic cells (Fluorescence microscopy). Analytical dosimetrical models have been applied to derive the absorbed dose corresponding to the accumulated decays of Tc-99m. Absorbed doses up to 1.3 Gy could be achieved after Tc-99m exposure leading to no significant cell killing in this dose range except at one dose point (0.25 Gy) in SCL-II cells. MN formation was consistently lower when compared to Co-60 irradiated cells and showed a linear dose-response. The apoptotic response in SCL-II cells after Tc-99m exposure was described best by a 3rd order polynomial and increased apoptosis induction could be observed at much lower doses (0.25 Gy) in comparison to the reference radiation (0.8 Gy). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) has been determined for MN formation and apoptosis induction and was found to be in the range of 0.1- 1.3 for both investigated biological endpoints, depending on which mathematical model for describing the dose-effect curve was used. Up-take experiments revealed an activity concentration ratio cells vs. medium of 1.2 after 16 h up to 24 h of exposure. No increased biological effectiveness of Tc-99m applied as Sodium-Pertechnetate could be observed in the investigated cell lines in comparison to gamma-irradiation. Induction of apoptosis is slightly increased after Tc-99m exposure in SCL-II cells and it has to be further evaluated, if this is due to the emitted Auger-component. A passive up-take mechanism of Tc-99m is

  1. Copper(II) 12-metallacrown-4 complexes of alpha-, beta- and gamma-aminohydroxamic acids: a comparative thermodynamic study in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegoni, Matteo; Remelli, Maurizio; Bacco, Dimitri; Marchiò, Luciano; Dallavalle, Francesco

    2008-05-28

    A complete thermodynamic study of the protonation and Cu(II) complex formation equilibria of a series of alpha- and beta-aminohydroxamic acids in aqueous solution was performed. The thermodynamic parameters obtained for the protonation of glycine-, (S)-alpha-alanine-, (R,S)-valine-, (S)-leucine-, beta-alanine- and (R)-aspartic-beta-hydroxamic acids were compared with those previously reported for gamma-amino- and (S)-glutamic-gamma-hydroxamic acids. The enthalpy/entropy parameters calculated for the protonation microequilibria of these three types of ligands are in very good agreement with the literature values for simple amines and hydroxamic acids. The pentanuclear complexes [Cu5L4H(-4)]2+ contain the ligands acting as (NH2,N-)-(O,O-) bridging bis-chelating and correspond to 12-metallacrown-4 (12-MC-4) which are formed by self-assembly between pH 4 and 6 with alpha-aminohydroxamates (HL), while those with beta- and gamma-derivatives exist in a wider pH range (4-11). The stability order of these metallomacrocycles is beta- > alpha- > gamma-aminohydroxamates. The formation of 12-MC-4 with alpha-aminohydroxamates is entropy-driven, and that with beta-derivatives is enthalpy-driven, while with gamma-GABAhydroxamate both effects occur. These results are interpreted on the basis of specific enthalpies or entropy contributions related to chelate ring dimensions, charge neutralization and solvation-desolvation effects. The enthalpy/entropy parameters of 12-MC-4 with alpha-aminohydroxamic acids considered are also dependent on the optical purity of the ligands. Actually, that with (R,S)-valinehydroxamic acid presents an higher entropy and a lower enthalpy value than those of enantiopure ligands, although the corresponding stabilities are almost equivalent. Moreover, DFT calculations are in agreement with a more exothermic enthalpy found for metallacrowns with enantiomerically pure ligands.

  2. Two-dimensional Molecular Gas and Ongoing Star Formation around H II Region Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Xu, Ye; Yu, Naiping; Zhang, Chuan-peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-chun; Ju, Bing-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Yin

    2017-11-01

    We performed a multi-wavelength study toward H II region Sh2-104. New maps of 12CO J = 1 - 0 and 13CO J = 1 - 0 were obtained from the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Sh2-104 displays a double-ring structure. The outer ring with a radius of 4.4 pc is dominated by 12, 500 μm, 12CO J = 1 - 0, and 13CO J = 1 - 0 emission, while the inner ring with a radius of 2.9 pc is dominated by 22 μm and 21 cm emission. We did not detect CO emission inside the outer ring. The north-east portion of the outer ring is blueshifted, while the south-west portion is redshifted. The present observations have provided evidence that the collected outer ring around Sh2-104 is a two-dimensional structure. From the column density map constructed by the Hi-GAL survey data, we extract 21 clumps. About 90% of all the clumps will form low-mass stars. A power-law fit to the clumps yields M=281 {M}⊙ {(r/{pc})}1.31+/- 0.08. The selected YSOs are associated with the collected material on the edge of Sh2-104. The derived dynamical age of Sh2-104 is 1.6× {10}6 yr. Comparing the Sh2-104 dynamical age with the YSO timescale and the fragmentation time of the molecular ring, we further confirm that the collect-and-collapse process operates in this region, indicating positive feedback from a massive star for surrounding gas.

  3. Molecular gas in the H II-region complex RCW 166: Possible evidence for an early phase of cloud-cloud collision prior to the bubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohama, Akio; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Tsutsumi, Daichi; Hattori, Yusuke; Torii, Kazufumi; Nishimura, Atsushi; Sano, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    Young H II regions are an important site for the study of O star formation based on distributions of ionized and molecular gas. We reveal that two molecular clouds at ˜48 km s-1 and ˜53 km s-1 are associated with the H II regions G018.149-00.283 in RCW 166 by using the JCMT CO High-Resolution Survey (COHRS) of the 12CO(J = 3-2) emission. G018.149-00.283 comprises a bright ring at 8 μm and an extended H II region inside the ring. The ˜48 km s-1 cloud delineates the ring, and the ˜53 km s-1 cloud is located within the ring, indicating a complementary distribution between the two molecular components. We propose a hypothesis that high-mass stars within G018.149-00.283 were formed by triggering during cloud-cloud collision at a projected velocity separation of ˜5 km s-1. We argue that G018.149-00.283 is in an early evolutionary stage, ˜0.1 Myr after the collision according to the scheme detailed by Habe and Ohta (1992, PASJ, 44, 203), which will be followed by a bubble formation stage like RCW 120. We also suggest that nearby H II regions N21 and N22 are candidates for bubbles possibly formed by cloud-cloud collision. Inoue and Fukui (2013, ApJ, 774, L31) showed that the interface gas becomes highly turbulent and realizes a high-mass accretion rate of 10-3-10-4 M⊙ yr-1 by magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations, which offers an explanation of the O-star formation. The fairly high frequency of cloud-cloud collision in RCW 166 is probably due to the high cloud density in this part of the Scutum arm.

  4. In situ formation of p–n junction: A novel principle for photoelectrochemical sensor and its application for mercury(II) ion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang-Li, E-mail: glwang@jiangnan.edu.cn; Liu, Kang-Li; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The first example of photoelectrochemial sensing based on the formation of p–n junction. The in situ formation of HgS on the surface of ZnS triggers an obvious enhancement of anodic photocurrent of Cysteine-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs), which leads to a highly sensitive and selective photoelectrochemical method for the sensing of trace mercuric(II) ions. Highlights: • The first example of photoelectrochemial sensing based on p–n junction formation. • The in situ formation of HgS on ZnS leading to obviously enhanced photocurrent. • The method was highly sensitive and selective. Abstract: The discovery and development of photoelectrochemical sensors with novel principles are of great significance to realize sensitive and low-cost detection. In this paper, a new photoelectrochemial sensor based on the in situ formation of p–n junction was designed and used for the accurate determination of mercury(II) ions. Cysteine-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was assembled on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode based on the electrostatic interaction between Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The in situ formation of HgS, a p-type semiconductor, on the surface of ZnS facilitated the charge carrier transport and promoted electron-hole separation, triggered an obviously enhanced anodic photocurrent of Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The formation of p–n junction was confirmed by P–N conductive type discriminator measurements and current–voltage (I–V) curves. The photoelectrochemical method was used for the sensing of trace mercuric (II) ions with a linear concentration of 0.01 to 10.0 µM and a detection limit of 4.6 × 10⁻⁹ mol/L. It is expected that the present study can serve as a foundation to the application of p–n heterojunction to photoelectrochemical sensors and it might be easily extended to more exciting sensing systems by photoelectrochemistry.

  5. MANIFESTĂRI ALE CONFLICTULUI MUNCĂ-FAMILIE LA ANGAJAȚII DIN DOMENIUL PUBLIC/PRIVAT: DIMENSIUNI COMPARATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica ȘAITAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Una dintre preocupările constante ale cercetărilor organizaționale recente este legată de investigarea problematicii privind conflictul muncă-familie, ce apare ca urmare a incapacității persoanei de a integra în mod optim solicitările rolului familial şi cele ale rolului profesional, având preponderent drept consecințe stări emoționale, cognitive și comportamentale negative. Din această perspectivă, studiul de față prezintă rezultatele comparative privind felul în care este trăit conflictul muncă-familie la angajații din Republica Moldova (în total – 355 de subiecți, 184 de angajați în domeniul public și 171 de angajați în domeniul privat și consecințele acestuia la nivel afectiv (epuizare emoțională, cognitiv (percepția suportului organizațional și percepția satisfacției de viață și comportamental (angajamentul de rol, flexibilitate muncă-familie.MANIFESTATIONS OF THE WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT TO PUBLIC/PRIVATE EMPLOYEES: COMPARATIVE DIMENSIONSOne of the constant concerns of recent organizational research is related to the investigation of the problem of work-family conflict, which arises as a result of the inability of the person to optimally integrate the demands of the family role and those of the professional role, having mainly as a consequence of negative emotional, cognitive and behavioral states. From this perspective, the present study presents comparative results on the way in which the labor-family conflict is experienced by employees in the Republic of Moldova (total – 355 subjects, 184 employees in the public domain and 171 employees in the private domain and its consequences at the affective level (emotional exhaustion, cognitive level (the perception of the organizational support and the perception of life satisfaction and behavioral level (role commitment, work-family flexibility.

  6. Junction formation of CuInSe2 with CdS: A comparative study of 'dry' and 'wet' interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunger, R.; Lebedev, M.V.; Sakurai, K.; Schulmeyer, T.; Mayer, Th.; Klein, A.; Niki, S.; Jaegermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    The junction formation of polycrystalline CuInSe 2 absorbers (CIS) with thermally evaporated CdS was investigated by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemistry and electronics of the interfaces of Cd partial electrolyte treated CIS ('wet' processed) and clean, decapped CIS ('dry' processed) were compared. A valence band offset of 0.96(10) eV was determined in both cases. The Cd(Se,OH) surface layer induced by the wet Cd partial electrolyte process does not significantly modify the band alignment at the CIS/CdS heterointerface from the 'dry', vacuum-processed CIS/CdS interface. During the stepwise interface formation the energy converting capability of the CIS/CdS heterojunction was assessed by in situ surface photovoltage measurements at room temperature. The evolution of the surface photovoltage significantly differs for the 'wet' and the 'dry' interfaces and is discussed in relation to the function in solar cell devices

  7. Formation and retention of staphylococcal biofilms on DLC and its hybrids compared to metals used as biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllymaa, Katja; Levon, Jaakko; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Myllymaa, Sami; Soininen, Antti; Korhonen, Hannu; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus cause most of the implant-related infections. Antibiotic treatment often fails and cure requires surgical intervention. It was hypothesized that biomaterial coatings resistant to biofilms offer a preventive option. Physical vapour deposited diamond-like carbon (DLC) and its polytetrafluoroethylene (DLC-PTFE-h) and polydimethylsiloxane (DLC-PDMS-h) hybrids were compared to titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta) and chromium (Cr) thin films on silicon wafers for their resistance against formation and/or retention of biofilms produced by S. epidermidis and S. aureus in vitro. Sample surfaces were characterized for surface topography, contact angle and zeta-potential, because such properties might affect the biofilm. Biofilm was stained using calcofluor white and analysed in fluorescence microscopy using morphometry. Sixteen hour incubation was selected in pilot tests; at this checkpoint Ti, Ta, Cr and DLC-PDMS-h were almost fully covered by biofilm, but DLC and DLC-PTFE-h were only partially biofilm coated by S. epidermidis (88±26%, pDLC and its PTFE hybrid offer a potential biofilm hostile surface coating for implants and medical devices. This ability to resist biofilm formation and attachment could not be explained by only one factor, but it seems to be related to a combination of various properties, with electrokinetic streaming potential and protein coating being particularly important for its outcome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  9. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing eBohu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase (MCO expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS, particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  10. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  11. Lyα EMITTERS IN HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION. II. ULTRAVIOLET CONTINUUM LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND EQUIVALENT WIDTH DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Totani, Tomonori; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We present theoretical predictions of the UV continuum luminosity function (UV LF) and Lyα equivalent width (EW) distribution of Lyα emitters (LAEs) in the framework of the hierarchical clustering model of galaxy formation. The model parameters for the LAEs were determined by fitting to the observed Lyα LF at z = 5.7 in our previous study, and the fit indicates that extinction of Lyα photons by dust is significantly less effective than that of UV continuum photons, implying a clumpy dust distribution in the interstellar medium. We then compare the predictions about UV LFs and EW distributions with a variety of observations at z∼ 3-6, allowing no more free parameters and paying careful attention to the selection conditions of LAEs in each survey. We find that the predicted UV LFs and EW distributions are in nice agreement with observed data, and especially, our model naturally reproduces the existence of large EW LAEs (∼> 240 A) without introducing Pop III stars or top-heavy initial mass function. We show that both the stellar population (young age and low metallicity) and extinction by clumpy dust are the keys to reproducing large EW LAEs. The evidence of EW enhancement by clumpy dust is further strengthened by the quantitative agreement between our model and recent observations about a positive correlation between EW and extinction. The observed trend that brighter LAEs in the UV continuum tend to have smaller mean EW is also reproduced, and the clumpy dust plays an important role again for this trend. We suggested in our previous study that the transmission of the intergalactic medium for Lyα emission rapidly decreases from z ∼ 6 to 7 by fitting to Lyα LFs, and this evidence is quantitatively strengthened by the comparison with the UV LF and EW distribution at z ∼ 6.6.

  12. Removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution: A comparative study of raw attapulgite clay and a reusable waste–struvite/attapulgite obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ma, Jinxing, E-mail: jinxing.ma@unsw.edu.au [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Xia, Peng; Zhao, Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Both nutrient recovery and Cd(II) removal were achieved by MAP/APT. • The nutrient recovery process was used as a novel method of modification. • Compared with raw APT, MAP/APT enhanced Cd(II) adsorption capacity. • Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms from aqueous solution were extensively investigated. - Abstract: In this study, raw attapulgite (APT) and a novel adsorbent, struvite/attapulgite (MAP/APT) obtained from nutrient-rich wastewater treated by MgO modified APT, were applied as the absorbent for Cd(II) ion removal from aqueous solution. The two adsorbents were characterized by BET, SEM-EDS, XRD, FT-IR. Raw APT and MAP/APT separately presented the maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacities of 10.38 mg/g and 121.14 mg/g at pH of 5.45. The Cd(II) adsorption on raw APT and MAP/APT could be well fitted by Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. Pseudo-second order equation was able to properly describe the kinetics of Cd(II) adsorption by raw APT and MAP/APT. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that Cd(II) adsorption onto raw APT and MAP/APT were spontaneous and endothermic. An economic evaluation revealed that the treatment costs of the adsorption process by raw APT and MPA/APT were 0.013 $ per 1000 mg Cd and 0.004 $ per 1000 mg Cd, respectively.

  13. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  14. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  15. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  16. Topology Control Algorithms for Spacecraft Formation Flying Networks Under Connectivity and Time-Delay Constraints, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSCI is proposing to develop, test and deliver a set of topology control algorithms and software for a formation flying spacecraft that can be used to design and...

  17. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of amino acid sequence and pH on nanofiber formation of self-assembling peptides EAK16-II and EAK16-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yooseong; Legge, Raymond L; Zhang, S; Chen, P

    2003-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile (ASDA-P) were used to investigate the mechanism of self-assembly of peptides. The peptides chosen consisted of 16 alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, where the hydrophilic residues possess alternating negative and positive charges. Two types of peptides, AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK (EAK16-II) and AEAEAEAEAKAKAKAK (EAK16-IV), were investigated in terms of nanostructure formation through self-assembly. The experimental results, which focused on the effects of the amino acid sequence and pH, show that the nanostructures formed by the peptides are dependent on the amino acid sequence and the pH of the solution. For pH conditions around neutrality, one of the peptides used in this study, EAK16-IV, forms globular assemblies and has lower surface tension at air-water interfaces than another peptide, EAK16-II, which forms fibrillar assemblies at the same pH. When the pH is lowered below 6.5 or raised above 7.5, there is a transition from globular to fibrillar structures for EAK16-IV, but EAK16-II does not show any structural transition. Surface tension measurements using ADSA-P showed different surface activities of peptides at air-water interfaces. EAK16-II does not show a significant difference in surface tension for the pH range between 4 and 9. However, EAK16-IV shows a noticeable decrease in surface tension at pH around neutrality, indicating that the formation of globular assemblies is related to the molecular hydrophobicity.

  19. Comparative in vivo analysis of recombinant type II feline coronaviruses with truncated and completed ORF3 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Bálint

    Full Text Available Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV. In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo.

  20. Comparative In Vivo Analysis of Recombinant Type II Feline Coronaviruses with Truncated and Completed ORF3 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, Ádám; Farsang, Attila; Zádori, Zoltán; Belák, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro comparative study on a feline coronavirus (FCoV) pair, differing only in the intactness of their ORF3abc regions, showed that the truncated ORF3abc plays an important role in the efficient macrophage/monocyte tropism of type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). In the present study, we describe a challenge experiment with the same recombinant FCoVs in order to gain data on the in vivo characteristics on these viruses. While parent virus FIPV DF-2 developed feline infectious peritonitis in all the infected cats, its recombinant virus PBFIPV-DF-2, differing only in seven nucleotides, proved to be surprisingly low virulent, although caused an acute febrile episode similarly to the original FIPV DF-2. PBFIPV-DF-2 infection induced significantly lower virus neutralization titers than its parent virus, and lacked the second phase of viremia and development of fatal course of the disease. The recombinant PBFIPV-DF-2-R3i with completed ORF3abc gained biological properties that differentiate between the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and FIPV biotypes such as intensive replication in the gut, absence of viremia and weak or no serological response. Using reverse genetic approaches our study is the first experimental proof that ORF3abc is indeed responsible for the restriction of FECV replication to the intestine in vivo. PMID:24586385

  1. Complex Formation in a Liquid-Liquid Extraction System Containing Cobalt(II), 4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol, and Nitron

    OpenAIRE

    Racheva, Petya Vassileva; Gavazov, Kiril Blazhev; Lekova, Vanya Dimitrova; Dimitrov, Atanas Nikolov

    2013-01-01

    Complex formation and liquid-liquid extraction were studied in a system containing cobalt(II), 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR), 1,4-diphenyl-3-(phenylamino)-1H-1,2,4-triazole (Nitron, Nt), water, and chloroform. The effect of some experimental parameters (pH, shaking time, concentration of PAR, and concentration of Nt) was systematically investigated, and the optimum conditions for cobalt extraction as an ion-association complex, (NtH+)[Co3+(PAR)2], were found. The following key equilibrium ...

  2. Conservative treatment of bone tissue metabolic disorders among patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Martsyniak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the article is to determine the effect of conservative therapy on genetically caused disorders of bone tissue metabolism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type II and genetic abnormality of type I collagen formation (VDDR(COL1. Materials and methods. At the premises of consulting and outpatient department of SI “Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics of the NAMS of Ukraine”, 13 patients having VDDR type II and genetic damage of type I collagen formation were examined and treated. The medical treatment was conducted in four stages. The first stage included full examination of patients (calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood serum and their urinary excretion, as well as determination of calcidiol and calcitriol serum levels, indicators of parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin, and a marker of bone formation P1NP and osteoresorption b-CTx. At this stage, children were obligated to undergo a genetic test to detect changes (polymorphism in alleles of receptors to vitamin D and type I collagen. Besides genetic tests, examinations at the other stages were conducted in full. Results. The study has shown the following. The genetically caused abnormality of reception to vitamin D results into substantial accumulation of vitamin D active metabolite in the blood serum. When combined with gene­tic abnormality of type I collagen formation, it significantly affected bone formation and destruction processes that causes development of osteomalacia (parathormone — vitamin D — osteocalcin system. The comprehensive study of vitamin D metabolism and biochemical vitals of bone tissue in patients having VDDR (COL1 brought us to understanding of some issues related to pathogenesis and nature of osteomalacia and, in future, osteoporotic changes on different levels, ensured us to express these changes by corresponding indices in the biochemical research and, finally, to develop appropriate schemes for the treatment of

  3. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations compared with continuum models and experimental properties of pattern formation during ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, E; Chan, W L

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations model the evolution of surfaces during low energy ion bombardment using atomic level mechanisms of defect formation, recombination and surface diffusion. Because the individual kinetic processes are completely determined, the resulting morphological evolution can be directly compared with continuum models based on the same mechanisms. We present results of simulations based on a curvature-dependent sputtering mechanism and diffusion of mobile surface defects. The results are compared with a continuum linear instability model based on the same physical processes. The model predictions are found to be in good agreement with the simulations for predicting the early-stage morphological evolution and the dependence on processing parameters such as the flux and temperature. This confirms that the continuum model provides a reasonable approximation of the surface evolution from multiple interacting surface defects using this model of sputtering. However, comparison with experiments indicates that there are many features of the surface evolution that do not agree with the continuum model or simulations, suggesting that additional mechanisms are required to explain the observed behavior.

