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Sample records for format tes bolometer

  1. Antenna-coupled TES bolometers for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, C.L. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: clkuo@astro.caltech.edu; Ade, P. [University of Wales, Cardiff, 5 The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3YB, Wales (United Kingdom); Bock, J.J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Day, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldin, A.; Golwala, S.; Hristov, V.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.; Rossinot, P.; Vayonakis, A.; Wang, G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Halpern, M. [University of British Columbia, 2329 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO (United States); Holmes, W.; Kenyon, M.; LeDuc, H.G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); MacTavish, C. [University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Montroy, T.; Ruhl, J. [Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Netterfield, C.B. [University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Yun, M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[University of Pittsburgh, 348 Benedum Engineering Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zmuidzinas, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]|[California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    SPIDER is a proposed balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the imprints of gravity waves on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The required wide frequency coverage, large number of sensitive detectors, and the stringent power constraints on a balloon are made possible by antenna-coupled TES bolometers. Several prototype devices have been fabricated and optically characterized. Their spectral and angular responses agree well with the theoretical expectations.

  2. The 160 TES bolometer read-out using FDM for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R. H.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M. P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; van Winden, P.; Jackson, B.

    2014-07-01

    For the read out of the Transition Edge Sensors (TES) bolometer arrays of the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese background-limited far-IR SPICA mission SRON is developing a Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out system. The next step after the successful demonstration of the read out of 38 TES bolometers using FDM was to demonstrate the FDM readout of the required 160 TES bolometers. Of the 160 LC filter and TES bolometer chains 151 have been connected and after cooldown 148 of the resonances could be identified. Although initial operation and locking of the pixels went smoothly the experiment revealed several complications. In this paper we describe the 160 pixel FDM set-up, show the results and discuss the issues faced during operation of the 160 pixel FDM experiment.

  3. Optical characterization of ultra-sensitive TES bolometers for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gerhard; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Mauskopf, Philip D.; Morozov, Dmitry; Trappe, Neil A.; Doherty, Stephen; Withington, Stafford

    2014-07-01

    We have characterized the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays will image a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34—210 μm. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors (goal NEP ~ 0.2 aW/√Hz), with correspondingly low saturation powers (~5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. We have constructed an ultra-low background optical test facility containing an internal cold black-body illuminator and have recently added an internal hot black-body source and a light-pipe for external illumination. We illustrate the performance of the test facility with results including spectral-response measurements. Based on an improved understanding of the optical throughput of the test facility we find an optical efficiency of 60% for prototype SAFARI detectors.

  4. Characterization of TES bolometers used in 2-dimensional Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) arrays for far-infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staguhn, J.G.; Allen, C.A.; Benford, D.J.; Chervenak, J.A.; Chuss, D.T.; Miller, T.M.; Moseley, S.H.; Wollack, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    We have produced a laboratory demonstration of our new Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) bolometer array architecture in a monolithic, 2-dimensional, 8x8 format. The detector array is designed as a square grid of suspended, 1μm thick silicon bolometers with superconducting molybdium/gold bilayer TESs. These detectors use an additional layer of gold bars deposited on top of the bilayer, oriented transverse to the direction of the current flow, for the suppression of excess noise. This detector design has earlier been shown to provide near fundamental noise limited device performance. We present results from performance measurements of witness devices. In particular we demonstrate that the inband excess noise level of the TES detectors is less than 20% above the thermodynamic phonon noise limit and not significantly higher out of band at frequencies that cannot be attenuated by the Nyquist filter. Our 8x8 BUG arrays will be used in the near future for astronomical observations in several (sub-)millimeter instruments

  5. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34-210 μm. Each horn-coupled bolometer consists of a transition edge sensor (TES), with a transition temperature close to 100 mK, and a thin-film Ta absorber on a thermally-isolated silicon nitride membrane. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors ( NEP˜2×10-19 W/), with correspondingly low saturation powers (˜5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. To meet the challenge of testing such sensitive detectors we have constructed an ultra-low background test facility based on a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion, shielding, and vibration isolation. For optical measurements the system contains internal cold (3-30 K) and hot (˜300 K) black-body calibration sources, as well as a light pipe for external illumination. We discuss our measurements of high optical efficiency in prototype SAFARI detectors and describe recent improvements to the test facility that will enable us to test the full SAFARI focal-plane arrays.

  6. Mechanical Design and Development of TES Bolometer Detector Arrays for the Advanced ACTPol Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jonathan T.; Austermann, Jason; Beall, James A.; Choi, Steve K.; Crowley, Kevin T.; Devlin, Mark J.; Duff, Shannon M.; Gallardo, Patricio M.; Henderson, Shawn W.; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; hide

    2016-01-01

    The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline pro le leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modi ed to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.

  7. Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasavithi, Efim; Sidorenco, Anatolii

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to the cooled infrared detectors and can be used in spectroscopy, radiometry, geophysics, astrophysics. The bolometer contains a helium cryostat, in which is installed a solenoid for creation of a magnetic field, connected to a power supply. In the solenoid is placed a superconducting sensor, made of lead telluride doped with thallium Pb 1-x Tl x Te, where x = 0.01...0.0225, to which is connected a recording device. The result of the invention consists in obtaining a stable mode of operation of the bolometer.

  8. Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Anatolie; Zasavitchi, Efim

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to the cooled infra-red radiation detectors and may be used in spectroscopy, radiometry, geophysics and astrophysics. The bolometer contains a helium refrigerator, wherein it is installed a superconductive sensing element, to which it is connected a recording device. Novelty of the invention consists in that into the refrigerator it is placed a temperature control, and the superconductive sensing element is made of a semiconductor, for example, of lead tellurium doped with thallium Pb 1-x Tl x Te, where x=0,01...0,0225.

  9. Measurements of the Optical Performance of Prototype TES Bolometers for SAFARI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ranjan, M.; Gao, J.-R.; Khosropanah, P.; Ridder, M. L.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Morozov, D.; Doherty, S.; Trappe, N.; Withington, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays, coupled with a Fourier transform spectrometer, will provide images of a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the

  10. Performance of a low-noise test facility for the SAFARI TES bolometer arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audley, M.D.; De Lange, G.; Ferrari, L.; Gao, J.R.; Hijmering, R.A.; Khosropanah, P.; Lindeman, M.; Ridder, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a test facility for characterizing the focal plane arrays of SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI’s three bolometer arrays are populated with extremely sensitive (NEP ? 2 × 10?19 W/? Hz) transition edge sensors with a transition

  11. Performance of a Low-Noise Test Facility for the SAFARI TES Bolometer Arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.; Ferrari, L.; Gao, J-R.; Hijmering, R. A.; Khosropanah, P.; Lindeman, M.; de Ridder, M.

    We have constructed a test facility for characterizing the focal plane arrays of SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays are populated with extremely sensitive (NEP similar to 2 x 10(-19) W/root Hz) transition edge sensors with a

  12. Progress on Background-Limited Membrane-Isolated TES Bolometers for Far-IR/Submillimeter Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Day, P. K.; Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Leduc, H. G.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the lowest attainable phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) for membrane-isolation bolometers, we fabricated and measured the thermal conductance of suspended Si3N4 beams with different geometries via a noise thermometry technique. We measured beam cross-sectional areas ranging from 0.35 x 0.5 (micro)m(sup 2) to 135 x 1.0 (micro)m(sup 2) and beam lengths ranging from (micro)m to 8300 (micro)m. The measurements directly imply that membrane-isolation bolometers are capable of reaching a phonon noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4 x 10(sup -20)W/Hz(sup 1)/O . This NEP adequate for the Background-Limited Infrared-Submillimeter Spectrograph (BLISS) proposed for the Japanese SPICA observatory, and adequate for NASA's SAFIR observatory, a 10-meter, 4 K telescope to be deployed at L2. Further, we measured the heat capacity of a suspended Si3N4 membrane and show how this result implies that one can make membrane-isolation bolometers with a response time which is fast enough for BLISS.

  13. Optical performance of prototype horn-coupled TES bolometer arrays for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Hijmering, Richard; Ridder, Marcel L.

    2016-07-01

    The SAFARI Detector Test Facility is an ultra-low background optical testbed for characterizing ultra-sensitive prototype horn-coupled TES bolmeters for SAFARI, the grating spectrometer on board the proposed SPICA satellite. The testbed contains internal cold and hot black-body illuminators and a light-pipe for illumination with an external source. We have added reimaging optics to facilitate array optical measurements. The system is now being used for optical testing of prototype detector arrays read out with frequency-domain multiplexing. We present our latest optical measurements of prototype arrays and discuss these in terms of the instrument performance.

  14. Large-format 17μm high-end VOx μ-bolometer infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, U.; Argaman, N.; Elkind, S.; Giladi, A.; Hirsh, Y.; Labilov, M.; Pivnik, I.; Shiloah, N.; Singer, M.; Tuito, A.; Ben-Ezra, M.; Shtrichman, I.

    2013-06-01

    Long range sights and targeting systems require a combination of high spatial resolution, low temporal NETD, and wide field of view. For practical electro-optical systems it is hard to support these constraints simultaneously. Moreover, achieving these needs with the relatively low-cost Uncooled μ-Bolometer technology is a major challenge in the design and implementation of both the bolometer pixel and the Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). In this work we present measured results from a new, large format (1024×768) detector array, with 17μm pitch. This detector meets the demands of a typical armored vehicle sight with its high resolution and large format, together with low NETD of better than 35mK (at F/1, 30Hz). We estimate a Recognition Range for a NATO target of better than 4 km at all relevant atmospheric conditions, which is better than standard 2nd generation scanning array cooled detector. A new design of the detector package enables improved stability of the Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) to environmental temperature drifts.

  15. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J, E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  16. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  17. Antenna-coupled bolometer arrays using transition-edge sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Michael J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: mmyers@cosmology.berkeley.edu; Ade, Peter [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom); Arnold, Kam [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Engargiola, Greg [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Holzapfel, Bill [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); O' Brient, Roger [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Richards, Paul L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Smith, Andy [Northrop Grumman, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States); Spieler, Helmuth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tran, Huan T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing antenna-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for use in measurements of the CMB polarization. TES bolometers have many well-known advantages over conventional bolometers, such as increased speed, linearity, and the existence of readout multiplexers. Antenna-coupled bolometers use an on-chip planar antenna to couple light into the bolometer. The antenna directivity and polarization sensitivity, along with the potential for on-chip band defining filters and channelizing circuits, allow a significant increase in focal plane integration. This eliminates the bulky horns, quasioptical filters, dichroics, and polarizers which might otherwise be needed in a conventional bolometric system. This simplification will ease the construction of receivers with larger numbers of pixels. We report on the fabrication and optical testing of single antenna-coupled bolometer pixels with integrated band defining filters. We will also discuss current progress on fabrication of a bolometer array based on this design.

  18. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  19. Bolometer electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenig, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    High quality is required to the electronic which works with bolometer made of metal for measuring the radiation power in plasmaphysical experiments. If the bandwidth is to be 1 kHz, and the time constant of the bolometer is about 160 ms by high overall gain the critical parameters are the noise of the amplifier, pick up to the system, stability and decoupling of common mode signals. The high overall gain is necessary to be able to measure lowest radiation power. The design made is a good approach to the desired property. (orig.) [de

  20. Performance of resistive microcalorimeters and bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeazzi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the impressive results achieved by microcalorimeters and bolometers, their performance is still significantly worse than that predicted by Mather's ideal model (Appl. Opt. 21 (1982) 1125). The difference is due both to non-ideal effects and to excess noise of unknown origin. The non-ideal effects have been recently quantified and include hot-electron effect, absorber decoupling, thermometer non-ohmic behavior, and all related extra noise sources. The excess noise affects primarily Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and is currently under experimental and theoretical investigation. This paper reviews the origin of non-ideal effects in microcalorimeters and bolometers and their effect on energy resolution and noise equivalent power. It also reviews the results on the characterization and suppression of the excess noise in TES, and the recent theoretical investigations to explain its origin in relation to fundamental physics in superconductors

  1. Feedhorn-Coupled Transition-Edge Superconducting Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubmayr, J.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J.; Becker, D.; Cho, H.-M.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Grace, E.; Halverson, N.; Henderson, S. W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NIST produces large-format, dual-polarization-sensitive detector arrays for a broad range of frequencies (30-1400 GHz). Such arrays enable a host of astrophysical measurements. Detectors optimized for cosmic microwave background observations are monolithic, polarization-sensitive arrays based on feedhorn and planar Nb antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting (TES) bolometers. Recent designs achieve multiband, polarimetric sensing within each spatial pixel. In this proceeding, we describe our multichroic, feedhorn-coupled design; demonstrate performance at 70-380 GHz; and comment on current developments for implementation of these detector arrays in the advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope receiver

  2. Fabrication of large NbSi bolometer arrays for CMB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukibe, M.; Belier, B.; Camus, Ph.; Dobrea, C.; Dumoulin, L.; Fernandez, B.; Fournier, T.; Guillaudin, O.; Marnieros, S.; Yates, S.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Future cosmic microwave background experiments for high-resolution anisotropy mapping and polarisation detection require large arrays of bolometers at low temperature. We have developed a process to build arrays of antenna-coupled bolometers for that purpose. With adjustment of the Nb x Si 1-x alloy composition, the array can be made of high impedance or superconductive (TES) sensors

  3. Bolometer Simulation Using SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis H.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook

    2004-01-01

    A general model is presented that assimilates the thermal and electrical properties of the bolometer - this block model demonstrates the Electro-Thermal Feedback (ETF) effect on the bolometers performance. This methodology is used to construct a SPICE model that by way of analogy combines the thermal and electrical phenomena into one simulation session. The resulting circuit diagram is presented and discussed.

  4. Fabrication of large NbSi bolometer arrays for CMB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukibe, M. [AIST, Tsukuba Central 2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); CNRS-CSNSM, Bat 104, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France); Belier, B. [CNRS-IEF, Bat 220, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France); Camus, Ph. [CNRS-CRTBT, 25 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38042 (France)]. E-mail: philippe.camus@grenoble.cnrs.fr; Dobrea, C. [CNRS-CSNSM, Bat 104, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France); Dumoulin, L. [CNRS-CSNSM, Bat 104, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France); Fernandez, B. [CNRS-CRTBT, 25 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Fournier, T. [CNRS-CRTBT, 25 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Guillaudin, O. [CNRS-LPSC, 53 avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Marnieros, S. [CNRS-CSNSM, Bat 104, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France); Yates, S.J.C. [CNRS-CSNSM, Bat 104, Orsay Campus F-91405 (France)

    2006-04-15

    Future cosmic microwave background experiments for high-resolution anisotropy mapping and polarisation detection require large arrays of bolometers at low temperature. We have developed a process to build arrays of antenna-coupled bolometers for that purpose. With adjustment of the Nb{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} alloy composition, the array can be made of high impedance or superconductive (TES) sensors.

  5. Fast Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, C.; Fehl, D.L.; Hanson, D.L.; Keltner, N.R.; McGurn, J.S.; McKenney, J.L.; Spielman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive bolometry is an accurate, robust, spectrally broadband technique for measuring absolute x-ray fluence and flux. Bolometry is an independent technique for x-ray measurements that is based on a different set of physical properties than other diagnostics such as x-ray diodes, photoconducting detectors, and P-I-N diodes. Bolometers use the temperature-driven change in element resistivity to determine the total deposited energy. The calibration of such a device is based on fundamental material properties and its physical dimensions. We describe the use of nickel and gold bolometers to measure x rays generated by high-power z pinches on Sandia's Saturn and Z accelerators. The Sandia bolometer design described herein has a pulse response of ∼1 ns. We describe in detail the fabrication, fielding, and data analysis issues leading to highly accurate x-ray measurements. The fundamental accuracy of resistive bolometry will be discussed

  6. Frequency selective bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowitt, M.S.; Fixsen, D.J.; Goldin, A.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission......-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics; reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal...

  7. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; hide

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  8. UEDGE code comparisons with DIII-D bolometer data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop a bolometer post processor that converts volumetric radiated power values taken from a UEDGE solution, to a line integrated radiated power along chords of the bolometers in the DIII-D tokamak. The UEDGE code calculates plasma physics quantities, such as plasma density, radiated power, or electron temperature, and compares them to actual diagnostic measurements taken from the scrape off layer (SOL) and divertor regions of the DIII-D tokamak. Bolometers are devices measuring radiated power within the tokamak. The bolometer interceptors are made up of two complete arrays, an upper array with a vertical view and a lower array with a horizontal view, so that a two dimensional profile of the radiated power may be obtained. The bolometer post processor stores line integrated values taken from UEDGE solutions into a file in tabular format. Experimental data is then put into tabular form and placed in another file. Comparisons can be made between the UEDGE solutions and actual bolometer data. Analysis has been done to determine the accuracy of the plasma physics involved in producing UEDGE simulations.

  9. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  The detector, the Ideal Integrating Bolometer (IIB) is able to...

  10. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriage, T.A.; Chervenak, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1x32 TES columns to form the 32x32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1x32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling 4 He/ 3 He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current-voltage curves and TES complex impedance

  11. Testing and assembly of the detectors for the Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera on ACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriage, T.A. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)]. E-mail: marriage@princeton.edu; Chervenak, J.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Doriese, W.B. [National Institute of Standards, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The Millimeter Bolometer Array Camera (MBAC) for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope consists of three Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays to make simultaneous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background in three frequency bands. MBAC TESs are NASA Goddard Pop-Up Detectors (PUD) which are read-out by NIST time-domain multiplexers. MBAC is constructed by stacking 1x32 TES columns to form the 32x32 element arrays. The arrays are modular (connectorized) at the 1x32 column level such that array assembly is reversible and camera repair possible. Prior to assembly, each column is tested in a quick (2h) cycling {sup 4}He/{sup 3}He adsorption refrigerator. Tests include measurements of TES current-voltage curves and TES complex impedance.

  12. Fabrication of Low-Noise TES Arrays for the SAFARI Instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, M. L.; Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R. A.; Suzuki, T.; Bruijn, M. P.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Gao, J. R.; Zuiddam, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-low-noise transition edge sensors (TES) with noise equivalent power lower than 2 × 10^{-19} W/Hz^{1/2 } have been fabricated by SRON, which meet the sensitivity requirements for the far-infrared SAFARI instrument on space infrared telescope for cosmology and astrophysics. Our TES detector is based on a titanium/gold (Ti/Au) thermistor on a silicon nitride (SiN) island. The island is thermally linked with SiN legs to a silicon support structure at the bath temperature. The SiN legs are very thin (250 nm), narrow (500 nm), and long (above 300 {\\upmu } m); these dimensions are needed in leg-isolated bolometers to achieve the required level of sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the latest fabrication process for our TES bolometers with improved sensitivity.

  13. FTU bolometer electronic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollastrone, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.pollastrone@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Neri, Carlo; Florean, Marco; Ciccone, Giovanni [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Design and realization of a new bolometer electronic system. ► Many improvements over the actual commercial system. ► Architecture based on digital electronic hardware with minimal analog front end. ► Auto off-set correction, real time visualization features and small system size. ► Test results for the electronic system. -- Abstract: The FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) requires a bolometer diagnostic in order to measure the total plasma radiation. The current diagnostic architecture is based on a full analog multichannel AC bolometer system, which uses a carrier frequency amplifier with a synchronous demodulation. Taking into account the technological upgrades in the field of electronics, it was decided to realize an upgrade for the bolometric electronic system by using a hybrid analog/digital implementation. The new system developed at the ENEA Frascati laboratories has many improvements, and mainly a massive system volume reduction, a good measurement linearity and a simplified use. The new hardware system consists of two subsystems: the Bolometer Digital Control and the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control can control 16 bolometer bridges through the Bolometer Analog System. The Bolometer Digital Control, based on the FPGA architecture, is connected via Ethernet with a PC; therefore, it can receive commands settings from the PC and send the stream of bolometric measurements in real time to the PC. In order to solve the cross-talk between the bridges and the cables, each of the four bridges in the bolometer head receives a different synthesized excitation frequency. Since the system is fully controlled by a PC GUI (Graphic User Interface), it is very user friendly. Moreover, some useful features have been developed, such as: auto off-set correction, bridge amplitude regulation, software gain setting, real time visualization, frequency excitation selection and noise spectrum analyzer embedded function. In this paper, the

  14. Processing TES Level-1B Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaca, Richard C.; Sarkissian, Edwin; Madatyan, Mariyetta; Shepard, Douglas; Gluck, Scott; Apolinski, Mark; McDuffie, James; Tremblay, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    TES L1B Subsystem is a computer program that performs several functions for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The term "L1B" (an abbreviation of "level 1B"), refers to data, specific to the TES, on radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESRs), plus ancillary geolocation, quality, and engineering data. The functions performed by TES L1B Subsystem include shear analysis, monitoring of signal levels, detection of ice build-up, and phase correction and radiometric and spectral calibration of TES target data. Also, the program computes NESRs for target spectra, writes scientific TES level-1B data to hierarchical- data-format (HDF) files for public distribution, computes brightness temperatures, and quantifies interpixel signal variability for the purpose of first-order cloud and heterogeneous land screening by the level-2 software summarized in the immediately following article. This program uses an in-house-developed algorithm, called "NUSRT," to correct instrument line-shape factors.

  15. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  16. AC bias characterization of low noise bolometers for SAFARI using an open-loop frequency domain SQUID-based multiplexer operating between 1 and 5 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; Gao, J.R.; Den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R.; Hoevers, H.; Khosropanah, P.; De Korte, P.; Van der Kuur, J.; Lindeman, M.; Ridder, M.

    2012-01-01

    SRON is developing the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out and the ultra low NEP TES bolometers array for the infra-red spectrometer SAFARI on board of the Japanese space mission SPICA. The FDM prototype of the instrument requires critical and complex optimizations. For single pixel

  17. Bolometers for far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Important scientific goals of far-infrared and submillimetre astronomy include measurements of anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation, deep imaging surveys for detection of high-red-shift galaxies, and imaging and spectroscopy of star formation regions and the interstellar medium in the milky way and nearby galaxies. Use of sensitive bolometer arrays leads to very large improvements in observing speed. Recent progress in the development of bolometric detector systems for ground-based and space-borne far-infrared and submillimetre astronomical observations is reviewed, including spider-web NTD bolometers, transition-edge superconducting sensors, and micromachined planar arrays of ion-implanted silicon bolometers. Future arrays may be based on planar absorbers without feedhorns, which offer potential advantages including more efficient use of space in the focal plane and improved instantaneous sampling of the telescope point spread function, but present challenges in suppression of stray light and RF interference. FIRST and Planck Surveyor are planned satellite missions involving passively cooled (∼70 K) telescopes, and bolometer array developments for these missions are described

  18. INTENSITAS COPYING ANSWER PADA TES KEMAMPUAN MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2012-07-01

    Abstrak: Seorang peserta tes akan menjawab tes dengan tiga asumsi yaitu peserta tes akan menjawab suatu butir pertanyaan karena mengetahui, peserta menjawab tes dengan menebak, dan peserta menjawab tes karena menyalin jawaban dari peserta lain (menyontek. Akan tetapi jika peserta tes tidak memiliki akses untuk menyontek maka peserta hanya akan memberikan jawaban dengan asumsi pertama dan kedua. Artikel ini membahas intensitas menyontek sebelum pelaksanaan tes, pada saat pelaksanan tes, dan ketika tes dilaksanakan secara tiba-tiba.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intensitas menyontek paling tinggi dilakukan oleh peserta tes pada saat ujian berlansung kemudian ketika ujian dilakukan secara tiba-tiba atau mendadak dan terakhir adalah sebelum pelaksanaan tes.

  19. PENGEMBANGAN TES BAKAT TERPADU ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Candiasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pengembangan tes bakat online didasari ide untuk memperluas otomasi layanan pendidikan, melengkapi e-learning yang sudah berkembang dengan baik untuk otomasi pembelajaran. Kelebihan tes bakat online yang dikembangkan adalah dapat digunakan setiap saat, dan tidak terlalu terikat tempat, serta tidak memerlukan petugas yang memahami evaluasi. Selain itu, tes bakat online dapat menyajikan variasi tes yang berbeda setiap kali diakses, serta dapat memberikan informasi hasil tes secara otomatis langsung setelah peserta tes memvalidasi jawabannya. Kata kunci: tes bakat online, otomasi layanan pendidikan Abstract Development of online aptitude test based on idea of widening automation on educational service, completing existing various e-learning model for instructional automation. There are some advantages of online aptitude test. It can be used anytime and anywhere by everyone. Furthermore, it can present various package of test every time it is accessed and automatically gives score and feedback immediately after tester finish answer the test. Keywords: online aptitude test, automation of educational service

  20. Improved fabrication techniques for infrared bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, A. E.; Mcbride, S. E.; Richards, P. L.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ion implantation and sputter metallization are used to produce ohmic electrical contacts to Ge:Ga chips. The method is shown to give a high yield of small monolithic bolometers with very little low-frequency noise. It is noted that when one of the chips is used as the thermometric element of a composite bolometer it must be bonded to a dielectric substrate. The thermal resistance of the conventional epoxy bond is measured and found to be undesirably large. A procedure for soldering the chip to a metallized portion of the substrate in such a way as to reduce this resistance is outlined. An evaluation is made of the contribution of the metal film absorber to the heat capacity of a composite bolometer. It is found that the heat capacity of a NiCr absorber at 1.3 K can dominate the bolometer performance. A Bi absorber possesses significantly lower heat capacity. A low-temperature blackbody calibrator is built to measure the optical responsivity of bolometers. A composite bolometer system with a throughput of approximately 0.1 sr sq cm is constructed using the new techniques. The noise in this bolometer is white above 2.5 Hz and is slightly below the value predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium theory.

  1. Fabrication of antenna-coupled transition edge polarization-sensitive bolometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Minhee; Bock, James; Leduc, Henry; Day, Peter; Kim, Moon J.

    2004-01-01

    We have fabricated antenna-coupled superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) arrays for far-infrared and millimeter-wave applications. The advantage of antenna coupling is that the large optical coupling structure required for far-infrared/millimeter wavelengths is not thermally active. The sensor can thus be as small as lithographic techniques permit. By eliminating large absorbers, this technology enables bolometers working at frequencies as low as 30 GHz, covering the entire spectral region of interest for future space-borne studies of cosmic microwave background polarization. We developed a focal plane architecture with dual-polarization sensitivity in a single spectral band, or single-polarization sensitivity in multiple spectral bands. We use TES layers consisting of Al/Ti/Au/Ti thin films and Nb electrical contacts on a low-stress Si 3 N 4 membrane

  2. High Temperature Superconductor Bolometers for Planetary Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work is a design study of an instrument optimized for JPL's novel high temperature superconductor bolometers. The work involves designing an imaging...

  3. Strong Electron Self-Cooling in the Cold-Electron Bolometers Designed for CMB Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, L. S.; Pankratov, A. L.; Gordeeva, A. V.; Zbrozhek, V. O.; Revin, L. S.; Shamporov, V. A.; Masi, S.; de Bernardis, P.

    2018-03-01

    We have realized cold-electron bolometers (CEB) with direct electron self-cooling of the nanoabsorber by SIN (Superconductor-Insulator-Normal metal) tunnel junctions. This electron self-cooling acts as a strong negative electrothermal feedback, improving noise and dynamic properties. Due to this cooling the photon-noise-limited operation of CEBs was realized in array of bolometers developed for the 345 GHz channel of the OLIMPO Balloon Telescope in the power range from 10 pW to 20 pW at phonon temperature Tph =310 mK. The negative electrothermal feedback in CEB is analogous to TES but instead of artificial heating we use cooling of the absorber. The high efficiency of the electron self-cooling to Te =100 mK without power load and to Te=160 mK under power load is achieved by: - a very small volume of the nanoabsorber (0.02 μm3) and a large area of the SIN tunnel junctions, - effective removal of hot quasiparticles by arranging double stock at both sides of the junctions and close position of the normal metal traps, - self-protection of the 2D array of CEBs against interferences by dividing them between N series CEBs (for voltage interferences) and M parallel CEBs (for current interferences), - suppression of Andreev reflection by a thin layer of Fe in the AlFe absorber. As a result even under high power load the CEBs are working at electron temperature Te less than Tph . To our knowledge, there is no analogue in the bolometers technology in the world for bolometers working at electron temperature colder than phonon temperature.

  4. Performance of the TFTR bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.

    1985-01-01

    For the past year we have been making use of a horizontally viewing 19-channel array and a bolometer which views a narrow cross-sectional slice of the plasma. More recently, we have also obtained results from a second, vertically viewing array. Software has been developed to translate the data from general plasma and array locations to plasma minor radius and to do the Abel inversion with an antisymmetrical term included. Experience has been obtained on the noise and response-time characteristics, as well as the accuracy of total radiated power and radial profiles. Representative cases of radiated power profiles and local power balance are presented, as well as comparisons with other measurements of impurity concentration and trends with electron density and limiter coating. Although most of the ohmic-heating input power leaves by radiation, most of this loss occurs near the outer part of the plasma. Also, the behavior of power profiles during neutral beam injection and disruptions is discussed briefly

  5. Commercialization of Micro-fabrication of Antenna-Coupled Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer Detectors for Studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Aritoki; Bebek, Chris; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Holland, Stephen; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T.; Palaio, Nicholas; Roe, Natalie; Steinmetz, Leo

    2018-04-01

    We report on the development of commercially fabricated multichroic antenna-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimetry experiments. CMB polarimetry experiments have deployed instruments in stages. Stage II experiments deployed with O(1000) detectors and reported successful detection of B-mode (divergence-free) polarization pattern in the CMB. Stage III experiments have recently started observing with O(10,000) detectors with wider frequency coverage. A concept for a stage IV experiment, CMB-S4, is emerging to make a definitive measurement of CMB polarization from the ground with O(400,000) detectors. The orders of magnitude increase in detector count for CMB-S4 require a new approach in detector fabrication to increase fabrication throughput and reduce the cost. We report on collaborative efforts with two commercial micro-fabrication foundries to fabricate antenna-coupled TES bolometer detectors. The detector design is based on the sinuous antenna-coupled dichroic detector from the POLARBEAR-2 experiment. The TES bolometers showed the expected I-V response, and the RF performance agrees with the simulation. We will discuss the motivation, design consideration, fabrication processes, test results, and how industrial detector fabrication could be a path to fabricate hundreds of detector wafers for future CMB polarimetry experiments.

  6. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES focuses on the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere that stretches from the ground to the altitude at which airplanes fly. With very high spectral resolution,...

  7. Frequency selective bolometer development at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datesman, Aaron; Pearson, John; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Divan, Ralu; Downes, Thomas; Chang, Clarence; McMahon, Jeff; Meyer, Stephan; Carlstrom, John; Logan, Daniel; Perera, Thushara; Wilson, Grant; Novosad, Valentyn

    2008-07-01

    We discuss the development, at Argonne National Laboratory, of a four-pixel camera suitable for photometry of distant dusty galaxies located by Spitzer and SCUBA, and for study of other millimeter-wave sources such as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect in clusters, and galactic dust. Utilizing Frequency Selective Bolometers (FSBs) with superconducting Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs), each of the camera's four pixels is sensitive to four colors, with frequency bands centered approximately at 150, 220, 270, and 360 GHz. The current generation of these devices utilizes proximity effect superconducting bilayers of Mo/Au or Ti/Au for TESs, along with frequency selective circuitry on membranes of silicon nitride 1 cm across and 1 micron thick. The operational properties of these devices are determined by this circuitry, along with thermal control structures etched into the membranes. These etched structures do not perforate the membrane, so that the device is both comparatively robust mechanically and carefully tailored in terms of its thermal transport properties. In this paper, we report on development of the superconducting bilayer TES technology and characterization of the FSB stacks. This includes the use of new materials, the design and testing of thermal control structures, the introduction of desirable thermal properties using buried layers of crystalline silicon underneath the membrane, detector stability control, and optical and thermal test results. The scientific motivation, FSB design, FSB fabrication, and measurement results are discussed.

  8. Recent achievements on the development of the HERSCHEL/PACS bolometer arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, N.; Agnese, P.; Boulade, O.; Cigna, C.; Doumayrou, E.; Horeau, B.; Lepennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Pornin, J.-L.; Reveret, V.; Rodriguez, L.; Sauvage, M.; Simoens, F.; Vigroux, L.

    2006-01-01

    A new type of bolometer arrays sensitive in the far Infrared and Submillimeter range has been developed and manufactured by CEA/LETI/SLIR since 1997. These arrays will be integrated in the PACS instrument (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory (launch date 2007). The main innovations of CEA bolometers are their collective manufacturing technique (production of 3-side buttable 16x16 arrays) and their high mapping efficiency (large format detector and instantaneous Nyquist sampling). The measured NEP is 2.10 -16 W/Hz and the thermometric passband about 4-5Hz. In this article we describe CEA bolometers and present the results obtained during the last test campaign

  9. Recent achievements on the development of the HERSCHEL/PACS bolometer arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billot, N. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: nbillot@cea.fr; Agnese, P. [CEA/LETI Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Boulade, O. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cigna, C. [CEA/LETI Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Doumayrou, E. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Horeau, B. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lepennec, J. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martignac, J. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pornin, J.-L. [CEA/LETI Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Reveret, V. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rodriguez, L. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sauvage, M. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Simoens, F. [CEA/LETI Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Vigroux, L. [CEA/Saclay/SAp, UMR CEA/CNRS/UP7 Laboratoire AIM, Bat. 709, l' Orme des merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75014 Paris (France)

    2006-11-01

    A new type of bolometer arrays sensitive in the far Infrared and Submillimeter range has been developed and manufactured by CEA/LETI/SLIR since 1997. These arrays will be integrated in the PACS instrument (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory (launch date 2007). The main innovations of CEA bolometers are their collective manufacturing technique (production of 3-side buttable 16x16 arrays) and their high mapping efficiency (large format detector and instantaneous Nyquist sampling). The measured NEP is 2.10{sup -16}W/Hz and the thermometric passband about 4-5Hz. In this article we describe CEA bolometers and present the results obtained during the last test campaign.

  10. The ITER bolometer diagnostic: Status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, H.; Giannone, L.; Horton, L. D.; Raupp, G.; Zeidner, W.; Grunda, G.; Kalvin, S.; Fischer, U.; Serikov, A.; Stickel, S.; Reichle, R.

    2008-01-01

    A consortium consisting of four EURATOM Associations has been set up to develop the project plan for the full development of the ITER bolometer diagnostic and to continue urgent R and D activities. An overview of the current status is given, including detector development, line-of-sight optimization, performance analysis as well as the design of the diagnostic components and their integration in ITER. This is complemented by the presentation of plans for future activities required to successfully implement the bolometer diagnostic, ranging from the detector development over diagnostic design and prototype testing to RH tools for calibration.

  11. The ITER bolometer diagnostic: Status and plansa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.; Giannone, L.; Horton, L. D.; Raupp, G.; Zeidner, W.; Grunda, G.; Kalvin, S.; Fischer, U.; Serikov, A.; Stickel, S.; Reichle, R.

    2008-10-01

    A consortium consisting of four EURATOM Associations has been set up to develop the project plan for the full development of the ITER bolometer diagnostic and to continue urgent R&D activities. An overview of the current status is given, including detector development, line-of-sight optimization, performance analysis as well as the design of the diagnostic components and their integration in ITER. This is complemented by the presentation of plans for future activities required to successfully implement the bolometer diagnostic, ranging from the detector development over diagnostic design and prototype testing to RH tools for calibration.

  12. Ultra-low noise TES bolometer arrays for SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Suzuki, T.; Ridder, M. L.; Hijmering, R. A.; Akamatsu, H.; Gottardi, L.; van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J. R.; Jackson, B. D.

    2016-07-01

    SRON is developing ultra-low noise Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN island with SiN legs for the SAFARI instrument aboard the SPICA mission. We successfully fabricated TESs with very narrow (0.5-0.7 μm) and thin (0.25 μm) SiN legs on different sizes of SiN islands using deep reactiveion etching process. The pixel size is 840x840 μm2 and there are variety of designs with and without optical absorbers. For TESs without absorbers, we measured electrical NEPs as low as <1x10-19 W/√Hz with response time of 0.3 ms and reached the phonon noise limit. Using TESs with absorbers, we quantified the darkness of our setup and confirmed a photon noise level of 2x10-19 W/√Hz.

  13. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  14. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E.E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-02-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm - 2 . After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures ( 0 exp(δ/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

  15. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  16. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Bolometer for Absolute FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Solomon; Neira, Jorge; Tomlin, Nathan; Lehman, John

    We have developed and calibrated planar electrical-substitution bolometers which employ absorbers made from vertically-aligned carbon nanotube arrays. The nearly complete absorption of light by the carbon nanotubes from the visible range to the far-infrared can be exploited to enable a device with read-out in native units equivalent to optical power. Operated at cryogenic temperatures near 4 K, these infrared detectors are designed to have time constant near 10 ms and a noise floor of about 10 pW. Built upon a micro-machined silicon platform, each device has an integrated heater and thermometer, either a carbon nanotube thermistor or superconducting transition edge sensor, for temperature control. We are optimizing temperature-controlled measurement techniques to enable high resolution spectral calibrations using these devices with a Fourier-transform spectrometer.

  18. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  19. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI 3 , with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g e−ph ≈1 W/K cm 2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity

  20. Multi-channel bolometer system on JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Hiroshi; Maeno, Masaki; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Matoba, Tohru

    1988-07-01

    Multi-channel bolometer system is designed and installed to observe the radiation profile on JFT-2M tokamak. Sensor head is made of Thinistor, which is a kind of semiconductor, because it has the advantage of higher sensitivity of about one order of magnitude than the conventional metal foil bolometer and is suitable for the profile measurement in which the signal from the plasma is relatively small. The response and cooling characteristics of the bolometer sensor are suitable for the condition of JFT-2M tokamak plasma. Low noise circuit of bridge and differentiator is developed to optimize the signal to noise ratio in the JFT-2M operating condition. With use of the bolometer system, the radiation profile in joule heating plasma as well as additional heating plasma especially in H-mode plasma is successfully observed. (author)

  1. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  2. Design considerations for TES and QET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, B.

    2000-01-01

    We summarize some of the effects that must be taken into account in the design of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and Quasiparticle-trap-assisted Electrothermal-feedback Transition-edge-sensors (QET). For the TES these include determining time constants, maintaining voltage bias, avoid electrothermal oscillations, critical current limitations, and saturation. For QET phonon sensors, voltage bias was conceived to allow the simultaneous biasing of parallel TESs with different transition temperatures, and preventing normal-superconducting phase separation

  3. Parametric Characterization of TES Detectors Under DC Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Meng P.; Smith, Stephen James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Eckart, Megan E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray integrated field unit (X-IFU) in European Space Agency's (ESA's) Athena mission will be the first high-resolution X-ray spectrometer in space using a large-format transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter array. Motivated by optimization of detector performance for X-IFU, we have conducted an extensive campaign of parametric characterization on transition-edge sensor (TES) detectors with nominal geometries and physical properties in order to establish sensitivity trends relative to magnetic field, dc bias on detectors, operating temperature, and to improve our understanding of detector behavior relative to its fundamental properties such as thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and transition temperature. These results were used for validation of a simple linear detector model in which a small perturbation can be introduced to one or multiple parameters to estimate the error budget for X-IFU. We will show here results of our parametric characterization of TES detectors and briefly discuss the comparison with the TES model.

  4. TES arrays for the short wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R.; Ridder, M.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Trappe, N.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, A.; Griffin, D.; Goldie, D.; Glowacka, D.; Withington, S.; Jackson, B. D.; Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.

    2012-09-01

    SPICA is an infra-red (IR) telescope with a cryogenically cooled mirror (~5K) with three instruments on board, one of which is SAFARI that is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with three bands covering the wavelength of 34-210 μm. We develop transition edge sensors (TES) array for short wavelength band (34-60 μm) of SAFARI. These are based on superconducting Ti/Au bilayer as TES bolometers with a Tc of about 105 mK and thin Ta film as IR absorbers on suspended silicon nitride (SiN) membranes. These membranes are supported by long and narrow SiN legs that act as weak thermal links between the TES and the bath. Previously an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4×10-19 W/√Hz was achieved for a single pixel of such detectors. As an intermediate step toward a full-size SAFARI array (43×43), we fabricated several 8×9 detector arrays. Here we describe the design and the outcome of the dark and optical tests of several of these devices. We achieved high yield (<93%) and high uniformity in terms of critical temperature (<5%) and normal resistance (7%) across the arrays. The measured dark NEPs are as low as 5×10-19 W/√Hz with a response time of about 1.4 ms at preferred operating bias point. The optical coupling is implemented using pyramidal horns array on the top and hemispherical cavity behind the chip that gives a measured total optical coupling efficiency of 30±7%.

  5. Construction and calibration of a fast superconducting bolometer for molecular beams detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallinaro, G.; Varone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A tin bolometer evaporated on an anodized aluminum block is described. The noise equivalent power of the bolometer is of 10 -13 watt Hzsup(-1/2) and the time constant is 3μ sec. The bolometer is a suitable fast molecular beam detector

  6. Development of plasma bolometers using fiber-optic temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinke, M. L., E-mail: reinkeml@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Han, M.; Liu, G. [University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, De Zaale 20, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Evenblij, R.; Haverdings, M. [Technobis, Pyrietstraat 2, 1812 SC Alkmaar (Netherlands); Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Measurements of radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas are important for exhaust studies in present experiments and expected to be a critical diagnostic for future fusion reactors. Resistive bolometer sensors have long been utilized in tokamaks and helical devices but suffer from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Results are shown from initial testing of a new bolometer concept based on fiber-optic temperature sensor technology. A small, 80 μm diameter, 200 μm long silicon pillar attached to the end of a single mode fiber-optic cable acts as a Fabry–Pérot cavity when broadband light, λ{sub o} ∼ 1550 nm, is transmitted along the fiber. Changes in temperature alter the optical path length of the cavity primarily through the thermo-optic effect, resulting in a shift of fringes reflected from the pillar detected using an I-MON 512 OEM spectrometer. While initially designed for use in liquids, this sensor has ideal properties for use as a plasma bolometer: a time constant, in air, of ∼150 ms, strong absorption in the spectral range of plasma emission, immunity to local EMI, and the ability to measure changes in temperature remotely. Its compact design offers unique opportunities for integration into the vacuum environment in places unsuitable for a resistive bolometer. Using a variable focus 5 mW, 405 nm, modulating laser, the signal to noise ratio versus power density of various bolometer technologies are directly compared, estimating the noise equivalent power density (NEPD). Present tests show the fiber-optic bolometer to have NEPD of 5-10 W/m{sup 2} when compared to those of the resistive bolometer which can achieve <0.5 W/m{sup 2} in the laboratory, but this can degrade to 1-2 W/m{sup 2} or worse when installed on a tokamak. Concepts are discussed to improve the signal to noise ratio of this new fiber-optic bolometer by reducing the pillar height and adding thin metallic coatings, along with improving the spectral resolution of the interrogator.

  7. Multichannel bolometer for radiation measurements on the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joye, B.; Marmillod, P.; Nowak, S.

    1986-01-01

    A multichannel radiation bolometer has been developed for the Tokamak Chauffage Alfven (TCA) tokamak. It has 16 equally spaced chords that view the plasma through a narrow horizontal slit. Almost an entire vertical plasma cross section can be observed. The bolometer operates on the basis of a semiconducting element which serves as a temperature-dependent resistance. A new electronic circuit has been developed which takes advantage of the semiconductor characteristics of the detector by using feedback techniques. Measurements made with this instrument are discussed

  8. VALIDITAS TES CLOZE, TES-C, DAN PENILAIAN DIRI SEBAGAI ALAT UKUR KEMAMPUAN MEMBACA TEKS BAHASA INGGRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas tes cloze (CL dan tes-C (C sebagai alat ukur kemampuan membaca teks bahasa Inggris dengan tes Reading Comprehension (RC dari TOEFL sebagai tolok ukur dan mengetahui validitas penilaian diri (PD dengan mengacu pada ketiga tes tersebut. Populasi penelitian meliputi mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Reading I, III, dan V pada semester gasal tahun akademik 2006/2007 di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Sampel penelitian terdiri atas 121 mahasiswa yang dipilih dengan menggunakan teknik sampel acak gugus. Data kemampuan membaca dikumpulkan dengan tes RC, CL dan C. Data PD dikumpulkan dengan tiga kuesioner PD yang menggunakan model Likert. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan menggunakan teknik korelasi Pearson product moment. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa ada korelasi yang positif antara skor tes RC dan skor tes CL, antara skor tes RC dan tes C, dan antara skor PD dan ketiga skor tes membaca tersebut. Kata kunci:      tes reading comprehension, tes cloze, tes-c, penilaian diri, validitas

  9. Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J. R.; Kollberg, E. L.; Yngvesson, K. S.; Bansal, T.; Barends, R.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the noise temperature of a single, sensitive superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer in a frequency range from 1.6 to 5.3 THz, using a setup with all the key components in vacuum. By analyzing the measured receiver noise temperature using a quantum noise (QN) model

  10. Scintillating bolometers: A promising tool for rare decays search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattavina, L., E-mail: luca.pattavina@mib.infn.it

    2013-12-21

    The idea of using a scintillating bolometer was first suggested for solar neutrino experiments in 1989. After many years of developments, now we are able to exploit this experimental technique, based on the calorimetric approach with cryogenic particle detectors, to investigate rare events such as Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay and interaction of Dark Matter candidates. The possibility to have high resolution detectors in which a very large part of the natural background can be discriminated with respect to the weak expected signal is very appealing. The goal to distinguish the different types of interactions in the detector can be achieved by means of scintillating bolometer. The simultaneous read-out of the heat and scintillation signals made with two independent bolometers enable this precious feature leading to possible background free experiment. In the frame of the LUCIFER project we report on how exploiting this technique to investigate Double Beta Decay for different isotope candidates. Moreover we demonstrate how scintillating bolometers are suited for investigating other rare events such as α decays of long living isotopes of lead and bismuth.