  4. Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed genetic characteristics related to solvent formation and xylose utilization in Clostridium acetobutylicum EA 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengyue

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium acetobutylicum, a gram-positive and spore-forming anaerobe, is a major strain for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol. But a previously isolated hyper-butanol producing strain C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 does not produce spores and has greater capability of solvent production, especially for butanol, than the type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Results Complete genome of C. acetobutylicum EA 2018 was sequenced using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. Genomic comparison with ATCC 824 identified many variations which may contribute to the hyper-butanol producing characteristics in the EA 2018 strain, including a total of 46 deletion sites and 26 insertion sites. In addition, transcriptomic profiling of gene expression in EA 2018 relative to that of ATCC824 revealed expression-level changes of several key genes related to solvent formation. For example, spo0A and adhEII have higher expression level, and most of the acid formation related genes have lower expression level in EA 2018. Interestingly, the results also showed that the variation in CEA_G2622 (CAC2613 in ATCC 824, a putative transcriptional regulator involved in xylose utilization, might accelerate utilization of substrate xylose. Conclusions Comparative analysis of C. acetobutylicum hyper-butanol producing strain EA 2018 and type strain ATCC 824 at both genomic and transcriptomic levels, for the first time, provides molecular-level understanding of non-sporulation, higher solvent production and enhanced xylose utilization in the mutant EA 2018. The information could be valuable for further genetic modification of C. acetobutylicum for more effective butanol production.

  5. Chapitre II. La formation extrascolaire existe-t-elle ? Les problèmes des diagnostics et des inventaires

    OpenAIRE

    Furter, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    De la marginalité à la centralité La formation des travailleurs étrangers n’a pas donné lieu, jusqu’à maintenant, à une production massive de discours de spécialistes universitaires, nationaux et étrangers. On trouve par contre une abondance de textes, de documents, de rapports de ces spécialistes — nationaux pour la plupart — que sont les enseignants bénévoles. C’est en effet principalement sur le terrain de la formation que se situent la plupart des actions bénévoles, dans la mesure où cell...

  6. Origin of opal-ct in lower eocene tallahatta formation, mississippi, usa and pleistocene barind clay formation in bangladesh: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, S.

    2008-01-01

    Opal-CT mineral in the lower Eocene Tallahatta formation in Mississippi. USA and the Pleistocene Barind clay formation in Bangladesh is of volcanogenic origin. X-ray diffraction patterns of claystones in the former indicated more ordered condition on the older sediments than those of the latter, which may be due to higher burial temperatures and longer time interval for transformation from volcanic ash to opal-CT of the former. Glass shards, present in the latter sediments, were not identified in the former, which may be due to transformation of glass shards of volcanic ash to opal-Cr over the time. (author)

  7. New Ru(II)N'NN'-type pincer complexes: synthesis, characterization and the catalytic hydrogenation of CO_2 or bicarbonates to formate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengjin Dai; Qi Luo; Hengjiang Cong; Jing Zhang; Tianyou Peng

    2017-01-01

    [RuCl(L1)(MeCN)_2]Cl (1) and [RuCl(L2)(MeCN)_2]Cl (2) complexes were prepared through the reaction of [RuCl2(p-cymene)]_2 with 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)-4-hydroxy-pyridine (L1) or 2,6-bis(benzimidazole- 2-yl) pyridine (L2) in acetonitrile, respectively. The treatment of [Ru(OTf)(L2)(MeCN)_2]OTf (3) with 1 equivalent of PPh_3 in ethanol resulted in the formation of [Ru(L2"-"1)(MeCN)(PPh_3)_2]OTf (4), in which one of the N-H moieties of L2 is deprotonated to give an anionic ligand (L2"-"1). It was found that complex 1 can catalyze the hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts, producing sodium formate in 34.0% yield with a turnover number (TON) of 407 under the optimized conditions. Further investigations revealed that complexes 1-4 can efficiently catalyze the hydrogenation of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate, and the catalytic activity follows the order 4 ≥ 1 ≥ 2 ≅ 3. In particular, sodium formate was obtained in good yield (77%) with a high TON (1530) when complex 4 was used as the catalyst. The present results illustrate a new example of Ru(II) complexes bearing a rigid N'NN' framework for the efficient hydrogenation of CO_2 to formate salts in a homogeneous system. (authors)

  8. The three isoforms of the light-harvesting complex II Spectroscopic features, trimer formation, and functional roles

    CERN Document Server

    Standfuss, Jorg

    2004-01-01

    The major light-harvesting complex (LHC-II) of higher plants plays a crucial role in capturing light energy for photosynthesis and in regulating the flow of energy within the photosynthetic apparatus. Native LHC-II isolated from plant tissue consists of three isoforms, Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3, which form homo- and heterotrimers. All three isoforms are highly conserved among different species, suggesting distinct functional roles. We produced the three LHC-II isoforms by heterologous expression of the polypeptide in Escherichia coli and in vitro refolding with purified pigments. Although Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 are very similar in polypeptide sequence and pigment content, Lhcb3 is clearly different because it lacks an N-terminal phosphorylation site and has a higher chlorophyll a/b ratio, suggesting the absence of one chlorophyll b. Low temperature absorption and fluorescence emission spectra of the pure isoforms revealed small but significant differences in pigment organization. The oligomeric state of the pure isofo...

  9. Formative evaluation of a telemedicine model for delivering clinical neurophysiology services part II: the referring clinician and patient perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from service users will provide insight into opportunities for improvement so that performance can be optimised. In the context of a formative evaluation referring clinician and patient satisfaction with a teleneurophysiology service was examined during a 20 week pilot period.

  10. New bone formation and trabecular bone microarchitecture of highly porous tantalum compared to titanium implant threads: A pilot canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Whan; Wen, Hai Bo; Gubbi, Prabhu; Romanos, Georgios E

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated new bone formation activities and trabecular bone microarchitecture within the highly porous region of Trabecular Metal™ Dental Implants (TM) and between the threads of Tapered Screw-Vent® Dental Implants (TSV) in fresh canine extraction sockets. Eight partially edentulated dogs received four implants (4.1 mmD × 13 mmL) bilaterally in mandibular fresh extraction sockets (32 TM, 32 TSV implants), and allowed to heal for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Calcein was administered to label mineralizing bone at 11 and 4 days before euthanasia for dogs undergoing all four healing periods. Biopsies taken at each time interval were examined histologically. Histomorphometric assay was conducted for 64 unstained and 64 stained slides at the region of interest (ROI) (6 mm long × 0.35 mm deep) in the midsections of the implants. Topographical and chemical analyses were also performed. Histomorphometry revealed significantly more new bone in the TM than in the TSV implants at each healing time (p = .0014, .0084, .0218, and .0251). Calcein-labeled data showed more newly mineralized bone in the TM group than in the TSV group at 2, 8, and 12 weeks (p = .045, .028, .002, respectively) but not at 4 weeks (p = .081). Histologically TM implants exhibited more bone growth and dominant new immature woven bone at an earlier time point than TSV implants. The parameters representing trabecular bone microarchitecture corroborated faster new bone formation in the TM implants when compared to the TSV implants. TM exhibited an irregular faceted topography compared to a relatively uniform microtextured surface for TSV. Chemical analysis showed peaks associated with each implant's composition material, and TSV also showed peaks reflecting the elements of the calcium phosphate blasting media. Results suggest that the healing pathway associated with the highly porous midsection of TM dental implant could enable faster and stronger secondary implant stability than

  11. Formation of contractile networks and fibers in the medial cell cortex through myosin-II turnover, contraction, and stress-stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wei; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Ou-Yang, H Daniel; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of adhered cells depends crucially on the formation of a contractile meshwork of parallel and cross-linked fibers along the contacting surface. The motor activity and minifilament assembly of non-muscle myosin-II is an important component of cortical cytoskeletal remodeling during mechanosensing. We used experiments and computational modeling to study cortical myosin-II dynamics in adhered cells. Confocal microscopy was used to image the medial cell cortex of HeLa cells stably expressing myosin regulatory light chain tagged with GFP (MRLC-GFP). The distribution of MRLC-GFP fibers and focal adhesions was classified into three types of network morphologies. Time-lapse movies show: myosin foci appearance and disappearance; aligning and contraction; stabilization upon alignment. Addition of blebbistatin, which perturbs myosin motor activity, leads to a reorganization of the cortical networks and to a reduction of contractile motions. We quantified the kinetics of contraction, disassembly and reassembly of myosin networks using spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy (STICS). Coarse-grained numerical simulations include bipolar minifilaments that contract and align through specified interactions as basic elements. After assuming that minifilament turnover decreases with increasing contractile stress, the simulations reproduce stress-dependent fiber formation in between focal adhesions above a threshold myosin concentration. The STICS correlation function in simulations matches the function measured in experiments. This study provides a framework to help interpret how different cortical myosin remodeling kinetics may contribute to different cell shape and rigidity depending on substrate stiffness. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of Microcystis aeruginosa Exudate on the Formation and Reactivity of Iron Oxide Particles Following Fe(II) and Fe(III) Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Wang, Kai; Waite, T David

    2017-05-16

    Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation, and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture. The exudate also affects the reactivity of iron oxide particles formed with exudate coated particles undergoing faster dissolution than bare iron oxide particles. This has implications to iron availability, especially where algae procure iron via dissolution of iron oxide particles as a result of either reaction with reducing moieties, light-mediated ligand to metal charge transfer and/or reaction with siderophores. The increased reactivity of exudate coated particles is attributed, for the most part, to the smaller size of these particles, higher surface area and increased accessibility of surface sites.

  13. Extremotolerance and resistance of lichens: comparative studies on five species used in astrobiological research II. Secondary lichen compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meessen, J; Sánchez, F J; Sadowsky, A; de la Torre, R; Ott, S; de Vera, J-P

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  14. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  15. The molecular complex associated with the Galactic H II region Sh2-90: a possible site of triggered star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Molinari, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Paradis, D.; Tigé, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Russeil, D.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star formation activity in the molecular complex associated with the Galactic H ii region Sh2-90. Methods: We obtain the distribution of the ionized and cold neutral gas using radio-continuum and Herschel observations. We use near-infrared and Spitzer data to investigate the stellar content of the complex. We discuss the evolutionary status of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) using their spectral energy distribution. Results: The Sh2-90 region presents a bubble morphology in the mid-infrared. Radio observations suggest it is an evolved H ii region with an electron density ~144 cm-3, emission measure ~ 6.7 × 104 cm-6 pc and an ionized mass ~55 M⊙. From Herschel and CO (J = 3 - 2) observations we found that the H ii region is part of an elongated extended molecular cloud (H2 column density ≥ 3 × 1021 cm-2 and dust temperature 18-27 K) of total mass ≥ 1 × 104 M⊙. We identify the ionizing cluster of Sh2-90, the main exciting star being an O8-O9 V star. Five cold dust clumps, four mid-IR blobs around B stars, and a compact H ii region are found at the edge of the bubble. The velocity information derived from CO data cubes suggest that most of them are associated with the Sh2-90 region. One hundred and twenty-nine low mass (≤3 M⊙) YSOs have been identified, and they are found to be distributed mostly in the regions of high column density. Four candidate Class 0/I MYSOs have been found. We suggest that multi-generation star formation is present in the complex. From evidence of interaction, time scales involved, and evolutionary status of stellar/protostellar sources, we argue that the star formation at the edges of Sh2-90 might have been triggered. However, several young sources in this complex are probably formed by some other processes. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A122

  16. Pretreatment of furfural industrial wastewater by Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate processes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C W; Wang, D; Tang, Q

    2014-01-01

    The Fenton, electro-Fenton and Fe(II)-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) processes have been applied for the treatment of actual furfural industrial wastewater in this paper. Through the comparative study of the three processes, a suitable pretreatment technology for actual furfural wastewater treatment was obtained, and the mechanism and dynamics process of this technology is discussed. The experimental results show that Fenton technology has a good and stable effect without adjusting pH of furfural wastewater. At optimal conditions, which were 40 mmol/L H₂O₂ initial concentration and 10 mmol/L Fe²⁺ initial concentration, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate can reach 81.2% after 90 min reaction at 80 °C temperature. The PDS process also has a good performance. The COD removal rate could attain 80.3% when Na₂S₂O₈ initial concentration was 4.2 mmol/L, Fe²⁺ initial concentration was 0.1 mol/L, the temperature remained at 70 °C, and pH value remained at 2.0. The electro-Fenton process was not competent to deal with the high-temperature furfural industrial wastewater and only 10.2% COD was degraded at 80 °C temperature in the optimal conditions (2.25 mA/cm² current density, 4 mg/L Na₂SO₄, 0.3 m³/h aeration rate). For the Fenton, electro-Fenton and PDS processes in pretreatment of furfural wastewater, their kinetic processes follow the pseudo first order kinetics law. The pretreatment pathways of furfural wastewater degradation are also investigated in this study. The results show that furfural and furan formic acid in furfural wastewater were preferentially degraded by Fenton technology. Furfural can be degraded into low-toxicity or nontoxic compounds by Fenton pretreatment technology, which could make furfural wastewater harmless and even reusable.

  17. Population genomic analysis of strain variation in Leptospirillum group II bacteria involved in acid mine drainage formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sheri L; Dibartolo, Genevieve; Denef, Vincent J; Goltsman, Daniela S Aliaga; Thelen, Michael P; Banfield, Jillian F

    2008-07-22

    Deeply sampled community genomic (metagenomic) datasets enable comprehensive analysis of heterogeneity in natural microbial populations. In this study, we used sequence data obtained from the dominant member of a low-diversity natural chemoautotrophic microbial community to determine how coexisting closely related individuals differ from each other in terms of gene sequence and gene content, and to uncover evidence of evolutionary processes that occur over short timescales. DNA sequence obtained from an acid mine drainage biofilm was reconstructed, taking into account the effects of strain variation, to generate a nearly complete genome tiling path for a Leptospirillum group II species closely related to L. ferriphilum (sampling depth approximately 20x). The population is dominated by one sequence type, yet we detected evidence for relatively abundant variants (>99.5% sequence identity to the dominant type) at multiple loci, and a few rare variants. Blocks of other Leptospirillum group II types ( approximately 94% sequence identity) have recombined into one or more variants. Variant blocks of both types are more numerous near the origin of replication. Heterogeneity in genetic potential within the population arises from localized variation in gene content, typically focused in integrated plasmid/phage-like regions. Some laterally transferred gene blocks encode physiologically important genes, including quorum-sensing genes of the LuxIR system. Overall, results suggest inter- and intrapopulation genetic exchange involving distinct parental genome types and implicate gain and loss of phage and plasmid genes in recent evolution of this Leptospirillum group II population. Population genetic analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms indicate variation between closely related strains is not maintained by positive selection, suggesting that these regions do not represent adaptive differences between strains. Thus, the most likely explanation for the observed patterns of

  18. Population genomic analysis of strain variation in Leptospirillum group II bacteria involved in acid mine drainage formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Simmons

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deeply sampled community genomic (metagenomic datasets enable comprehensive analysis of heterogeneity in natural microbial populations. In this study, we used sequence data obtained from the dominant member of a low-diversity natural chemoautotrophic microbial community to determine how coexisting closely related individuals differ from each other in terms of gene sequence and gene content, and to uncover evidence of evolutionary processes that occur over short timescales. DNA sequence obtained from an acid mine drainage biofilm was reconstructed, taking into account the effects of strain variation, to generate a nearly complete genome tiling path for a Leptospirillum group II species closely related to L. ferriphilum (sampling depth approximately 20x. The population is dominated by one sequence type, yet we detected evidence for relatively abundant variants (>99.5% sequence identity to the dominant type at multiple loci, and a few rare variants. Blocks of other Leptospirillum group II types ( approximately 94% sequence identity have recombined into one or more variants. Variant blocks of both types are more numerous near the origin of replication. Heterogeneity in genetic potential within the population arises from localized variation in gene content, typically focused in integrated plasmid/phage-like regions. Some laterally transferred gene blocks encode physiologically important genes, including quorum-sensing genes of the LuxIR system. Overall, results suggest inter- and intrapopulation genetic exchange involving distinct parental genome types and implicate gain and loss of phage and plasmid genes in recent evolution of this Leptospirillum group II population. Population genetic analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms indicate variation between closely related strains is not maintained by positive selection, suggesting that these regions do not represent adaptive differences between strains. Thus, the most likely explanation for the

  19. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  20. Analysis of substrate degradation, metabolite formation and microbial community responses in sand bioreactors treating winery wastewater: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Palmer, Z; Isaacs, S; Kirby, B; le Roes-Hill, M

    2014-12-01

    There is a global need for the implementation of more cost-effective green technologies for the treatment of effluent from wineries. However, systems reliant on microbial biodegradation may be adversely affected by the highly seasonal character of cellar waste. In this study, the biodegradation of two different formulations of winery effluent in sand bioreactors was compared. The degradation of organic substrates and formation of metabolites was monitored by physicochemical analyses of pore water and final effluent samples. Changes in the bacterial community structures were detected using molecular fingerprinting. In wastewater with an overall COD of 2027 mg/L, a formulation with a high concentration of acetate (800 mg COD/L) was more recalcitrant to degradation than a formulation with a high concentration of glucose (800 mg COD/L). Ethanol, glucose and phenolics were degraded preferentially in the deeper layers of the sand bioreactors (average Eh 25 mV) than in the superficial layers (average Eh 102 mV). The redox status also played a pivotal role on the bacterial community composition. The study yielded valuable insight that can be utilized in the design (configuration and operation) of full scale sand bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bordetella pertussis Isolates from Argentinean Whooping Cough Patients Display Enhanced Biofilm Formation Capacity Compared to Tohama I Reference Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Laura; Grunert, Tom; Cattelan, Natalia; de Gouw, Daan; Villalba, María I; Serra, Diego O; Mooi, Frits R; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Yantorno, Osvaldo M

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis. Despite the massive use of vaccines, since the 1950s the disease has become re-emergent in 2000 with a shift in incidence from infants to adolescents and adults. Clearly, the efficacy of current cellular or acellular vaccines, formulated from bacteria grown in stirred bioreactors is limited, presenting a challenge for future vaccine development. For gaining insights into the role of B. pertussis biofilm development for host colonization and persistence within the host, we examined the biofilm forming capacity of eight argentinean clinical isolates recovered from 2001 to 2007. All clinical isolates showed an enhanced potential for biofilm formation compared to the reference strain Tohama I. We further selected the clinical isolate B. pertussis 2723, exhibiting the highest biofilm biomass production, for quantitative proteomic profiling by means of two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry, which was accompanied by targeted transcriptional analysis. Results revealed an elevated expression of several virulence factors, including adhesins involved in biofilm development. In addition, we observed a higher expression of energy metabolism enzymes in the clinical isolate compared to the Tohama I strain. Furthermore, all clinical isolates carried a polymorphism in the bvgS gene. This mutation was associated to an increased sensitivity to modulation and a faster rate of adhesion to abiotic surfaces. Thus, the phenotypic biofilm characteristics shown by the clinical isolates might represent an important, hitherto underestimated, adaptive strategy for host colonization and long time persistence within the host.

  2. Galaxy modelling. II. Multi-wavelength faint counts from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, J. E. G.; Guiderdoni, B.

    2000-11-01

    This paper predicts self-consistent faint galaxy counts from the UV to the submm wavelength range. The stardust spectral energy distributions described in Devriendt et al. \\citeparyear{DGS99} (Paper I) are embedded within the explicit cosmological framework of a simple semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution. We begin with a description of the non-dissipative and dissipative collapses of primordial perturbations, and plug in standard recipes for star formation, stellar evolution and feedback. We also model the absorption of starlight by dust and its re-processing in the IR and submm. We then build a class of models which capture the luminosity budget of the universe through faint galaxy counts and redshift distributions in the whole wavelength range spanned by our spectra. In contrast with a rather stable behaviour in the optical and even in the far-IR, the submm counts are dramatically sensitive to variations in the cosmological parameters and changes in the star formation history. Faint submm counts are more easily accommodated within an open universe with a low value of Omega_0 , or a flat universe with a non-zero cosmological constant. We confirm the suggestion of Guiderdoni et al. \\citeparyear{GHBM98} that matching the current multi-wavelength data requires a population of heavily-extinguished, massive galaxies with large star formation rates ( ~ 500 M_sun yr-1) at intermediate and high redshift (z >= 1.5). Such a population of objects probably is the consequence of an increase of interaction and merging activity at high redshift, but a realistic quantitative description can only be obtained through more detailed modelling of such processes. This study illustrates the implementation of multi-wavelength spectra into a semi-analytic model. In spite of its simplicity, it already provides fair fits of the current data of faint counts, and a physically motivated way of interpolating and extrapolating these data to other wavelengths and fainter flux

  3. Flow injection determination of hydrogen peroxide using catalytic effect of cobalt(II) ion on a dye formation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Makoto; Muramatsu, Miyuki; Yamada, Mari; Kitamura, Naoya

    2012-07-15

    A novel flow injection photometric method was developed for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater. This method is based on a cobalt(II)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (DAOS) as a modified Trinder's reagent to produce intensely colored dye (λ(max)=530nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at pH 8.4. In this method, 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron) acted as an activator for the cobalt(II)-catalyzed reaction and effectively increased the peak height for hydrogen peroxide. The linear calibration graphs were obtained in the hydrogen peroxide concentration range 5×10(-8) to 2.2×10(-6)mol dm(-3) at a sampling rate of 20h(-1). The relative standard deviations for ten determinations of 2.2×10(-6) and 2×10(-7)mol dm(-3) hydrogen peroxide were 1.1% and 3.7%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of hydrogen peroxide in rainwater samples and the analytical results agreed fairly well with the results obtained by different two reference methods; peroxidase method and hydrogen peroxide electrode method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author).