  11. The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for diagnosis of Chagas disease: a multi-cohort comparative evaluation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen De Winne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%-99.8% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%-99.1% for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%-74.2% for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%-84.4% for the kDNA OligoC-Test. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004 higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT.

  12. The Trypanosoma cruzi Satellite DNA OligoC-TesT and Trypanosoma cruzi Kinetoplast DNA OligoC-TesT for Diagnosis of Chagas Disease: A Multi-cohort Comparative Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winne, Koen; Büscher, Philippe; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Tavares, Suelene B. N.; Oliveira, Rodrigo A.; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Diosque, Patricio; Monje Rumi, Mercedes; Gironès, Nuria; Fresno, Manuel; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio; Perez-Molina, José A.; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Garcia, Lineth; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA (satDNA) OligoC-TesT is a standardised PCR format for diagnosis of Chagas disease. The sensitivity of the test is lower for discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI than for TcII-VI and the test has not been evaluated in chronic Chagas disease patients. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a new prototype of the OligoC-TesT based on kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection. We evaluated the satDNA and kDNA OligoC-TesTs in a multi-cohort study with 187 chronic Chagas patients and 88 healthy endemic controls recruited in Argentina, Chile and Spain and 26 diseased non-endemic controls from D.R. Congo and Sudan. All specimens were tested in duplicate. The overall specificity in the controls was 99.1% (95% CI 95.2%–99.8%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 97.4% (95% CI 92.6%–99.1%) for the kDNA OligoC-TesT. The overall sensitivity in the patients was 67.9% (95% CI 60.9%–74.2%) for the satDNA OligoC-TesT and 79.1% (95% CI 72.8%–84.4%) for the kDNA OligoC-Test. Conclusions/Significance Specificities of the two T. cruzi OligoC-TesT prototypes are high on non-endemic and endemic controls. Sensitivities are moderate but significantly (p = 0.0004) higher for the kDNA OligoC-TesT compared to the satDNA OligoC-TesT. PMID:24392177

  13. SiGe Integrated Circuit Developments for SQUID/TES Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Piat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.

    2018-03-01

    SiGe integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of superconducting bolometer arrays for astrophysics have been developed since more than 10 years at APC. Whether for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations with the QUBIC ground-based experiment (Aumont et al. in astro-ph.IM, 2016. arXiv:1609.04372) or for the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme with the X-IFU instrument on-board of the ATHENA space mission (Barret et al. in SPIE 9905, space telescopes & instrumentation 2016: UV to γ Ray, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232432), several kinds of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) (Irwin and Hilton, in ENSS (ed) Cryogenic particle detection, Springer, Berlin, 2005) arrays have been investigated. To readout such superconducting detector arrays, we use time or frequency domain multiplexers (TDM, FDM) (Prêle in JINST 10:C08015, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/C08015) with Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID). In addition to the SQUID devices, low-noise biasing and amplification are needed. These last functions can be obtained by using BiCMOS SiGe technology in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). ASIC technology allows integration of highly optimised circuits specifically designed for a unique application. Moreover, we could reach very low-noise and wide band amplification using SiGe bipolar transistor either at room or cryogenic temperatures (Cressler in J Phys IV 04(C6):C6-101, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1994616). This paper discusses the use of SiGe integrated circuits for SQUID/TES readout and gives an update of the last developments dedicated to the QUBIC telescope and to the X-IFU instrument. Both ASIC called SQmux128 and AwaXe are described showing the interest of such SiGe technology for SQUID multiplexer controls.

  14. A novel, highly efficient cavity backshort design for far-infrared TES detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, C.; de Lange, G.; Audley, M. D.; Trappe, N.; Murphy, J. A.; Gradziel, M.; Vreeling, W.-J.; Watson, D.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we present a new cavity backshort design for TES (transition edge sensor) detectors which will provide increased coupling of the incoming astronomical signal to the detectors. The increased coupling results from the improved geometry of the cavities, where the geometry is a consequence of the proposed chemical etching manufacturing technique. Using a number of modelling techniques, predicted results of the performance of the cavities for frequencies of 4.3-10 THz are presented and compared to more standard cavity designs. Excellent optical efficiency is demonstrated, with improved response flatness across the band. In order to verify the simulated results, a scaled model cavity was built for testing at the lower W-band frequencies (75-100 GHz) with a VNA system. Further testing of the scale model at THz frequencies was carried out using a globar and bolometer via an FTS measurement set-up. The experimental results are presented, and compared to the simulations. Although there is relatively poor comparison between simulation and measurement at some frequencies, the discrepancies are explained by means of higher-mode excitation in the measured cavity which are not accounted for in the single-mode simulations. To verify this assumption, a better behaved cylindrical cavity is simulated and measured, where excellent agreement is demonstrated in those results. It can be concluded that both the simulations and the supporting measurements give confidence that this novel cavity design will indeed provide much-improved optical coupling for TES detectors in the far-infrared/THz band.

  15. Design and Performance of the Multiplexed SQUID/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Ade, Peter; Aguirre, James; Brevik, Justus A.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Dober, Bradley; Duff, Shannon M.; Egan, Dennis; Ford, Pam; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; Knowles, Kenda; Marganian, Paul; Mason, Brian Scott; Mates, John A. B.; McMahon, Jeff; Mello, Melinda; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sievers, Jonathon; Tucker, Carole; Vale, Leila R.; Vissers, Michael; White, Steven; Whitehead, Mark; Ullom, Joel; Young, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We present the array performance and astronomical images from early science results from MUSTANG-2, a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array operating on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). MUSTANG-2 was installed on the GBT on December 2, 2016 and immediately began commissioning efforts, followed by science observations, which are expected to conclude June 2017. The feedhorn and waveguide-probe-coupled detector technology is a mature technology, which has been used on instrument including the South Pole Telescope, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the Atacama B-mode Search telescope. The microwave SQUID readout system developed for MUSTANG-2 currently reads out 66 detectors with a single coaxial cable and will eventually allow thousands of detectors to be multiplexed. This microwave SQUID multiplexer combines the proven abilities of millimeterwave TES detectors with the multiplexing capabilities of KIDs with no degradation in noise performance of the detectors. Each multiplexing device is read out using warm electronics consisting of a commercially available ROACH board, a DAC/ADC card, and an Intermediate Frequency mixer circuit. The hardware was originally developed by the UC Berkeley Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronic Research (CASPER) group, whose primary goal is to develop scalable FPGA-based hardware with the flexibility to be used in a wide range of radio signal processing applications. MUSTANG-2 is the first on-sky instrument to use microwave SQUID multiplexing and is available as a shared-risk/PI instrument on the GBT. In MUSTANG-2's first season 7 separate proposals were awarded a total of 230 hours of telescope time.

  16. Methane from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Vivienne; Worden, John; Kulawik, Susan; Frankenberg, Christian; Bowman, Kevin; Wecht, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    TES V5 CH4 captures latitudinal gradients, regional variability and interannual variation in the free troposphere. V5 joint retrievals offer improved sensitivity to lower troposphere. Time series extends from 2004 to present. V5 reprocessing in progress. Upper tropospheric bias. Mitigated by N2O correction. Appears largely spatially uniform, so can be corrected. How to relate free-tropospheric values to surface emissions.

  17. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  18. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium ( 3 ) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit

  19. Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT

    OpenAIRE

    Pütz, P.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Justen, M.; Schultz, M.; Stutzki, J.

    2012-01-01

    Supplementing the publications based on the first-light observations with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on SOFIA, we present background information on the underlying heterodyne detector technology. We describe the superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) detectors that are used as frequency mixers in the L1 (1400 GHz), L2 (1900 GHz), and M (2500 GHz) channels of GREAT. Measured performance of the detectors is presented and background information on the...

  20. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, Jeremy S., E-mail: jeremy.cushman@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Dally, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Davis, Christopher J. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lim, Kyungeun E. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Heeger, Karsten M., E-mail: karsten.heeger@yale.edu [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Maruyama, Reina H. [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nucciotti, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milano I-20126 (Italy); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wise, Thomas [Wright Laboratory, Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO{sub 2} bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  1. Readout of a 176 pixel FDM system for SAFARI TES arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R.; Ridder, M.; van der Linden, A. J.; van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J. R.; Jackson, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present the results of our 176-pixel prototype of the FDM readout system for SAFARI, a TES-based focal-plane instrument for the far-IR SPICA mission. We have implemented the knowledge obtained from the detailed study on electrical crosstalk reported previously. The effect of carrier leakage is reduced by a factor two, mutual impedance is reduced to below 1 nH and mutual inductance is removed. The pixels are connected in stages, one quarter of the array half of the array and the full array, to resolve intermediate technical issues. A semi-automated procedure was incorporated to find all optimal settings for all pixels. And as a final step the complete array has been connected and 132 pixels have been read out simultaneously within the frequency range of 1-3.8MHz with an average frequency separation of 16kHz. The noise was found to be detector limited and was not affected by reading out all pixels in a FDM mode. With this result the concept of using FDM for multiplexed bolometer read out for the SAFARI instrument has been demonstrated.

  2. Infrared detection with high-[Tc] bolometers and response of Nb tunnel junctions to picosecond voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, S.

    1993-05-01

    Oxide superconductors with high critical temperature [Tc] make sensitive thermometers for several types of infrared bolometers. The authors built composite bolometers with YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus][delta

  3. Design of a four-channel bolometer module for ASDEX upgrade and tore supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.R.; Weber, G.; Mast, F.; Schramm, G.; Buchelt, E.; Andelfinger, C.

    1985-10-01

    A new small-sized four-bolometer module for application in high-temperature plasma diagnostics has been designed. The four bolometers and the four reference bolometers shielded against radiation are placed side by side on one kapton foil, the entire arrangement occupying an area of 2.0x3.3 cm 2 . The central part of each bolometer consists of a 1.5x4 mm 2 large, 4 to 15 μm thick radiation absorber made of gold, a 7.5 μm thick kapton carrier foil, and a 0.05 μm thick meander-like gold resistor (conduction path width: 30 μm). It offers all the advantages already provided by the well-known ASDEX and JET bolometers, such as very high operating reliability and resistance to nuclear radiation damage. It is optional to enlarge the cooling time constant of the bolometer in a controlled way from a few milliseconds up to several hundreds, thus improving the sensitivity to very weak signals in the low-frequency (<=20 Hz) part of the radiation spectrum, by means of an additional (thin) gold layer that delays the heat losses from the bolometer foil to the cooling body. Since the bolometer is very suitable for AC-bridge electronics and all bridge resistors are arranged on a minimum area interference signals should be suppressed to extremely low levels. (orig.)

  4. Antenna-coupled 30 THz hot electron bolometer mixers

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbatenko, M.; Lobanov, Y.; Benderov, O.; Shurakov, A.; Ignatov, A.; Titova, N.; Finkel, M.; Maslennikov, S.; Kaurova, N.; Voronov, B.M.; Rodin, A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Gol'tsman, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    We report on design and characterization of a superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Mixer integrated with a logarithmic spiral antenna for mid-IR range observations. The antenna parameters have been adjusted to achieve the ultimate performance at 10 ?m (30 THz) range where O3, NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O, …. lines in the Earth’s atmosphere, in planetary atmospheres and in the interstellar space can be observed. The HEB mixer is made of a thin NbN film deposited onto a GaAs substrate. To couple the ra...

  5. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  6. Quantum noise in a terahertz hot electron bolometer mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.; Khosropanah, P.; Gao, J. R.; Kollberg, E. L.; Yngvesson, K. S.; Bansal, T.; Barends, R.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the noise temperature of a single, sensitive superconducting NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer in a frequency range from 1.6 to 5.3 THz, using a setup with all the key components in vacuum. By analyzing the measured receiver noise temperature using a quantum noise (QN) model for HEB mixers, we confirm the effect of QN. The QN is found to be responsible for about half of the receiver noise at the highest frequency in our measurements. The ?-factor (the quantum efficiency ...

  7. Sea level characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer

    CERN Document Server

    Pécourt, S; Bobin, C; Coron, N; Jesus, M D; Hadjout, J P; Leblanc, J W; Marcillac, P D

    1999-01-01

    A first characterization of a 1100 g sapphire bolometer, performed at sea level and at a working temperature of 40 mK, is presented. Despite perturbations coming from the high-radioactive background and cosmic rays, calibration spectra could be achieved with an internal alpha source and a sup 5 sup 7 Co gamma-ray source: the experimental threshold is 25 keV, while the FWHM resolution is 17.4 keV for the 122 keV peak. Possible heat release effects are discussed, and a new limit of 9x10 sup - sup 1 sup 4 W/g is obtained for sapphire.

  8. Surface Sensitive Bolometer for the CUORE background reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, M.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Nones, C.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2005-01-01

    The most critical point of the CUORE Project [CUORE Proposal, see the web page: http://crio.mib.infn.it/wig] is the background level (BKGL) in the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) region that is dominated by degraded particles coming from materials that face the detectors. Surface Sensitive Bolometers (SSBs) have been developed in order to reduce the BKGL by means of an active background discrimination. The principle of this technique and the first results obtained are briefly described in the following paper

  9. A new method for background rejection with surface sensitive bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nones, C.; Foggetta, L.; Giuliani, A.; Pedretti, M.; Salvioni, C.; Sangiorgio, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report the performance of three prototype TeO 2 macrobolometers, able to identify events due to energy deposited at the detector surface. This capability is obtained by thermally coupling thin active layers to the main absorber of the bolometer, and is proved by irradiating the detectors with alpha particles. This technique can be very useful in view of background study and reduction for the CUORE experiment, a next generation Double Beta Decay search based on TeO 2 macrobolometers and to be installed in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso

  10. Ruthenium oxide resistors as sensitive elements of composite bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benassai, M.; Gallinaro, G.; Gatti, F.; Siri, S.; Vitale, S.

    1988-01-01

    Bolometers for particle detection made with Ruthenium oxide thermistors could be produced by means of a simple technique on a variety of different materials as substrata. Preliminary results on alpha particle detection with devices realized using commercial RuO 2 thick film resistor (Tfr) are considered positive for devices operating between. 3 and .1 k and determined us to pursue further the idea. Ruthenium oxide resistors on sapphire at the moment are being prepared. The behaviour of these devices st temperatures lower than .1 k has to be investigated in more detail

  11. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  12. Status of NTD Ge bolometer material and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Haegel, N.M.; Park, I.S.

    1985-08-01

    This status report is a direct follow-up to the presentation given at the first IR Detector Technology Workshop which took place at NASA Ames Research Center on July 12 and 13, 1983. The conclusions which we presented at that meeting are still fully valid. In the meantime we have learned more about the physics of hopping conduction at very low temperatures which will be important for bolometer design and operation at ever decreasing temperatures. Resistivity measurements have been extended down to 50 mK. At such low temperatures, precise knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections sigma/sub n/ of the various Ge isotopes is critical if one is to make an accurate prediction of the dopant concentrations and compensation, and therefore resistivity, that will result from a given irradiation. We describe an empirical approach for obtaining the desired resistivity material and are in the process of conducting a set of experiments which will improve the knowledge of the effective sigma/sub n/ values for a given location in a particular reactor. A wider range of NTD Ge samples is now available. Noise measurements on bolometers with ion implanted contacts show that no 1/f noise component appears down to 1 Hz and probably lower. 4 refs., 5 figs

  13. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anderson, Adam J.; Avva, Jessica; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Arnold, Kam S.; Austermann, Jason; Bender, Amy N.; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey; Byrum, Karen; Carlstrom, John E.; Carter, Faustin W.; Chang, Clarence; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cukierman, Ari; Czaplewski, David A.; Ding, Junjia; Divan, Ralu N. S.; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt; Dutcher, Daniel; Everett, Wenderline; Gannon, Renae N.; Guyser, Robert J.; Halverson, Nils W.; Harrington, Nicholas L.; Hattori, Kaori; Henning, Jason W.; Hilton, Gene C.; Holzapfel, William L.; Huang, Nicholas; Irwin, Kent D.; Jeong, Oliver; Khaire, Trupti; Korman, Milo; Kubik, Donna L.; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Lee, Adrian T.; Leitch, Erik M.; Lendinez Escudero, Sergi; Meyer, Stephan S.; Miller, Christina S.; Montgomery, Joshua; Nadolski, Andrew; Natoli, Tyler J.; Nguyen, Hogan; Novosad, Valentyn; Padin, Stephen; Pan, Zhaodi; Pearson, John E.; Rahlin, Alexandra; Reichardt, Christian L.; Ruhl, John E.; Saliwanchik, Benjamin; Shirley, Ian; Sayre, James T.; Shariff, Jamil A.; Shirokoff, Erik D.; Stan, Liliana; Stark, Antony A.; Sobrin, Joshua; Story, Kyle; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tang, Qing Yang; Thakur, Ritoban B.; Thompson, Keith L.; Tucker, Carole E.; Vanderlinde, Keith; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wang, Gensheng; Whitehorn, Nathan; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Yoon, Ki Won

    2016-07-01

    Detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are now essentially background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. Here, we present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's Tc is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TES films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from

  14. Demonstration of EnergyNest thermal energy storage (TES) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoivik, Nils; Greiner, Christopher; Tirado, Eva Bellido; Barragan, Juan; Bergan, Pâl; Skeie, Geir; Blanco, Pablo; Calvet, Nicolas

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the experimental results from the EnergyNest 2 × 500 kWhth thermal energy storage (TES) pilot system installed at Masdar Institute of Science & Technology Solar Platform. Measured data are shown and compared to simulations using a specially developed computer program to verify the stability and performance of the TES. The TES is based on a solid-state concrete storage medium (HEATCRETE®) with integrated steel tube heat exchangers cast into the concrete. The unique concrete recipe used in the TES has been developed in collaboration with Heidelberg Cement; this material has significantly higher thermal conductivity compared to regular concrete implying very effective heat transfer, at the same time being chemically stable up to 450 °C. The demonstrated and measured performance of the TES matches the predictions based on simulations, and proves the operational feasibility of the EnergyNest concrete-based TES. A further case study is analyzed where a large-scale TES system presented in this article is compared to two-tank indirect molten salt technology.

  15. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeman, M. A., E-mail: mark.a.lindeman@jpl.nasa.gov; Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Eom, B. H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300 K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  16. Arrays of membrane isolated yttrium-barium-copper-oxide kinetic inductance bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, M. A.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bumble, B.; Day, P. K.; Holmes, W. A.; Kleinsasser, A. W.; Eom, B. H.

    2014-01-01

    We are developing of arrays of membrane isolated resonator-bolometers, each with a kinetic inductance device (KID) to measure the temperature of the membrane. The KIDs are fabricated out of the high temperature superconductor YBCO to allow operation at relatively high temperatures. The bolometers are designed to offer higher sensitivity than sensors operating at 300 K, but they require less expensive and lighter weight cooling than even more sensitive conventional superconducting detectors operating at lower temperatures. The bolometer arrays are applicable as focal planes in infrared imaging spectrometers, such as for planetary science missions or earth observing satellites. We describe the devices and present measurements of their sensitivity.

  17. La fracturation et les bandes de déformation dans la région d’El Kohol (Atlas saharien central, Algérie: analyse fractale, lois d’échelles et modèle de réseaux de fractures discrètes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zazoun, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    augmentation de leurs nombres, ainsi qu’une réduction de leurs espacements à l’approche des accidents majeurs. Les analyses fractales effectuées sur les failles, les fractures et sur les bandes de déformation montrent un caractère fractal de dimension 2. La comparaison des paramètres de densité et d’intensité (Pxy obtenus à partir de la modélisation du réseau de fractures discrètes (DFN avec ceux calculés sur le terrain montrent de bons coefficients de corrélation. Le modèle établi est discuté à la lumière des phases de déformation reconnues dans la région.

  18. Monolayer Graphene Bolometer as a Sensitive Far-IR Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McKitterick, Christopher B.; Prober, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a detailed analysis of the expected sensitivity and operating conditions in the power detection mode of a hot-electron bolometer (HEB) made from a few micro m(sup 2) of monolayer graphene (MLG) flake which can be embedded into either a planar antenna or waveguide circuit via NbN (or NbTiN) superconducting contacts with critical temperature approx. 14 K. Recent data on the strength of the electron-phonon coupling are used in the present analysis and the contribution of the readout noise to the Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) is explicitly computed. The readout scheme utilizes Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) allowing for Frequency-Domain Multiplexing (FDM) using narrowband filter coupling of the HEBs. In general, the filter bandwidth and the summing amplifier noise have a significant effect on the overall system sensitivity.

  19. Bolometer Results in the Long-Microwave-Heated WEGA Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Otte, M.; Giannone, L.

    2006-01-01

    A 12 channel bolometer camera based on a gold foil absorber has been installed on the WEGA stellarator to measure the radiation power losses of the plasma. The measured total radiation power is typically less than 30% of the ECRH input power. However, this radiated power fraction depends on the ECRH input power, the magnetic configuration and the field strength as well as the working gas. For separatrix-bounded configurations, core-peaked radiation intensity profiles are usually detected, while in a limiter-configuration they are flatter, broader and more asymmetric. In addition, significant radiation originating from the SOL region is measured for all the cases studied. The SOL radiation changes with changing the plasma-wave interaction region, indicating a strong correlation between radiation and power deposition. Under the WEGA-plasma conditions (Te<10 eV), it is considered that the radiation profile reflects the plasma pressure associated with the power deposition distribution of the ECRH

  20. Bolometer Results in the Long-Microwave-Heated WEGA Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Otte, M.; Giannone, L.

    2006-01-01

    A 12 channel bolometer camera based on a gold foil absorber has been installed on the WEGA stellarator to measure the radiation power losses of the plasma. The measured total radiation power is typically less than 30% of the ECRH input power. However, this radiated power fraction depends on the ECRH input power, the magnetic configuration and the field strength as well as the working gas. For separatrix-bounded configurations, core-peaked radiation intensity profiles are usually detected, while in a limiter-configuration they are flatter, broader and more asymmetric. In addition, significant radiation originating from the SOL region is measured for all the cases studied. The SOL radiation changes with changing the plasma-wave interaction region, indicating a strong correlation between radiation and power deposition. Under the WEGA-plasma conditions (Te<10 eV), it is considered that the radiation profile reflects the plasma pressure associated with the power deposition distribution of the ECRH.

  1. An implanted $^{228}$Ra source for response characterization of bolometers

    CERN Multimedia

    TeO$_{2}$ crystals are used as bolometers in experiments searching for Double $\\beta$ Decay without emission of neutrinos. One of the most important issues in this extremely delicate kind of experiments is the discrimination of the background from the real signal. A deep knowledge of the bolometric response to $\\alpha$-particles is therefore needed to recognize and discard them, since it has been proven that $\\alpha$ surface contamination could be a major contribution in our background budget. We would like to use ISOLDE’s capability of implanting $^{228}$Ra to make a long-lived source feeding several monochromatic $\\alpha$- and recoiling nuclei, with little or no $\\alpha$-peak broadening due to the source itself, for tests of our detectors in Milano and Gran Sasso INFN National Lab.

  2. A strained silicon cold electron bolometer using Schottky contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brien, T. L. R., E-mail: tom.brien@astro.cf.ac.uk; Ade, P. A. R.; Barry, P. S.; Dunscombe, C.; Morozov, D. V.; Sudiwala, R. V. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Leadley, D. R.; Myronov, M.; Parker, E. H. C.; Prest, M. J.; Whall, T. E. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Mauskopf, P. D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 650 E. Tyler Mall, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We describe optical characterisation of a strained silicon cold electron bolometer (CEB), operating on a 350 mK stage, designed for absorption of millimetre-wave radiation. The silicon cold electron bolometer utilises Schottky contacts between a superconductor and an n{sup ++} doped silicon island to detect changes in the temperature of the charge carriers in the silicon, due to variations in absorbed radiation. By using strained silicon as the absorber, we decrease the electron-phonon coupling in the device and increase the responsivity to incoming power. The strained silicon absorber is coupled to a planar aluminium twin-slot antenna designed to couple to 160 GHz and that serves as the superconducting contacts. From the measured optical responsivity and spectral response, we calculate a maximum optical efficiency of 50% for radiation coupled into the device by the planar antenna and an overall noise equivalent power, referred to absorbed optical power, of 1.1×10{sup −16} W Hz{sup −1/2} when the detector is observing a 300 K source through a 4 K throughput limiting aperture. Even though this optical system is not optimized, we measure a system noise equivalent temperature difference of 6 mK Hz{sup −1/2}. We measure the noise of the device using a cross-correlation of time stream data, measured simultaneously with two junction field-effect transistor amplifiers, with a base correlated noise level of 300 pV Hz{sup −1/2} and find that the total noise is consistent with a combination of photon noise, current shot noise, and electron-phonon thermal noise.

  3. Low-cost far infrared bolometer camera for automotive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieider, Christian; Wissmar, Stanley; Ericsson, Per; Halldin, Urban; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Pettersson, Håkan; Eriksson, Dick; Jakobsen, Henrik; Kvisterøy, Terje; Franks, John; VanNylen, Jan; Vercammen, Hans; VanHulsel, Annick

    2007-04-01

    A new low-cost long-wavelength infrared bolometer camera system is under development. It is designed for use with an automatic vision algorithm system as a sensor to detect vulnerable road users in traffic. Looking 15 m in front of the vehicle it can in case of an unavoidable impact activate a brake assist system or other deployable protection system. To achieve our cost target below €100 for the sensor system we evaluate the required performance and can reduce the sensitivity to 150 mK and pixel resolution to 80 x 30. We address all the main cost drivers as sensor size and production yield along with vacuum packaging, optical components and large volume manufacturing technologies. The detector array is based on a new type of high performance thermistor material. Very thin Si/SiGe single crystal multi-layers are grown epitaxially. Due to the resulting valence barriers a high temperature coefficient of resistance is achieved (3.3%/K). Simultaneously, the high quality crystalline material provides very low 1/f-noise characteristics and uniform material properties. The thermistor material is transferred from the original substrate wafer to the read-out circuit using adhesive wafer bonding and subsequent thinning. Bolometer arrays can then be fabricated using industry standard MEMS process and materials. The inherently good detector performance allows us to reduce the vacuum requirement and we can implement wafer level vacuum packaging technology used in established automotive sensor fabrication. The optical design is reduced to a single lens camera. We develop a low cost molding process using a novel chalcogenide glass (GASIR®3) and integrate anti-reflective and anti-erosion properties using diamond like carbon coating.

  4. Training Exit Survey (TES) Individual State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The TES Individual dataset contains information at the individual-level about the persons who attend a GLS funded training event. This dataset includes variables...

  5. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.

    2001-05-01

    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  6. Automated measurement of bolometer line of sight alignment and characteristics for application in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Florian Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The line of sight (LOS) alignment and characteristic of a bolometer camera used in a fusion experiment is a crucial parameter for the measurement accuracy of the diagnostic. A robot based LOS measurement device has been developed which allows the fully automatic measurement of the two dimensional transmission function of a bolometer camera. It has been used to optimize camera prototypes for ITER and has been successfully operated in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade in order to measure the LOS alignment.

  7. Novel Magnetically-Tuned TES For Imaging X-ray Spectroscopy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) are the state-of-the art technology for microcalorimeter and bolometer applications across the electromagnetic...

  8. Design and fabrication of two-dimensional semiconducting bolometer arrays for HAWC and SHARC-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. D.; Harper, D. A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rennick, Timothy; Shirron, Peter J.; Smith, W. W.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2003-02-01

    The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 × 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 × 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.

  9. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors.

  10. NTD germanium: a novel material for low-temperature bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.; Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Hansen, W.L.; Kreysa, E.

    1982-06-01

    Six samples of ultra-pure (absolute value N/sub A/ - N/sub D/ absolute value less than or equal to 10 11 cm -3 ), single-crystal germanium have been neutron transmutation doped with neutron doses between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm -2 . After thermal annealing at 400 0 C for six hours in a pure argon atmosphere, the samples have been characterized with Hall effect and resistivity measurements between 300 and 0.3 K. Our results show that the resistivity in the low temperature, hopping conduction regime can be approximated with rho = rho 0 exp(Δ/T). The three more heavily doped samples show values for rho 0 and Δ ranging from 430 to 3.3 Ω cm and from 4.9 to 2.8 K, respectively. The excellent reproducibility of neutron transmutation doping and the values of rho 0 and Δ make NTD Ge a prime candidate for the fabrication of low temperature, low noise bolometers. The large variation in the tabulated values of the thermal neutron cross sections for the different germanium isotopes makes it clear that accurate measurements of these cross-sections for well defined neutron energy spectra would be highly desirable

  11. Pengembangan The Two-Tier Diagnostic Tes pada Bidang Biologi secara Terkomputersisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwarto Suwarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian bertujuan mengembangkan tes diagnostik dua tingkat (the two-tier diagnostic test pada bidang biologi dan mengembangkan program komputer untuk mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar siswa. Tes disusun melalui tiga fase, yaitu (1 defining the content boundaries; (2 identifying students’ misconceptions; dan (3 developing instrument. Pengembangan program komputer terkait dengan soal, siswa, tabel kerja, SQL (Structured Query Language, ketuntasan, dan grade. Tes diagnostik yang dikembangkan ada 3, yaitu tes A, tes B, dan tes C. Responden untuk tes A dan tes B ada 130 siswa dan untuk tes C ada 128 siswa. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan program iteman versi 3,00. Program komputer yang dikembangkan diujicobakan di SMAN 1 Tawangsari dan SMA Veteran 1 Sukoharjo. Hasil penelitian adalah Tes A terdiri atas 73 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,031-0,962, rentang daya beda butir 0,013-1,000 dan reliabilitas 0,871; Tes B terdiri atas 39 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,038-0,762, rentang daya beda butir 0,009-0,918 dan reliabilitas 0,768; dan Tes C terdiri atas 79 butir, dengan rentang kesulitan butir 0,102-0,938, daya beda butir 0,029-1,000 dan reliabilitas 0,894. Program komputer untuk mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar telah berfungsi dengan baik. Kata kunci: tes terkomputerisasi

  12. Simulation of Transient Response of Ir-TES for Position-Sensitive TES with Waveform Domain Multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Y.; Sato, H.; Mori, F.; Damayanthi, R. M. T.; Takahashi, H.; Ohno, M.

    2008-04-01

    We are developing a new x-ray microcalorimeter based on a superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) as an imaging sensor. Our measurement shows unique waveforms which we consider as an expression of thermal nonuniformity of TES films. This arises from the different thermal responses, so that response signal shapes would vary according to the position of the incident x-ray. This position dependency deteriorate the measured energy resolution, but with appropriate waveform analysis, this would be useful for imaging device. For more inspection, we have developed a simulation code which enables a dynamic simulation to obtain a transient response of the TES by finite differential method. Temperature and electric current distributions are calculated. As a result, we successfully obtained waveform signals. The calculated signal waveforms have similar characteristics to the measured signals. This simulation visualized the transition state of the device and will help to design better detector.

  13. A millisecond-risetime sub-millimeter light source for lab and in flight bolometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbon, Ph.; Delbart, A.; Fesquet, M.; Magneville, C.; Mazeau, B.; Pansart, J.-P.; Yvon, D.; Dumoulin, L.; Marnieros, S.; Camus, Ph.; Durand, T.; Hoffmann, Ch.

    2007-06-01

    The Olimpo balloon project will use a 120 bolometer camera to observe the sky at four frequencies (143, 217, 385 and 600 GHz) with a resolution of 3 to 2 arc-minute. This paper presents the sub-millimeter calibration "lamp" developed for ground testing and in-flight secondary calibration of bolometric detectors. By design, main features of the device are reproducibility and stability of light flux and millisecond rise time. The radiative device will be placed inside the bolometer camera and will illuminate the bolometer array through a hole in the last 2 K mirror. Operation, readout, and monitoring of the device is ensured by warm electronics. Light output flux and duration is programmable, triggered and monitored from a simple computer RS232 interface. It was tested to be reliable in ballooning temperature conditions from -80 to 50C. Design and test's results are explained.

  14. Operation of a tangential bolometer on the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Fonck, R.J.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    A compact 15-channel bolometer array that views plasma emission tangentially across the midplane has been installed on the PBX tokamak to supplement a 19-channel poloidal array which views the plasma perpendicular to the toroidal direction. By comparing measurements from these arrays, poloidal asymmetries in the emission profile can be assessed. The detector array consists of 15 discrete 2-mm x 2-mm Thinistors, a mixed semiconductor material whose temperature coefficient of resistance is relatively high. The accumulated heat incident on a detector gives rise to a change in the resistance in each active element. Operated in tandem with an identical blind detector, the resistance in each pair is compared in a Wheatstone bridge circuit. The variation in voltage resulting from the change in resistance is amplified, stored on a CAMAC transient recorder during the plasma discharge, and transferred to a VAX data acquisition computer. The instantaneous power is obtained by digitally smoothing and differentiating the signals in time, with suitable compensation for the cooling of the detector over the course of a plasma discharge. The detectors are ''free standing,'' i.e., they are supported only by their electrical leads. Having no substrate in contact with the detector reduces the response time and increases the time it takes for the detector to dissipate its accumulated heat, reducing the compensation for cooling required in the data analysis. The detectors were absolutely calibrated with a tungsten-halogen filament lamp and were found to vary by +-3%. The irradiance profiles are inverted to reveal the radially resolved emitted power density from the plasma, which is typically in the 0.1 to 0.5 W/cm 3 range

  15. Lojalitātes programmas mazumtirdzniecībā.

    OpenAIRE

    Magone, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt klientu lojalitātes būtību un veidošanos, izmantojot mārketinga literatūrā piedāvātās koncepcijas, izpētīt mazumtirdzniecību lojalitātes programmas, salīdzināt uzņēmumu Prisma, Rimi un Maxima lojalitātes programmas un izstrādāt priekšlikumus kā uzlabot to darbību. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no trijām daļām. Pirmajā nodaļā ir raksturota un analizēta lojalitāte mārketinga teorijā. Otrajā nodaļā ir analizētas lojalitātes programmas kā mārketinga instruments. Tre...

  16. Frequency-domain multiplexing of TES microcalorimeter array with CABBAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyomoto, N.; Ichitsubo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N.Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Oshima, T.; Futamoto, K.; Takei, Y.; Fujimori, T.; Yoshida, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Morita, U.; Koga, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, K.; Takai, N.; Ohashi, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nakayama, S.; Tanaka, K.; Morooka, T.; Chinone, K.

    2004-01-01

    Properties of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeters operated with AC bias are studied utilizing the calorimeter Wheatstone bridge circuit called Calorimeter Bridge Biased by an AC Generator (CABBAGE). The CABBAGE eliminates the AC carrier significantly, thus enables us to study the AC responses of the TES with high sensitivity. We tested two kinds of TES devices operating at 110 and 440 mK, respectively. With the 110 mK device biased with 25 kHz, an energy resolution of 28 eV is obtained for Mn Kα line. On the other hand, we multiplexed the signals from two 440 mK device biased with 50 and 20 kHz, respectively, and obtained 167 and 271 eV energy resolutions. Even at the balance point of the bridge, AC signal did not disappear and odd-order harmonics were observed. They are considered to arise from the current dependence of the TES resistance, which is characterized by β≡d log R/d log I. Numerical solution for the CABBAGE response can reproduce the experimental results well if β=0.24±0.02. Since the harmonics may cause severe problem in the SQUID operation even after attenuated by a band-pass filter, especially at high bias frequency operation such as several hundred kHz, it is important to make β small

  17. Terahertz performance of quasioptical front-ends with a hotelectron bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A; Richter, H; Guenther, B; Huebers, H-W; Karamarkovic, J

    2006-01-01

    We present terahertz performance of quasioptical front-ends consisting of a hotelectron bolometer imbedded in a planar feed antenna and integrated with an immersion lens. The impedance and radiation pattern of the log-spiral and double-slot planar feeds are evaluated using the method of moments; the collimating action of the lens is modelled using the physical optics. The total efficiency of the front-ends is computed taking into account frequency dependent impedance of the bolometer. Measured performance of the front-ends qualifies the simulation technique as a reliable tool for the design of terahertz receivers

  18. Enhanced performance of VOx-based bolometer using patterned gold black absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan M.; Panjwani, Deep; Ginn, James; Warren, Andrew; Long, Christopher; Figuieredo, Pedro; Smith, Christian; Perlstein, Joshua; Walter, Nick; Hirschmugl, Carol; Peale, Robert E.; Shelton, David J.

    2015-06-01

    Patterned highly absorbing gold black film has been selectively deposited on the active surfaces of a vanadium-oxide-based infrared bolometer array. Patterning by metal lift-off relies on protection of the fragile gold black with an evaporated oxide, which preserves gold black's near unity absorption. This patterned gold black also survives the dry-etch removal of the sacrificial polyimide used to fabricate the air-bridge bolometers. Infrared responsivity is substantially improved by the gold black coating without significantly increasing noise. The increase in the time constant caused by the additional mass of gold black is a modest 14%.

  19. Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.

  20. Long-term stability of TES satellite radiance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Connor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES Level 2 (L2 retrieval products for the purpose of assessing long term changes in atmospheric trace gas composition requires knowledge of the overall radiometric stability of the Level 1B (L1B radiances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stability of the radiometric calibration of the TES instrument by analyzing the difference between measured and calculated brightness temperatures in selected window regions of the spectrum. The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO profiles for temperature and water vapor and the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST are used as input to the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS radiative transfer model to calculate the simulated spectra. The TES reference measurements selected cover a 4-year period of time from mid 2005 through mid 2009 with the selection criteria being; observation latitudes greater than −30° and less than 30°, over ocean, Global Survey mode (nadir view and retrieved cloud optical depth of less than or equal to 0.01. The TES cloud optical depth retrievals are used only for screening purposes and no effects of clouds on the radiances are included in the forward model. This initial screening results in over 55 000 potential reference spectra spanning the four year period. Presented is a trend analysis of the time series of the residuals (observation minus calculations in the TES 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 1A1 bands, with the standard deviation of the residuals being approximately equal to 0.6 K for bands 2B1, 1B2, 2A1, and 0.9 K for band 1A1. The analysis demonstrates that the trend in the residuals is not significantly different from zero over the 4-year period. This is one method used to demonstrate that the relative radiometric calibration is stable over time, which is very important for any longer term analysis of TES retrieved products (L2, particularly well-mixed species such as carbon dioxide and methane.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN TES BERPIKIR KRITIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN ITEM RESPONSE THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajrianthi Fajrianthi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan sebuah alat ukur (tes berpikir kritis yang valid dan reliabel untuk digunakan, baik dalam lingkup pendidikan maupun kerja di Indonesia. Tahapan penelitian dilakukan berdasarkan tahap pengembangan tes menurut Hambleton dan Jones (1993. Kisi-kisi dan pembuatan butir didasarkan pada konsep dalam tes Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. Pada WGCTA, berpikir kritis terdiri dari lima dimensi yaitu Inference, Recognition Assumption, Deduction, Interpretation dan Evaluation of arguments. Uji coba tes dilakukan pada 1.453 peserta tes seleksi karyawan di Surabaya, Gresik, Tuban, Bojonegoro, Rembang. Data dikotomi dianalisis dengan menggunakan model IRT dengan dua parameter yaitu daya beda dan tingkat kesulitan butir. Analisis dilakukan dengan menggunakan program statistik Mplus versi 6.11 Sebelum melakukan analisis dengan IRT, dilakukan pengujian asumsi yaitu uji unidimensionalitas, independensi lokal dan Item Characteristic Curve (ICC. Hasil analisis terhadap 68 butir menghasilkan 15 butir dengan daya beda yang cukup baik dan tingkat kesulitan butir yang berkisar antara –4 sampai dengan 2.448. Sedikitnya jumlah butir yang berkualitas baik disebabkan oleh kelemahan dalam menentukan subject matter experts di bidang berpikir kritis dan pemilihan metode skoring. Kata kunci: Pengembangan tes, berpikir kritis, item response theory   DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING TEST UTILISING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY Abstract The present study was aimed to develop a valid and reliable instrument in assesing critical thinking which can be implemented both in educational and work settings in Indonesia. Following the Hambleton and Jones’s (1993 procedures on test development, the study developed the instrument by employing the concept of critical thinking from Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The study included five dimensions of critical thinking as adopted from the WGCTA: Inference, Recognition

  2. Investigation of the Neutral Gas Pressure Effect on the Metal Resistive Bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, D.; Giannone, L.; Piechotka, M.; Windisch, T.; Klinger, T.; Grulke, O.; Stark, A.

    2008-01-01

    The bolometer system planned for W7-X consists mainly of metal (Au) resistive detector arrays. All the detectors are exposed to neutral gas environment. The thin bolometer foil used for detecting the radiated power loss may be sensitive to the neutral gas pressure due to the strain gauge effect. Recently, a prototype of this kind of bolometer camera consisting of 12 channels has been installed on the cylindrical plasma device VINETA in order to investigate the influences of the neutral gas pressure on the bolometer signals. Experiments are carried out for Ar-discharges under different gas pressure conditions. It is found that the pressure effect of the neutral gas can make considerable contributions, thus inducing non-negligible errors of the results in most of the investigated cases. Using the VINETA plasmas (Ar, T e e -19 m -3 ) as examples, the paper demonstrates and discusses how to minimize the neutral gas effects, especially in the data analysis process. The radiated power and the radiation intensity profile obtained in helicon discharges are presented

  3. Investigation of the Neutral Gas Pressure Effect on the Metal Resistive Bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Giannone, L.; Grulke, O.; Piechotka, M.; Windisch, T.; Stark, A.; Klinger, T.

    2008-03-01

    The bolometer system planned for W7-X consists mainly of metal (Au) resistive detector arrays. All the detectors are exposed to neutral gas environment. The thin bolometer foil used for detecting the radiated power loss may be sensitive to the neutral gas pressure due to the strain gauge effect. Recently, a prototype of this kind of bolometer camera consisting of 12 channels has been installed on the cylindrical plasma device VINETA in order to investigate the influences of the neutral gas pressure on the bolometer signals. Experiments are carried out for Ar-discharges under different gas pressure conditions. It is found that the pressure effect of the neutral gas can make considerable contributions, thus inducing non-negligible errors of the results in most of the investigated cases. Using the VINETA plasmas (Ar, Te<10 eV, ne<10-19 m-3) as examples, the paper demonstrates and discusses how to minimize the neutral gas effects, especially in the data analysis process. The radiated power and the radiation intensity profile obtained in helicon discharges are presented.

  4. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% – 35% and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  5. An experimental study of antireflective coatings in Ge light detectors for scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, M.; Beeman, J. W.; Giuliani, A.; Dumoulin, L.; Olivieri, E.; Pessina, G.; Plantevin, O.; Rusconi, C.; Tenconi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Luminescent bolometers are double-readout devices able to measure simultaneously the phonon and the light yields after a particle interaction in the detector. This operation allows in some cases to tag the type of the interacting quantum, crucial issue for background control in rare event experiments such as the search for neutrinoless double beta decay and for interactions of particle dark matter candidates. The light detectors used in the LUCIFER and LUMINEU searches (projects aiming at the study of the double beta interesting candidates 82Se and 100Mo using ZnSe and ZnMoO4 scintillating bolometers) consist of hyper-pure Ge thin slabs equipped with NTD thermistors. A substantial sensitivity improvement of the Ge light detectors can be obtained applying a proper anti-reflective coatings on the Ge side exposed to the luminescent bolometer. The present paper deals with the investigation of this aspect, proving and quantifying the positive effect of a SiO2 and a SiO coating and setting the experimental bases for future tests of other coating materials. The results confirm that an appropriate coating procedure helps in improving the sensitivity of bolometric light detectors by an important factor (in the range 20% - 35%) and needs to be included in the recipe for the development of an optimized radio-pure scintillating bolometer.

  6. Upcoming planetary missions and the applicability of high-temperature-superconductor bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasunas, J.; Kunde, V.; Moseley, H.; Lakew, B.

    1991-01-01

    Planetary missions to Mars and beyond can last 11 years and longer, making impractical the use of stored cryogens. Passive radiative coolers and single-stage mechanical coolers remain possibilities. Cassini and Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Fly-by (CRAF), both using the newly developed Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft, will be the next outer planet missions after Galileo; they are intended to provide information on the origin and evolution of the solar system. CRAF is slated for a 1994 launch. Cassini was chosen by ESA and will be launched by a Titan 4/Centaur in 1996. It will fly by Jupiter in 2000, inject an ESA-supplied probe into Titan in 2002, and take data in Saturn's orbit from 2002 to 2006. NASA/Goddard is currently developing a prototype Fourier transform spectrometer, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS), for the Cassini mission. The baseline infrared detectors for CIRS are HgCdTe to 16 microns and Schwarz-type thermopiles from 16 to 1000 microns. The far infrared focal plane could be switched from thermopiles to high temperature superconductor (HTS) bolometers between now and 1996. An HTS bolometer could be built using the kinetic inductance effect, or the sharp resistance change at the transition. The transition-edge bolometer is more straightforward to implement, and initial efforts at NASA/Goddard are directed to that device. A working device was made and tested in early 1989. It also has somewhat elevated noise levels below 100 Hz. Upcoming efforts will center on reducing the time constant of the HTS bolometer by attempting to deposit an HTS film on a diamond substrate, and by thinning SrTiO3 substrates. Attempts will be made to improve the film quality to reduce the 1/4 noise level, and to improve the thermal isolation to increase the bolometer sensitivity

  7. An alternative geometry for bolometer sensors for use at high operating temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H., E-mail: meister@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Langer, H. [KRP-Mechatec Engineering GbR, Lichtenbergstr. 8, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany); Schmitt, S. [Fraunhofer ICT-IMM, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Alternative design for bolometer sensors based on flexure hinges is proposed. • FE analysis confirms mechanical stability at high temperatures. • First prototypes successfully pass thermal cycling tests. • Expected bolometer calibration constants are estimated. • Tests using fully functional prototypes have to confirm applicability of design. - Abstract: Bolometer sensors are a key component to determine the total radiation and the radiation profile in fusion devices. For future devices like ITER the need arose to develop new sensors in order to adapt to loads, in particular neutron irradiation and enhanced thermal loads. The method proposed here to deal effectively with the stresses in the absorber and its supporting membrane is to support the absorber by flexure hinges, thus allowing deformations in all dimensions and reducing stresses. First, a design for the flexure hinges is proposed. Then finite-element analyses (FEA) have been carried out to investigate expected deformations due to residual stresses from the manufacturing process as well as due to additional thermal loads at 450 °C. The results showed stress levels below the expected tensile strength of Si. In addition, calculations show that the proposed design is expected to provide acceptable cooling time constants. Thus, prototypes based on the proposed design have been manufactured. Measurements of their deformation at room temperature are in agreement with predictions from FEA. Also, all prototypes were successfully subjected to thermal cycling up to 450 °C without any failures, thus demonstrating a successful development. However, for future application as bolometer sensor, a change in calibration parameters is expected: a factor of five for the heat capacity and a factor of two for the cooling time constant. Further prototypes including meanders and electrical contacts need to be developed and tested to finally validate if flexure hinges are a viable means for bolometer

  8. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. A. H. M.; Adnan, F.; Ismail, A. R.; Kardigama, K.; Salaam, H. A.; Ahmad, Z.; Johari, N. H.; Anuar, Z.; Azmi, N. S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ~ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ~ 40% and 12mm ~ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  9. Computational Analysis on Performance of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M A H M; Ismail, A R; Kardigama, K; Salaam, H A; Ahmad, Z; Johari, N H; Anuar, Z; Azmi, N S N; Adnan, F

    2012-01-01

    Application of thermal energy storage (TES) system reduces cost and energy consumption. The performance of the overall operation is affected by diffuser design. In this study, computational analysis is used to determine the thermocline thickness. Three dimensional simulations with different tank height-to-diameter ratio (HD), diffuser opening and the effect of difference number of diffuser holes are investigated. Medium HD tanks simulations with double ring octagonal diffuser show good thermocline behavior and clear distinction between warm and cold water. The result show, the best performance of thermocline thickness during 50% time charging occur in medium tank with height-to-diameter ratio of 4.0 and double ring octagonal diffuser with 48 holes (9mm opening ∼ 60%) acceptable compared to diffuser with 6mm ∼ 40% and 12mm ∼ 80% opening. The conclusion is computational analysis method are very useful in the study on performance of thermal energy storage (TES).