  5. Comparative examinations of serum pepsinogen I, II and gastric area using computed radiography in the atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsu, Yoshimitsu; Ogura, Yasuharu; Yamazaki, Kouichi

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between serum PG I, PG II levels and extent of atrophic gastritis was examined. The subjects were 64 patients (male: 32, female: 32, 51.9 years old on average) with established diagnosis of either atrophic gastritis or normal. In the X-ray gastric examination, Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) was used to obtain clear-cut images of the gastric area. Concerning the serum PG I level, patients in the group with atrophic gastritis showed lower levels than those of the people in the group with no atrophic change, but the variation was wide, and no definite tendency was seen in the relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG I levels. Concerning the serum PG II level, as the atrophic change progresses, the serum PG II level tended to increase gradually. A significant reduction in the PG I/II ratio was seen in the group with atrophic changes (p<0.01) in comparison with the group with no atrophic changes, and the PG I/II value tended to decrease. In conclusion, as a relationship between the atrophic change and the serum PG levels had a wide variation, we considered it to be difficult to understand the presence and extent of the atrophic gastritis by measuring serum PG levels. (author)

  6. A comparative study on PET and SPECT image formation systems for a proper scanner choice in a considered PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.R. dos; Oliveira, A. de; Oliveira, C.L. de

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the last twenty years, the conjunction of technology and research had provided exceptional conditions for improvements on the quality of life, specially on nuclear medicine. In this area, the developed technology is being applied, making available better diagnoses and therapy to a variety of diseases. Since then the short-lived radionuclides were available only in the large physics research centers. The increasing clinical applications have led to the rapid rise in the number of compact cyclotrons throughout the world. All medical cyclotrons currently are suitable for sustaining programs for PET research and clinical application. To date, up to 122 medical cyclotrons have been established worldwide, and Brazil is about to install a new dedicated cyclotron (RDS111 from CTI), to its first PET Center, in Rio de Janeiro. Also the number of scanners worldwide has increased, mainly those based on the positrons emission and annihilation. The better result gotten in the final contrast of the object imposes a comparative study and analysis of the image formation process, either in a system based on a Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT), as well as on Positron Emission Tomography (PET.) This comparative study should at least follow same increasing rates of the new devices with technological advances. That kind of study can be helpful on the decision of what type of scan should be the proper one, to a PET Center, on a specific region. Obviously, many other parameters are involved in that decision, and this discussion and analyses are the main subject of the present work. The objective is to make available a realistic comparative scenario. Many of the new devices have been introduced making progresses. As an example, in the new PET scanners, the reduction of examination time, and the remarkable improvement on the diagnoses based on images. As a consequence, we have a broadening on application, better performance, and making possible the

  7. 3D visualization and finite element mesh formation from wood anatomy samples, Part II – Algorithm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Koňas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents new original application WOOD3D in form of program code assembling. The work extends the previous article “Part I – Theoretical approach” in detail description of implemented C++ classes of utilized projects Visualization Toolkit (VTK, Insight Toolkit (ITK and MIMX. Code is written in CMake style and it is available as multiplatform application. Currently GNU Linux (32/64b and MS Windows (32/64b platforms were released. Article discusses various filter classes for image filtering. Mainly Otsu and Binary threshold filters are classified for anatomy wood samples thresholding. Registration of images series is emphasized for difference of colour spaces compensation is included. Resulted work flow of image analysis is new methodological approach for images processing through the composition, visualization, filtering, registration and finite element mesh formation. Application generates script in ANSYS parametric design language (APDL which is fully compatible with ANSYS finite element solver and designer environment. The script includes the whole definition of unstructured finite element mesh formed by individual elements and nodes. Due to simple notation, the same script can be used for generation of geometrical entities in element positions. Such formed volumetric entities are prepared for further geometry approximation (e.g. by boolean or more advanced methods. Hexahedral and tetrahedral types of mesh elements are formed on user request with specified mesh options. Hexahedral meshes are formed both with uniform element size and with anisotropic character. Modified octree method for hexahedral mesh with anisotropic character was declared in application. Multicore CPUs in the application are supported for fast image analysis realization. Visualization of image series and consequent 3D image are realized in VTK format sufficiently known and public format, visualized in GPL application Paraview. Future work based on mesh

  8. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. II. X-Ray Binary Population Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Eufrasio, R. T.; Markwardt, L.; Zezas, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Yukita, M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new technique for empirically calibrating how the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of X-ray binary (XRB) populations evolves following a star formation event. We first utilize detailed stellar population synthesis modeling of far-UV-to-far-IR photometry of the nearby face-on spiral galaxy M51 to construct maps of the star formation histories (SFHs) on subgalactic (≈400 pc) scales. Next, we use the ≈850 ks cumulative Chandra exposure of M51 to identify and isolate 2-7 keV detected point sources within the galaxy, and we use our SFH maps to recover the local properties of the stellar populations in which each X-ray source is located. We then divide the galaxy into various subregions based on their SFH properties (e.g., star formation rate (SFR) per stellar mass ({M}\\star ) and mass-weighted stellar age) and group the X-ray point sources according to the characteristics of the regions in which they are found. Finally, we construct and fit a parameterized XLF model that quantifies how the XLF shape and normalization evolves as a function of the XRB population age Our best-fit model indicates that the XRB XLF per unit stellar mass declines in normalization, by ˜3-3.5 dex, and steepens in slope from ≈10 Myr to ≈10 Gyr. We find that our technique recovers results from past studies of how XRB XLFs and XRB luminosity scaling relations vary with age and provides a self-consistent picture for how XRB XLFs evolve with age.

  9. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  10. RIA Quick, AUSRIA II-125, AUSAB. Comparative study on isolated and simultaneous radioimmunoassay of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J [Institut fuer Haematologie und Bluttransfusion, Prag (Czechoslovakia)

    1983-01-01

    The surface antigen of hepatitis B (HBsAg) and the antibodies against HBsAg can be determined separately by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) test kits AUSRIA II-125 and AUSAB, respectively. Using the test kit RIA Quick (IMMUNO, Wien) it is possible to perform both the determinations in one preparation simultaneously. The sensitivity of RIA Quick for HBsAg corresponds to that of AUSRIA II-125 and for HBsAB it is considerably lower than that of AUSAB. RIA Quick is of excellent technical design and is by a quarter cheaper than the kits for isolated determination of HBsAg and HBsAb.

  11. H2 formation by electron irradiation of SBA-15 materials and the effect of Cu(II) grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie-Linder, N.; Le Caer, S.; Shahdo Alam, M.; Renault, J.P.; Alba-Simionesco, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of H 2 production from electron irradiation (10 MeV) on SBA-15 materials has shown that adsorbed water is attacked preferentially. Silanol groups are only attacked when they are in the majority with respect to adsorbed water, however they are much less efficient at producing H 2 . The comparison between water content before and after electron irradiation and the corresponding H 2 production indicates that water desorption is the main route to adsorbed water loss for SBA-15 materials. On the other hand, surface silanol groups are more susceptible to attack,leading to H 2 production when SBA-15 samples have undergone extensive thermal treatment. Electron irradiation of SBA-15-Cu materials has shown that the presence of Cu(II) on the surface reduces and inhibits the production of H 2 . This inhibiting power affects adsorbed water bonded to grafted copper but not surface silanol groups. (authors)

  12. Uptake and Release of Cerium During Fe-Oxide Formation and Transformation in Fe(II) Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedel, Sorin; Dideriksen, Knud; Christiansen, Bo C.

    2010-01-01

    Fe-oxides are ubiquitous in soils and sediments and form during Fe(0) corrosion. Depending on redox conditions and solution composition, Fe-oxides such as ferrihydrite, goethite, magnetite, and green rust (GR) may form. These phases typically have high surface area and large affinity for adsorption......(III) release. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed Ce(III) adsorbed on magnetite. When Fe-oxides were synthesized by air oxidation of Fe(II) solutions at pH 7, GR(Na,SO4) played a catalytic role in the oxidation of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) by O-2, removing more than 90% of the dissolved Ce. Transmission electron...

  13. Unexpected formation and crystal structure of tetrakis(1H-pyrazole-κN2palladium(II dichloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wagner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, [Pd(C3H4N24]Cl2, was obtained unexpectedly by the reaction of palladium(II dichloride with equimolar amounts of 1-chloro-1-nitro-2,2,2-tris(pyrazolylethane in methanol solution. The Pd2+ cation is located on an inversion centre and has a square-planar coordination sphere defined by four N atoms of four neutral pyrazole ligands. The average Pd—N distance is 2.000 (2 Å. The two chloride anions are not coordinating to Pd2+. They are connected to the complex cations through N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. In addition, C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds are observed, leading to a three-dimensional linkage of cations and anions.

  14. Role of 3d electrons in formation of ionic-covalent bonds in II-VI based ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Iwanowski, R.J.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    In the II-VI compounds doped with transition metals (diluted magnetic semiconductors) a substitution of cation by the introduced magnetic ion leads to hybridization of its 3d states with the sp states of the host semiconductor. The degree of hybridization of the 3d states and its interaction with the host material band states has been a subject of numerous discussions. Inner shell absorption spectroscopy provides very useful means of electronic structure analysis in a wide variety of systems. Due to its selectivity for atomic species and the selection rules for electron transitions, the soft X-ray absorption technique offers quite unique opportunity to measure directly the site-selective local density of the unoccupied d states in the compounds studied. Results are reported for ZnS compounds with Mn, Fe, Co or Ni substitutions for Zn

  15. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe II. Principle of detailed balance and primordial 4He formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego

    2001-01-01

    If the universe is slightly non-extensive, and the distribution functions are not exactly given by those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, the primordial production of light elements will be non-trivially modified. In particular, the principle of detailed balance (PDB), of fundamental importance in the standard...... the formation of Helium and Deuterium, and study the kind of deviation one could expect from the standard regime. The correction to the capture time, the moment in which Deuterium can no longer be substantially photo-disintegrated, is also presented. This allows us to take into account the process of the free...

  16. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Gelsemine and Gelsemium sempervirens Activity on Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Formation in the Spinal Cord and Limbic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Venard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Centesimal dilutions (5, 9 and 15 cH of Gelsemium sempervirens are claimed to be capable of exerting anxiolytic and analgesic effects. However, basic results supporting this assertion are rare, and the mechanism of action of G. sempervirens is completely unknown. To clarify the point, we performed a comparative analysis of the effects of dilutions 5, 9 and 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine (the major active principle of G. sempervirens on allopregnanolone (3α,5α-THP production in the rat limbic system (hippocampus and amygdala or H-A and spinal cord (SC. Indeed, H-A and SC are two pivotal structures controlling, respectively, anxiety and pain that are also modulated by the neurosteroid 3α,5α-THP. At the dilution 5 cH, both G. sempervirens and gelsemine stimulated [3H]progesterone conversion into [3H]3α,5α-THP by H-A and SC slices, and the stimulatory effect was fully (100% reproducible in all assays. The dilution 9 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine also stimulated 3α,5α-THP formation in H-A and SC but the reproducibility rate decreased to 75%. At 15 cH of G. sempervirens or gelsemine, no effect was observed on 3α,5α-THP neosynthesis in H-A and SC slices. The stimulatory action of G. sempervirens and gelsemine (5 cH on 3α,5α-THP production was blocked by strychnine, the selective antagonist of glycine receptors. Altogether, these results, which constitute the first basic demonstration of cellular effects of G. sempervirens, also offer interesting possibilities for the improvement of G. sempervirens-based therapeutic strategies.

  18. LIGHT BRIDGE IN A DEVELOPING ACTIVE REGION. II. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLUX EMERGENCE AND LIGHT BRIDGE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on an analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores, an elongated cusp-shaped current layer is formed above the bridge, which may be favorable for magnetic reconnection. The striking correspondence between the observational results of Paper I and the numerical results of this paper provides a consistent physical picture of light bridges. The dynamic activity phenomena occur as a natural result of the bridge formation and its convective nature, which has much in common with those of umbral dots and penumbral filaments

  19. Star formation history of Canis Major OB1. II. A bimodal X-ray population revealed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, T.; Gregorio-Hetem, J.; Montmerle, T.; Fernandes, B.; Stelzer, B.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: The Canis Major OB1 Association has an intriguing scenario of star formation, especially in the region called Canis Major R1 (CMa R1) traditionally assigned to a reflection nebula, but in reality an ionized region. This work is focussed on the young stellar population associated with CMa R1, for which our previous results from ROSAT, optical, and near-infrared data had revealed two stellar groups with different ages, suggesting a possible mixing of populations originated from distinct star formation episodes. Methods: The X-ray data allow the detected sources to be characterized according to hardness ratios, light curves, and spectra. Estimates of mass and age were obtained from the 2MASS catalogue and used to define a complete subsample of stellar counterparts for statistical purposes. Results: A catalogue of 387 XMM-Newton sources is provided, of which 78% are confirmed as members or probable members of the CMa R1 association. Flares (or similar events) were observed for 13 sources and the spectra of 21 bright sources could be fitted by a thermal plasma model. Mean values of fits parameters were used to estimate X-ray luminosities. We found a minimum value of log(LX [erg/s] ) = 29.43, indicating that our sample of low-mass stars (M⋆ ≤ 0.5 M⊙), which are faint X-ray emitters, is incomplete. Among the 250 objects selected as our complete subsample (defining our "best sample"), 171 are found to the east of the cloud, near Z CMa and dense molecular gas, of which 50% of them are young (10 Myr). The opposite happens to the west, near GU CMa, in areas lacking molecular gas: among 79 objects, 30% are young and 50% are older. These findings confirm that a first episode of distributed star formation occurred in the whole studied region 10 Myr ago and dispersed the molecular gas, while a second, localized episode (<5 Myr) took place in the regions where molecular gas is still present.

  20. Evaluation of Cerebral Cortex Function in Clients with Bipolar Mood Disorder I (BMD I Compared With BMD II Using QEEG Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaleghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar mood disorder is very challenging particularly in adolescence. Hence, we aimed to investigate the cerebral cortex function in these patients, using quantitative electroencephalography analysis to obtain significant differences between them.Methods: Thirty- eight adolescents (18 patients with bipolar disorder I and 20 with BMD II participated in this study. We recorded the electroencephalogram signals based on 10-20 international system by 21 electrodes in eyes open and eyes closed condition resting conditions. Forty seconds segments were selected from each recorded signals with minimal noise and artifacts. Periodogram Welch was used to estimate power spectrum density from each segment. Analysis was performed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma, and we assessed power, mean, entropy, variance and skewness of the spectrums, as well as mean of the thresholded spectrum and thresholded spectrogram. We only used focal montage for comparison. Eventually, data were analyzed by independent Mann-Whitney test and independent t test.Results: We observed significant differences in some brain regions and in all frequency bands. There were significant differences in prefrontal lobe, central lobe, left parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe between BMD I and BMD II (P < 0.05. In patients with BMD I, spectral entropy was compared to patients with BMD II. The most significant difference was observed in the gamma frequency band. Also, the power and entropy of delta frequency band was larger in the left parietal lobe in the BMD I patients compared to BMD II patients (P < 0.05. In the temporal lobe, significant differences were observed in the spectrum distribution of beta and gamma frequency bands (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The QEEG and entropy measure are simple and available tools to help detect cerebral cortex deficits and distinguish BMD I from BMD II.

  1. Other Species in the Aqueous Environment of a Peptide Can Invert its Intrinsic Solvated Polyproline II/Beta Propensity: Implications for Amyloid Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, Noemi G; Krimm, Samuel

    2016-02-02

    As we have previously shown, the predominance of the polyproline II conformation in the circular dichroism spectra of aqueous polypeptides is related to its lower energy than that of the beta conformation. In order to test whether this is still the case in the presence of additional components in the medium, we have calculated the energy difference between these two conformations in an alanine-dipeptide/twelve-water system without and with the addition of an HCl molecule. We find in the latter case that the beta conformer is of lower energy than the polyproline II. Energy profiles near the minima in both cases also permit conclusions about the relative entropies of these structures. These results emphasize the importance of considering the peptide-plus-medium state as the relevant entity in determining the structural properties of such systems. Such an inversion could be relevant to the formation of amyloid and could thus lead to new strategies for studying its role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Influence of organics and silica on Fe(II) oxidation rates and cell-mineral aggregate formation by the green-sulfur Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox - Implications for Fe(II) oxidation in ancient oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Byrne, James M.; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Most studies on microbial phototrophic Fe(II) oxidation (photoferrotrophy) have focused on purple bacteria, but recent evidence points to the importance of green-sulfur bacteria (GSB). Their recovery from modern ferruginous environments suggests that these photoferrotrophs can offer insights into how their ancient counterparts grew in Archean oceans at the time of banded iron formation (BIF) deposition. It is unknown, however, how Fe(II) oxidation rates, cell-mineral aggregate formation, and Fe-mineralogy vary under environmental conditions reminiscent of the geological past. To address this, we studied the Fe(II)-oxidizer Chlorobium ferrooxidans KoFox, a GSB living in co-culture with the heterotrophic Geospirillum strain KoFum. We investigated the mineralogy of Fe(III) metabolic products at low/high light intensity, and in the presence of dissolved silica and/or fumarate. Silica and fumarate influenced the crystallinity and particle size of the produced Fe(III) minerals. The presence of silica also enhanced Fe(II) oxidation rates, especially at high light intensities, potentially by lowering Fe(II)-toxicity to the cells. Electron microscopic imaging showed no encrustation of either KoFox or KoFum cells with Fe(III)-minerals, though weak associations were observed suggesting co-sedimentation of Fe(III) with at least some biomass via these aggregates, which could support diagenetic Fe(III)-reduction. Given that GSB are presumably one of the most ancient photosynthetic organisms, and pre-date cyanobacteria, our findings, on the one hand, strengthen arguments for photoferrotrophic activity as a likely mechanism for BIF deposition on a predominantly anoxic early Earth, but, on the other hand, also suggest that preservation of remnants of Fe(II)-oxidizing GSB as microfossils in the rock record is unlikely.

  3. THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION CYGNUS OB2. II. INTEGRATED STELLAR PROPERTIES AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Drew, J. E.; Vink, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Cygnus OB2 is the nearest example of a massive star-forming region (SFR), containing over 50 O-type stars and hundreds of B-type stars. We have analyzed the properties of young stars in two fields in Cyg OB2 using the recently published deep catalog of Chandra X-ray point sources with complementary optical and near-IR photometry. Our sample is complete to ∼1 M sun (excluding A- and B-type stars that do not emit X-rays), making this the deepest study of the stellar properties and star formation history in Cyg OB2 to date. From Siess et al. isochrone fits to the near-IR color-magnitude diagram, we derive ages of 3.5 +0.75 -1.0 and 5.25 +1.5 -1.0 Myr for sources in the two fields, both with considerable spreads around the pre-main-sequence isochrones. The presence of a stellar population somewhat older than the present-day O-type stars, also fits in with the low fraction of sources with inner circumstellar disks (as traced by the K-band excess) that we find to be very low, but appropriate for a population of age ∼5 Myr. We also find that the region lacks a population of highly embedded sources that is often observed in young SFRs, suggesting star formation in the vicinity has declined. We measure the stellar mass functions (MFs) in this limit and find a power-law slope of Γ = -1.09 ± 0.13, in good agreement with the global mean value estimated by Kroupa. A steepening of the slope at higher masses is observed and suggested as due to the presence of the previous generation of stars that have lost their most massive members. Finally, combining our MF and an estimate of the radial density profile of the association suggests a total mass of Cyg OB2 of ∼3 x 10 4 M sun , similar to that of many of our Galaxy's most massive SFRs.

  4. High-mass star formation possibly triggered by cloud-cloud collision in the H II region RCW 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Sano, Hidetoshi; Enokiya, Rei; Torii, Kazufumi; Hattori, Yusuke; Kohno, Mikito; Fujita, Shinji; Nishimura, Atsushi; Ohama, Akio; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Tachihara, Kengo; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Fukui, Yasuo

    2018-05-01

    We report on the possibility that the high-mass star located in the H II region RCW 34 was formed by a triggering induced by a collision of molecular clouds. Molecular gas distributions of the 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 and 12CO J = 3-2 lines in the direction of RCW 34 were measured using the NANTEN2 and ASTE telescopes. We found two clouds with velocity ranges of 0-10 km s-1 and 10-14 km s-1. Whereas the former cloud is as massive as ˜1.4 × 104 M⊙ and has a morphology similar to the ring-like structure observed in the infrared wavelengths, the latter cloud, with a mass of ˜600 M⊙, which has not been recognized by previous observations, is distributed to just cover the bubble enclosed by the other cloud. The high-mass star with a spectral type of O8.5V is located near the boundary of the two clouds. The line intensity ratio of 12CO J = 3-2/J = 2-1 yields high values (≳1.0), suggesting that these clouds are associated with the massive star. We also confirm that the obtained position-velocity diagram shows a similar distribution to that derived by a numerical simulation of the supersonic collision of two clouds. Using the relative velocity between the two clouds (˜5 km s-1), the collisional time scale is estimated to be ˜0.2 Myr with the assumption of a distance of 2.5 kpc. These results suggest that the high-mass star in RCW 34 was formed rapidly within a time scale of ˜0.2 Myr via a triggering of a cloud-cloud collision.

  5. Mechanics of the Compression Wood Response: II. On the Location, Action, and Distribution of Compression Wood Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R R; Wilson, B F

    1973-04-01

    A new method for simulation of cross-sectional growth provided detailed information on the location of normal wood and compression wood increments in two tilted white pine (Pinus strobus L.) leaders. These data were combined with data on stiffness, slope, and curvature changes over a 16-week period to make the mechanical analysis. The location of compression wood changed from the under side to a flank side and then to the upper side of the leader as the geotropic stimulus decreased, owing to compression wood action. Its location shifted back to a flank side when the direction of movement of the leader reversed. A model for this action, based on elongation strains, was developed and predicted the observed curvature changes with elongation strains of 0.3 to 0.5%, or a maximal compressive stress of 60 to 300 kilograms per square centimeter. After tilting, new wood formation was distributed so as to maintain consistent strain levels along the leaders in bending under gravitational loads. The computed effective elastic moduli were about the same for the two leaders throughout the season.