  10. Komparasi Metode Penyetaraan Tes Menurut teori Respons Butir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Miyatun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menemukan metode penyetaraan tes dengan teori respons butir yang paling akurat. Sebelum dilakukan pengujian keakuratan metode penyetaraan tes, terlebih dahulu dilakukan: 1 Pemeriksaan setara atau tidaknya perangkat tes, 2 Penemuan persamaan konversi antarpaket soal yang tidak setara dan 3 Estimasi parameter butir. Penentuan metode penyetaraan tes yang akurat didasarkan pada besarnya kesalahan standar penyetaraan (SEE; yang paling akurat adalah metode penyetaraan tes yang mempunyai SEE paling kecil. Dalam penelitian ini, terdapat dua macam objek penelitian yaitu paket soal dan jawaban peserta EBTANAS. Soal EBTANAS terdiri dari 3 paket soal utama, 1 paket soal susulan, dan 1 paket soal cadangan. Peserta EBTANAS SLTP di Jawa Tengah Tahun Ajaran 1998/1999 terdiri dari 370.187 siswa. Teknik Purposive Sampling digunakan untuk menentukan sampel paket soal, yaitu ketiga paket soal utama terpilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Teknik Cluster Stratified Systematic Random Sampling digunakan untuk menentukan sampel jawaban peserta EBTANAS. Jawaban peserta sebanyak 8.251, terpilih sebagai sampel penelitian. Paket soal EBTANAS SLTP bidang studi Matematika dan data jawaban peserta tes, diperoleh melalui pengambilan data dokumentasi. Keparalelan tes diuji dengan analisis varians, uji Scheffe, dan uji Levene. Penyetaraan tes dilakukan dengan metode: Rerata dan Sigma, Rerata dan Sigma Tegar, dan Kurva Karakteristik. Estimasi parameter butir dilakukan dengan analisis program Bilog. Hasil analisis menunjukkan, pasangan paket soal utama-1 dan 2 serta pasangan paket soal utama-1 dan 3 tidak paralel, sehingga diperlukan proses penyetaraan. Pasangan paket soal utama-2 dan paket soal utama-3 bersifat paralel. Oleh karena itu tidak diperlukan proses penyetaraan. Penyetaraan paket soal utama-1 ke paket soal utama-2, dengan metode Rerata dan Sigma didapatkan persamaan konversi X2 - 1,19495 X] + 0,25766; dengan metode Rerata dan Sigma Tegar, X2 = 0

  11. PENILAIAN PEMAHAMAN REPRESENTASI GRAFIK MATERI OPTIKA GEOMETRI MENGGUNAKAN TES DIAGNOSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan dan menerapkan tes diagnostik pilihan ganda tiga tingkat untuk mengukur pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa terkait esensi inkuiri sains dan materi optika geometri. Penelitian menggunakan metode campuran melibatkan 83 mahasiswa calon guru fisika di satu LPTK Sumatera Utara. Instrumen tes diagnostik terlebih dahulu didesain kemudian disempurnakan selama proses, direvisi, dan digunakan untuk mendeteksi dan menilai pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa calon guru fisika. Instrumen tes telah dikembangkan untuk dapat mendiagnosis dan memperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan yang dilakukan calon guru fisika terkait dengan keterampilan mengonstruk grafik, menemukan kesulitan-kesulitan dalam membaca dan menginterpretasi grafik. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil studi menunjukkan pembacaan grafik dan keterampilan menginterpretasi grafik calon guru fisika masih belum memadai dan juga kemahiran dalam menganalisis grafik bergantung pada jenis grafik dan level atau tipe pertanyaan yang dikembangkan. Kata Kunci: representasi grafik, optik geometri, diagnostik tes ASSESSING OF UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION CONTENT GEOMETRICAL OPTIC USING DIAGNOSTIC TEST Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and apply three tier multiple choice diagnostic test to measure student’s understanding of graphical representation about essential features of inquiry and content geometrical optic. The study was conducted using mixed methods and carried out with 83 prephysics teachers at a University of Teachers Education in North Sumatera. The diagnostic instrument was designed and then progressively refined, revised, and implemented to detect and assess student’s understanding of graphical representation. Test instrument was developed to diagnose and correct the mistakes made by pre-service physics teachers about construction graphic skills, difficulties in the reading and interpretation

  12. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Anderson

    Full Text Available The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag.

  13. Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers on Silicon-on-Insulator Substrates for Terahertz Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, Anders; Stern, Jeffrey; Bumble, Bruce; Maiwald, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A terahertz Hot-Electron Bolometer (HEB) mixer design using device substrates based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology is described. This substrate technology allows very thin chips (6 pm) with almost arbitrary shape to be manufactured, so that they can be tightly fitted into a waveguide structure and operated at very high frequencies with only low risk for power leakages and resonance modes. The NbTiN-based bolometers are contacted by gold beam-leads, while other beamleads are used to hold the chip in place in the waveguide test fixture. The initial tests yielded an equivalent receiver noise temperature of 3460 K double-sideband at a local oscillator frequency of 1.462 THz and an intermediate frequency of 1.4 GHz.

  14. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 18-20, D-55129 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-10-15

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 deg. C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 {mu}m thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 deg. C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  15. Noise and specific detectivity measurements on high-temperature superconducting transition-edge bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, R.D.; Mogro-campero, A.; Turner, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuation noise in thermal detectors can be lessened by reducing heat capacity and thermal conductance. An attempt to accomplish this with the YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) bolometer by making YBCO resistors on thermally isolated membranes is reported. The spectral power of the electrical noise of YBCO films on SrTiO3, bulk silicon with a buffer layer, and in thin dielectric membranes is measured. It is found that 1/f noise predominates in polycrystalline YBCO films on silicon-based substrates. Films on SrTiO3 with good electrical properties are dominated by thermal fluctuation noise, just as in the case of low-temperature superconductors. The implications of these findings for bolometer are addressed. The specific detectivity of a bolometric pixel made on bulk SrTiO3 is reported. 14 refs

  16. Data acquisition and real-time bolometer tomography using LabVIEW RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, J.C.; Ravindran, M.; Ruan, Q.; Wenzel, L.; Cerna, M.; Concezzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The currently available multi-core PCI Express systems running LabVIEW RT (real-time), equipped with FPGA cards for data acquisition and real-time parallel signal processing, greatly shorten the design and implementation cycles of large-scale, real-time data acquisition and control systems. This paper details a data acquisition and real-time tomography system using LabVIEW RT for the bolometer diagnostic on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany). The transformation matrix for tomography is pre-computed based on the geometry of distributed radiation sources and sensors. A parallelized iterative algorithm is adapted to solve a constrained linear system for the reconstruction of the radiated power density. Real-time bolometer tomography is performed with LabVIEW RT. Using multi-core machines to execute the parallelized algorithm, a cycle time well below 1 ms is reached.

  17. Optimization of a bolometer detector for ITER based on Pt absorber on SiN membranea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, H.; Eich, T.; Endstrasser, N.; Giannone, L.; Kannamüller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T.; ASDEX Upgrade Team; Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.

    2010-10-01

    Any plasma diagnostic in ITER must be able to operate at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and neutron loads corresponding to 0.1 dpa over its lifetime. To achieve this aim for the bolometer diagnostic, a miniaturized metal resistor bolometer detector based on Pt absorbers galvanically deposited on SiN membranes is being developed. The first two generations of detectors featured up to 4.5 μm thick absorbers. Results from laboratory tests are presented characterizing the dependence of their calibration constants under thermal loads up to 450 °C. Several detectors have been tested in ASDEX Upgrade providing reliable data but also pointing out the need for further optimization. A laser trimming procedure has been implemented to reduce the mismatch in meander resistances below 1% for one detector and the thermal drifts from this mismatch.

  18. An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovell, Jack, E-mail: jack.lovell@durham.ac.uk [Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Naylor, Graham; Field, Anthony [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Drewelow, Peter [MPI für Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Sharples, Ray [Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. DELFIC-TES, Gamma Doses from Nuclear Explosion Radioactive Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DELFIC-TES computes the transit gamma exposure from the airborne cloud resulting from a nuclear burst for fixed targets located on or above the earth's surface. 2 - Method of solution - The system is based on a method of producing 'snapshots' of the moving cloud of airborne particles during the transport process of DELFIC. Each particle in each snapshot is then assigned an activity and these data are used to calculate transit exposure by employing an energy-dependent buildup factor technique

  20. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  1. Low temperature composite bolometers using RuO2 films as a thermistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapellier, M.; Rasmussen, F.B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from a massive composite bolometer made of a sapphire crystal and ruthenium oxide films are presented. The properties of such RuO 2 films, in the temperature range [50 mK, 200 mK] have been studied. Individual particle detections, using an 241 Am source, have been used to calibrate the system in this temperature interval. Improvements in the performances of such detectors lead to consider them as realistic candidates for the detection of Dark Matter

  2. Liquid helium-cooled MOSFET preamplifier for use with astronomical bolometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid helium-cooled p-channel enhancement mode MOSFET, the 3N167, is found to have sufficiently low noise for use as a preamplifier with helium-cooled bolometers that are used in infrared astronomy. Its characteristics at 300, 77, and 4.2 K are presented. It is also shown to have useful application with certain photoconductive and photovoltaic infrared detectors.

  3. Perbandingan Keefektifan Bentuk Tes Uraian dan Teslet dengan Penerapan Graded Response Model (GRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwo susongko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemukan: (1 perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet secara empirik dan simulasi, (2 pengaruh banyaknya item dan ukuran sampel terhadap perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet secara simulasi, dan (3 keakuratan pemodelan GRM pada bentuk uraian dan testlet. Data empirik diambil dari respons siswa terhadap tes bentuk uraian dan bentuk testlet dari 772 siswa SMA kelas XI yang tersebar di lima SMA di Kabupaten Tegal. Bentuk tes uraian dan testlet bersama-sama diberikan pada siswa pada akhir semester I dan di awal semester II dengan waktu tenggang minimal 1 bulan. Data pada penelitian simulasi dibangkitkan dari parameter item hasil estimasi pada penelitian empirik dengan program WinGen 2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 secara empirik dan simulasi, tes yang disajikan dalam bentuk uraian cenderung memiliki nilai fungsi informasi item yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan tes yang disajikan dalam bentuk testlet, (2 secara simulasi, ada pengaruh banyaknya item dan ukuran sampel terhadap perbandingan nilai fungsi informasi item pada bentuk tes uraian dan bentuk testlet, dan (3 pemodelan GRM pada bentuk tes uraian dan testlet paling akurat pada kondisi banyaknya item 20 dan ukuran sampel 2000. Kata kunci: keefektifan, bentuk tes, graded response model

  4. Characterization of a ZnSe scintillating bolometer prototype for neutrinoless double beta decay search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenconi M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As proposed in the LUCIFER project, ZnSe crystals are attractive materials to realize scintillating bolometers aiming at the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of the promising isotope 82Se. However, the optimization of the ZnSe-based detectors is rather complex and requires a wide-range investigation of the crystal features: optical properties, crystalline quality, scintillation yields and bolometric behaviour. Samples tested up to now show problems in the reproducibility of crucial aspects of the detector performance. In this work, we present the results obtained with a scintillating bolometer operated aboveground at about 25 mK. The detector energy absorber was a single 1 cm3 ZnSe crystal. The good energy resolution of the heat channel (about 14 keV at 1460 keV and the excellent alpha/beta discrimination capability are very encouraging for a successful realization of the LUCIFER program. The bolometric measurements were completed by optical tests on the crystal (optical transmission and luminescence measurements down to 10 K and investigation of the crystalline structure. The work here described provides a set of parameters and procedures useful for a complete pre-characterization of ZnSe crystals in view of the realization of highly performing scintillating bolometers.

  5. Calibration of a novel type of bolometer arrays for the Herschel space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the universes in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite. During my thesis, my task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community. In this manuscript, I present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. Then, I describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA. I follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. Then I expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I express detector performances in terms of 'observational' performances that future PACS users can comprehend. (author) [fr

  6. Millimetre wave attenuation of prototype diagnostic components for the ITER bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H., E-mail: meister@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kasparek, W. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik & Plasmatechnologie, Stuttgart (Germany); Zhang, D.; Hirsch, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Koll, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Zeitler, A. [Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik & Plasmatechnologie, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Attenuation of ECRH stray radiation in ITER demonstrated for bolometer prototypes. • Collimator with microwave reflecting grid achieves >70 dB at 170 GHz (ITER frequency). • For frequencies >250 GHz (ECE radiation) ceramic coating showed 40 dB attenuation. • Good shielding at joints of components is prerequisite to prevent microwave leakage. • These methods prevent the impact of ECRH stray radiation on bolometer measurements. - Abstract: Bolometers in current and future fusion devices, in particular those in ITER, are vulnerable to stray radiation from electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) which results in measurement errors for plasma radiation detection. To protect the detectors from this stray radiation in the millimetre wavelength range, dedicated diagnostic components have been designed and tested. One option is to place a top plate which contains a microwave-reflecting grid onto the collimators. Another option investigated is the coating of the collimator channels using a microwave absorbing ceramic. Measurements of the mm-wave attenuation of the collimator in front of the bolometer detectors with and without top plate or coated collimator channels have been performed in the frequency range of 125–420 GHz. The attenuation factor of the collimator channels at 170 GHz (the ECRH frequency for ITER) with neither microwave grid nor coating is typically 10 dB. The coating enhances this to 40 dB and including the microwave grid yields at least an attenuation factor of 70 dB, which is sufficient to reduce the residual ECRH induced signal significantly below the one due to plasma radiation. Placing a bolometer camera (collimator connected to detector housing) inside the isotropic microwave field of the test facility MISTRAL, the attenuation factor of the full diagnostic set-up using a top plate was determined to be in the order of 45 dB. This degraded attenuation implies that particular attention has to be paid to design and quality

  7. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  8. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  9. Contribution à la connaissance des micromycètes du Maroc. Cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution à la connaissance des micromycètes du Maroc. Cas des ... et qualitative des micromycètes d'origine terrestre de la région de Rabat (Maroc). ... elles ont été entraînées dans le milieu aquatique par différents moyens de transport.

  10. Thermoelectrical-electrothermal feedback (te-et f) enhanced performance characteristics of a high temperature superconductor far-infrared bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaila, M.M.; Russell, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: It is more than a decade since the discovery of new a High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) materials. Their adaptation to large scale applications e.g. high magnetic fields, friction-less motors, levitation trains etc., is still long way to go. Small scale applications e.g., far-infrared sensors, has certainly been established as a highly suitable area for immediate economically viable commercial exploitation. The semiconductor counterparts, NT(Neutron Transmutation doped)Ge, CD(Compensation Doped)Si sensors are not only expensive and difficult to manufacture but also require liquid helium refrigeration at mK temperatures to operate. Although the work around the world has centered on photo-electrical bolometers, in our approach we have adopted a much simpler, temperature stable and a better performing photo-thermoelectrical mode of operation. It is well known that the semi-metal BiSb has the highest electronic thermoelectric figure of merit at liquid nitrogen temperatures. One can obtain a value around 1x10 -2 / K by application of a magnetic field to the BiSb leg of a composite. BiSb-HTSC bolometer. We can use this high figure of merit to our advantage in two different modes of operation of the detector. One is the static mode where the thermoelectric power generated across the semi-metal leg (connected in parallel with the HTSC leg) of the bolometer drives the external electronic circuitry. This circuitry can be remotely (no direct electrical contact) coupled to the bolometer e.g. through the primary coil of a SQUID current amplifier, which can be connected in series with the bolometer inside the cryostat, for better noise performance, or outside, for convenience. Second is the heterodyne operation. The external bias is applied in a constant voltage bias mode. The direction of the bias is so chosen that the transient Peltier power generated, from the incident radiation, in the circuit extracts additional heat at the sensitive area of the bolometer

  11. Bismuth X-ray absorber studies for TES microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadleir, J.E.; Bandler, S.R.; Brekosky, R.P.; Chervenak, J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; King, J.M.; Porter, F.S.; Robinson, I.K.; Saab, T.; Talley, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bismuth's large atomic number and low carrier density makes it an attractive X-ray absorber material for microcalorimeters. Bismuth's long Fermi wavelength and long mean free paths have motivated much interest in the fabrication of high quality bismuth films to study quantum size effects. Despite such incentives, fabrication of high quality bismuth films has proven difficult, and measured properties of such films are highly variable in the literature. Implementing a bismuth deposition process for TES (superconducting Transition Edge Sensor) device fabrication presents additional challenges particularly at interfaces due to the inherent granularity and surface roughness of its films, its low melting point, and its tendency to diffuse and form undesired intermetallic phases. We report observations of Bi-Cu and Bi-Au diffusion in our devices correlating with large shifts in T c (superconducting transition temperature). Using SEM and in situ R vs T annealing experiments we have been able to study these diffusion processes and identify their activation temperatures

  12. Veikala lojalitātes programmas iOS lietotne

    OpenAIRE

    Freibergs, Kristaps

    2013-01-01

    Pasaulē izmantoto tehnoloģiju klāstam augot, ir pieaudzis arī mobilo ierīču piedāvājums un to iespējas. Salīdzinoši lielu daļu tirgus ir iekarojusi Apple Inc. ar savu produkciju, tai skaitā iPhone viedtālruņiem. Šajā kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstīta un izstrādāta iPhone ierīces lietotne veikala lojalitātes programmas realizācijai. Lietotnes mērķis ir popularizēt konkrēto veikalu, piedāvājot dažādas lietotājam saistošas funkcijas, tai skaitā, apskatīt tuvākos veikalus, izveidot iepirkumu g...

  13. Optimization of X-ray Absorbers for TES Microcalorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyomoto, Naoko; Sadleir, John E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Saab, Tarek; Bandler, Simon; Kilbourne, Caroline; Chervenak, James; Talley, Dorothy; Finkbeiner, Fred; Brekosky, Regis

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal, electrical, and structural properties of Bi and BiCu films that are being developed as X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for imaging X-ray spectroscopy. Bi could be an ideal material for an X-ray absorber due to its high X-ray stopping power and low heat capacity, but it has a low thermal conductivity, which can result in position dependence of the pulses in the absorber. In order to improve the thermal conductivity, we added Cu layers in between the Bi layers. We measured electrical and thermal conductivities of the films around 0.1 K(sub 1) the operating temperature of the TES calorimeter, to examine the films and to determine the optimal thickness of the Cu layer. From the electrical conductivity measurements, we found that the Cu is more resistive on the Bi than on a Si substrate. Together with an SEM picture of the Bi surface, we concluded that the rough surface of the Bi film makes the Cu layer resistive when the Cu layer is not thick enough t o fill in the roughness. From the thermal conductivity measurements, we determined the thermal diffusion constant to be 2 x l0(exp 3) micrometers squared per microsecond in a film that consists of 2.25 micrometers of Bi and 0.1 micrometers of Cu. We measured the position dependence in the film and found that its thermal diffusion constant is too low to get good energy resolution, because of the resistive Cu layer and/or possibly a very high heat capacity of our Bi films. We show plans to improve the thermal diffusion constant in our BiCu absorbers.

  14. Bolometer's development for the detection of dark matter; Instrumentation autour de bolometres pour la recherche de matiere sombre WIMPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yvon, D

    2000-06-01

    The author reviews his contributions to the use of bolometers (cryogenic detectors) for the detection of wimps (weakly interactive massive particles). Wimps are detected through their elastic scattering on the nuclei of the detector, a heat signal, luminescence or ionization can be simultaneously detected (at least 2 signals are necessary to discard photon interactions). Bolometers operate at low temperatures (< 50 mK) so they allow very low detection threshold and resolution (< keV) with a full energy conversion for recoiling nuclei. In Saclay the technology of bolometers based on simultaneous detection of heat and ionisation has been developed and improvements have been studied (NbSi thin films bolometers). The first results obtained in the framework of the Edelweiss collaboration are presented. Other developments based on infra-red bolometry (Planck surveyor and Archeops projects) are briefly described. In an appendix the operating principle of a bolometer is presented. (A.C.)

  15. A terahertz heterodyne receiver based on a quantum cascade laser and a superconducting bolometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, T. O. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Hajenius, M. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Adam, A. J. L. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Klapwijk, T. M. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Baryshev, A. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Kumar, Sushil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Baselmans, J. J. A. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Yang, Z. Q. (SRON National Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, Utrecht, The Netherlands); Hovenier, J. N. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Gao, J. R. (Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg, Delft, The Netherlands); Reno, John Louis

    2005-03-01

    We report the first demonstration of an all solid-state heterodyne receiver that can be used for high-resolution spectroscopy above 2 THz suitable for space-based observatories. The receiver uses a NbN superconducting hot-electron bolometer as mixer and a quantum cascade laser operating at 2.8 THz as local oscillator. We measure a double sideband receiver noise temperature of 1400 K at 2.8 THz and 4.2 K, and find that the free-running QCL has sufficient power stability for a practical receiver, demonstrating an unprecedented combination of sensitivity and stability.

  16. Non-uniform absorption of terahertz radiation on superconducting hot electron bolometer microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, W.; Zhang, W.; Zhong, J. Q.; Shi, S. C.; Delorme, Y.; Lefevre, R.; Feret, A.; Vacelet, T.

    2014-01-01

    We interpret the experimental observation of a frequency-dependence of superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers by taking into account the non-uniform absorption of the terahertz radiation on the superconducting HEB microbridge. The radiation absorption is assumed to be proportional to the local surface resistance of the HEB microbridge, which is computed using the Mattis-Bardeen theory. With this assumption the dc and mixing characteristics of a superconducting niobium-nitride (NbN) HEB device have been modeled at frequencies below and above the equilibrium gap frequency of the NbN film

  17. Top-Level Simulation of a Smart-Bolometer Using VHDL Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu DENOUAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An event-driven modeling technique in standard VHDL is presented in this paper for the high level simulation of a resistive bolometer operating in closed-loop mode and implementing smart functions. The closed-loop mode operation is achieved by the capacitively coupled electrical substitution technique. The event-driven VHDL modeling technique is successfully applied to behavioral modeling and simulation of such a multi-physics system involving optical, thermal and electronics mechanisms. The modeling technique allows the high level simulations for the development and validation of the smart functions algorithms of the future integrated smart-device.

  18. A low-power CMOS readout IC design for bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioglu, Arman; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Shafique, Atia; Ceylan, Ömer; Yazici, Melik; Kaynak, Mehmet; Durmaz, Emre C.; Arsoy, Elif Gul; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-02-01

    A prototype of a readout IC (ROIC) designed for use in high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) SiGe microbolometers is presented. The prototype ROIC architecture implemented is based on a bridge with active and blind bolometer pixels with a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) input stage and column parallel integration with serial readout. The ROIC is designed for use in high (>= 4 %/K) TCR and high detector resistance Si/SiGe microbolometers with 17x17 μm2 pixel sizes in development. The prototype has been designed and fabricated in 0.25- μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process.

  19. A work procedure of utilising PCMs as thermal storage systems based on air-TES systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, M.; Liu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A procedure to design effective thermal energy storage (TES) system. • A guidance for the selection of the working material (PCM) and the heat exchanger development. • Suggestions for heat transfer enhancement techniques for the air-TES system. • Mathematical, computational and experimental methods optimising the air-TES system. - Abstract: The paper seeks to offer a procedure to design an effective short term thermal energy storage (TES) system using phase change materials. The methodology focus on two main aspects: the selection of the working material and the heat exchanger development. The selection of the appropriate PCMs is one of the main keys for any TES therefore their classifications, properties, advantages and disadvantages need to be investigated. Due to the intensive researches using this kind of materials in the recent years, there are a range of commercial PCMs available and supplied by different companies. However, all types of PCM present their specific problems and therefore requirements are defined in order to select the most suitable PCMs. The other main key when designing TES is related to the heat exchanger formed by the PCM and the cold/hot heat sources. For this step, the choice of the appropriate container to encapsulate the PCM and the heat transfer enhancement techniques are analysed. Distinct methodologies such as experimental and numerical study methods and modelling software tools are presented to analyse the thermal energy performance of the system and achieve the optimal design of the TES system

  20. Development of X-ray microcalorimeter using Ir/Au-TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Huminori; Ataka, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    We are developing x-ray mirocalorimeters using transition edge sensors of iridium/gold (Ir/Au-TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). At present, the energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. At a synchrotron X-ray radiation facility, we demonstrated microscopic signal response profile of the device and high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using a small amount of sample. (author)

  1. Are BiTEs the "missing link" in cancer therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, Carter M; Gedeon, Patrick C; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Verla, Terence; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Choi, Bryan D; Fecci, Peter E; Sampson, John H

    2015-06-01

    Conventional treatment for cancer routinely includes surgical resection and some combination of chemotherapy and radiation. These approaches are frequently accompanied by unintended and highly toxic collateral damage to healthy tissues, which are offset by only marginal prognostic improvements in patients with advanced cancers. This unfortunate balance has driven the development of novel therapies that aim to target tumors both safely and efficiently. Over the past decade, mounting evidence has supported the therapeutic utility of T-cell-centered cancer immunotherapy, which, in its various iterations, has been shown capable of eliciting highly precise and robust antitumor responses both in animal models and human trials. The identification of tumor-specific targets has further fueled a growing interest in T-cell therapies given their potential to circumvent the non-specific nature of traditional treatments. Of the several strategies geared toward achieving T-cell recognition of tumor, bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a novel class of biologics that have garnered enthusiasm in recent years due to their versatility, specificity, safety, cost, and ease of production. Bispecific T-cell Engagers (BiTEs) are a subclass of bsAbs that are specific for CD3 on one arm and a tumor antigen on the second. As such, BiTEs function by recruiting and activating polyclonal populations of T-cells at tumor sites, and do so without the need for co-stimulation or conventional MHC recognition. Blinatumomab, a well-characterized BiTE, has emerged as a promising recombinant bscCD19×CD3 construct that has demonstrated remarkable antitumor activity in patients with B-cell malignancies. This clinical success has resulted in the rapid extension of BiTE technology against a greater repertoire of tumor antigens and the recent US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) accelerated approval of blinatumomab for the treatment of a rare form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review

  2. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironi, L., E-mail: luca.gironi@mib.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis. - Highlights: • The LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment. • Scintillating bolometers allow high energy resolution and background discrimination. • The first choice for the LUCIFER tower are ZnSe crystals. • The LUCIFER setup will consist of an array of 30 individual single module detectors. • An array of ZnMoO4 crystals allowed the bolometric observation of the 2vDBD of {sup 100}Mo.

  3. The Polarization-Sensitive Bolometers for SPICA and their Potential Use for Ground-Based Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveret, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    CEA is leading the development of Safari-POL, an imaging-polarimeter aboard the SPICA space observatory (ESA M5). SPICA will be able to reach unprecedented sensitivities thanks to its cooled telescope and its ultra-sensitive detectors. The detector assembly of Safari-POL holds three arrays that are cooled down to 50 mK and correspond to three spectral bands : 100, 200 and 350 microns. The detectors (silicon bolometers), benefit from the Herschel/PACS legacy and are also a big step forward in term of sensitivity (improved by two orders of magnitude compared to PACS bolometers) and for polarimetry capabilities. Indeed, each pixel is intrinsically sensitive to two polarization components (Horizontal and Vertical). We will present the Safari-POL concept, the first results of measurements made on the detectors, and future plans for possible ground-based instruments using this technology. We will also present the example of the ArTéMiS camera, installed at APEX, that was developped as a ground-based conterpart of the PACS photometer.

  4. Bolometer tomography at the density limit of the HDH mode in the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L; Brakel, R; Burhenn, R; Ehmler, H; Feng, Y; Grigull, P; McCormick, K; Wagner, F; Baldzuhn, J; Igitkhanov, Y; Knauer, J; Nishimura, K; Pasch, E; Peterson, B J; Ramasubramanian, N; Rust, N; Weller, A; Werner, A

    2003-01-01

    The installation of divertor plates in the W7-AS stellarator has allowed attainment of a high energy confinement regime at high density, where the radiation profiles reached steady state. In this regime, the radial profile of the radiated power is hollow. Raising the density to the point where the radiated power approached the input power led to plasma detachment and a decrease in diamagnetic energy. This defines the density limit in a stellarator and a scaling law for this maximum density can be heuristically derived on the basis of power balance considerations. The installation of two bolometer cameras away from the divertor plates and three bolometer cameras in the vicinity of the divertor plates has provided insight into the features of high density operation of a divertor in a stellarator. In the main chamber, tomographic inversion at the density limit has shown that a poloidally asymmetric radiation profile developed as the density limit was approached. In the divertor, radiation in front of the divertor plates occurred while the plasma was attached and this radiation zone vanished at plasma detachment. Steady state discharges of up to 1.5 s have been achieved for neutral beam injection power of up to 2 MW. A precursor to a spontaneous transition out of the high confinement regime has been identified

  5. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; hide

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  6. Low-Noise Wide Bandwith, Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers for Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a novel superconductive hot-electron micro-bolometer has been proposed which is both fast and sensitive (D. E. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2119, 1993). This device has several important properties which make it useful as a heterodyne sensor for radioastronomy applications at frequencies above 1 THz. The thermal response time of the device is fast enough, several 10's of picoseconds, to allow for IF's of several GHz. This bolometer mixer should operate well up to at least 10 THz. There is no energy gap limitation as in an SIS mixer, since the mixing process relies on heating of the electron gas. In fact, rf power is absorbed more uniformly above the gap frequency. The mixer noise should be near quantum-limited, and the local oscillator (LO) power requirement is very low: / 10 nW for a Nb device. One of the unique features of this device is that it employs rapid electron diffusion into a normal metal, rather than phonon emission, as the thermal conductance that cools the heated electrons. In order for diffusion to dominate over phonon emission, the device must be short, less than 0.5.

  7. Optimal Extraction of Tropospheric Ozone Column by Simultaneous Use of OMI and TES Data and the Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, M. R.; Shirazi, H.

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to increase the accuracy of Ozone data from tropospheric column (TOC) of the OMI and TES satellite instruments. To validate the estimated amount of satellite data, Ozonesonde data is used. The vertical resolution in both instruments in the tropospheric atmosphere decreases so that the degree of freedom signals (DOFS) on the average for TES is reduced to 2 and for OMI is reduced to1. But this decline in accuracy in estimation of tropospheric ozone is more obvious in urban areas so that estimated ozone in both instruments alone in non-urban areas show a high correlation with Ozonesonde. But in urban areas this correlation is significantly reduced, due to the ozone pre-structures and consequently an increase on surface-level ozone in urban areas. In order to improve the accuracy of satellite data, the average tropospheric ozone data from the two instruments were used. The aim is to increase the vertical resolution of ozone profile and the results clearly indicate an increase in correlations, but nevertheless the satellite data have a positive bias towards the earth data. To reduce the bias, with the solar flux and nitrogen dioxide values and surface temperatures are calculated as factors of ozone production on the earth's surface and formation of mathematical equations based on coefficients for each of the mentioned values and multiplication of these coefficients by satellite data and repeated comparison with the values of Ozonesonde, the results showed that bias in urban areas is greatly reduced.

  8. TES/Aura L3 H2O Monthly Gridded V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The TES Aura L3 H2O data consist of daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species. Data are provided at 2 degree latitude X 4 degree longitude...

  9. User's Manual for the Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES) Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sebesta, Georgia

    1996-01-01

    The Biodiversity and Threatened and Endangered Species Experts (BioTES), version 1.0 helps installation and government personnel locate points of contact for experts in the areas of biodiversity and threatened and endangered species...

  10. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  11. TES/Aura L2 Instantaneous Radiative Kernel Nadir Special Observation V007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using TES radiances, Jacobians and ozone profiles with hemispherical integration, it is possible to compute the TOA (top-of-atmosphere) flux from the infrared ozone...

  12. Very large scale heterogeneous integration (VLSHI) and wafer-level vacuum packaging for infrared bolometer focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Samel, Björn; Ericsson, Per; Hoivik, Nils; Lapadatu, Adriana; Bring, Martin; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of -3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  13. Identification of near surface events using athermal phonon signals in low temperature Ge bolometers for the EDELWEISS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnieros, S.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Dumoulin, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of a 100 g low temperature Ge detector, allowing identification of surface events down to the energy threshold. The bolometer is fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Analysis of the athermal signals amplitudes allows us to identify and reject all events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes

  14. Identification of near surface events using athermal phonon signals in low temperature Ge bolometers for the EDELWEISS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnieros, S. E-mail: marniero@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.; Collin, S.; Dumoulin, L

    2004-03-11

    We present a study of a 100 g low temperature Ge detector, allowing identification of surface events down to the energy threshold. The bolometer is fitted with segmented electrodes and two NbSi Anderson insulator thermometric layers. Analysis of the athermal signals amplitudes allows us to identify and reject all events occurring in the first millimeter under the electrodes.

  15. Investigation of CeO2 Buffer Layer Effects on the Voltage Response of YBCO Transition-Edge Bolometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Nazifi, Rana; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    The effect on the thermal parameters of superconducting transition-edge bolometers produced on a single crystalline SrTiO3 (STO) substrate with and without a CeO2 buffer layer was investigated. Metal-organic deposition was used to deposit the 20-nm CeO2 buffer layer, whereas RF magnetron sputtering...

  16. An Optimisation Study on Integrating and Incentivising Thermal Energy Storage (TES in a Dwelling Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbemi Oluleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the benefits from thermal energy storage (TES integration in dwellings, the penetration rate in Europe is 5%. Effective fiscal policies are necessary to accelerate deployment. However, there is currently no direct support for TES in buildings compared to support for electricity storage. This could be due to lack of evidence to support incentivisation. In this study, a novel systematic framework is developed to provide a case in support of TES incentivisation. The model determines the costs, CO2 emissions, dispatch strategy and sizes of technologies, and TES for a domestic user under policy neutral and policy intensive scenarios. The model is applied to different building types in the UK. The model is applied to a case study for a detached dwelling in the UK (floor area of 122 m2, where heat demand is satisfied by a boiler and electricity imported from the grid. Results show that under a policy neutral scenario, integrating a micro-Combined Heat and Power (CHP reduces the primary energy demand by 11%, CO2 emissions by 21%, but with a 16 year payback. Additional benefits from TES integration can pay for the investment within the first 9 years, reducing to 3.5–6 years when the CO2 levy is accounted for. Under a policy intensive scenario (for example considering the Feed in Tariff (FIT, primary energy demand and CO2 emissions reduce by 17 and 33% respectively with a 5 year payback. In this case, the additional benefits for TES integration can pay for the investment in TES within the first 2 years. The framework developed is a useful tool is determining the role TES in decarbonising domestic energy systems.

  17. Collection and dissemination of TES system information for the paper and pulp industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Edde, H.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and international paper and pulp mills using thermal energy storage (TES) systems as a part of their production processes was conducted to obtain sufficient operating data to conduct a benefits analysis encompassing: (1) an energy conservation assessment, (2) an economic benefits analysis, and (3) an environmental impact assessment. An information dissemination plan was then proposed to effectively present the benefits of TES to the U.S. paper and pulp industry.

  18. TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia

    2006-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.

  19. TES ammonia retrieval strategy and global observations of the spatial and seasonal variability of ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Shephard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Presently only limited sets of tropospheric ammonia (NH3 measurements in the Earth's atmosphere have been reported from satellite and surface station measurements, despite the well-documented negative impact of NH3 on the environment and human health. Presented here is a detailed description of the satellite retrieval strategy and analysis for the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES using simulations and measurements. These results show that: (i the level of detectability for a representative boundary layer TES NH3 mixing ratio value is ~0.4 ppbv, which typically corresponds to a profile that contains a maximum level value of ~1 ppbv; (ii TES NH3 retrievals generally provide at most one degree of freedom for signal (DOFS, with peak sensitivity between 700 and 900 mbar; (iii TES NH3 retrievals show significant spatial and seasonal variability of NH3 globally; (iv initial comparisons of TES observations with GEOS-CHEM estimates show TES values being higher overall. Important differences and similarities between modeled and observed seasonal and spatial trends are noted, with discrepancies indicating areas where the timing and magnitude of modeled NH3 emissions from agricultural sources, and to lesser extent biomass burning sources, need further study.

  20. Development of an automated method for in situ measurement of the geometrical properties of the ITER bolometer diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, H., E-mail: meister@ipp.mpg.de; Penzel, F.; Giannone, L.; Kannamueller, M.; Kling, A.; Koll, J.; Trautmann, T.

    2011-10-15

    In order to derive the local emission profile of the plasma radiation in a fusion device using the line-integrated measurements of the bolometer diagnostic, tomographic reconstruction methods have to be applied to the measurements from many lines-of-sight. A successful reconstruction needs to take the finite sizes of detectors and apertures and the resulting non-ideal measurements into account. In ITER a method for in situ measurement of the geometrical properties of the various components of the bolometer diagnostic after installation is required as the viewing cones have to pass through narrow gaps between components. The method proposed to be used for ITER uses the beam of a laser with high intensity to illuminate the bolometer assembly from many different angles {xi} and {theta}. A light-weight robot from Kuka Robotics is used to efficiently position the laser on many points covering the complete viewing cone of each line-of-sight and to direct the beam precisely into the entrance aperture of the bolometer. Measuring the response of the bolometer allows for the calculation of the transmission function t({xi}, {theta}), the angular etendue and finally the geometric function in reconstruction space, which is required for the tomography algorithms. Measuring the transmission function for a laboratory assembly demonstrates the viability of the proposed method. Results for a collimator-type camera from a prototype envisaged for ITER are presented. The implemented procedure is discussed in detail, in particular with respect to the automatisation applied which takes the achievable positioning and alignment accuracies of the robot into account. This discussion is extended towards the definition of requirements for a remote-handling tool for ITER.

  1. APLIKASI TES KEPRIBADIAN UNTUK PENEMPATAN KARYAWAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE MBTI (MYERS-BRIGGS TYPEINDICATORBERBASISWEB (STUDI KASUS: PT. WINATA PUTRA MANDIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiftin Noviyanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Penempatan karyawan merupakan salah satu fungsi terpenting dalam Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia. Penempatan karyawan yang tepat sesuai dengan harapan, bakat dan kepribadian karyawan, akan mampu meningkatkan motivasi, produltifitas dan kepuasan kerja. Salah satu tes penunjang penempatan karyawan adalah tes kepribadian. Tes kepribadian yang dilakukan menggunakan metode Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. Pelaksanaan tes yang dilakukan manual dan terpisah antara kantor pusat dan kantor cabang membuat PT. Winata Putra Mandiri memerlukan waktu yang lama untuk melihat keseluruhan hasil tes seluruh karyawan. Tujuan penelitian ini membuat aplikasi tes kepribadian yang dapat diakses melalui internet adalah agar karyawan dapat melihat hasil tes kepribadian secara langsung dan cepat serta dapat mengintegrasikan hasil tes dari kantor pusat dan kantor cabang. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan berbagai metode antara lain : Studi kepustakaan, metode interview dan browsing. Model proses yang digunakan adalah waterfall yang terdiri dari analisa kebutuhan sistem, perancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pada perancangan sistem dimulai dari perancangan proses, perancangan tabel, perancangan menu dan perancangan interface. Pada tahap implementasi menggunakan PHPMyAdmin untuk membangun basisdata dan PHP untuk teknologi Serverside. Tahap terakhir adalah pengujian sistem yang dilakukan dengan Black Box Test dan Alpha Test. Hasil penelitian ini berupa aplikasi tes kepribadian menggunakan metode Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI berbasis web yang dapat membantu PT. Winata Putra Mandiri dalam mengintegrasikan hasil tes seluruh karyawan baik dari kantor pusat maupun kantor cabang

  2. Low Thermal Conductance Transition Edge Sensor (TES) for SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosropanah, P.; Dirks, B.; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P.

    2009-01-01

    We fabricated and characterized low thermal conductance transition edge sensors (TES) for SAFARI instrument on SPICA. The device is based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer deposited on suspended SiN membrane. The critical temperature of the device is 113 mK. The low thermal conductance is realized by using long and narrow SiN supporting legs. All measurements were performed having the device in a light-tight box, which to a great extent eliminates the loading of the background radiation. We measured the current-voltage (IV) characteristics of the device in different bath temperatures and determine the thermal conductance (G) to be equal to 320 fW/K. This value corresponds to a noise equivalent power (NEP) of 3x10 -19 W/√(Hz). The current noise and complex impedance is also measured at different bias points at 55 mK bath temperature. The measured electrical (dark) NEP is 1x10 -18 W/√(Hz), which is about a factor of 3 higher than what we expect from the thermal conductance that comes out of the IV curves. Despite using a light-tight box, the photon noise might still be the source of this excess noise. We also measured the complex impedance of the same device at several bias points. Fitting a simple first order thermal-electrical model to the measured data, we find an effective time constant of about 2.7 ms and a thermal capacity of 13 fJ/K in the middle of the transition.

  3. MODEL TES FISIK PENCARIAN BAKAT OLAHRAGA BULUTANGKIS USIA DI BAWAH 11 TAHUN DI DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utvi Hinda Zhannisa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model tes fisik pencarian bakat cabang olahraga bulutangkis usia di bawah 11 tahun. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian R and D (Research and Development. Dalam penelitian pengembangan ini, langkah-langkah yang harus ditempuh meliputi: (1 studi pendahuluan (studi pustaka dan studi lapangan, (2 perencanaan (melakukan analisis, (3 desain draft awal, (4 validasi draft (5 ujcoba produk kelompok kecil dan revisi, (6 uji coba kelompok besar dan revisi, (7 hasil akhir. Validitas menggunakan validitas isi, reliabilitas menggunakan test retest Conbrach’s Alpha dan Z skor untuk menyamakan satuan. Uji reliabilitas diperoleh hasil (a tes kelentukan (sit and reach 0,743; (b tes kecepatan (lari 30 m 0,844; (c tes power otot tungkai (vertical jump 0,663; (d tes kelincahan (lari 4 sudut 0,848; (e tes power otot lengan (lempar bola 0,943; (f tes reaksi (step test 0,987; (g tes daya tahan (lari 600 m 0,861. Produk yang dihasilkan berupa sebuah model tes dan norma tes untuk pencarian bakat.   A MODEL OF PHYSICAL TEST FOR TALENT SCOUTING IN BADMINTON SKILL UNDER 11 YEARS OLD IN DIY   Abstract The purpose of the research it to develop a model of physical test in looking for a sport talent in badminton skill under 11 years old. The type of this research is R and D (Research and Development in this development research, the steps are (1 introduction study (bibiliography study, and field study, (2 planning (doing analysis, (3introduction draft design, (4 validation draft, (5 trying out product in small group and revision, (6 trying out product in big group and revision, (7 final result. Validation used content validation, reliability used test retest and Z score to the same the unit.  The model of the test that has been arranged is suitable to be to look for talent in badminton skill. Reability test shows that: (a sit and reach 0.743; (b sprint 30 m 0.844; (c vertical jump 0.663; (d run 4 corner 0.848; (e throw ball

  4. Preliminary design of a tangentially viewing imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. J., E-mail: peterson@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advance Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Reinke, M. L.; Canik, J. M.; Lore, J. D.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm{sup 2} for a time resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼80 (∼0.36 to ∼26) mW/cm{sup 2}.

  5. LUCIFER: A Scintillating Bolometer Array for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L

    2012-01-01

    One of the main limitations in the study of 0vDBD is the presence of a radioactive background in the energy region of interest. This limit can be overcome by the technological approach of the LUCIFER project, which is based the double read-out of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. This experiment aims at a background lower than 10 −3 counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82 Se. Such a low background level will provide a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of the order of 100 meV. In the following, the results of the recent R and D activity are discussed, the single module for the LUCIFER detector is described, and the process for the production of 82 Se-enriched ZnSe crystals is presented.