  6. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES THROUGHOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2009-01-01

    This analysis uses spectra of ∼16,000 nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey quiescent galaxies to track variations in galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) along and perpendicular to the fundamental plane (FP). We sort galaxies by their FP properties (σ, R e , and I e ) and construct high signal-to-noise ratio mean galaxy spectra that span the breadth and thickness of the FP. From these spectra, we determine mean luminosity-weighted ages, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on single stellar population models using the method described in Graves and Schiavon. In agreement with previous work, the SFHs of early-type galaxies are found to form a two-parameter family. The major trend is that mean age, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] all increase with σ. However, no stellar population property shows any dependence on R e at fixed σ, suggesting that σ and not dynamical mass (M dyn ∝ σ 2 R e ) is the better predictor of past SFH. In addition to the main trend with σ, galaxies also show a range of population properties at fixed σ that are strongly correlated with surface brightness residuals from the FP (Δlog I e ), such that higher surface brightness galaxies have younger mean ages, higher [Fe/H], higher [Mg/H], and lower [Mg/Fe] than lower surface brightness galaxies. These latter trends are a major new constraint on SFHs.

  7. MEASURING STAR FORMATION RATES AND FAR-INFRARED COLORS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES USING THE CO(7–6) AND [N II] 205 μm LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanyao; Zhao, Yinghe; Xu, C. Kevin; Howell, Justin; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Schulz, Bernhard [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Yu; Liu, Lijie [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Privon, George C. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, Concepción (Chile); Lord, Steven D. [The SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Van der Werf, Paul P., E-mail: lu@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-20

    To better characterize the global star formation activity in a galaxy, one needs to know not only the star formation rate (SFR) but also the rest-frame, far-infrared color (e.g., the 60–100 μm color, C(60/100)) of the dust emission. The latter probes the average intensity of the dust heating radiation field and scales statistically with the effective SFR surface density in star-forming galaxies including (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs). To this end, here we exploit a new spectroscopic approach involving only two emission lines: CO(7–6) at 372 μm and [N ii] at 205 μm([N ii]{sub 205μm}). For local (U)LIRGs, the ratios of the CO(7–6) luminosity (L{sub CO(7–6)}) to the total infrared luminosity (L{sub IR}; 8–1000 μm) are fairly tightly distributed (to within ∼0.12 dex) and show little dependence on C(60/100). This makes L{sub CO(7–6)} a good SFR tracer, which is less contaminated by active galactic nuclei than L{sub IR} and may also be much less sensitive to metallicity than L{sub CO(1–0)}. Furthermore, the logarithmic [N ii]{sub 205μm}/CO(7–6) luminosity ratio depends fairly strongly (at a slope of ∼ −1.4) on C(60/100), with a modest scatter (∼0.23 dex). This makes it a useful estimator on C(60/100) with an implied uncertainty of ∼0.15 (or ≲4 K in the dust temperature (T{sub dust}) in the case of a graybody emission with T{sub dust} ≳ 30 K and a dust emissivity index β ≥ 1). Our locally calibrated SFR and C(60/100) estimators are shown to be consistent with the published data of (U)LIRGs of z up to ∼6.5.

  8. Comparative study of the formation of fenchenes and of their N.M.R. spectra; Etude comparative de la formation des fenchenes et de leurs spectres de R.M.N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombeau, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-01-01

    The dehydration of {alpha}-fenchyl alcohol and {alpha}-iso-fenchyl alcohol is studied in detail: two new techniques (chromatography on silica with silver nitrate, and nuclear magnetic resonance) permit to analyse the formation of various fenchenes and to achieve the synthesis of {alpha}- and {beta}-fenchenes. (author) [French] On etudie en detail la deshydratation de l'{alpha}-fenchol et de l'{alpha}-isofenchol: grace a l'utilisation de deux techniques nouvelles (chromatographie sur silice impregnee de nitrate d'argent et resonance magnetique nucleaire), on a pu analyser la formation des divers fenchenes. On met au point la preparation de l'{alpha}- et du {beta}-fenchenes. (auteur)

  9. Comparative study of the formation of fenchenes and of their N.M.R. spectra; Etude comparative de la formation des fenchenes et de leurs spectres de R.M.N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombeau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-01-01

    The dehydration of {alpha}-fenchyl alcohol and {alpha}-iso-fenchyl alcohol is studied in detail: two new techniques (chromatography on silica with silver nitrate, and nuclear magnetic resonance) permit to analyse the formation of various fenchenes and to achieve the synthesis of {alpha}- and {beta}-fenchenes. (author) [French] On etudie en detail la deshydratation de l'{alpha}-fenchol et de l'{alpha}-isofenchol: grace a l'utilisation de deux techniques nouvelles (chromatographie sur silice impregnee de nitrate d'argent et resonance magnetique nucleaire), on a pu analyser la formation des divers fenchenes. On met au point la preparation de l'{alpha}- et du {beta}-fenchenes. (auteur)

  10. Xanthophyll cycle-dependent quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll a fluorescence: Formation of a quenching complex with a short fluorescence lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, A.M.; Hazlett, T.L.; Govindjee [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-03-14

    Excess light triggers protective nonradiative dissipation of excitation energy in photosystem II through the formation of a trans-thylakoid pH gradient that in turn stimulates formation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. These xanthophylls when combined with protonation of antenna pigment-protein complexes may increase nonradiative dissipation and, thus, quench chlorophyll a fluorescence. Here we measured, in parallel, the chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime and intensity to understand the mechanism of this process. Increasing the xanthophyll concentration in the presence of a pH gradient (quenched conditions) decreases the fractional intensity of a fluorescence lifetime component centered at {approx}2 ns and increases a component at {approx}0.4 ns. Uncoupling the pH gradient (unquenched conditions) eliminates the 0.4-ns component. Changes in the xanthophyll concentration do not significantly affect the fluorescence lifetimes in either the quenched or unquenched sample conditions. However, there are differences in fluorescence lifetimes between the quenched and unquenched states that are due to pH-related, but nonxanthophyll-related, processes. Quenching of the maximal fluorescence intensity correlates with both the xanthophyll concentration and the fractional intensity of the 0.4-ns component. The unchanged fluorescence lifetimes and the proportional quenching of the maximal and dark-level fluorescence intensities indicate that the xanthophyllact on antenna, not reaction center processes. Further, the fluorescence quenching is interpreted as the combined effect of the pH gradient and xanthophyll concentration, resulting in the formation of a quenching complex with a short ({approx}0.4 ns) fluorescence lifetime. 33 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Comparative analysis of biofilm formation by Bacillus cereus reference strains and undomesticated food isolates and the effect of free iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, H.; Muller, L.K.; Tempelaars, M.H.; Abee, T.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation of Bacillus cereus reference strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987 and 21 undomesticated food isolates was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel as contact surfaces. For all strains, the biofilm forming capacity was significantly enhanced when in contact with stainless steel (SS)

  12. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H II region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H II region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H II region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H II region metallicity derived here with those of H II regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  13. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  14. Habit formation, work ethics, and technological progress

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, João Ricardo; León-Ledesma, Miguel A.

    2002-01-01

    Work ethics affects labor supply. This idea is modeled assuming that work is habit forming. This paper introduces working habits in a neoclassical growth model and compares its outcomes with a model without habit formation. In addition, it analyzes the impact of different forms of technical progress. The findings are that i) labor supply in the habit formation case is higher than in the neoclassical case; ii) unlike in the neoclassical case, labor supply in the presence of habit formation wil...

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Neutrophilic Iron(II Oxidizer Genomes for Candidate Genes in Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomei He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular electron transfer (EET is recognized as a key biochemical process in circumneutral pH Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB. In this study, we searched for candidate EET genes in 73 neutrophilic FeOB genomes, among which 43 genomes are complete or close-to-complete and the rest have estimated genome completeness ranging from 5 to 91%. These neutrophilic FeOB span members of the microaerophilic, anaerobic phototrophic, and anaerobic nitrate-reducing FeOB groups. We found that many microaerophilic and several anaerobic FeOB possess homologs of Cyc2, an outer membrane cytochrome c originally identified in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The “porin-cytochrome c complex” (PCC gene clusters homologous to MtoAB/PioAB are present in eight FeOB, accounting for 19% of complete and close-to-complete genomes examined, whereas PCC genes homologous to OmbB-OmaB-OmcB in Geobacter sulfurreducens are absent. Further, we discovered gene clusters that may potentially encode two novel PCC types. First, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC3” encodes a porin, an extracellular and a periplasmic cytochrome c with remarkably large numbers of heme-binding motifs. Second, a cluster (tentatively named “PCC4” encodes a porin and three periplasmic multiheme cytochromes c. A conserved inner membrane protein (IMP encoded in PCC3 and PCC4 gene clusters might be responsible for translocating electrons across the inner membrane. Other bacteria possessing PCC3 and PCC4 are mostly Proteobacteria isolated from environments with a potential niche for Fe(II oxidation. In addition to cytochrome c, multicopper oxidase (MCO genes potentially involved in Fe(II oxidation were also identified. Notably, candidate EET genes were not found in some FeOB, especially the anaerobic ones, probably suggesting EET genes or Fe(II oxidation mechanisms are different from the searched models. Overall, based on current EET models, the search extends our understanding of bacterial EET and

  16. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  17. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation. II. Dependence of exoplanet architectures on giant planet and disk properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    We present models for the formation of terrestrial planets, and the collisional evolution of debris disks, in planetary systems that contain multiple marginally unstable gas giants. We previously showed that in such systems, the dynamics of the giant planets introduces a correlation between the presence of terrestrial planets and cold dust, i.e., debris disks, which is particularly pronounced at λ ~ 70 μm. Here we present new simulations that show that this connection is qualitatively robust to a range of parameters: the mass distribution of the giant planets, the width and mass distribution of the outer planetesimal disk, and the presence of gas in the disk when the giant planets become unstable. We discuss how variations in these parameters affect the evolution. We find that systems with equal-mass giant planets undergo the most violent instabilities, and that these destroy both terrestrial planets and the outer planetesimal disks that produce debris disks. In contrast, systems with low-mass giant planets efficiently produce both terrestrial planets and debris disks. A large fraction of systems with low-mass (M ≲ 30 M⊕) outermost giant planets have final planetary separations that, scaled to the planets' masses, are as large or larger than the Saturn-Uranus and Uranus-Neptune separations in the solar system. We find that the gaps between these planets are not only dynamically stable to test particles, but are frequently populated by planetesimals. The possibility of planetesimal belts between outer giant planets should be taken into account when interpreting debris disk SEDs. In addition, the presence of ~ Earth-mass "seeds" in outer planetesimal disks causes the disks to radially spread to colder temperatures, and leads to a slow depletion of the outer planetesimal disk from the inside out. We argue that this may explain the very low frequency of >1 Gyr-old solar-type stars with observed 24 μm excesses. Our simulations do not sample the full range of

  18. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Akawung, Alianu K; Whelan, Heather K; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J

    2017-02-13

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation.

  19. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Whelan, Heather K.; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. PMID:28208819

  20. Use of frontal analysis in ion exchange chromatography for the study of reactions of formation of complexes in solution. Application to hydrochloric complexes of nickel (II), cobalt (II) and copper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremillon, Bernard

    1959-01-01

    The ion exchanger column frontal analysis method provides a convenient way to study complex formation reactions when they are very unstable. It has the advantage of being much more sensitive and precise than the method (already used by other authors) of simple equilibrium between a solution and an ion exchanger. As an illustration of this method, the hydrochloric acid complexes NiCl + , CoCl + and CuCl + , have been studied, and their dissociation constants were determined (respectively 4.6 ± 0.1; 4.0 ± 0.1 and 2.5 ± 0.1, at an ionic strength substantially equal to 1.5). Reprint of a paper published in Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France, 1958, p. 1483-1487 [fr

  1. The effect of prognostic data presentation format on perceived risk among surrogate decision makers of critically ill patients: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andy R; Litton, Edward; Chamberlain, Jenny; Ho, Kwok M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether varying the format used to present prognostic data alters the perception of risk among surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit (ICU). This was a prospective randomized comparative trial conducted in a 23-bed adult tertiary ICU. Enrolled surrogate decision makers were randomized to 1 of 2 questionnaires, which presented hypothetical ICU scenarios, identical other than the format in which prognostic data were presented (eg, frequencies vs percentages). Participants were asked to rate the risk associated with each prognostic statement. We enrolled 141 surrogate decision makers. The perception of risk varied significantly dependent on the presentation format. For "quantitative data," risks were consistently perceived as higher, when presented as frequencies (eg, 1 in 50) compared with equivalent percentages (eg, 2%). Framing "qualitative data" in terms of chance of "death" rather than "survival" led to a statistically significant increase in perceived risks. Framing "quantitative" data in this way did not significantly affect risk perception. Data format had a significant effect on how surrogate decision makers interpreted risk. Qualitative statements are interpreted widely and affected by framing. Where possible, multiple quantitative formats should be used for presenting prognostic information. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Enclomiphene citrate stimulates testosterone production while preventing oligospermia: a randomized phase II clinical trial comparing topical testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald D; Fontenot, Gregory K; Wike, Jenny; Hsu, Kuang; Nydell, Jennifer; Lipshultz, Larry

    2014-09-01

    To determine the effect of enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Phase II clinical trial. Community dwelling men making visits to physician offices. Men with secondary hypogonadism. Oral administration of enclomiphene citrate or 1% topical T gel. Luteinizing hormone, FSH, T, and semen analysis. Treatment with enclomiphene citrate resulted in increased morning serum T, E2, and LH levels similar to those obtained with a topical T gel in men with secondary hypogonadism. Follicle-stimulating hormone and LH were increased with enclomiphene, and sperm counts were conserved. Enclomiphene citrate reverses the two hallmarks of secondary hypogonadism, namely, low serum total T and low or inappropriately normal LH while preserving sperm production. NCT01270841 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01270841). Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...... identified as well as functional and pathway enrichments associated with the oocytes from the two developmental hallmarks. A total of 729 genes were highly enriched in oocytes from primodial follicles and 1456 genes were highly enriched in MII oocytes (>10-fold, P...

  4. The Fifth Transmembrane Domain of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Participates in the Formation of the Ligand-binding Pocket and Undergoes a Counterclockwise Rotation upon Receptor Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S.; Holleran, Brian J.; Morin, Marie-Ève; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-01-01

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT1) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT1 receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT1, N200C-AT1, I201C-AT1, G203C-AT1, and F204C-AT1 mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT1 receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT1 receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT1 became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT1 lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT1 receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side. PMID:19773549

  5. The fifth transmembrane domain of angiotensin II Type 1 receptor participates in the formation of the ligand-binding pocket and undergoes a counterclockwise rotation upon receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Ivana; Martin, Stéphane S; Holleran, Brian J; Morin, Marie-Eve; Lacasse, Patrick; Lavigne, Pierre; Escher, Emanuel; Leduc, Richard; Guillemette, Gaétan

    2009-11-13

    The octapeptide hormone angiotensin II exerts a wide variety of cardiovascular effects through the activation of the angiotensin II Type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Like other G protein- coupled receptors, the AT(1) receptor possesses seven transmembrane domains that provide structural support for the formation of the ligand-binding pocket. The role of the fifth transmembrane domain (TMD5) was investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. All of the residues within Thr-190 to Leu-217 region were mutated one at a time to cysteine, and after expression in COS-7 cells, the mutant receptors were treated with the sulfhydryl-specific alkylating agent methanethiosulfonate-ethylammonium (MTSEA). MTSEA reacts selectively with water-accessible, free sulfhydryl groups of endogenous or introduced point mutation cysteines. If a cysteine is found in the binding pocket, the covalent modification will affect the binding kinetics of the ligand. MTSEA substantially decreased the binding affinity of L197C-AT(1), N200C-AT(1), I201C-AT(1), G203C-AT(1), and F204C-AT(1) mutant receptors, which suggests that these residues orient themselves within the water-accessible binding pocket of the AT(1) receptor. Interestingly, this pattern of acquired MTSEA sensitivity was altered for TMD5 reporter cysteines engineered in a constitutively active N111G-AT(1) receptor background. Indeed, mutant I201C-N111G-AT(1) became more sensitive to MTSEA, whereas mutant G203C-N111G-AT(1) lost some sensitivity. Our results suggest that constitutive activation of AT(1) receptor causes an apparent counterclockwise rotation of TMD5 as viewed from the extracellular side.

  6. Comparative evaluation of particle properties, formation of reactive oxygen species and genotoxic potential of tungsten carbide based nanoparticles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Dana, E-mail: dana.kuehnel@ufz.de [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Scheffler, Katja [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wellner, Peggy [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Meissner, Tobias; Potthoff, Annegret [Fraunhofer-Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Busch, Wibke [Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig - UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Springer, Armin [Centre for Translational Bone, Cartilage and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Schirmer, Kristin [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of toxic potential of tungsten carbide-based nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of ROS and micronuclei induction of three hard metal nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dependency of observed toxic effects on the materials physical-chemical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences in several particle properties seem to modulate the biological response. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide (WC) and cobalt (Co) are constituents of hard metals and are used for the production of extremely hard tools. Previous studies have identified greater cytotoxic potential of WC-based nanoparticles if particles contained Co. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and micronuclei would help explain the impact on cultured mammalian cells by three different tungsten-based nanoparticles (WC{sub S}, WC{sub L}, WC{sub L}-Co (S: small; L: large)). The selection of particles allowed us to study the influence of particle properties, e.g. surface area, and the presence of Co on the toxicological results. WC{sub S} and WC{sub L}/WC{sub L}-Co differed in their crystalline structure and surface area, whereas WC{sub S}/WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co differed in their cobalt content. WC{sub L} and WC{sub L}-Co showed neither a genotoxic potential nor ROS induction. Contrary to that, WC{sub S} nanoparticles induced the formation of both ROS and micronuclei. CoCl{sub 2} was tested in relevant concentrations and induced no ROS formation, but increased the rate of micronuclei at concentrations exceeding those present in WC{sub L}-Co. In conclusion, ROS and micronuclei formation could not be associated with the presence of Co in the WC-based particles. The contrasting responses elicited by WC{sub S} vs. WC{sub L} appear to be due to large differences in crystalline structure.

  7. MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL MARKETING DEMAND: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND GENERALIZATION OF THE PRECEDING CORRESPONDING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the modeling of series-STI formation of individual market demand. The analysis, and then sum-of three well-known inmarketing models, which exhaust the currentlyknown approaches is revised. The article shows that all three models have a signifi cant difference in the number of stages and terminology. The obtained results are the basis for the developmentof the author’s model of gradual development of demand - «need - desire - requirement -demand» or abbreviated as «model NDRD» and can be considered as a contribution to the methodology of study a demand.

  8. Potential function of added minerals as nucleation sites and effect of humic substances on mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pantke, Claudia; Porsch, Katharina; Larese-Casanova, Phil; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-06-19

    The mobility of toxic metals and the transformation of organic pollutants in the environment are influenced and in many cases even controlled by iron minerals. Therefore knowing the factors influencing iron mineral formation and transformation by Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria is crucial for understanding the fate of contaminants and for the development of remediation technologies. In this study we followed mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing strain Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1 in the presence of the crystalline Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides goethite, magnetite and hematite added as potential nucleation sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis of minerals precipitated by BoFeN1 in (57)Fe(II)-spiked microbial growth medium showed that goethite was formed in the absence of mineral additions as well as in the presence of goethite or hematite. The presence of magnetite minerals during Fe(II) oxidation induced the formation of magnetite in addition to goethite, while the addition of humic substances along with magnetite also led to goethite but no magnetite. This study showed that mineral formation not only depends on the aqueous geochemical conditions but can also be affected by the presence of mineral nucleation sites that initiate precipitation of the same underlying mineral phases.

  9. CBCT evaluation of the upper airway morphological changes in growing patients of class II division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using twin block appliance: a comparative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. RESULTS: During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52 ± 2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77 ± 2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. CONCLUSION: Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB

  10. Channel formation by the binding component of Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin: glutamate 307 of C2II affects channel properties in vitro and pH-dependent C2I translocation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcker, Dagmar; Bachmeyer, Christoph; Benz, Roland; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2003-05-13

    The binding component (C2II) of the binary Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin mediates transport of the actin ADP-ribosylating enzyme component (C2I) into the cytosol of target cells. C2II (80 kDa) is activated by trypsin cleavage, and proteolytically activated C2II (60 kDa) oligomerizes to heptamers in solution. Activated C2II forms channels in lipid bilayer membranes which are highly cation selective and voltage-gated. A role for this channel in C2I translocation across the cell membrane into the cytosol is discussed. Amino acid residues 303-331 of C2II contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which likely facilitates membrane insertion and channel formation by creating two antiparallel beta-strands. Some of the residues are in strategic positions within the putative C2II channel, in particular, glutamate 307 (E307) localized in its center and glycine 316 (G316) localized on the trans side of the membrane. Here, single-lysine substitutions of these amino acids and the double mutant E307K/G316K of C2II were analyzed in vivo and in artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The pH dependence of C2I transport across cellular membranes was altered, and a pH of properties of C2II were substantially changed by the mutations, as evidenced by reduced cation selectivity. Interestingly, the voltage dependence of wild-type C2II was completely lost for the E307K mutant, which means that E307 is responsible for voltage gating. Chloroquine blocked the E307K mutant channel and intoxication of Vero cells by mutant C2II and C2I, indicating that chloroquine binding does not involve E307. Overall, the voltage gating and cation selectivity of the C2II channel do not play an important role in translocation of C2I into the cytosol.