  6. A rad-hard, steady state, digital imaging bolometer system for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and design of a new type of bolometer system which can function with excellent spatial resolution and good time resolution in the next generation of long-pulse (or steady-state), harsh-neutron environment fusion plasmas, is outlined. It uses a cooled pinhole camera design, employing a robust, passive, segmented radiation absorber, cooled from the back-side. Infrared emission from the absorber's front surface is relayed by metal mirror optics to a shielded, high-resolution IR video camera with ± 0.01 C temperature resolution. It can make thousands of simultaneous ''pixel'' measurements at up to 50--60 Hz, without any signal wires through the vacuum interface

  7. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, G. G. van; Morgan, T. W. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Reinke, M. L.; Gray, T. K.; Lore, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Peterson, B. J.; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Pandya, S. N. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Village, Gandhinagar, 382428 Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm{sup 2} Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.

  8. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOÖTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Yong, David; Monaco, Lorenzo; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from –3.7 to –1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = –3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  9. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily V.; Zhu, Liye; Payne, Vivienne H.; Worden, John R.; Jiang, Zhe; Kulawik, Susan S.; Brey, Steven; Hecobian, Arsineh; Gombos, Daniel; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Flocke, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN) is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (˜ 750 hPa) even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15-32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF) > 0.6) overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO) > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  10. Using TES retrievals to investigate PAN in North American biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Fischer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peroxyacyl nitrate (PAN is a critical atmospheric reservoir for nitrogen oxide radicals, and plays a lead role in their redistribution in the troposphere. We analyze new Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES PAN observations over North America from July 2006 to July 2009. Using aircraft observations from the Colorado Front Range, we demonstrate that TES can be sensitive to elevated PAN in the boundary layer (∼ 750 hPa even in the presence of clouds. In situ observations have shown that wildfire emissions can rapidly produce PAN, and PAN decomposition is an important component of ozone production in smoke plumes. We identify smoke-impacted TES PAN retrievals by co-location with NOAA Hazard Mapping System (HMS smoke plumes. Depending on the year, 15–32 % of cases where elevated PAN is identified in TES observations (retrievals with degrees of freedom (DOF > 0.6 overlap smoke plumes during July. Of all the retrievals attempted in the July 2006 to July 2009 study period, 18 % is associated with smoke . A case study of smoke transport in July 2007 illustrates that PAN enhancements associated with HMS smoke plumes can be connected to fire complexes, providing evidence that TES is sufficiently sensitive to measure elevated PAN several days downwind of major fires. Using a subset of retrievals with TES 510 hPa carbon monoxide (CO > 150 ppbv, and multiple estimates of background PAN, we calculate enhancement ratios for tropospheric average PAN relative to CO in smoke-impacted retrievals. Most of the TES-based enhancement ratios fall within the range calculated from in situ measurements.

  11. Seasonal and spatial changes in trace gases over megacities from Aura TES observations: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES is collecting closely spaced observations over 19 megacities. The objective is to obtain measurements that will lead to better understanding of the processes affecting air quality in and around these cities, and to better estimates of the seasonal and interannual variability. We explore the TES measurements of ozone, ammonia, methanol and formic acid collected around the Mexico City metropolitan area (MCMA and in the vicinity of Lagos (Nigeria. The TES data exhibit seasonal signals that are correlated with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS CO and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD, with in situ measurements in the MCMA and with Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-Chem model output in the Lagos area. TES was able to detect an extreme pollution event in the MCMA on 9 April 2013, which is also evident in the in situ data. TES data also show that biomass burning has a greater impact south of the city than in the caldera where Mexico City is located. TES measured enhanced values of the four species over the Gulf of Guinea south of Lagos. Since it observes many cities from the same platform with the same instrument and applies the same retrieval algorithms, TES data provide a very useful tool for easily comparing air quality measures of two or more cities. We compare the data from the MCMA and Lagos, and show that, while the MCMA has occasional extreme pollution events, Lagos consistently has higher levels of these trace gases.

  12. Karakteristik Pengembangan Tes Keterampilan Berpiki Kritis Bumi dan Antariksa Untuk Calon Guru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ramlan Ramalis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of the f critical thinking skills test and measurement errors according to classical test theory and item response theory. The test is based on the basic concepts and essential principles of the Earth Space, with reference to the core critical thinking skills. The research method used a mixed methods design with embedded experimental models. The analysis in this study is based on 41 responses of students teacher prospective who have taken IPBA courses at the Physics education department of FPMIPA UPI. Based on classical test theory indicates that of 18 test items were analyzed 15 items were good quality, reliability index of 0.89. From information function and standard error measurement of item response theory, the overall conclusion of this evaluation is that the model 2PL is better to use when evaluating the test. Keywords: critical thinking skills, earth and space, classical test theory, item response theory Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis karakteristik tes keterampilan berpikir kritis serta kesalahan pengukuran menurut teori tes klasik dan teori respons item. Tes disusun berdasarkan konsep dasar dan prinsip esensial sains Bumi dan Antariksa, dengan mengacu pada inti keterampilan berpikir kritis. Metode penelitiannya menggunakan mixed methods dengan desain embedded experimental model. Analisis dalam penelitian ini didasarkan pada respons 41 mahasiswa calon guru yang telah mengambil matakuliah IPBA di departemen pendidikan Fisika FPMIPA UPI. Berdasarkan teori tes klasik menunjukkan bahwa dari 18 item tes yang dianalisis 15 item yang berkualitas baik, indeks reliabilitas 0,89. Dari fungsi informasi dan pengukuran kesalahan baku pada teori respons item, kesimpulan keseluruhan dari evaluasi ini adalah bahwa model 2PL adalah lebih baik untuk digunakan ketika mengevaluasi tes. Kata-kata kunci: keterampilan berpikir kritis, bumi dan antariksa, teori tes klasik

  13. Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Hendra Yudha Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak---Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk : (1 menghasilkan rancang bangun dan implementasi Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform, (2 Mengetahui respon dari Pengguna terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. Dalam perancangannya, aplikasi ini akan menggunakan arsitektur client-server untuk melakukan proses pertukaran data. Perancangan dilakukan dengan menggunakan model fungsional berupa UML. Model fungsional berupa UML tersebut diimplementasikan dalam sebuah framework yaitu Phonegap dengan bahasa pemrograman HTML5. Untuk mengetahui respon terhadap Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode angket. Hasil akhirnya yaitu berupa Aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform yang dapat diinstall pada perangkat mobile untuk digunakan dalam latihan soal-soal yang terkait dengan Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA. Berdasarkan hasil uji usability, aplikasi Simatik berbasis Multi Platform ini mendapatkan persentase hasil sebesar 95,6 % dengan kategori sangat baik yang berarti dalam pengoperasiannya aplikasi ini mudah untuk digunakan dan dapat berfungsi sesuai dengan fungsi seharusnya. Kata Kunci : Phonegap, Multi Platform, Client Server, Mobile, Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA, Simatik   Abstract--- This research is purpose to : (1 produce generate design and implementation Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform (2 To knowing the response of users to Simatik : Aplikasi Simulasi Bank Soal Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA Berbasis Multi Platform. In its design, this application will use the client-server architecture to make the exchange process of data. The design were done by using a functional model UML form. The functional model UML form is implemented within a framework that is phonegap with HTML 5 programming languages. To determine the

  14. The LUCIFER/CUPID-0 demonstrator: searching for the neutrinoless double-beta decay with Zn82Se scintillating bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusa, D. R.; Balzoni, A.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Camacho, A.; Capelli, S.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Clemenza, M.; Cremonesi, O.; Cruciani, A.; D'Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ferroni, F.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gotti, C.; Keppel, G.; Maino, M.; Mancuso, M.; Martinez, M.; Morganti, S.; Nagorny, S. S.; Nastasi, M.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Orlandi, D.; Pagnanini, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Puiu, A.; Rusconi, C.; Schäffner, K.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.; Zolotarova, A.

    2017-09-01

    Future experiments on neutrinoless double beta-decay with the aim of exploring the inverted hierarchy region have to employ detectors with excellent energy resolution and zero background in the energy region of interest. Cryogenic scintillating bolometers turn out to be a suitable candidate since they offer particle discrimination: the dual channel detection of the heat and the scintillation light signal allows for particle identification. In particular such detectors permit for a suppression of α-induced backgrounds, a key-issue for next-generation tonne-scale bolometric experiments. We report on the progress and current status of the LUCIFER/CUPID-0 demonstrator, the first array of scintillating bolometers based on enriched Zn82Se crystals which is expected to start data taking in 2016 and the potential of this detection technique for a future tonne-scale bolometric experiment after CUORE.

  15. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Li, L.; Ott, L.L.; Kolgani, Rajeswari M.; Yong, G.J.; Ali, Z.A.; Drury, O.B.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with ∼10 12 photons per ∼200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within (1- x ) Sr x MnO 3 sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response

  16. Digital Signal Processing Based on a Clustering Algorithm for Ir/Au TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, N.; Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Hiramoto, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, cryogenic microcalorimeters using their superconducting transition edge have been under development for possible application to the research for astronomical X-ray observations. To improve the energy resolution of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), several correction methods have been developed. Among them, a clustering method based on digital signal processing has recently been proposed. In this paper, we applied the clustering method to Ir/Au bilayer TES. This method resulted in almost a 10% improvement in the energy resolution. Conversely, from the point of view of imaging X-ray spectroscopy, we applied the clustering method to pixellated Ir/Au-TES devices. We will thus show how a clustering method which sorts signals by their shapes is also useful for position identification

  17. Quadrupolar interactions in non-cubic crystal and related extra heat capacities. Possible effects on a sapphire bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassou, M. [Tunis Univ. (Tunisia)]|[CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Rotter, M. [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czech Republic)]|[CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Bernier, M. [CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France); Chapellier, M. [CEA/DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, Gif-wur-Yvette (France)

    1996-02-11

    It is shown that in a non-cubic crystal, the extra heat capacity due to quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins >1/2 could be much bigger than the phonon heat capacity when the temperature decreases. The possible coupling between quadrupolar and phonon heat reservoir via paramagnetic impurities is stressed. A NMR experiment done on sapphire is presented with an evaluation of the coupling between the two reservoirs and its consequence on the performance of the bolometer. (orig.).

  18. Quadrupolar interactions in non-cubic crystal and related extra heat capacities. Possible effects on a sapphire bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassou, M.; Rotter, M.; Bernier, M.; Chapellier, M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that in a non-cubic crystal, the extra heat capacity due to quadrupolar interaction of nuclear spins >1/2 could be much bigger than the phonon heat capacity when the temperature decreases. The possible coupling between quadrupolar and phonon heat reservoir via paramagnetic impurities is stressed. A NMR experiment done on sapphire is presented with an evaluation of the coupling between the two reservoirs and its consequence on the performance of the bolometer. (orig.)

  19. Université de Genève - Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet1211 Genève 4Tél : +41 22 379 6383 (secrétariat)Tél : +41 22 379 6256 (réception) Fax: +41 22 379 6922 Lundi 30 octobre 2006 COLLOQUE 17h00 - Auditoire Stueckelberg Planètes extra-solaires: des propriétés inattendues des planètes géantes à la chasse à une nouvelle Terre Dr S. Udry / Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny Depuis la détection de la première 'exoplanète' en orbite autour d'une étoile semblable à notre soleil, il y a un peu plus de 10 ans, près de 200 candidats planétaires ont été mis à jour, la plupart par spectroscopie Doppler. Les propriétés variées et inattendues de ces systèmes seront discutées ainsi que les contraintes qu'elles fournissent pour les modèles de formation planétaire. Si les planètes découvertes sont pour la plupart des géantes gazeuses ressemblant à Jupiter, un nouveau pas a été récemment franchi avec la détection de planètes plus légères (10-20 masses terrestres) et probabl...

  20. Advances in Small Pixel TES-Based X-Ray Microcalorimeter Arrays for Solar Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, S. R.; Adams, J. S.; Bailey, C. N.; Busch, S. E.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Ewin, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kelly, D. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We are developing small-pixel transition-edge-sensor (TES) for solar physics and astrophysics applications. These large format close-packed arrays are fabricated on solid silicon substrates and are designed to accommodate count-rates of up to a few hundred counts/pixel/second at a FWHM energy resolution approximately 2 eV at 6 keV. We have fabricated versions that utilize narrow-line planar and stripline wiring. We present measurements of the performance and uniformity of kilo-pixel arrays, incorporating TESs with single 65-micron absorbers on a 7s-micron pitch, as well as versions with more than one absorber attached to the TES, 4-absorber and 9-absorber "Hydras". We have also fabricated a version of this detector optimized for lower energies and lower count-rate applications. These devices have a lower superconducting transition temperature and are operated just above the 40mK heat sink temperature. This results in a lower heat capacity and low thermal conductance to the heat sink. With individual single pixels of this type we have achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 0.9 eV with 1.5 keV Al K x-rays, to our knowledge the first x-ray microcalorimeter with sub-eV energy resolution. The 4-absorber and 9-absorber versions of this type achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 1.4 eV and 2.1 eV at 1.5 keV respectively. We will discuss the application of these devices for new astrophysics mission concepts.

  1. Methanol from TES global observations: retrieval algorithm and seasonal and spatial variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Cady-Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed description of the TES methanol (CH3OH retrieval algorithm, along with initial global results showing the seasonal and spatial distribution of methanol in the lower troposphere. The full development of the TES methanol retrieval is described, including microwindow selection, error analysis, and the utilization of a priori and initial guess information provided by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Retrieval simulations and a sensitivity analysis using the developed retrieval strategy show that TES: (i generally provides less than 1.0 piece of information, (ii is sensitive in the lower troposphere with peak sensitivity typically occurring between ~900–700 hPa (~1–3 km at a vertical resolution of ~5 km, (iii has a limit of detectability between 0.5 and 1.0 ppbv Representative Volume Mixing Ratio (RVMR depending on the atmospheric conditions, corresponding roughly to a profile with a maximum concentration of at least 1 to 2 ppbv, and (iv in a simulation environment has a mean bias of 0.16 ppbv with a standard deviation of 0.34 ppbv. Applying the newly derived TES retrieval globally and comparing the results with corresponding GEOS-Chem output, we find generally consistent large-scale patterns between the two. However, TES often reveals higher methanol concentrations than simulated in the Northern Hemisphere spring, summer and fall. In the Southern Hemisphere, the TES methanol observations indicate a model overestimate over the bulk of South America from December through July, and a model underestimate during the biomass burning season.

  2. Recent Patents on Nano-Enhanced Materials for Use in Thermal Energy Storage (TES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gerard; Barreneche, Camila; Solé, Aran; Juliá, José Enrique; Cabeza, Luisa F

    2017-07-10

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) have been lately studied and are presented as one of the key solutions for the implementation of renewable energies. These systems take advantage of the latent heat of phase change of PCM during their melting/ solidification processes to store or release heat depending on the needs and availability. Low thermal conductivity and latent heat are the main disadvantages of organic PCM, while corrosion, subcooling and thermal stability are the prime problems that inorganic PCM present. Nanotechnology can be used to overcome these drawbacks. Nano-enhanced PCM are obtained by the dispersion of nanoparticles in the base material and thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat capacity, within others, can be enhanced. This paper presents a review of the patents regarding the obtaining of nano-enhanced materials for thermal energy storage (TES) in order to realize the development nanotechnologies have gained in the TES field. Patents regarding the synthesis methods to obtain nano-enhanced phase materials (NEPCM) and TES systems using NEPCM have been found and are presented in the paper. The few existing number of patents found is a clear indicator of the recent and thus low development nanotechnology has in the TES field so far. Nevertheless, the results obtained with the reviewed inventions already show the big potential that nanotechnology has in TES and denote a more than probable expansion of its use in the next years. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryev, V. A., E-mail: vyuryev@kapella.gpi.ru; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Senkov, V. M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskiy Avenue, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nalivaiko, O. Y. [JSC “Integral” – “Integral” Holding Management Company, 121A, Kazintsa I. P. Street, Minsk 220108 (Belarus); Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-05-28

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  4. Hot-electron bolometer terahertz mixers for the Herschel Space Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, Sergey; Drakinskiy, Vladimir; Berg, Therese; Khosropanah, Pourya; Kollberg, Erik

    2008-03-01

    We report on low noise terahertz mixers (1.4-1.9 THz) developed for the heterodyne spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The mixers employ double slot antenna integrated superconducting hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) made of thin NbN films. The mixer performance was characterized in terms of detection sensitivity across the entire rf band by using a Fourier transform spectrometer (from 0.5 to 2.5 THz, with 30 GHz resolution) and also by measuring the mixer noise temperature at a limited number of discrete frequencies. The lowest mixer noise temperature recorded was 750 K [double sideband (DSB)] at 1.6 THz and 950 K DSB at 1.9 THz local oscillator (LO) frequencies. Averaged across the intermediate frequency band of 2.4-4.8 GHz, the mixer noise temperature was 1100 K DSB at 1.6 THz and 1450 K DSB at 1.9 THz LO frequencies. The HEB heterodyne receiver stability has been analyzed and compared to the HEB stability in the direct detection mode. The optimal local oscillator power was determined and found to be in a 200-500 nW range.

  5. YBCO hot-electron bolometers dedicated to THz detection and imaging: Embedding issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurino, M; Tuerer, I; Martinez, A; Gensbittel, A; Degardin, A F; Kreisler, A J

    2010-01-01

    High-T c hot-electron bolometers (HEB) are an interesting alternative to other superconducting heterodyne mixers in the terahertz frequency range because of low-cost cooling investment, ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth and low intrinsic noise level, even at 80 K. A technological process to fabricate stacked yttrium-based (YBCO) / praseodymium-based (PBCO) ultra-thin films (in the 15 to 40 nm thickness range) etched to form 0.5 μm x 0.5 μm constrictions, elaborated on (100) MgO substrates, has been previously described. Ageing effects were also considered, with the consequence of increased electrical resistance, significant degradation of the regular THz response and no HEB mixing action. Electron and UV lithography steps are revisited here to realize HEB mixers based on nano-bridges covered by a log-periodic planar gold antenna, dedicated to the 1 to 7 THz range. Several measures have been attempted to reduce the conversion losses, mainly by considering the embedding issues related to the YBCO nano-bridge impedance matching to the antenna and the design of optimized intermediate frequency circuitry. Antenna simulations were performed and validated through experiments on scaled models at GHz frequencies. Electromagnetic coupling to the incoming radiation was also studied, including crosstalk between neighbour antennas forming a linear imaging array.

  6. LUCIFER: Scintillating bolometers for the search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignati, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma and INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma, I-00185 (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The nature of neutrino mass is one of the frontier problems of particle physics. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0{nu}DBD) is a powerful tool to measure the neutrino mass and to test possible extensions of the Standard Model. Bolometers are excellent detectors to search for this rare decay, thanks to their good energy resolution and to the low background conditions in which they can operate. The current challenge consists in the reduction of the background, represented by environmental {gamma}'s and {alpha}'s, in view of a zero background experiment. We present the LUCIFER R and D, funded by an European grant, in which the background can be reduced by an order of magnitude with respect to the present generation experiments. The technique is based on the simultaneous bolometric measurement of the heat and of the scintillation light produced by a particle, that allows to discriminate between {beta} and {alpha} particles. The {gamma} background is reduced by choosing 0{nu}DBD candidate isotopes with transition energy above the environmental {gamma}'s spectrum. The prospect of this R and D are discussed.

  7. Enriched TeO2 bolometers with active particle discrimination: Towards the CUPID experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Artusa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the performances of two 92% enriched 130TeO2 crystals operated as thermal bolometers in view of a next generation experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. The crystals, 435 g each, show an energy resolution, evaluated at the 2615 keV γ-line of 208Tl, of 6.5 and 4.3 keV FWHM. The only observable internal radioactive contamination arises from 238U (15 and 8 μBq/kg, respectively. The internal activity of the most problematic nuclei for neutrinoless double beta decay, 226Ra and 228Th, are both evaluated as <3.1 μBq/kg for one crystal and <2.3 μBq/kg for the second. Thanks to the readout of the weak Cherenkov light emitted by β/γ particles by means of Neganov–Luke bolometric light detectors we were able to perform an event-by-event identification of β/γ events with a 95% acceptance level, while establishing a rejection factor of 98.21% and 99.99% for α particles.

  8. Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Eyal; You, Lixing

    2008-02-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or millimeter waves. We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. We describe the development of a two-pixel focal plane array (FPA) based on HEB technology. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a fully automated, two-dimensional scanning, passive imaging system based on our HEB technology operating at 0.85 THz. Our high spectral resolution terahertz imager has a total system noise equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT) value of better than 0.5 K and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. HEB technology is becoming the basis for advanced terahertz imaging and spectroscopic technologies for the study of biological and chemical agents over the entire terahertz spectrum.

  9. LUCIFER: a scintillating bolometer array for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the high precision achieved in the field of neutrino oscillations, there are some fundamental questions that can not be addressed by a study of ths phenomenon. We do not know in fact the absolute mass of neutrino and weather it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The LUCIFER experiment, financed by the ERC-AdG, will play an important role in this field. This project aims to push beyond the actual technological limits the possibility of observation of the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD). The detection of this extremely rare decay would indeed demonstrate that neutrino is a Majorana particle and, at the same time, would allow to set its absolute mass scale. LUCIFER will study the 0νDBD do 82 Se through ZnSe scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the simultaneous red-out of the heat and light produced by an interaction in the crystal, the background rate in the region of interest will be lower than 10 -3 counts/kg/keV/years. In the following, the expected performance of LUCIFER are discussed.