  11. A ruthenium(II) complex inhibits tumor growth in vivo with fewer side-effects compared with cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Ping-Yu; Ji, Liang-Nian; Chao, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The antitumor activity of a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex, Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(HPIP)](ClO4)2 (Δ-Ru1, where bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, HPIP=2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), was evaluated. The in vivo experiments showed that Δ-Ru1 inhibited the growth of a human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) xenotransplanted into nude mice with efficiency similar to that of cisplatin. Histopathology examination of the tumors from treated xenograft models was consistent with apoptosis in tumor cells. Importantly, in striking contrast with cisplatin, Δ-Ru1 did not cause any detectable side effects on the kidney, liver, peripheral neuronal system, or the hematological system at the pharmacologically effective dose. The preclinical studies reported here provide support for the clinical use of Δ-Ru1 as an exciting new drug candidate with lower toxicity than cisplatin, endowed with proapoptotic properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Older driver estimates of driving exposure compared to in-vehicle data in the Candrive II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michelle M; Smith, Glenys A; Cull, Andrew W; Myers, Anita M; Bédard, Michel; Gélinas, Isabelle; Mazer, Barbara L; Marshall, Shawn C; Naglie, Gary; Rapoport, Mark J; Tuokko, Holly A; Vrkljan, Brenda H

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on older adults' driving practices have relied on self-reported information. With technological advances it is now possible to objectively measure the everyday driving of older adults in their own vehicles over time. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of older drivers to accurately estimate their kilometers driven over one year relative to objectively measured driving exposure. A subsample (n = 159 of 928; 50.9% male) of Candrive II participants (age ≥ 70 years of age) was used in these analyses based on strict criteria for data collected from questionnaires as well as an OttoView-CD Autonomous Data Logging Device installed in their vehicle, over the first year of the prospective cohort study. Although there was no significant difference overall between the self-reported and objectively measured distance categories, only moderate agreement was found (weighted kappa = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.67). Almost half (45.3%) chose the wrong distance category, and some people misestimated their distance driven by up to 20,000 km. Those who misjudged in the low mileage group (≤5000 km) consistently underestimated, whereas the reverse was found for those in the high distance categories (≥ 20,000); that is, they always overestimated their driving distance. Although self-reported driving distance categories may be adequate for studies entailing broad group comparisons, caution should be used in interpreting results. Use of self-reported estimates for individual assessments should be discouraged.

  13. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (Ploss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (Ploss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  14. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  15. Comparative study of He bubble formation in nanostructured reduced activation steel and its coarsen-grained counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, J. H.; Ji, Y. Z.; Xia, L. D.; Liu, H. P.; Yun, D.; He, C. H.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2018-03-01

    High temperature (550 °C) He ions irradiation was performed on nanostructured (NS) and coarsen-grained (CG) reduced activation steel to investigate the effects of GBs/interfaces on the formation of bubbles during irradiation. Experimental results showed that He bubbles were preferentially trapped at dislocations and/or grain boundaries (GBs) for both of the samples. Void denuded zones (VDZs) were observed in the CG samples, while VDZs near GBs were unobvious in NS sample. However, both the average bubble size and the bubble density in peak damage region of the CG sample were significantly larger than that observed in the NS sample, which indicated that GBs play an important role during the irradiation, and the NS steel had better irradiation resistance than its CG counterpart.

  16. Kinetic study on coagulase formation and growth of 'Staphylococcus aureus': comparative and combined action of antibiotics and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiortsis, M.

    1980-01-01

    Coagulase production is preserved in Staphylococcus aureus cultures although growth was strongly reduced after irradiation with 90,000 rads by a 60 Co source. Kinetic studies on the growth and coagulase formation by non-irradiated and irradiated bacteria are reported, using various antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, actinomycin D and mitomycin. Both chloramphenicol (1-50 μg/ml) and actinomycin D (0.05-0.8 μg/ml) added to S. aureus cultures reduce and finally inhibit growth rate and coagulase synthesis proportionally to their concentration in the medium; irradiated and non-irradiated cultures behave similarly to the inhibitory action of those antibiotics. Mitomycin between 0.2-9.6 μg/ml reduces growth, but enzyme production is slightly affected; high levels of coagulase are observed in non-growing cultures. Mitomycin and gamma radiation affecting DNA give similar results: inhibition of growth but not of enzyme formation. Kinetic studies show that coagulase is synthesized during the first five minutes either in irradiated or in non-irradiated cultures. Indication of a de novo synthesis, instead of a mere release of ready-formed enzyme, is given by using chloramphenicol or actinomycin which strongly inhibit coagulase production in irradiated S. aureus. Cultures treated by those antibiotics have their coagulase levels reduced to the same degree, were they irradiated or not; it is assumed that both types of cultures behave similarly, as far as enzyme production is concerned. A massive irradiation dose alone -or mitomycin in high concentrations alone- may suspend bacterial growth although enzyme synthesis continues. A similar result is obtained by combining lower irradiation doses with an appropriate antibiotic. The combined and/or synergistic actions of gamma radiation and antibiotics could successfully differentiate between the two cellular functions: growth and enzyme synthesis [fr

  17. Resistance of Gram-positive bacteria to nisin is not determined by Lipid II levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, NE; Smid, EJ; Kok, J; de Kruijff, B; Kuipers, OP; Breukink, E; Kramer, Naomi E.; Smid, Eddy J.

    2004-01-01

    Lipid II is essential for nisin-mediated pore formation at nano-molar concentrations. We tested whether nisin resistance could result from different Lipid II levels, by comparing the maximal Lipid II pool in Micrococcus flavus (sensitive) and Listeria monocytogenes (relatively insensitive) and their

  18. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  19. GAS SURFACE DENSITY, STAR FORMATION RATE SURFACE DENSITY, AND THE MAXIMUM MASS OF YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN A DISK GALAXY. II. THE GRAND-DESIGN GALAXY M51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between maximum cluster mass and surface densities of total gas (Σ gas ), molecular gas (Σ H 2 ), neutral gas (Σ H I ), and star formation rate (Σ SFR ) in the grand-design galaxy M51, using published gas data and a catalog of masses, ages, and reddenings of more than 1800 star clusters in its disk, of which 223 are above the cluster mass distribution function completeness limit. By comparing the two-dimensional distribution of cluster masses and gas surface densities, we find for clusters older than 25 Myr that M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.4±0.2 , whereM 3rd is the median of the five most massive clusters. There is no correlation withΣ gas ,Σ H2 , orΣ SFR . For clusters younger than 10 Myr, M 3rd ∝Σ H I 0.6±0.1 and M 3rd ∝Σ gas 0.5±0.2 ; there is no correlation with either Σ H 2 orΣ SFR . The results could hardly be more different from those found for clusters younger than 25 Myr in M33. For the flocculent galaxy M33, there is no correlation between maximum cluster mass and neutral gas, but we have determined M 3rd ∝Σ gas 3.8±0.3 , M 3rd ∝Σ H 2 1.2±0.1 , and M 3rd ∝Σ SFR 0.9±0.1 . For the older sample in M51, the lack of tight correlations is probably due to the combination of strong azimuthal variations in the surface densities of gas and star formation rate, and the cluster ages. These two facts mean that neither the azimuthal average of the surface densities at a given radius nor the surface densities at the present-day location of a stellar cluster represent the true surface densities at the place and time of cluster formation. In the case of the younger sample, even if the clusters have not yet traveled too far from their birth sites, the poor resolution of the radio data compared to the physical sizes of the clusters results in measuredΣ that are likely quite diluted compared to the actual densities relevant for the formation of the clusters.

  20. A comparative evaluation of microleakage of restorations using silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavities: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of restorations using low shrinkage silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavity at the occlusal and gingival margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars were collected and divided into three experimental groups and one negative control group. Class II slot cavity was prepared on the mesial surface. Experimental groups were restored with Group I: silorane-based microhybrid composite, Group II: methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite, and Group III: Methacrylate-based microhybrid composite, respectively. Group IV: negative control. The samples were thermocycled, root apices were sealed with sticky wax and coated with nail varnish except 1 mm around the restoration. This was followed by immersion in 2% Rhodamine-B dye solution under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h. Then, the samples were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction and evaluated under stereomicroscope ×40 magnification. Scoring was done according to the depth of dye penetration in to the cavity. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: The results were that no statistically significant difference in the microleakage at the occlusal margin for all the restorative materials, whereas at the gingival margin, silorane-based microhybrid composite showed less microleakage than the methacrylate-based nano- and micro-hybrid composites. Conclusion: In general, silorane-based microhybrid composite had less microleakage among the other materials used in this in vitro study.

  1. One year of adjuvant tamoxifen compared with chemotherapy and tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with stage II breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Elversang, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    We report the long-term results of a randomised trial comparing tamoxifen with tamoxifen plus cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF) in postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. In addition, we analyse the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed subtypes....

  2. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  3. Modelling the Frequency of Operational Risk Losses under the Basel II Capital Accord: A Comparative study of Poisson and Negative Binomial Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Toni O.

    2013-01-01

    2013 dissertation for MSc in Finance and Risk Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud This study investigated the two major methods of modelling the frequency of\\ud operational losses under the BCBS Accord of 1998 known as Basel II Capital\\ud Accord. It compared the Poisson method of modelling the frequency of\\ud losses to that of the Negative Binomial. The frequency of operational losses\\ud was investigated using a cross section of se...

  4. The Role of Vasodilator Receptors of Renin-angiotensin System on Nitric Oxide Formation and Kidney Circulation after Angiotensin II Infusion in Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Maryam; Hasanshahi, Jalal; Moslemi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasodilator factor has renoprotective effect against renal ischemia. The balance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and NO can affect kidney homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine NO alteration in response to renin-Ang system vasodilator receptors antagonists (PD123319; Ang II type 2 receptor antagonist and A779; Mas receptor antagonist) in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats. Sixty-three Wistar male and female rats were used. Animals from each gender were divided into four groups received saline, Ang II, PD123319 + Ang II, and A779 + Ang II after renal IRI. Renal IRI induced with an adjustable hook. Blood pressure and renal blood flow (RBF) measured continuously. The nitrite levels were measured in serum, kidney, and urine samples. In female rats, the serum and kidney nitrite levels increased significantly by Ang II ( P < 0.05) and decreased significantly ( P < 0.05) when PD123319 was accompanied with Ang II. Such observation was not seen in male. Ang II decreased RBF significantly in all groups ( P < 0.05), while PD + Ang II group showed significant decrease in RBF in comparison with the other groups in female rats ( P < 0.05). Males show more sensibility to Ang II infusion; in fact, it is suggested that there is gender dimorphism in the Ang II and NO production associated with vasodilator receptors.

  5. Comparative Study on the Solid Electrolyte Interface Formation by the Reduction of Alkyl Carbonates in Lithium ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haregewoin, Atetegeb Meazah; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang; Wang, Fu-Ming; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Lin, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed alkyl carbonates are widely used as solvent for a various lithium-ion battery applications. Understanding the behavior of each solvent in the mixed system is crucial for controlling the electrolyte composition. In this paper, we report a systematic electrochemical and spectroscopic comparison of the reduction of propylene carbonate (PC), ethylene carbonate (EC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) when used as single (PC), binary (EC/PC, EC/DEC), and ternary (EC/PC/DEC) solvent systems. The reduction products are identified based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after employing linear sweep voltammetry to certain potential regions and their possible formation mechanisms are discussed. FTIR analyses revealed that the reduction of EC and PC was not considerably influenced by the presence of other alkyl carbonates. However, DEC exhibited a different reduction product when used in EC/DEC and EC/PC/DEC solvent systems. The reduction of EC occurred before that of PC and DEC and produced a passivating surface film that prevented carbon exfoliation caused by PC. Battery performance test, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope is employed to study the surface films formed. The binary EC/DEC solvent system demonstrated more favorable performance, smaller impedance, and higher Li + ion diffusivity than did the other solvent systems used in this study

  6. Comparative analysis of germanium-silicon quantum dots formation on Si(100), Si(111) and Sn/Si(100) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovoy, Kirill; Kokhanenko, Andrey; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    In this paper theoretical modeling of formation and growth of germanium-silicon quantum dots in the method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on different surfaces is carried out. Silicon substrates with crystallographic orientations (100) and (111) are considered. Special attention is paid to the question of growth of quantum dots on the silicon surface covered by tin, since germanium-silicon-tin system is extremely important for contemporary nano- and optoelectronics: for creation of photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and fast-speed transistors. A theoretical approach for modeling growth processes of such semiconductor compounds during the MBE is presented. Both layer-by-layer and island nucleation stages in the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode are described. A change in free energy during transition of atoms from the wetting layer to an island, activation barrier of the nucleation, critical thickness of 2D to 3D transition, as well as surface density and size distribution function of quantum dots in these systems are calculated with the help of the established model. All the theoretical speculations are carried out keeping in mind possible device applications of these materials. In particular, it is theoretically shown that using of the Si(100) surface covered by tin as a substrate for Ge deposition may be very promising for increasing size homogeneity of quantum dot array for possible applications in low-noise selective quantum dot infrared photodetectors.

  7. Part II: Biomechanical assessment for a footprint-restoring transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique compared with a double-row repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C; Tibone, James E; ElAttrache, Neal S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Jun, Bong-Jae; Lee, Thay Q

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that a transosseous-equivalent repair would demonstrate improved tensile strength and gap formation between the tendon and tuberosity when compared with a double-row technique. In 6 fresh-frozen human shoulders, a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair was performed: a suture limb from each of two medial anchors was bridged over the tendon and fixed laterally with an interference screw. In 6 contralateral matched-pair specimens, a double-row repair was performed. For all repairs, a materials testing machine was used to load each repair cyclically from 10 N to 180 N for 30 cycles; each repair underwent tensile testing to measure failure loads at a deformation rate of 1 mm/sec. Gap formation between the tendon edge and insertion was measured with a video digitizing system. The mean ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the transosseous-equivalent technique (443.0 +/- 87.8 N) compared with the double-row technique (299.2 +/- 52.5 N) (P = .043). Gap formation during cyclic loading was not significantly different between the transosseous-equivalent and double-row techniques, with mean values of 3.74 +/- 1.51 mm and 3.79 +/- 0.68 mm, respectively (P = .95). Stiffness for all cycles was not statistically different between the two constructs (P > .40). The transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique improves ultimate failure loads when compared with a double-row technique. Gap formation is similar for both techniques. A transosseous-equivalent repair helps restore footprint dimensions and provides a stronger repair than the double-row technique, which may help optimize healing biology.

  8. Comparative analysis of electric field influence on the quantum wells with different boundary conditions: II. Thermodynamic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olendski, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    Thermodynamic properties of the one-dimensional (1D) quantum well (QW) with miscellaneous permutations of the Dirichlet (D) and Neumann (N) boundary conditions (BCs) at its edges in the perpendicular to the surfaces electric field [Formula: see text] are calculated. For the canonical ensemble, analytical expressions involving theta functions are found for the mean energy and heat capacity [Formula: see text] for the box with no applied voltage. Pronounced maximum accompanied by the adjacent minimum of the specific heat dependence on the temperature T for the pure Neumann QW and their absence for other BCs are predicted and explained by the structure of the corresponding energy spectrum. Applied field leads to the increase of the heat capacity and formation of the new or modification of the existing extrema what is qualitatively described by the influence of the associated electric potential. A remarkable feature of the Fermi grand canonical ensemble is, at any BC combination in zero fields, a salient maximum of [Formula: see text] observed on the T axis for one particle and its absence for any other number N of corpuscles. Qualitative and quantitative explanation of this phenomenon employs the analysis of the chemical potential and its temperature dependence for different N . It is proved that critical temperature [Formula: see text] of the Bose-Einstein (BE) condensation increases with the applied voltage for any number of particles and for any BC permutation except the ND case at small intensities [Formula: see text] what is explained again by the modification by the field of the interrelated energies. It is shown that even for the temperatures smaller than [Formula: see text] the total dipole moment [Formula: see text] may become negative for the quite moderate [Formula: see text]. For either Fermi or BE system, the influence of the electric field on the heat capacity is shown to be suppressed with N growing. Different asymptotic cases of, e.g., the small and

  9. Comparative analysis of the anterior and posterior length and deflection angle of the cranial base, in individuals with facial Pattern I, II and III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the variations in the anterior cranial base (S-N, posterior cranial base (S-Ba and deflection of the cranial base (SNBa among three different facial patterns (Pattern I, II and III. METHOD: A sample of 60 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Brazilian Caucasian patients, both genders, between 8 and 17 years of age was selected. The sample was divided into 3 groups (Pattern I, II and III of 20 individuals each. The inclusion criteria for each group were the ANB angle, Wits appraisal and the facial profile angle (G'.Sn.Pg'. To compare the mean values obtained from (SNBa, S-N, S-Ba each group measures, the ANOVA test and Scheffé's Post-Hoc test were applied. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference for the deflection angle of the cranial base among the different facial patterns (Patterns I, II and III. There was no significant difference for the measures of the anterior and posterior cranial base between the facial Patterns I and II. The mean values for S-Ba were lower in facial Pattern III with statistically significant difference. The mean values of S-N in the facial Pattern III were also reduced, but without showing statistically significant difference. This trend of lower values in the cranial base measurements would explain the maxillary deficiency and/or mandibular prognathism features that characterize the facial Pattern III.OBJETIVO: o presente estudo avaliou as variações da base craniana anterior (S-N, base craniana posterior (S-Ba, e ângulo de deflexão da base do crânio (SNBa entre três diferentes padrões faciais (Padrão I, II e III. MÉTODOS: selecionou-se uma amostra de 60 telerradiografias em norma lateral de pacientes brasileiros leucodermas, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 8 anos e 17 anos. A amostra foi dividida em três grupos (Padrão I, II e III, sendo cada grupo constituído de 20 indivíduos. Os critérios de seleção dos indivíduos para cada grupo

  10. [Comparative study of expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the hard tissue formation of mouse tooth development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, Y

    2001-07-01

    To observe and compare the expression pattern of Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the first mandibular molar of mouse and investigate the relationship between the two genes. First mandibular molar germs from 1, 3, 7 and 14-days old mouse were separated and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on the total RNA of them using Msx-1, Msx-2 specific primers separately. Expression of both genes were detected during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the mouse first mandibular molars, but there was some interesting differences in the quantitiy between the two genes. Msx-1 transcripts appeared at the 1 day postnatally, and increase through 3 day, 7 day, then maximally expressed at 14 days postnatally; while Msx-2 mRNA was seen and expressed maximally at the 3 days postnatally, then there was a gradual reduction at 7 days, and 14 days postnatally. The homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 may play a role in the events of the hard tissue formation. The complementary expression pattern of them during the specific stage of hard tissue formation indicates that there may be some functional redundancy between them during the biomineralization.

  11. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  12. The Australian Vietnam Veterans Health Study: II. self-reported health of veterans compared with the Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, B I; Marshall, R P; Grayson, D A; Schureck, R J; Dobson, M; Ffrench, M; Pulvertaft, B; Meldrum, L; Bolton, J; Vennard, J

    1996-04-01

    Self-reported physical health status of Australian Vietnam veterans was determined 20-25 years after the war and its relation to combat was investigated. An epidemiological cohort study of a simple random sample of Army veterans posted to Vietnam between 1964 and 1972 was conducted with personal interviews using the Australian Bureau of Statistics Health Interview Survey questionnaire to compare veterans with the Australian population and a 21-item combat exposure index used to measure the relationship of combat to physical health. Veterans reported greater health service usage and more recent health actions than population expectations. They also reported excess health problems in almost all recent illness disease categories except endocrine conditions and cardiovascular conditions; only 6 of 37 chronic disease groups were not elevated compared to the population. Adjustment for non-response changed estimates only slightly. Combat exposure was significantly related to reports of recent and chronic mental disorders, recent hernia and chronic ulcer, recent eczema and chronic rash, deafness, chronic infective and parasitic disease, chronic back disorders and symptoms, signs and ill-defined conditions. Combat exposure may have significantly increased reports of only some health problems. A general position to complain as a result of psychological conditions due to combat is not consistent with the lack of relationship between combat and reports of physical conditions.

  13. Preoperative Quantitative MR Tractography Compared with Visual Tract Evaluation in Patients with Neuropathologically Confirmed Gliomas Grades II and III: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Anna F.; Nilsson, Markus; Latini, Francesco; Mårtensson, Johanna; Zetterling, Maria; Berntsson, Shala G.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Lätt, Jimmy; Larsson, Elna-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Low-grade gliomas show infiltrative growth in white matter tracts. Diffusion tensor tractography can noninvasively assess white matter tracts. The aim was to preoperatively assess tumor growth in white matter tracts using quantitative MR tractography (3T). The hypothesis was that suspected infiltrated tracts would have altered diffusional properties in infiltrated tract segments compared to noninfiltrated tracts. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight patients with suspected low-grade glioma were included after written informed consent and underwent preoperative diffusion tensor imaging in this prospective review-board approved study. Major white matter tracts in both hemispheres were tracked, segmented, and visually assessed for tumor involvement in thirty-four patients with gliomas grade II or III (astrocytomas or oligodendrogliomas) on postoperative neuropathological evaluation. Relative fractional anisotropy (rFA) and mean diffusivity (rMD) in tract segments were calculated and compared with visual evaluation and neuropathological diagnosis. Results. Tract segment infiltration on visual evaluation was associated with a lower rFA and high rMD in a majority of evaluated tract segments (89% and 78%, resp.). Grade II and grade III gliomas had similar infiltrating behavior. Conclusion. Quantitative MR tractography corresponds to visual evaluation of suspected tract infiltration. It may be useful for an objective preoperative evaluation of tract segment involvement

  14. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...... rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased...

  15. Structures and Heats of Formation of Simple Alkaline Earth Metal Compounds II: Fluorides, Chlorides, Oxides, and Hydroxides for Ba, Sr, and Ra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliu, Monica; Hill, J Grant; Peterson, Kirk A; Dixon, David A

    2018-01-11

    Geometry parameters, vibrational frequencies, heats of formation, bond dissociation energies, cohesive energies, and selected fluoride affinities (difluorides) are predicted for the late alkaline earth (Sr, Ba, and Ra) oxides, fluorides, chlorides, and hydroxides at the coupled cluster theory CCSD(T) level. Additional corrections (scalar relativistic and pseudopotential corrections, vibrational zero-point energies, and atomic spin-orbit effects) were included to accurately calculate the total atomization energies and heats of formation following the Feller-Peterson-Dixon methodology. The calculated values are compared to the experimental data where available. In some cases, especially for Ra compounds, there are no experimental results, or the experimental energetics and geometries are not reliable or have very large error bars. All of the Sr, Ba, and Ra difluorides, dichlorides, and dihydroxides are bent structures with the OMO bond angles decreasing going down the group. The cohesive energies of bulk Be dihalides are predicted to be quite low, while those of Ra are relatively large. The fluoride affinities show that the difluorides are moderately strong Lewis acids and that such trifluorides may form under the appropriate experimental conditions.

  16. A blended design in acute care training: similar learning results, less training costs compared with a traditional format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Mary E W; Storm, Diana J; Teeuwen, Irene C; Schuit, Stephanie C E

    2014-09-01

    Introduction There is a demand for more attractive and efficient training programmes in postgraduate health care training. This retrospective study aims to show the effectiveness of a blended versus traditional face-to-face training design. For nurses in postgraduate Acute and Intensive Care training, the effectiveness of a blended course design was compared with a traditional design. Methods In a first pilot study 57 students took a traditional course (2-h lecture and 2-h workshop) and 46 students took a blended course (2-h lecture and 2-h online self-study material). Test results were compared for both groups. After positive results in the pilot study, the design was replicated for the complete programme in Acute and Intensive Care. Now 16 students followed the traditional programme (11 days face-to-face education) and 31 students did the blended programme (7 days face-to-face and 40 h online self-study). An evaluation was done after the pilot and course costs were calculated. Results Results show that the traditional and blended groups were similar regarding the main characteristics and did not differ in learning results for both the pilot and the complete programme. Student evaluations of both designs were positive; however, the blended group were more confident that they had achieved the learning objectives. Training costs were reduced substantially. Conclusion The blended training design offers an effective and attractive training solution, leading to a significant reduction in costs.

  17. Comparative biochemical composition in gonad and adductor muscle of triploid and diploid catarina scallop (Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby II, 1842).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Verdugo, C A.; Racotta, I S.; Ibarra, A M.

    2001-05-15

    Biochemical components of gonad and adductor muscle for diploid and triploid catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus, were evaluated and compared at four periods in 1 year (January, April, June, and October). Two comparisons were done. The first one compared an untreated control (diploid) vs. a triploidy-treated group for which the percentage of triploids was 57%. The second comparison was done on a group derived from within the triploidy-treated group, separating diploids (internal control) from triploids ('putative triploids'). Regardless of which comparison, in the gonad diploid scallops had larger concentrations of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and acylglycerols than triploid scallops. This reflects the maturation processes in diploid scallops vs. the sterility seen in most triploid scallops, and it is particularly supported by the consistently larger concentration of acylglycerols in gonads of diploids than in triploids. The gonad index of the internal control (diploid) group was significantly larger than that seen in the putative triploid group at all sampling periods but October, when none of the gonad biochemical components were different between ploidy groups.Triploid scallops had a significantly larger muscle index than diploids from April to October. This can be caused by a larger gain in muscle tissue in triploids than diploids from January to June. However, there were no consistent differences in any of the biochemical components evaluated in adductor muscle of diploids and triploids. The use of freshly ingested food rather than reserve mobilization from muscle in diploids is suggested by these results. Nutrients derived from ingested food are apparently used for muscle growth in triploids, whereas in diploids those nutrients serve primarily for gonad development. The importance of freshly ingested food for maintenance and growth is suggested because the decline in biochemical components seen in October in both muscle and gonad was paired with a

  18. Direction Modulated Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer. II: Comparative Planning Study With Intracavitary and Intracavitary–Interstitial Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Yup [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Safigholi, Habib; Soliman, Abraam [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ravi, Ananth [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Leung, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Scanderbeg, Daniel J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Liu, Zhaowei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Owrangi, Amir [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Song, William Y., E-mail: william.song@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a comprehensive comparative planning study evaluating the utility of the proposed direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator against standard applicators, in the setting of image guided adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A detailed conceptual article was published in 2014. The proposed DMBT tandem applicator has 6 peripheral grooves of 1.3-mm width, along a 5.4-mm-thick nonmagnetic tungsten alloy rod of density 18.0 g/cm{sup 3}, capable of generating directional dose profiles. We performed a comparative planning study with 45 cervical cancer patients enrolled consecutively in the prospective observational EMBRACE study. In all patients, MRI-based planning was performed while utilizing various tandem-ring (27 patients) and tandem-ring-needles (18 patients) applicators, in accordance with the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie–European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology recommendations. For unbiased comparisons, all cases were replanned with an in-house–developed inverse optimization code while enforcing a uniform set of constraints that are reflective of the clinical practice. All plans were normalized to the same high-risk clinical target volume D90 values achieved in the original clinical plans. Results: In general, if the standard tandem was replaced with the DMBT tandem while maintaining all other planning conditions the same, there was consistent improvement in the plan quality. For example, among the 18 tandem-ring-needles cases, the average D2cm{sup 3} reductions achieved were −2.48% ± 11.03%, −4.45% ± 5.24%, and −5.66% ± 6.43% for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively. An opportunity may also exist in avoiding use of needles altogether for when the total number of needles required is small (approximately 2 to 3 needles or less), if DMBT tandem is used. Conclusions: Integrating the novel DMBT tandem onto both intracavitary and intracavitary

  19. A comparative gene analysis with rice identified orthologous group II HKT genes and their association with Na(+) concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyarathna, H A Chandima K; Oldach, Klaus H; Francki, Michael G

    2016-01-19

    Although the HKT transporter genes ascertain some of the key determinants of crop salt tolerance mechanisms, the diversity and functional role of group II HKT genes are not clearly understood in bread wheat. The advanced knowledge on rice HKT and whole genome sequence was, therefore, used in comparative gene analysis to identify orthologous wheat group II HKT genes and their role in trait variation under different saline environments. The four group II HKTs in rice identified two orthologous gene families from bread wheat, including the known TaHKT2;1 gene family and a new distinctly different gene family designated as TaHKT2;2. A single copy of TaHKT2;2 was found on each homeologous chromosome arm 7AL, 7BL and 7DL and each gene was expressed in leaf blade, sheath and root tissues under non-stressed and at 200 mM salt stressed conditions. The proteins encoded by genes of the TaHKT2;2 family revealed more than 93% amino acid sequence identity but ≤52% amino acid identity compared to the proteins encoded by TaHKT2;1 family. Specifically, variations in known critical domains predicted functional differences between the two protein families. Similar to orthologous rice genes on chromosome 6L, TaHKT2;1 and TaHKT2;2 genes were located approximately 3 kb apart on wheat chromosomes 7AL, 7BL and 7DL, forming a static syntenic block in the two species. The chromosomal region on 7AL containing TaHKT2;1 7AL-1 co-located with QTL for shoot Na(+) concentration and yield in some saline environments. The differences in copy number, genes sequences and encoded proteins between TaHKT2;2 homeologous genes and other group II HKT gene families within and across species likely reflect functional diversity for ion selectivity and transport in plants. Evidence indicated that neither TaHKT2;2 nor TaHKT2;1 were associated with primary root Na(+) uptake but TaHKT2;1 may be associated with trait variation for Na(+) exclusion and yield in some but not all saline environments.

  20. Comparative study of heat transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn coils to He II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco La China

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb_{3}Sn technologies by taking into account their specific operating margin in different working conditions. Finally, we propose an insulation scheme to enhance the heat transfer capability of Nb-Ti coils.

  1. Comparative Study of Heat Transfer from Nb-Ti and Nb$_3$Sn coils to He II

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M

    2008-01-01

    In superconducting magnets, the energy deposited or generated in the coil must be evacuated to prevent temperature rise and consequent transition of the superconductor to the resistive state. The main barrier to heat extraction is represented by the electric insulation wrapped around superconducting cables. In the LHC, insulation improvement is a key point in the development of interaction region magnets and injector chain fast-pulsed magnets for luminosity upgrade; the high heat load of these magnets, in fact, is not compatible with the use of current insulation schemes. We review the standard insulation schemes for Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technology from the thermal point of view. We implement, in an analytical model, the strongly nonlinear thermal resistances of the different coil components including the permeability to superfluid helium of Nb-Ti insulations, measured during the LHC main dipole development. We use such a model to compare Nb-Ti and Nb$_{3}$Sn technologies by taking into account their specific...

  2. Comparative Study on the Efficiency of the Photodynamic Inactivation of Candida albicans Using CdTe Quantum Dots, Zn(II Porphyrin and Their Conjugates as Photosensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osnir S. Viana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of fluorescent II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs as active photosensitizers in photodymanic inactivation (PDI is still being evaluated. In the present study, we prepared 3 nm size CdTe QDs coated with mercaptosuccinic acid and conjugated them electrostatically with Zn(II meso-tetrakis (N-ethyl-2-pyridinium-2-yl porphyrin (ZnTE-2-PyP or ZnP, thus producing QDs-ZnP conjugates. We evaluated the capability of the systems, bare QDs and conjugates, to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and applied them in photodynamic inactivation in cultures of Candida albicans by irradiating the QDs and testing the hypothesis of a possible combined contribution of the PDI action. Tests of in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity in fibroblasts were also performed in the presence and absence of light irradiation. The overall results showed an efficient ROS production for all tested systems and a low cytotoxicity (cell viability >90% in the absence of radiation. Fibroblasts incubated with the QDs-ZnP and subjected to irradiation showed a higher cytotoxicity (cell viability <90% depending on QD concentration compared to the bare groups. The PDI effects of bare CdTe QD on Candida albicans demonstrated a lower reduction of the cell viability (~1 log10 compared to bare ZnP which showed a high microbicidal activity (~3 log10 when photoactivated. The QD-ZnP conjugates also showed reduced photodynamic activity against C. albicans compared to bare ZnP and we suggest that the conjugation with QDs prevents the transmembrane cellular uptake of the ZnP molecules, reducing their photoactivity.

  3. Preclinical activity of the type II CD20 antibody GA101 (obinutuzumab) compared with rituximab and ofatumumab in vitro and in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Herting, Frank; Mundigl, Olaf; Waldhauer, Inja; Weinzierl, Tina; Fauti, Tanja; Muth, Gunter; Ziegler-Landesberger, Doris; Van Puijenbroek, Erwin; Lang, Sabine; Duong, Minh Ngoc; Reslan, Lina; Gerdes, Christian A; Friess, Thomas; Baer, Ute; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidner, Michael; Dumontet, Charles; Umana, Pablo; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We report the first preclinical in vitro and in vivo comparison of GA101 (obinutuzumab), a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 monoclonal antibody, with rituximab and ofatumumab, the two currently approved type I CD20 antibodies. The three antibodies were compared in assays measuring direct cell death (AnnexinV/PI staining and time-lapse microscopy), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and internalization. The models used for the comparison of their activity in vivo were SU-DHL4 and RL xenografts. GA101 was found to be superior to rituximab and ofatumumab in the induction of direct cell death (independent of mechanical manipulation required for cell aggregate disruption formed by antibody treatment), whereas it was 10 to 1,000 times less potent in mediating CDC. GA101 showed superior activity to rituximab and ofatumumab in ADCC and whole-blood B-cell depletion assays, and was comparable with these two in ADCP. GA101 also showed slower internalization rate upon binding to CD20 than rituximab and ofatumumab. In vivo, GA101 induced a strong antitumor effect, including complete tumor remission in the SU-DHL4 model and overall superior efficacy compared with both rituximab and ofatumumab. When rituximab-pretreated animals were used, second-line treatment with GA101 was still able to control tumor progression, whereas tumors escaped rituximab treatment. Taken together, the preclinical data show that the glyoengineered type II CD20 antibody GA101 is differentiated from the two approved type I CD20 antibodies rituximab and ofatumumab by its overall preclinical activity, further supporting its clinical investigation. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Demographics and Outcomes of Stage I-II Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery Compared with Wide Local Excision in the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Babu; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Truong, Minh Tam; Sahni, Debjani

    2018-02-03

    The optimal surgical approach (wide local excision (WLE) vs. Mohs micrographic surgery (MOHS)) for treating Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is yet to be determined. To compare survival outcomes in patients with early stage MCC treated with MOHS versus WLE. A retrospective review of all cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of MCC of clinical Stage I-II MCC treated with WLE or MOHS was performed. 1,795 cases of Stage I-II MCC were identified who underwent WLE (N=1,685) or MOHS (N=110). There was no difference in residual tumor on surgical margins between the two treatment groups (p=0.588). On multivariate analysis, there was no difference in overall survival between the treatment modalities (adjusted HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.72-1.45, p=0.897). There was no difference in overall survival between the two groups on propensity score matched analysis. Disease specific survival was not reported as this data in not available in the NCDB. MOHS appears to be as effective as WLE in treating early stage MCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Comparative study of the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts in UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 oxidation processes in the presence of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ji, Yuefei; Lu, Junhe; Kong, Deyang; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhou, Quansuo

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the transformation of Br - and formation of brominated byproducts in UV/persulfate (PS) and UV/H 2 O 2 processes. It was revealed that Br - was efficiently transformed to free bromine which reacted with humic acid (HA) or dihydroxybenzoic acid resulting in the formation of brominated byproducts such as bromoacetic acids (BAAs) in UV/PS system. In contrast, no free bromine and brominated byproducts could be detected in UV/H 2 O 2 system, although the oxidization of Br - was evident. We presumed that the oxidation of Br - by hydroxyl radicals led to the formation of bromine radicals. However, the bromine radical species could be immediately reduced back to Br - by H 2 O 2 before coupling to each other to form free bromine, which explains the undetection of free bromine and BAAs in UV/H 2 O 2 . In addition to free bromine, we found that the phenolic functionalities in HA molecules, which served as the principal reactive sites for free chlorine attack, could be in situ generated when HA was exposed to free radicals. This study demonstrates that UV/H 2 O 2 is more suitable than UV/PS for the treatment of environmental matrices containing Br - . Graphical abstract Graphical abstract.

  6. The Combined Strength of Thermodynamics and Comparative Planetology: Application of Activity Models to Core Formation in Terrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent models for accretion of terrestrial bodies involve metal-silicate equilibrium as the metallic core formed during growth. Most elements considered are either refractory or well studied elements for which effects of pressure, temperature, oxygen fugacity, and metallic liquid composition are well known. There are a large number of elements that are both siderophile and volatile, whose fate in such models is unknown, largely due to a lack of data at comparable conditions and com-positions (FeNi core with light elements such as S, C, Si, and O). We have focused on Ge, In, As, Sb and determined the effect of Si and C on metal-silicate partitioning, and developed a thermo-dynamic model that allows application of these new data to a wide range of planetary bodies. New experiments: We have previously carried out experiments with FeSi metallic liquid at C-saturated conditions at 1600 and 1800 C [4]. In a new series of experiments we investigate the effect of Si in carbon-free systems at 1600 C for comparison. Experiments were carried out at 1 GPa in MgO capsules using the same basaltic starting composition as in previous studies. The MgO capsule reacts with the silicate melt to form more MgO-rich liquids that have 22-26 wt% MgO. Experimental met-als and silicates were analyzed using a combination of electron microprobe analysis and laser ablation ICP-MS. Results: The new results can be interpreted by considering Ge as an example, in the simple exchange equilibrium Fe + GeO = FeO + Ge, where the equilibrium constant Kd can be examined as a function of Si content of the metal. The slope of lnKd vs. (1-XSi) for this new series allows derivation of the epsilon interaction parameter for each of these four elements and Si (both C-saturated and C-free).All four elements have positive epsilon values, indicating that Si causes a decrease in the partition coefficients; values are 6.6, 6.5, 27.8 and 25.2 for In, Ge, As, and Sb, respectively, at 1 GPa and 1600 C. As an example of

  7. Hα3: an Hα imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. II. Star formation properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Fumagalli, M.; Fossati, M.; Galardo, V.; Grossetti, F.; Boselli, A.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We present the analysis of Hα3, an Hα narrow-band imaging follow-up survey of 409 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster, in the region 11h advantage of Hα3, which provides the complete census of the recent massive star formation rate (SFR) in HI-rich galaxies in the local Universe and of ancillary optical data from SDSS we explore the relations between the stellar mass, the HI mass, and the current, massive SFR of nearby galaxies in the Virgo cluster. We compare these with those of isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster, and we investigate the role of the environment in shaping the star formation properties of galaxies at the present cosmological epoch. Methods: By using the Hα hydrogen recombination line as a tracer of recent star formation, we investigated the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments (cluster and field), for many morphological types (spirals and dwarfs), and over a wide range of stellar masses (107.5 to 1011.5 M⊙). To quantify the degree of environmental perturbation, we adopted an updated calibration of the HI deficiency parameter which we used to divide the sample into three classes: unperturbed galaxies (DefHI ≤ 0.3), perturbed galaxies (0.3 model. Once considered as a whole, the Virgo cluster is effective in removing neutral hydrogen from galaxies, and this perturbation is strong enough to appreciably reduce the SFR of its entire galaxy population. Conclusions: An estimate of the present infall rate of 300-400 galaxies per Gyr in the Virgo cluster is obtained from the number of existing HI-rich late-type systems, assuming 200-300 Myr as the time scale for HI ablation. If the infall process has been acting at a constant rate, this would imply that the Virgo cluster has formed approximately 2 Gyr ago, consistently with the idea that Virgo is in a young state of dynamical evolution. Based

  8. Randomized Phase II Trial Comparing Obinutuzumab (GA101) With Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed CD20(+) Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehn, L. H.; Goy, A.; Offner, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obinutuzumab (GA101), a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, demonstrated responses in single-arm studies of patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is the first prospective, randomized study comparing safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab...... with rituximab in relapsed indolent lymphoma. The primary end point of this study was the overall response rate (ORR) in patients with follicular lymphoma after induction and safety in patients with indolent lymphoma. Patients and Methods A total of 175 patients with relapsed CD20(+) indolent lymphoma requiring...... maintenance therapy every 2 months for up to 2 years. Results Among patients with follicular lymphoma (n = 149), ORR seemed higher for obinutuzumab than rituximab (44.6% v 33.3%; P = .08). This observation was also demonstrated by a blinded independent review panel that measured a higher ORR for obinutuzumab...

  9. Biosynthesis of micro- and nanocrystals of Pb (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) sulfides in four Candida species: a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Lucio-Hernández, Daniela; Martínez-Ángeles, Isabel; Demitri, Nicola; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Rosales-Hoz, María J; Moreno, Abel

    2017-03-01

    Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl 2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species. Our in vivo results show that, in the presence of Pb 2+ , Candida cells are able to replicate and form extracellular PbS MCs, whereas in the presence of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ , they did synthesize intercellular MCs from HgS or HgCl 2 and CdS NCs respectively. The MCs and NCs biologically obtained in Candida were compared with those PbS, HgS and CdS crystals synthetically obtained in vitro through the gel method (grown either in agarose or in sodium metasilicate hydrogels). This is, to our knowledge, the first time that the biosynthesis of the various MCs and NCs (presented in several species of Candida) has been reported. This biosynthesis is differentially regulated in each of these pathogens, which allows them to adapt and survive in different physiological and environmental habitats. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The response to oestrogen deprivation of the cartilage collagen degradation marker, CTX-II, is unique compared with other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine C B; Sondergaard, Lene V

    2009-01-01

    The urinary level of the type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomised rats, suggesting that oestrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to oestrogen is also true for other type II collagen tu...

  11. Outcome assessment of lingual and labial appliances compared with cephalometric analysis, peer assessment rating, and objective grading system in Angle Class II extraction cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Toru; Terao, Fumie; Aonuma, Tomo; Kataoka, Tomoki; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Yamashiro, Takashi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-05-01

    To validate our hypothesis that there would be significant differences in treatment outcomes, including cephalometric values, degree of root resorption, occlusal indices, and functional aspect, between cases treated with labial and lingual appliances. Twenty-four consecutively treated Class II cases with extractions and lingual appliance were compared with 25 matched cases treated with extraction and labial appliance. Orthodontic treatment outcomes were evaluated by cephalometric analysis, peer assessment rating, and an objective grading system (OGS). Additionally, functional analysis was also performed in both groups after orthodontic treatment. Statistical comparison was performed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare between the labial and lingual groups. The only significant difference between the groups was that the interincisal angle was larger in the lingual group than in the labial group. OGS evaluation showed that control over root angulation was significantly worse in the lingual group than in the labial group. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of root resorption or in functional evaluation. Generally, lingual appliances offer comparable treatment results to those obtained with labial appliances. However, care should be taken with lingual appliances because they are more prone to produce uprighted incisors and root angulation.

  12. Stent thrombosis: insights on outcomes, predictors and impact of dual antiplatelet therapy interruption from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedhi, Elvin; Stone, Gregg W; Kereiakes, Dean J; Serruys, Patrick W; Parise, Helen; Fahy, Martin; Simonton, Charles A; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Sood, Poornima; Smits, Pieter C

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that EES may reduce ST compared to PES, but no individual trial has been adequately powered for this endpoint. The incidence of stent thrombosis, as well as the impact of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) discontinuation during the first two years following everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) deployment were therefore analysed from a pooled, patient-level database derived from four randomised clinical trials. Data from the SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV and COMPARE trials (n=6,789 patients) were analysed. Two-year ST rates were determined using time-to-event methods and compared with the log-rank test. ST rates were also determined after DAPT discontinuation. EES compared to PES significantly reduced the two-year rates of ST (0.7% versus 2.3%, p=0.0001), including the interval rates of ST up to 30 days (0.2% versus 1.0%, p<0.0001), between 31 days and one year (0.2% versus 0.6%, p=0.02), and after one year (0.3% versus 0.8%, p=0.001). EES also reduced the two-year composite rate of cardiac death or MI (4.0% versus 6.6%, p=0.0001). Increased rates of ST after DAPT discontinuation beyond six months were observed in the PES cohort, but not in the EES cohort. In this large pooled analysis from four randomised trials, treatment with EES compared to PES significantly reduced the rates of ST through two years of follow-up, with a concomitant reduction in cardiac death or MI. DAPT discontinuation beyond six months may be safe with EES.

  13. Fold-recognition and comparative modeling of human α2,3-sialyltransferases reveal their sequence and structural similarities to CstII from Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Petety V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3-D structure of none of the eukaryotic sialyltransferases (SiaTs has been determined so far. Sequence alignment algorithms such as BLAST and PSI-BLAST could not detect a homolog of these enzymes from the protein databank. SiaTs, thus, belong to the hard/medium target category in the CASP experiments. The objective of the current work is to model the 3-D structures of human SiaTs which transfer the sialic acid in α2,3-linkage viz., ST3Gal I, II, III, IV, V, and VI, using fold-recognition and comparative modeling methods. The pair-wise sequence similarity among these six enzymes ranges from 41 to 63%. Results Unlike the sequence similarity servers, fold-recognition servers identified CstII, a α2,3/8 dual-activity SiaT from Campylobacter jejuni as the homolog of all the six ST3Gals; the level of sequence similarity between CstII and ST3Gals is only 15–20% and the similarity is restricted to well-characterized motif regions of ST3Gals. Deriving template-target sequence alignments for the entire ST3Gal sequence was not straightforward: the fold-recognition servers could not find a template for the region preceding the L-motif and that between the L- and S-motifs. Multiple structural templates were identified to model these regions and template identification-modeling-evaluation had to be performed iteratively to choose the most appropriate templates. The modeled structures have acceptable stereochemical properties and are also able to provide qualitative rationalizations for some of the site-directed mutagenesis results reported in literature. Apart from the predicted models, an unexpected but valuable finding from this study is the sequential and structural relatedness of family GT42 and family GT29 SiaTs. Conclusion The modeled 3-D structures can be used for docking and other modeling studies and for the rational identification of residues to be mutated to impart desired properties such as altered stability, substrate

  14. Synthesis and characterization of two new zinc(II) coordination polymers with bidentate flexible ligands: Formation of a 2D structure with (44.62)-sql topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalegani, Arash; Khaledi Sardashti, Mohammad; Gajda, Roman; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Zinc(II) coordination polymers [Zn(bip)2(NCS)2]n (1) and [Zn(μ-bbd)(N3)2]n (2) were synthesized by using the neutral flexible bidentate N-donor ligands 1,4-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)butane (bbd) and 1,3-bis(imidazolyl)propane (bip), mono-anionic NCS- or N3-ligand and zinc(II) chloride salts. The results of the X-ray analyses demonstrate that in the structure of 1, the zinc(II) ion is located on an inversion center and exhibits an ZnN6 octahedral arrangement while, in the structure of 2, the zinc(II) ion adopts an ZnN4 tetrahedral geometry. In the polymer 1, the NCS groups are terminally N-bonded to the metal center and the each bip with anti-gauche conformation acts as bridging connecting four zinc(II) ions to form a two-dimensional network with a sql [point symbol (44.62)] topology while, in the polymer 1, the N3 groups are terminally bonded to the metal center and each bbd with anti-anti-anti conformation acts as bridging ligand connecting two zinc(II) ions to form a one-dimensional zig-zag chain. Coordination compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Thermal analyses of polymers were also presented.

  15. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  16. Long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence compared with non-sexual war trauma in female World War II survivors: a matched pairs study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.

  17. Coadministration of alloxan and nicotinamide in rats produces biochemical changes in blood and pathological alterations comparable to the changes in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattam, K K; Raghavendran, Hrb; Murali, M R; Savatey, H; Kamarul, T

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks. Elevated levels of glucose were observed in all groups on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, except in groups a and f (control). The serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in groups b and c on day 7, when compared with that in group f, whereas a decrease in the serum insulin levels was observed in groups d and e on days 21 and 28. The adiponectin levels showed inconsistencies on days 7 and 14. However, significant decrease in the adiponectin levels was observed on days 21 and 28. Histological section of the pancreas showed mild (group a), moderate (group b) to severe (groups c, d, and e) degenerative changes. Concomitant fatty changes in the liver and inflammatory infiltration of the kidney were markedly observed in all the treated groups, when compared to control. These results suggested that the use of selective combination of Ax120 + NA50 injection demonstrated type II diabetes mellitus in rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Boessenecker

    Full Text Available Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings.Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies.Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical

  19. Comparative taphonomy, taphofacies, and bonebeds of the Mio-Pliocene Purisima Formation, central California: strong physical control on marine vertebrate preservation in shallow marine settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenecker, Robert W; Perry, Frank A; Schmitt, James G

    2014-01-01

    Taphonomic study of marine vertebrate remains has traditionally focused on single skeletons, lagerstätten, or bonebed genesis with few attempts to document environmental gradients in preservation. As such, establishment of a concrete taphonomic model for shallow marine vertebrate assemblages is lacking. The Neogene Purisima Formation of Northern California, a richly fossiliferous unit recording nearshore to offshore depositional settings, offers a unique opportunity to examine preservational trends across these settings. Lithofacies analysis was conducted to place vertebrate fossils within a hydrodynamic and depositional environmental context. Taphonomic data including abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, articulation, polish, and biogenic bone modification were recorded for over 1000 vertebrate fossils of sharks, bony fish, birds, pinnipeds, odontocetes, mysticetes, sirenians, and land mammals. These data were used to compare both preservation of multiple taxa within a single lithofacies and preservation of individual taxa across lithofacies to document environmental gradients in preservation. Differential preservation between taxa indicates strong preservational bias within the Purisima Formation. Varying levels of abrasion, fragmentation, phosphatization, and articulation are strongly correlative with physical processes of sediment transport and sedimentation rate. Preservational characteristics were used to delineate four taphofacies corresponding to inner, middle, and outer shelf settings, and bonebeds. Application of sequence stratigraphic methods shows that bonebeds mark major stratigraphic discontinuities, while packages of rock between discontinuities consistently exhibit onshore-offshore changes in taphofacies. Changes in vertebrate preservation and bonebed character between lithofacies closely correspond to onshore-offshore changes in depositional setting, indicating that the dominant control of preservation is exerted by physical processes. The

  20. Can Process Understanding Help Elucidate The Structure Of The Critical Zone? Comparing Process-Based Soil Formation Models With Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Román, A.; Peña, A.; Laguna, A.; Giráldez, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    There is a need for better understanding the processes influencing soil formation and the resulting distribution of soil properties in the critical zone. Soil properties can exhibit strong spatial variation, even at the small catchment scale. Especially soil carbon pools in semi-arid, mountainous areas are highly uncertain because bulk density and stoniness are very heterogeneous and rarely measured explicitly. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in key soil properties (soil carbon stocks, stoniness, bulk density and soil depth) as a function of processes shaping the critical zone (weathering, erosion, soil water fluxes and vegetation patterns). We also compare the potential of traditional digital soil mapping versus a mechanistic soil formation model (MILESD) for predicting these key soil properties. Soil core samples were collected from 67 locations at 6 depths. Total soil organic carbon stocks were 4.38 kg m-2. Solar radiation proved to be the key variable controlling soil carbon distribution. Stone content was mostly controlled by slope, indicating the importance of erosion. Spatial distribution of bulk density was found to be highly random. Finally, total carbon stocks were predicted using a random forest model whose main covariates were solar radiation and NDVI. The model predicts carbon stocks that are double as high on north versus south-facing slopes. However, validation showed that these covariates only explained 25% of the variation in the dataset. Apparently, present-day landscape and vegetation properties are not sufficient to fully explain variability in the soil carbon stocks in this complex terrain under natural vegetation. This is attributed to a high spatial variability in bulk density and stoniness, key variables controlling carbon stocks. Similar results were obtained with the mechanistic soil formation model MILESD, suggesting that more complex models might be needed to further explore this high spatial variability.

  1. A comparative study of biofilm formation by Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli using epifluorescence microscopy on stainless steel and a microtitre plate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Lucia; Dykes, Gary A; Fegan, Narelle

    2007-04-01

    Attachment of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) to surfaces and the formation of biofilms may enhance persistence in a food processing environment and present a risk of contaminating products. Seven strains of STEC and three non-STEC strains were selected to compare two biofilm quantification methods; epifluorescence microscopy on stainless steel (SS) and a microtitre plate assay. The influence of prior growth in planktonic (nutrient broth) and sessile (nutrient agar) culture on biofilm production, as well as expression of surface structures and the possession of antigen 43 (encoded by agn43) on biofilm formation were also investigated. Biofilms were produced in diluted nutrient broth at 25 degrees C for 24 and 48 h. Curli expression was determined using congo red indicator agar, while the presence of agn43 was determined using polymerase chain reaction. No correlation was found between counts for epifluorescence microscopy on SS and the absorbance values obtained with the microtitre plate method for planktonic and sessile grown cultures. Different abilities of individual STEC strains to attach to SS and microtitre plates were found with some strains attaching better to each surface following growth in either planktonic or sessile culture. All O157 STEC strains had low biofilm counts on SS for planktonic and sessile grown cultures; however, one STEC O157:H- strain (EC516) had significantly greater (pbiofilm production on microtitre plates compared to the other O157 STEC strains. EC516 and other STEC (O174:H21 and O91:H21) strains expressing curli fimbriae were found to produce significantly greater (pbiofilms on microtitre plates compared to the non-curli expressing strains. No relationship was found between the production of type-I fimbriae, motility, agn43 and bacterial physicochemical properties (previously determined) and biofilm formation on SS or microtitre plates. Variations between the two biofilm determination methods may suggest that the biofilm

  2. Formative Review of the Critical Television Viewing Skills Curriculum for Secondary Schools. Volume I: Final Report. Volume II: Teacher's Guide: Reviewers' Suggested Revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Patricia; And Others

    This formative review of a project designed to help high school students become more discriminating television viewers (1) presents a description of the curriculum designed during the project to foster critical television viewing in teenagers, (2) outlines the major tasks involved in the formative review of the curriculum, and (3) presents and…

  3. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  4. Comparing Online and In-Person Delivery Formats of the OSHA 10-Hour General Industry Health and Safety Training for Young Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Milich, Lindsey J; Apostolico, Alexsandra A; Patti, Alexa A; Kelly, Siobhan

    2017-05-01

    Seven school districts or comprehensive high schools were enrolled in online OSHA 10-hour General Industry or Construction health and safety training via CareerSafe to determine the feasibility of online training for students, given limited resources for in-person trainings. A two-campus school district was analyzed comparing OSHA 10 for General Industry across in-person, supervisor-level teachers as authorized trainers, and online course formats. The online training courses were completed by 86 of 91 students, while another 53 of 57 students completed in-person training. Both groups completed identical OSHA-approved quizzes for "Introduction to OSHA," the initial 2-h module consistently provided in OSHA 10 courses across topics and formats. Results indicated teacher supervision was critical, and girls had higher online course completion rates, overall quiz scores, and never failed. Though both cohorts passed, in-person had significantly higher scores than online; both struggled with two questions. Online OSHA 10 for General Industry can be an efficient learning tool for students when limited resources prevent widespread availability of in-person courses.

  5. Cu(II) salen complex with propylene linkage: An efficient catalyst in the formation of Csbnd X bonds (X = N, O, S) and biological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Al-Resayes, Saud I.; Adil, S. F.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Kruszynski, Rafal; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2017-02-01

    The catalytic property of a mononuclear Cu(II) salen complex in Chan-Lam coupling reaction with phenyl boronic acid at room temperature is reported. The studied complex is found to be potential catalyst in the preparation of carbon-heteroatom bonds with excellent yields. The studied Cu(II) salen complex is monoclinic with cell parameters, a = 9.6807(5) (α 90°), (b = 17.2504(8) (β 112.429 (2), c = 11.1403 (6) (γ = 90°), and has distorted square planar environment around Cu(II) ion. Furthermore, there is no π⋯π interactions in the reported complex due to large distance between the centroid of aromatic rings. In addition, DNA binding study of Cu(II) salen complex by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy is also reported. Moreover, the reported Cu(II) salen complex exhibits significant anticancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines, and displays potential antimicrobial biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa, suggesting antimicrobial biofilm an important tool for suppression of resistant infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  6. Comparative effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on laboratory parameters in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both angiotensin II type I receptor blockers (ARBs and calcium channel blockers (CCBs are widely used antihypertensive drugs. Many clinical studies have demonstrated and compared the organ-protection effects and adverse events of these drugs. However, few large-scale studies have focused on the effect of these drugs as monotherapy on laboratory parameters. We evaluated and compared the effects of ARB and CCB monotherapy on clinical laboratory parameters in patients with concomitant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2011, to identify cohorts of new ARB users (n = 601 and propensity-score matched new CCB users (n = 601, with concomitant mild to moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We used a multivariate-adjusted regression model to adjust for differences between ARB and CCB users, and compared laboratory parameters including serum levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, non-fasting blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, sodium, potassium, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT, hemoglobin and hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC, red blood cell (RBC and platelet (PLT counts up to 12 months after the start of ARB or CCB monotherapy. Results We found a significant reduction of serum TC, HbA1c, hemoglobin and hematocrit and RBC count and a significant increase of serum potassium in ARB users, and a reduction of serum TC and hemoglobin in CCB users, from the baseline period to the exposure period. The reductions of RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit in ARB users were significantly greater than those in CCB users. The increase of serum potassium in ARB users was significantly greater than that in CCB users. Conclusions Our study suggested that hematological adverse effects and

  7. Comparing the dependability and associations with functioning of the DSM-5 Section III trait model of personality pathology and the DSM-5 Section II personality disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Ruggero, Camilo J; Kotov, Roman; Liu, Keke; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    Two competing models of personality psychopathology are included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-5 ; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); the traditional personality disorder (PD) model included in Section II and an alternative trait-based model included in Section III. Numerous studies have examined the validity of the alternative trait model and its official assessment instrument, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012). However, few studies have directly compared the trait-based model to the traditional PD model empirically in the same dataset. Moreover, to our knowledge, only a single study (Suzuki, Griffin, & Samuel, 2015) has examined the dependability of the PID-5, which is an essential component of construct validity for traits (Chmielewski & Watson, 2009; McCrae, Kurtz, Yamagata, & Terracciano, 2011). The current study directly compared the dependability of the DSM-5 traits, as assessed by the PID-5, and the traditional PD model, as assessed by the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4+), in a large undergraduate sample. In addition, it evaluated and compared their associations with functioning, another essential component of personality pathology. In general, our findings indicate that most DSM-5 traits demonstrate high levels of dependability that are superior to the traditional PD model; however, some of the constructs assessed by the PID-5 may be more state like. The models were roughly equivalent in terms of their associations with functioning. The current results provide additional support for the validity of PID-5 and the DSM-5 Section III personality pathology model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Processes and problems in secondary star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.I.; Whitaker, R.W.; Sandford, M.T. II

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments relating the conditions in molecular clouds to star formation triggered by a prior stellar generation are reviewed. Primary processes are those that lead to the formation of a first stellar generation. The secondary processes that produce stars in response to effects caused by existing stars are compared and evaluated in terms of observational data presently available. We discuss the role of turbulence to produce clumpy cloud structures and introduce new work on colliding intercloud gas flows leading to nonlinear inhomogeneous cloud structures in an initially smooth cloud. This clumpy morphology has important consequences for secondary formation. The triggering processes of supernovae, stellar winds, and H II regions are discussed with emphasis on the consequences for radiation-driven implosion as a promising secondary star formation mechanism. Detailed two-dimensional, radiation-hydrodynamic calculations of radiation-driven implosion are discussed. This mechanism is shown to be highly efficient in synchronizing the formation of new stars in -- 1-3 x 10/sup 4/ yr and could account for the recent evidence for new massive star formation in several ultracompact H II regions. It is concluded that, while no single theory adequately explains the variety of star formation observed, a uniform description of star formation is likely to involve several secondary processes. Advances in the theory of star formation will require multi-dimensional calculations of coupled processes. Important nonlinear interactions include hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and magnetic fields

  9. Mechanisms of scale formation and carbon dioxide partial pressure influence. Part II. Application in the study of mineral waters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jean-Yves; Fovet, Yannick; Gache, Nathalie

    2002-02-01

    In the first part, we have designed a new model of evolution for the calco-carbonic system which includes the hydrated forms of CaCO3: CaCO3 amorphous, CaCO3 x 6H2O (ikaite) and CaCO3 x H2O (monohydrate) (J. Eur. Hydr. 30 (1999) 47). According to this model, it is the precipitation of one or other of these hydrated forms which could be responsible for the breakdown of the metastable state. After this first step, the precipitates evolve to dehydrated solid forms. Through the elaboration of computer programs in which the CaCO3(0) (aq) ion pair formation was considered, this model was compared to experimental data obtained by the critical pH method applied to synthetic solutions. In the present article, the same method was applied for four French mineral waters, at 25 degrees C under study. Three samples formed a precipitation during the sodium hydroxide addition. For these three cases, this precipitation began for the CaCO3 H2O saturation. The added volume of sodium hydroxide was more than what was required for neutralizing free CO2 initially in solution. These results indicate that during a spontaneous scaling phenomenon, the pH rises at the same time by loss of the initial free CO2 and of the one produced by the hydrogen carbonate ions decomposition. Then we calculated, at various temperatures for the three studied scaling waters: CO2 partial pressures and loss of total carbon corresponding to the solubility products of CaCO3 hydrated forms. The results show that the partial pressure monitoring of the carbon dioxide is important in managing the behavior of scaling waters.

  10. The role of order-disorder transitions in the quest for molecular multiferroics: structural and magnetic neutron studies of a mixed valence iron(II)-iron(III) formate framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Fabelo, Oscar; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Lemée-Cailleau, Marie-Hélène; Mason, Sax A; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Zhao, Jiong-Peng; Bu, Xian-He; Simonet, Virginie; Colin, Claire V; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2012-12-05

    Neutron diffraction studies have been carried out to shed light on the unprecedented order-disorder phase transition (ca. 155 K) observed in the mixed-valence iron(II)-iron(III) formate framework compound [NH(2)(CH(3))(2)](n)[Fe(III)Fe(II)(HCOO)(6)](n). The crystal structure at 220 K was first determined from Laue diffraction data, then a second refinement at 175 K and the crystal structure determination in the low temperature phase at 45 K were done with data from the monochromatic high resolution single crystal diffractometer D19. The 45 K nuclear structure reveals that the phase transition is associated with the order-disorder of the dimethylammonium counterion that is weakly anchored in the cavities of the [Fe(III)Fe(II)(HCOO)(6)](n) framework. In the low-temperature phase, a change in space group from P31c to R3c occurs, involving a tripling of the c-axis due to the ordering of the dimethylammonium counterion. The occurrence of this nuclear phase transition is associated with an electric transition, from paraelectric to antiferroelectric. A combination of powder and single crystal neutron diffraction measurements below the magnetic order transition (ca. 37 K) has been used to determine unequivocally the magnetic structure of this Néel N-Type ferrimagnet, proving that the ferrimagnetic behavior is due to a noncompensation of the different Fe(II) and Fe(III) magnetic moments.

  11. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...

  12. Genetic variation of the MHC class II DRB genes in the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi, endemic to Japan, compared with the Siberian weasel, Mustela sibirica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Y; Abramov, A V; Kosintsev, P A; Lin, L-K; Watanabe, S; Yamazaki, K; Kaneko, Y; Masuda, R

    2015-12-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a critical role in vertebrate immune system and are highly polymorphic. To further understand the molecular evolution of the MHC genes, we compared MHC class II DRB genes between the Japanese weasel (Mustela itatsi), a species endemic to Japan, and the Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), a closely related species on the continent. We sequenced a 242-bp region of DRB exon 2, which encodes antigen-binding sites (ABS), and found 24 alleles from 31 M. itatsi individuals and 17 alleles from 21 M. sibirica individuals, including broadly distributed, species-specific and/or geographically restricted alleles. Our results suggest that pathogen-driven balancing selection have acted to maintain the diversity in the DRB genes. For predicted ABS, nonsynonymous substitutions exceeded synonymous substitutions, also indicating positive selection, which was not seen at non-ABS. In a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, two M. sibirica DRB alleles were basal to the rest of the sequences from mustelid species and may represent ancestral alleles. Trans-species polymorphism was evident between many mustelid DRB alleles, especially between M. itatsi and M. sibirica. These two Mustela species divided about 1.7 million years ago, but still share many MHC alleles, indicative of their close phylogenetic relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  14. Comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian Adriatic coast. Changes after World War II and perspectives for its future reorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kajinić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the changes in the organisation of the Catholic Church in Istria, Kvarner and Dalmatia after World War II. A detailed analysis of the circumstances that lead to the establishment of the Rijeka Diocese, Archdiocese and Metropolitan Archdiocese, ecclesiastical union of the Istrian region in Croatia, the abolition of the Zadar Metropolitan Archdiocese, the raising of the Split-Makarska Diocese to an Archdiocese, and the establishment of the Split Metropolitan Archdiocese. The principles upon which the Church reorganisation in the spatial sense are considered, and presents new insights, particularly for the Croatian dimension. The second part of the paper gives a comparative analysis of the spatial organisation of the Catholic Church on the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, with other countries. Examples were selected based on compatibility of different factors, with consideration to the historical context of events and their causes. To that aim, specific examples of the church administration in France and Italy are given. Using these examples and documents of church archives and official records and documents of the Catholic Church, this paper gives a final overview of the possibilities for the reorganisation of the church administration on the Croatian Adriatic coast.

  15. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  16. [Comparative observation on inhibition of hemozoin formation and their in vitro and in vivo anti-schistosome activity displayed by 7 antimalarial drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Cong-Shan; Sun, Jun; Xiao, Shu-Hua

    2013-06-01

    To observe and compare the inhibition of hemozoin formation and the in vitro as well as in vivo antischistosomal activity induced by seven antimalarial drugs. Inhibition of hemozoin formation displayed by chloroquine phosphate, quinine hydrochloride, quinidine, mefloquine hydrochloride, pyronaridine phosphate and lumefantrine at 25 micromol/L, and artemether at 100 micromol/L was performed by assay of inhibition of beta-hematin formation in 1 mol/L sodium acetate buffers containing hematin with various pH of 4.0, 4.2, 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, and 5.0. In in vitro antischistosomal study, the medium of RPMI 1640 supplemented by 10% calf serum was used to maintain the adult Schistosoma japonicum, and the 50% and 95% lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95) to kill the adult worms of each drug were then determined. Meanwhile, the interaction of quinine, pyronaridine and chloroquine combined with hemin against adult schistosomes was also undertaken. As to in vivo test, the efficacy of seven antimalarial drugs administered orally or intraperitoneally to mice infected with adult schistosomes was observed. In the acidic acetate-hematin solution, 25 micromol/L pyronaridine showed significant inhibition of beta-hematin formation at pH 4.4-5.0 with inhibition rates of 81.3%-97.0%. At pH 4.6, the inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation in acetate-hematin solution induced by mefloquine, chloroquine or quinine at concentration of 25 beta mol/L were 79.7%, 72.8% or 65.8%, respectively, and the beta-hematin formation was continually inhibited by these 3 antimalarial drugs at pH 4.8 and 5.0 with inhibition rates of 83.1%-90.6%, 41.9%-49.0% or 53.2-62.0%. The inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation at pH 4.6 and 4.8-5.0 induced by lumefantrine 25 micromol/L were 74.3% and 40.4%-40.5%, respectively. While under the same concentration of quinidine, 53.4% and 50.9% inhibition rates of beta-hematin formation were observed at pH 4.8 and 5.0. As to artemether, higher concentration of 100

  17. Residue Phe112 of the Human-Type Corrinoid Adenosyltransferase (PduO) Enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri Is Critical to the Formation of the Four-Coordinate Co(II) Corrinoid Substrate and to the Activity of the Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Paola E.; St. Maurice, Martin; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; UW

    2009-06-08

    ATP:Corrinoid adenosyltransferases (ACAs) catalyze the transfer of the adenosyl moiety from ATP to cob(I)alamin via a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate. At present, it is unknown how ACAs promote the formation of the four-coordinate corrinoid species needed for activity. The published high-resolution crystal structure of the ACA from Lactobacillus reuteri (LrPduO) in complex with ATP and cob(II)alamin shows that the environment around the alpha face of the corrin ring consists of bulky hydrophobic residues. To understand how these residues promote the generation of the four-coordinate cob(II)alamin, variants of the human-type ACA enzyme from L. reuteri (LrPduO) were kinetically and structurally characterized. These studies revealed that residue Phe112 is critical in the displacement of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) from its coordination bond with the Co ion of the ring, resulting in the formation of the four-coordinate species. An F112A substitution resulted in a 80% drop in the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme. The explanation for this loss of activity was obtained from the crystal structure of the mutant protein, which showed cob(II)alamin bound in the active site with DMB coordinated to the cobalt ion. The crystal structure of an LrPduO(F112H) variant showed a DMB-off/His-on interaction between the corrinoid and the enzyme, whose catalytic efficiency was 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of the wild-type protein. The analysis of the kinetic parameters of LrPduO(F112H) suggests that the F112H substitution negatively impacts product release. Substitutions of other hydrophobic residues in the Cbl binding pocket did not result in significant defects in catalytic efficiency in vitro; however, none of the variant enzymes analyzed in this work supported AdoCbl biosynthesis in vivo.

  18. Advanced pulse oximeter signal processing technology compared to simple averaging. II. Effect on frequency of alarms in the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheineck-Leyssius, A T; Kalkman, C J

    1999-05-01

    To determine the effect of a new pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000, Pleasanton, CA) with signal processing technique (Oxismart) on the incidence of false alarms in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Prospective study. Nonuniversity hospital. 603 consecutive ASA physical status I, II, and III patients recovering from general or regional anesthesia in the PACU. We compared the number of alarms produced by a recently developed "third"-generation pulse oximeter (Nellcor Symphony N-3000) with Oxismart signal processing technique and a conventional pulse oximeter (Criticare 504, Waukesha, WI). Patients were randomly assigned to either a Nellcor pulse oximeter or a Criticare with the signal averaging time set at either 12 or 21 seconds. For each patient the number of false (artifact) alarms was counted. The Nellcor generated one false alarm in 199 patients and 36 (in 31 patients) "loss of pulse" alarms. The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 12 seconds generated a total of 32 false alarms in 17 of 197 patients [compared with the Nellcor, relative risk (RR) 0.06, confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.25] and a total of 172 "loss of pulse" alarms in 79 patients (RR 0.39, CI 0.28 to 0.55). The conventional pulse oximeter with the averaging time set at 21 seconds generated 12 false alarms in 11 of 207 patients (compared with the Nellcor, RR 0.09, CI 0.02 to 0.48) and a total of 204 "loss of pulse" alarms in 81 patients (RR 0.40, CI 0.28 to 0.56). The lower incidence of false alarms of the conventional pulse oximeter with the longest averaging time compared with the shorter averaging time did not reach statistical significance (false alarms RR 0.62, CI 0.3 to 1.27; "loss of pulse" alarms RR 0.98, CI 0.77 to 1.3). To date, this is the first report of a pulse oximeter that produced almost no false alarms in the PACU.

  19. Comparative evaluation of dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and Hyflex EDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanjib; Pradhan, Prasanti Kumari; Lata, S; Sinha, Sachidananda Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and Hyflex electrodischarge machining (HEDM). A total of 75 extracted mandibular premolars were selected. The root canals were instrumented using ProTaper Next, OneShape, and HEDM rotary files. All roots were horizontally sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from apex with slow-speed saw under water cooling. The sections were observed under a stereomicroscope at ×25 to determine the absence or presence of crack. Data were analyzed using post hoc test and one-way ANOVA. ProTaper Next and HEDM produced significantly less cracks than OneShape. Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that nickel-titanium instruments may cause cracks on the root surface. ProTaper Next and HEDM tend to produce less number of cracks as compared to OneShape.

  20. Estudo Comparativo dos Resultados Maternos e Perinatais entre Pacientes com Diabetes Pré-gestacional Tipo I e Tipo II Comparative Study of Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes among Patients with Pregestational Type I and Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Monte de Carvalho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a evolução da gestação, controle metabólico e resultados perinatais de pacientes diabéticas pré-gestacionais e fazer um estudo comparativo entre os resultados de pacientes com diabetes insulino-dependente e não-insulino-dependente. Métodos: análise retrospectiva de prontuários de 57 pacientes com diagnóstico de diabetes pré-gestacional que iniciaram pré-natal no Serviço de Medicina Materno-Fetal da Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand da Universidade Federal do Ceará, no período de janeiro 1995 a dezembro de 1998. As 57 grávidas incluídas no estudo foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo I, composto de 28 pacientes portadoras de diabetes insulino-dependente (tipo I, e grupo II, com 29 gestantes com diabetes não-insulino-dependente (tipo II controladas com dieta ou com hipoglicemiante oral antes da gestação. Resultados: não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à necessidade de internamento para controle glicêmico (39,2% x 27,5% e complicações maternas, tais como: hipertensão arterial crônica (14,2% x 27,5%, doença hipertensiva específica da gravidez (14,2% x 17,2%, amniorrexe prematura (3,5% x 10,3%, infecção do trato urinário (10,7% x 6,8% e trabalho de parto prematuro (3,5% x 6,8%. Foi observado, porém, maior número de episódios de hipoglicemia materna entre as pacientes insulino-dependentes (35,7% x 3,4%. Os resultados perinatais foram semelhantes. Observamos elevados índices de malformações e morbimortalidade perinatal. Conclusão: não houve diferença na incidência de intercorrências clínicas e obstétricas entre as pacientes insulino-dependentes e não-insulino-dependentes, excluindo-se hipoglicemia materna.Purpose: to evaluate the evolution of gestation, metabolic control and perinatal outcome of pregestational diabetic patients and to perform a comparative study of the results of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes (type I and

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON SPECTRAL ENERGETICS BETWEEN THE NCEP reanalysisII in current climate AND MODEL ECHAM5 in future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, A. F.; Veiga, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Saltzman (1957) starting Lorenz Cycle (1955) derived a set of equations that show the energy contained in the basic state and the disturbed atmosphere, decomposing in various fields disturbance wave type, so as to quantify and analyze the energy of these disorders according to their number or wavelength. Based on the methodology Saltzman, this paper aims a comparative study between the energy of the disturbed state between the NCEP reanalysis-II for the current weather conditions and model ECHAM5 scenarios for future conditions of increased concentration of greenhouse gases (RCP26, RCP45 and RCP85), considering the terms of the generation of available potential energy to nth wave due to diabatic heating, represented by (Gn), the potential energy of nth wave (Pn) and kinetic energy of nth wave (Kn), as well as the conversion of energy between kinetic energy and potential energy nth wave of nth wave, given by (Cn). Two data sets were used in the calculation of the aforementioned terms. For the data set of NCEP and ECHAM5 were used variables, temperature (T), orthogonal wind components (u, v, w) and geopotential height (L), considering daily shared values on a regular grid with spatial resolutions of 2,5 x 2.5 and 1.875 x 1.875 graus, distributed on 12 and 15 levels of pressure (1000.0, 925.0, 850.0, 700.0, 600.0, 500.0, 400.0, 300.0, 250.0, 200.0, 150.0, 100.0 hPa), (1000.0, 850.0, 700.0, 500.0, 250.0, 150.0, 100.0, 70.0, 50.0, 30.0, 10.0, 3.0, 1.0, 0.3, 0.1 hPa) for the period of 1979-1999 and 2090-2100, respectively. The results show that most of the kinetic energy of disturbance to nth waves is concentrated in the first 15 wave numbers, both for the weather-NCEP II as to ECHAM5, having more significant increase in the profile and having a RCP85 energy cascade. This increase in kinetic energy was expected due to the increased energy in the system. For Pn, increasing the potential energy is also expected in view of the increased diabatic heating, but the energy jump

  2. Comparative nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhiza formation and biomass production potentials of some grain legumes species grown in the field in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahiabor, B.D.K.; Fosu, M.; Tibo, I.; Sumaila, I.

    2007-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted in the experimental field of Savannah Agricultural Research Institute at Nyankpala in the Northern Region of Ghana to assess the nitrogen fixation, native arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and biomass production potentials of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), devil-bean (Crotalaria retusa), Mucuna pruriens var. utilis (black and white types) and Canavalia ensiformis with maize (Dorke SR) as the reference crop using the total nitrogen difference (TND) method. Plants were fertilized with 40 kg P/ha and 30 kg K/ha at 2 weeks after planting and grown for 55 days after which they were harvested. The harvested biomass (separated into roots, stems and leaves) of each crop was oven-dried at 70 0 C for 48 h to a constant weight. Cowpea and devil-bean produced approximately 5 and 6 t/ha biomass whereas Mucuna and Canavalia yielded about 2 t/ha biomass each. Although cowpea had the least number of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungal (AMF) spores in its rhizosphere, its roots were the most heavily colonized (34%) and M. pruriens recording below 5% colonization. Apart from C. ensiformis, the test legumes derived over 50% of their total accumulated N from the atmosphere with cowpea being the most efficient (90% Ndfa). Both N and P accumulations were significantly higher in cowpea than the other legumes due to increased N concentration and dry matter accumulation, respectively. In all the legumes, there was a direct positive correlation between the extent of mycorrhiza formation, biological N fixation and total N uptake. It could, therefore, be concluded that the extensive mycorrhiza formation in cowpea and its high N 2 -fixing potential resulted in a high shoot N and P uptake leading to a comparatively better growth enhancement. Cowpea could, therefore, be the grain legume for consideration in the selection of a suitable legume pre-crop to cereals for the amelioration of the low fertility of the degraded soils of the Guinea savannah zone of Ghana, and also as

  3. Concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Haidong; Ma, Haijun; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Yingying; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater-derived organic nitrogen (org-N) can act as both nutrients and carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, the concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized and compared with that of effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average effluent PON and DON concentrations ranged from 0.09 to 0.55 mg N/L and from 0.91 to 1.88 mg N/L, respectively. According to principal component analysis, org-N composition and characterization differed in PON and DON samples (n = 20). Compared with DON, PON tended to be enriched in protein and nucleic acids, and showed a more proteinaceous character. Composition of org-N functional groups estimated from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy N 1s spectra indicate no significant differences in the molecular weight distribution of the protein-like materials between PON and DON. Moreover, PON exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (61.0 ± 13.3%) compared to DON (38.5 ± 12.4%, p < 0.05, t-test) and a significantly higher NDMA yields (791.4 ± 404.0 ng/mg-N) compared to DON (374.8 ± 62.5 ng/mg-N, p < 0.05, t-test). Accordingly, PON contributed to approximately 12.3–41.7% of the total bioavailable org-N and 22.0–38.4% of the total NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents. Thus, the potential adverse effects of PON on wastewater discharge and reuse applications should not be overlooked, even though it only accounted for 7.4–26.8% of the total effluent org-N. - Highlights: • The concentration, composition, bioavailability, and NDMA FP of PON and DON in wastewater effluents are compared. • PON is enriched in protein and nucleic acids. • PON is more bioavailable and shows higher NDMA yields compared to DON. • PON contributes12–42% of total bioavailable org-N and 22–38% of total NDMA precursors.

  4. Concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential of particulate and dissolved organic nitrogen in wastewater effluents: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Haidong; Ma, Haijun; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Yingying; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater-derived organic nitrogen (org-N) can act as both nutrients and carcinogenic nitrogenous disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, the concentration, composition, bioavailability, and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) from three different municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized and compared with that of effluent dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average effluent PON and DON concentrations ranged from 0.09 to 0.55 mg N/L and from 0.91 to 1.88 mg N/L, respectively. According to principal component analysis, org-N composition and characterization differed in PON and DON samples (n = 20). Compared with DON, PON tended to be enriched in protein and nucleic acids, and showed a more proteinaceous character. Composition of org-N functional groups estimated from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy N 1s spectra indicate no significant differences in the molecular weight distribution of the protein-like materials between PON and DON. Moreover, PON exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (61.0 ± 13.3%) compared to DON (38.5 ± 12.4%, p < 0.05, t-test) and a significantly higher NDMA yields (791.4 ± 404.0 ng/mg-N) compared to DON (374.8 ± 62.5 ng/mg-N, p < 0.05, t-test). Accordingly, PON contributed to approximately 12.3–41.7% of the total bioavailable org-N and 22.0–38.4% of the total NDMA precursors in wastewater effluents. Thus, the potential adverse effects of PON on wastewater discharge and reuse applications should not be overlooked, even though it only accounted for 7.4–26.8% of the total effluent org-N. - Highlights: • The concentration, composition, bioavailability, and NDMA FP of PON and DON in wastewater effluents are compared. • PON is enriched in protein and nucleic acids. • PON is more bioavailable and shows higher NDMA yields compared to DON. • PON contributes12–42% of total bioavailable org-N and 22–38% of total NDMA precursors.

  5. A novel technique of harmonic tissue dissection reduces seroma formation after modified radical mastectomy compared to conventional electrocautery: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammed; Fathy, Hamada; Shaban, Hamdy; Abuelela, Sameh T; Marie, Ahmed; Khaled, Islam

    2018-01-01

    Seroma is the most frequent postoperative complication following breast cancer surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the harmonic focus scalpel versus electrocautery in reducing seroma formation post-mastectomy and axillary clearance. A prospective randomized controlled trial study was conducted at the Department of Surgery of Suez Canal University Hospital from April 26th 2014 to 30th June 2016. Seventy-two women, in whom a mastectomy and axillary clearance for breast cancer were performed, were randomly allocated to either harmonic dissection ( n  = 36) or electrocautery ( n  = 36). The mean operative time was significantly longer for harmonic dissection compared with electrocautery (2.63 ± 0.41 vs. 1.75 ± 0.26 h; p  < 0.0001). In addition, a significantly smaller amount of intraoperative blood loss (69.4 ± 25.1 vs. 255.5 ± 41.6 ml; p  = 0.002) and total drainage volume (1277.8 ± 172.5 ml vs. 3300 ± 167.5 ml; p  = 0.002) were found in the harmonic group. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the time of drain removal (10.9 ± 1.12 vs. 15.9 ± 1.44; p  = 0.001) and the incidence of seroma formation after drain removal [8.3% vs 33.3%; p  = 0.003] in the harmonic group compared with those in the electrocautery group. Harmonic dissection technique leads to significant decreases in intraoperative blood loss, total drainage volume and postoperative seroma in terms of shorter drain duration with a minimal increase in the operative time and better quality of life. Here, we recommend the use of the harmonic dissection technique in mastectomy and axillary clearance.

  6. The thermodynamic of complex formation in system of the Fe(III)-Fe(II)-benzimidazole-water in the inflation of ion strength in the formation of co-ordination compounds in the 288 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, Kh.D.; Rajabov, U.R.; Yusupov, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    With the Method of Oxredmatrion with application of the Oxidation Function in the Temperature 288 K and ion strength 0.1; 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 in the Water solution of Benzimidazole been obtained the Formation Constants of the Coordination and their dependence with ion strength

  7. Water oxidation by photosystem II: H(2)O-D(2)O exchange and the influence of pH support formation of an intermediate by removal of a proton before dioxygen creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencsér, László; Dau, Holger

    2010-11-30

    Understanding the chemistry of photosynthetic water oxidation requires deeper insight into the interrelation between electron transfer (ET) and proton relocations. In photosystem II membrane particles, the redox transitions of the water-oxidizing Mn complex were initiated by nanosecond laser flashes and monitored by absorption spectroscopy at 360 nm (A(360)). In the oxygen evolution transition (S(3) + hν → S(0) + O(2)), an exponential decrease in A(360) (τ(O(2)) = 1.6 ms) can be assigned to Mn reduction and O(2) formation. The corresponding rate-determining step is the ET from the Mn complex to a tyrosine radical (Y(Z)(ox)). We find that this A(360) decrease is preceded by a lag phase with a duration of 170 ± 40 μs (τ(lag) at pH 6.2), indicating formation of an intermediate before ET and O-O bond formation and corroborating results obtained by time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. Whereas τ(O(2)) exhibits a minor kinetic isotope effect and negligible pH dependence, formation of the intermediate is slowed significantly both in D(2)O (τ(lag) increase of ∼140% in D(2)O) and at low pH (τ(lag) of 30 ± 20 μs at pH 7.0 vs τ(lag) of 470 ± 80 μs at pH 5.5). These findings support the fact that in the oxygen evolution transition an intermediate is created by deprotonation and removal of a proton from the Mn complex, after Y(Z)(ox) formation but before the onset of electron transfer and O-O bond formation.

  8. GRB 980425 host: [C II], [O I], and CO lines reveal recent enhancement of star formation due to atomic gas inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Wardlow, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Accretion of gas from the intergalactic medium is required to fuel star formation in galaxies. We have recently suggested that this process can be studied using host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Aims. Our aim is to test this possibility by studying in detail the properties of gas...

  9. The inflation of ion strength in the formation of co-ordination compounds in system of the Fe(III)-Fe(II)-benzimidazole-water in the 298 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarova, Kh.D.; Rajabov, U.R.; Yusupov, Z.N.

    2005-01-01

    With the Method of Oxredmatrion with application of the Oxidation Function in the Temperature 298 K and ion strength 0.1; 0.25; 0.50 and 1.00 in the Water solution of Benzimidazole been obtained the Formation Constants of the Coordination and their dependence with ion strength

  10. Modeling of radionuclide transport through rock formations and the resulting radiation exposure of reference persons. Calculations using Asse II parameters; Modellierung des Transports von Radionukliden durch Gesteinsschichten und der resultierenden Strahlenexposition von Referenzpersonen. Berechnungen mit Parametern der Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian; Ustohalova, Veronika; Steinhoff, Mathias

    2012-05-21

    The long-term release of radioactivity into the ground water path cannot be excluded for the radioactive waste repository Asse II. The possible radiological consequences were analyzed using a radio-ecological scenario developed by GRS. A second scenario was developed considering the solubility of radionuclides in salt saturated solutions and retarding/retention effects during the radionuclide transport through the cap rock layers. The modeling of possible radiation exposure was based on the lifestyle habits of reference persons. In Germany the calculation procedure for the prediction of radionuclide release from final repositories is not defined by national standards, the used procedures are based on analogue methods from other radiation protection calculations.

  11. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter Phase II study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral nemonoxacin with oral levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan; Wu, Jufang; Zhu, Demei; Sun, Shenghua; Zhao, Li; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Hua; Ren, Zhenyi; Wang, Changzheng; Xiu, Qingyu; Xiao, Zuke; Cao, Zhaolong; Cui, Shehuai; Yang, Heping; Liang, Yongjie; Chen, Ping; Lv, Yuan; Hu, Chengping; Lv, Xiaoju; Liu, Shuang; Kuang, Jiulong; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Dexi; Chang, Liwen

    2017-12-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of nemonoxacin with levofloxacin in treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a Phase II clinical trial. One hundred ninety-two patients with CAP were randomized to receive oral nemonoxacin (500 mg or 750 mg) or levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for 7-10 days. Clinical and bacteriological responses were determined at the test of cure (TOC) visit in the full analysis set (FAS). The clinical cure rate of nemonoxacin (500 mg), nemonoxacin (750 mg), and levofloxacin (500 mg) was 93.3%, 87.3%, and 88.5%, respectively, in the FAS (n = 168), and 93.0%, 93.9%, and 88.9%, respectively in the per protocol set (n = 152). At the TOC visit, nemonoxacin at 500 mg and 750 mg was proven to be noninferior to levofloxacin at 500 mg in the FAS in terms of clinical efficacy. The overall bacteriological success rate was 83.3% in both nemonoxacin groups and 80.0% in the levofloxacin 500 mg group in the bacteriological FAS. The comprehensive efficacy rate was comparable among the three groups (87.5% for the nemonoxacin 500 mg group, 93.8% for the nemonoxacin 750 mg group, and 81.3% for the levofloxacin 500 mg group). Most drug-related adverse events were mild and transient, mainly gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, transient neutropenia, and elevated liver enzymes. No drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Either 500 mg or 750 mg of oral nemonoxacin taken once daily for 7-10 days demonstrated high clinical and bacteriological success rates in Chinese adult patients with CAP. Nemonoxacin at 500 mg once daily for 7-10 days is recommended for future Phase III clinical trials. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01537250. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. California Verbal Learning Test-II performance in schizophrenia as a function of ascertainment strategy: comparing the first and second phases of the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H;