  10. Crystallization of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Yersinia pestis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarbrick, Crystall M. D.; Patterson, Edward I.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of the acyl-CoA thioesterase TesB from Y. pestis are reported. X-ray crystallographic diffraction data to 2.0 Å resolution were collected at the Australian Synchrotron. Yersinia pestis is a highly virulent human pathogen and is the causative agent of bubonic plague. Spread through the bite of infected fleas, plague epidemics have marked important events in history, including the Justinian plague (6th century), the Black Death (14th century) which decimated nearly one quarter of the European population, and more recently the Orientalis plague (1894). To date, deaths are still being reported and, without treatment, the disease kills most people within 4 days. One of the thioesterases from Y. pestis, TesB, is a broad-range acyl-CoA thioesterase and is highly conserved within prokaryotes and throughout evolution, sharing sequence similarity with the HIV Nef binding protein ACOT8. Here the expression, purification, crystallization and diffraction of TesB are reported. TesB has been recombinantly expressed and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion hanging-drop technique at pH 7.0 and 290 K. After optimization, crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution at the Australian Synchrotron and belong to the space group P12 1 1 (a = 73.55, b = 170.82, c = 101.98 Å), with eight molecules likely to be present in the asymmetric unit

  11. Pengembangan Sistem E-Learning yang Adaptif untuk Pelatihan dan Tes TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofian Arifianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language memiliki 3 bagian jenis soal, Listening Comprehension, Structure & Write Expression dan Reading Comprehension. Untuk saat ini, kebanyakan TOEFL dilakukan dengan manual, yaitu dengan pengerjaan dengan kertas dan membutuhkan waktu beberapa hari agar bisa mengetahui hasil tes tersebut. Dalam artikel ini, LMS Dokeos dikembangkan dengan beberapa perubahan, sehingga didapatkan suatu sistem yang adaptif yang mampu menganalisis kelemahan user dan memberikan soal yang menjadi kelemahan. Dokeos sendiri dibangun dengan bahasa pemrograman PHP&MySQL. Pada sistem ini ada 2 macam tes, Pretest dan posttest. Pretest merupakan suatu latihan TOEFL. Sedangkan Posttest merupakan TOEFL yang sesungguhnya. Posttest bisa dilakukan setelah user lulus dari pretest. Nilai untuk kelulusan dalam  pretest dan posttest ini adalah 477. Pada pretest, sistem bisa menganalisis kelemahan seorang user berdasarkan nilai tes yang telah didapat dari tiap section. Pengguna juga bisa memonitor nilai yang didapatkan pada saat pretest. Sedangkan pada posttest, terdapat pin yang digunakan sebagai hak akses untuk melakukan tes. Dengan begitu, diharapkan aplikasi ini bisa lebih aman dan efisien dalam menghemat waktu dan biaya

  12. High-temperature thermocline TES combining sensible and latent heat - CFD modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavattoni, Simone A.; Geissbühler, Lukas; Barbato, Maurizio C.; Zanganeh, Giw; Haselbacher, Andreas; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2017-06-01

    The concept of combined sensible/latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) has been exploited to mitigate an intrinsic thermocline TES systems drawback of heat transfer fluid outflow temperature reduction during discharging. In this study, the combined sensible/latent TES prototype under investigation is constituted by a packed bed of rocks and a small amount of encapsulated phase change material (AlSi12) as sensible heat and latent heat sections respectively. The thermo-fluid dynamics behavior of the combined TES prototype was analyzed by means of a computational fluid dynamics approach. Due to the small value of the characteristic vessel-to-particles diameter ratio, the effect of radial void-fraction variation, also known as channeling, was accounted for. Both the sensible and the latent heat sections of the storage were modeled as porous media under the assumption of local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE). The commercial code ANSYS Fluent 15.0 was used to solve the model's constitutive conservation and transport equations obtaining a fairly good agreement with reference experimental measurements.

  13. Common Bias Readout for TES Array on Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Maehisa, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Maehata, K.; Hara, T.

    2016-07-01

    A transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array as an X-ray sensor for a scanning transmission electron microscope system is being developed. The technical challenge of this system is a high count rate of ˜ 5000 counts/second/array. We adopted a 64 pixel array with a parallel readout. Common SQUID bias, and common TES bias are planned to reduce the number of wires and the resources of a room temperature circuit. The reduction rate of wires is 44 % when a 64 pixel array is read out by a common bias of 8 channels. The possible degradation of the energy resolution has been investigated by simulations and experiments. The bias fluctuation effects of a series connection are less than those of a parallel connection. Simple calculations expect that the fluctuations of the common SQUID bias and common TES bias in a series connection are 10^{-7} and 10^{-3}, respectively. We constructed 8 SQUIDs which are connected to 8 TES outputs and a room temperature circuit for common bias readout and evaluated experimentally. Our simulation of crosstalk indicates that at an X-ray event rate of 500 cps/pixel, crosstalk will broaden a monochromatic line by about 0.01 %, or about 1.5 eV at 15 keV. Thus, our design goal of 10 eV energy resolution across the 0.5-15 keV band should be achievable.

  14. A joint data record of tropospheric ozone from Aura-TES and MetOp-IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oetjen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES on Aura and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI on MetOp-A together provide a time series of 10 years of free-tropospheric ozone with an overlap of 3 years. We characterise the differences between TES and IASI ozone measurements and find that IASI's coarser vertical sensitivity leads to a small (< 5 ppb low bias relative to TES for the free troposphere. The TES-IASI differences are not dependent on season or any other factor and hence the measurements from the two instruments can be merged, after correcting for the offset, in order to study decadal-scale changes in tropospheric ozone. We calculate time series of regional monthly mean ozone in the free troposphere over eastern Asia, the western United States (US, and Europe, carefully accounting for differences in spatial sampling between the instruments. We show that free-tropospheric ozone over Europe and the western US has remained relatively constant over the past decade but that, contrary to expectations, ozone over Asia in recent years does not continue the rapid rate of increase observed from 2004 to 2010.

  15. Pengembangan Instrumen Tes Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Materi Getaran, Gelombang, dan Bunyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Rokhmat Hidayat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Problem-solving is one of the fundamental skills in the 21st century. Students’ problem-solving skill is defined as students’ abilities to use their knowledge to solve the daily life problems. This study main goal is to develop a test instrument of junior high school students’ problem-solving skills on oscillation, wave, and sound concepts. The test items are arranged based on problem-solving skills indicator that proposed by Doctor and Heler (2009, there are problems visualization/description, physics approach, mathematic procedure, and logically conclusion. This study used 4D (define, design, develop, and disseminate model of research and development method. Fifteen test sets are designed based on five problem-solving skill indicators that grouped to each oscillation, wave, and sound sub concept. The result of instrument development shows all test items are valid through Pearson moment correlation coefficient test. Alpha Cronbach test the instrument shows the instrument reliability is 0.88 with the criteria of reliability is high. Based on expert judgment and data collections, the test instruments were well developed and could be used to measure students’ problem-solving skills on oscillation, wave, and sound wave concepts. Keywords: problem solving skills; problem solving skills instrument; oscillation, wave, and sound concept. Abstrak Pemecahan masalah adalah salah satu keterampilan yang penting di abad ke-21. Keterampilan pemecahan masalah siswa adalah kemampuan siswa menggunakan pengetahuan-pengetahuan yang dimilikinya untuk memecahkan masalah dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan instrumen tes untuk mengukur keterampilan pemecahan masalah pada siswa SMP terkait materi getaran, gelombang, dan bunyi. Instrumen tes disusun berdasarkan indikator keterampilan pemecahan masalah yang dikembangkan oleh Doctor dan Heler (2009 yaitu visualisasi/deskripsi masalah, pendekatan fisika, prosedur matematika

  16. STUDI SIMULASI MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY C-MEANS DALAM MENGKLASIFIKASI KONSTRUK TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukli Rukli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memperkenalkan metode fuzzy c-means dalam mengklasifikasi konstruk tes. Untuk memverifikasi sifat unidimensional suatu tes biasanya menggunakan analisis faktor sebagai bagian dari statistik parametrik dengan beberapa persyaratan yang ketat sedangkan metode fuzzy c-means termasuk metode heuristik yang tidak memerlukan persyaratan yang ketat. Studi simulasi penelitian ini menggunakan dua metode yakni analisis faktor menggunakan program SPSS dan fuzzy c-means menggunakan program Matlab. Data simulasi menggunakan tipe data dikotomi dan politomi yang dibangkitkan lewat prog-ram Microsoft Office Excel dengan desain 2 kategori, yakni: tiga butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 10, dan 30 butir soal dengan banyak peserta tes 100. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa metode fuzzy c-means lebih memberikan gambaran pengelompokan secara deskriptif dan dinamis pada semua desain yang telah dibuat dalam memverifikasi unidimensional pada suatu tes. Kata kunci: fuzzy c-means, analisis faktor, unidimensional _____________________________________________________________ SIMULATION STUDY USING FUZZY C-MEANS FOR CLASIFYING TEST CONSTRUCTION Abstract This paper introduces the fuzzy c-means method for classifying the test constructs. To verify the unidimensional a test typically uses factor analysis as part of parametric statistics with some strict requirements, while fuzzy c-means methods including method heuristic that do not require strict require-ments. Simulation comparison between the method of factor analysis using SPSS program and fuzzy c-means methods using Matlab. Simulation data using data type dichotomy and politomus generated through Microsoft Office Excel programs each with a number of 3 items using the number of participants 10 tests, while the number of 30 test items using the number as many as 100 participants. The simulation results show that the fuzzy c-means method provides a more descriptive and dyna-mic grouping of all the designs that

  17. Optimization of Advanced ACTPol Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer Operation Using R(T,I) Transition Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino, Maria

    2017-06-01

    In the current submm and mm cosmology experiments the focal planes are populated by kilopixel transition edge sensors (TESes). Varying incoming power load requires frequent rebiasing of the TESes through standard current-voltage (IV) acquisition. The time required to perform IVs on such large arrays and the resulting transient heating of the bath reduces the sky observation time. We explore a bias step method that significantly reduces the time required for the rebiasing process. This exploits the detectors' responses to the injection of a small square wave signal on top of the dc bias current and knowledge of the shape of the detector transition R(T,I). This method has been tested on two detector arrays of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). In this paper, we focus on the first step of the method, the estimate of the TES %Rn.

  18. Fabrication of close-packed TES microcalorimeter arrays using superconducting molybdenum/gold transition-edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, F. M.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Li, M. J.; Lindeman, M. A.; Stahle, C. K.; Stahle, C. M.; Tralshawala, N.

    2002-02-01

    We present an overview of our efforts in fabricating Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays for use in astronomical x-ray spectroscopy. Two distinct types of array schemes are currently pursued: 5×5 single pixel TES array where each pixel is a TES microcalorimeter, and Position-Sensing TES (PoST) array. In the latter, a row of 7 or 15 thermally-linked absorber pixels is read out by two TES at its ends. Both schemes employ superconducting Mo/Au bilayers as the TES. The TES are placed on silicon nitride membranes for thermal isolation from the structural frame. The silicon nitride membranes are prepared by a Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) process into a silicon wafer. In order to achieve the concept of closely packed arrays without decreasing its structural and functional integrity, we have already developed the technology to fabricate arrays of cantilevered pixel-sized absorbers and slit membranes in silicon nitride films. Furthermore, we have started to investigate ultra-low resistance through-wafer micro-vias to bring the electrical contact out to the back of a wafer. .

  19. Elemental Abundances and their Implications for the Chemical Enrichment of the Boötes I Ultrafaint Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Gerard; Norris, John E.; Monaco, Lorenzo; Yong, David; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Geisler, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Boötes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Boötes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [α/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [α/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and "carbon-normal." Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal P82.182.B-0372, PI: G. Gilmore).

  20. Multichroic Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarization and Sub-mm Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adrian

    We propose to develop planar antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization log-periodic antenna with a 4:1-bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. The advantages of this approach, compared with those using conventional single-color pixels, include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce the cost and/or increase the performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization measurements, a wide frequency range of roughly 30 to 300 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. The multichroic architecture we propose enables a relatively low-cost 30-cm aperture space mission to have sufficient sensitivity to probe below the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.01. For a larger aperture mission, such as the EPIC-IM concept, the proposed technology could reduce the focal-plane mass by a factor of 2-3, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR ground-based CMB polarization experiment now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna and produces excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Building on these accomplishments, the deliverables for the proposed work include: *Two pixel types that together cover the range from 30 to 300 GHz. The low-frequency pixel will have bands centered at 35, 50, and 80 GHz and the high frequency pixel will have bands centered at 120, 180, and 270

  1. Development of transition edge superconducting bolometers for the SAFARI Far-Infrared spectrometer on the SPICA space-borne telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Withington, S.; Bruijn, M.; De Korte, P.; Hoevers, H.; Ridder, M.; Van der Kuur, J.; Gao, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the optimization of transition edge superconducting (TES) detectors for use in a far-infrared (FIR) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) mounted on a cryogenically cooled space-borne telescope (e.g. SPICA). The required noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors is approximately 10?19

  2. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Integration of OMI and TES Aerosol Products into the EPA Regional Planning Organizations' FASTNET Aerosol Tracking and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Kelly; Andrews, Jane C.

    2006-01-01

    Every year, more than 280 million visitors tour our Nation s most treasured parks and wilderness areas. Unfortunately, many visitors are unable to see the spectacular vistas they expect because of white or brown haze in the air. Most of this haze is not natural; it is air pollution, carried by the wind often hundreds of miles from its origin. Some of the pollutants have been linked to serious health problems, such as asthma and other lung disorders, and even premature death. In addition, nitrates and sulfates contribute to acid rain formation, which contaminates rivers and lakes and erodes buildings and historical monuments. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RPOs (Regional Planning Organizations) have been tasked with monitoring and determining the nature and origin of haze in Class I scenic areas, and finding ways to reduce haze in order to improve visibility in these areas. The RPOs have developed an Internet-based air quality DST (Decision Support Tool) called FASTNET (Fast Aerosol Sensing Tools for Natural Event Tracking). While FASTNET incorporates a few satellite datasets, most of the data utilized by this DST comes from ground-based instrument networks. The problem is that in many areas the sensors are sparsely located, with long distances between them, causing difficulties in tracking haze over the United States, determining its source, and analyzing its content. Satellite data could help to fill in the data gaps and to supplement and verify ground-recorded air quality data. Although satellite data are now being used for air quality research applications, such data are not routinely used for environmental decision support, in part because of limited resources, difficulties with interdisciplinary data interpretation, and the need for advanced inter-agency partnerships. As a result, the validation and verification of satellite data for air quality operational system applications has been limited This candidate solution evaluates the usefulness of OMI

  3. Development of {sup 100}Mo-containing scintillating bolometers for a high-sensitivity neutrinoless double-beta decay search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armengaud, E.; Gros, M.; Herve, S.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X.F.; Nones, C.; Paul, B.; Penichot, Y.; Zolotarova, A.S. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRFU, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Augier, C.; Billard, J.; Cazes, A.; Charlieux, F.; Jesus, M. de; Gascon, J.; Juillard, A.; Queguiner, E.; Sanglard, V.; Vagneron, L. [Univ Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN-Lyon, Villeurbanne (France); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bekker, T.B. [V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bellini, F.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benoit, A.; Camus, P. [CNRS-Neel, Grenoble (France); Berge, L.; Chapellier, M.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Le Sueur, H.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Bergmann, T.; Kleifges, M.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Weber, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boiko, R.S.; Danevich, F.A.; Kobychev, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, M.O.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Broniatowski, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brudanin, V.; Rozov, S.; Yakushev, E. [JINR, Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Capelli, S.; Gironi, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G. [Universita di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Chernyak, D.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); The University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Combarieu, M. de; Pari, P. [Universite Paris-Saclay, IRAMIS, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T. [Universite Paris-Sud, IAS, CNRS, Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F.; Strazzer, O. [Universite Paris-Saclay, Orphee, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Di Domizio, S. [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Eitel, K.; Siebenborn, B. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Enss, C.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L. [Heidelberg University, Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Foerster, N.; Kozlov, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Giuliani, A. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Grigorieva, V.D.; Ivannikova, N.V.; Ivanov, I.M.; Makarov, E.P.; Shlegel, V.N.; Vasiliev, Ya.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Hehn, L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jin, Y. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS, Marcoussis (France); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Kudryavtsev, V.A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Laubenstein, M.; Nagorny, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Loidl, M.; Rodrigues, M. [CEA-Saclay, CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Universita dell' Insubria, DISAT, Como (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Pagnanini, L.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); INFN, Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Piperno, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Poda, D.V. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Rusconi, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Scorza, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); SNOLAB, Lively, ON (Canada); Velazquez, M. [Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, CNRS, Pessac (France)

    2017-11-15

    This paper reports on the development of a technology involving {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers, compatible with the goals of CUPID, a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. Large mass (∝ 1 kg), high optical quality, radiopure {sup 100}Mo-containing zinc and lithium molybdate crystals have been produced and used to develop high performance single detector modules based on 0.2-0.4 kg scintillating bolometers. In particular, the energy resolution of the lithium molybdate detectors near the Q-value of the double-beta transition of {sup 100}Mo (3034 keV) is 4-6 keV FWHM. The rejection of the α-induced dominant background above 2.6 MeV is better than 8σ. Less than 10 μBq/kg activity of {sup 232}Th({sup 228}Th) and {sup 226}Ra in the crystals is ensured by boule recrystallization. The potential of {sup 100}Mo-enriched scintillating bolometers to perform high sensitivity double-beta decay searches has been demonstrated with only 10 kg x d exposure: the two neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 100}Mo has been measured with the up-to-date highest accuracy as T{sub 1/2} = [6.90 ± 0.15(stat.) ± 0.37(syst.)] x 10{sup 18} years. Both crystallization and detector technologies favor lithium molybdate, which has been selected for the ongoing construction of the CUPID-0/Mo demonstrator, containing several kg of {sup 100}Mo. (orig.)

  4. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author)

  5. Measurements of the optical performance of bolometers for SPICA/SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Ridder, Marcel; Ferrari, Lorenza; Laauwen, Wouter M.; Ranjan, Manisha; Mauskopf, Philip D.; Morozov, Dmitry; Trappe, Neil A.

    2012-09-01

    We have measured the optical response of detectors designed for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. To take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics, SAFARI’s three bolometer arrays are populated with extremely sensitive (NEP~2×10-19 W/√Hz) transition edge sensors with a transition temperature close to 100 mK. The extreme sensitivity and low saturation power (~4 fW) of SAFARI’s detectors present challenges to characterizing them. We have therefore built up an ultra-low background test facility with a cryogen-free high-capacity dilution refrigerator, paying careful attention to stray-light exclusion. Our use of a pulse-tube cooler to pre-cool the dilution refrigerator required that the SAFARI Detector System Test Facility provide a high degree electrical, magnetic, and mechanical isolation for the detectors. We have carefully characterized the performance of the test facility in terms of background power loading. The test facility has been designed to be flexible and easily reconfigurable with internal illuminators that allow us to characterize the optical response of the detectors. We describe the test facility and some of the steps we took to create an ultra-low background test environment. We have measured the optical response of two detectors designed for SAFARI’s short-wave wavelength band in combination with a spherical backshort and conical feedhorn. We find an overall optical efficiency of 40% for both, compared with an ideal-case predicted optical efficiency of 66%.

  6. Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Francisco A. [Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferreira, Diogo R., E-mail: diogo.ferreira@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), University of Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, Pedro J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), IST, University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Plasma tomography is able to reconstruct the plasma profile from radiation measurements along several lines of sight. • The reconstruction can be performed with neural networks, but previous work focused on learning a parametric model. • Deep learning can be used to reconstruct the full 2D plasma profile with the same resolution as existing tomograms. • We introduce a deep neural network to generate an image from 1D projection data based on a series of up-convolutions. • After training on JET data, the network provides accurate reconstructions with an average pixel error as low as 2%. - Abstract: Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  7. Deep learning for plasma tomography using the bolometer system at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Francisco A.; Ferreira, Diogo R.; Carvalho, Pedro J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma tomography is able to reconstruct the plasma profile from radiation measurements along several lines of sight. • The reconstruction can be performed with neural networks, but previous work focused on learning a parametric model. • Deep learning can be used to reconstruct the full 2D plasma profile with the same resolution as existing tomograms. • We introduce a deep neural network to generate an image from 1D projection data based on a series of up-convolutions. • After training on JET data, the network provides accurate reconstructions with an average pixel error as low as 2%. - Abstract: Deep learning is having a profound impact in many fields, especially those that involve some form of image processing. Deep neural networks excel in turning an input image into a set of high-level features. On the other hand, tomography deals with the inverse problem of recreating an image from a number of projections. In plasma diagnostics, tomography aims at reconstructing the cross-section of the plasma from radiation measurements. This reconstruction can be computed with neural networks. However, previous attempts have focused on learning a parametric model of the plasma profile. In this work, we use a deep neural network to produce a full, pixel-by-pixel reconstruction of the plasma profile. For this purpose, we use the overview bolometer system at JET, and we introduce an up-convolutional network that has been trained and tested on a large set of sample tomograms. We show that this network is able to reproduce existing reconstructions with a high level of accuracy, as measured by several metrics.

  8. Phase-locking of a terahertz solid-state source using a superconducting hot-electron bolometer mixer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, W; Zhang, W; Zhou, K M; Li, S L; Zhang, K; Duan, W Y; Yao, Q J; Shi, S C

    2013-01-01

    We report on a scheme whereby the local-oscillator (LO) of a THz heterodyne receiver can be phase-locked by the mixer of the heterodyne receiver. This scheme is demonstrated for the phase-locking of an 847.6 GHz Gunn oscillator and multiplier chain combined source with a superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB) mixer. We show that with this technique the phase-locked beat signal can reach a signal-to-noise ratio higher than 70 dB in a resolution bandwidth (RBW) of 1 Hz. This phase-locking scheme should find good use in THz heterodyne spectrometers. (paper)

  9. tes depresijas simptomu un dusmu saistība ar mātes audzināšanas stiliem un bērna uzvedību

    OpenAIRE

    Krūmiņa, Evija

    2015-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba mērķis bija noskaidrot saistības starp mātes depresijas simptomu un dusmu rādītājiem ar mātes audzināšanas stiliem un bērna uzvedības izpausmēm respondentu grupā, kuru bērni ir vecumā no 4-6 gadiem. Pētījuma izlasi veidoja 63 mātes vecumā no 21 līdz 42 gadiem (vidējais vecums bija 29 gadi). Pētījumā mātes dusmu un depresijas rādītāju noteikšanai tika izmantota Traumu simptomu aptauja (Trauma Symptom Inventory, Briere, 1995), Vecāku audzināšanas stila aptauja (Parental Autho...

  10. Development of TES microcalorimeters with Sn absorber for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Damayanthi, R.M. Thushara; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) are used for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. In this study, we have designed a new TES detector using a superconducting tin (Sn) absorber to detect high energy photons over 100 keV. The Sn absorber is coupled to an Ir/Au super-conducting film which is deposited on an ultra-thin SiN membrane (500 nm thick) with a small amount of epoxy post (Stycast 2850FT) by handling with a flip-chip bonding machine. The 241 Am photoelectron peak, the Sn K α and K β X-ray escape peaks are clearly observed. The measured energy resolution is 320 eV FWHM at 59.5 keV and is better than that of HPGe detector. (author)

  11. Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer, de l'inondation des côtes et des ondes de tempête constituent un enjeu de plus en plus important en matière de politiques pour les planificateurs, les autorités locales et les intervenants de secteurs comme la côte nord-est du Maroc. Ce projet financera le renforcement ...

  12. Mini-TES Observations of the Gusev and Meridiani Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Philip; Arvidson, Raymond; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Blaney, Diana; Budney, Charles; Calvin, Wendy; Ciccolella, Sandra; Fallacro, Alicia; Fergason, Robin; Glotch, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of the mineralogy and thermophysical properties of the scene surrounding the Mars Exploration Rovers. The specific scientific objectives of this investigation are to: (1) determine the mineralogy of rocks and soils; (2) determine the thermophysical properties of surface materials; and (3) determine the temperature profile, dust and water-ice opacity, and water vapor abundance in the lower atmospheric boundary layer.

  13. Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy of Mars: Relationship Between ISM and TES for Compositional Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Joseph (Technical Monitor); Mustard, John

    2004-01-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy has demonstrated that high albedo surfaces on Mars contain heavily altered materials with some component of hematite, poorly crystalline ferric oxides, and an undefined silicate matrix. The spectral properties of many low albedo regions indicate crystalline basalts containing both low and high calcium pyroxene, a mineralogy consistent with the basaltic SNC meteorites. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on the Mars Geochemical Surveyor has acquired critical new data relevant to surface composition and mineralogy, but in a wavelength region that is complementary to reflectance spectroscopy. The essence of the completed research was to analyze TES data in the context of reflectance data obtained by the French ISM imaging spectrometer experiment in 1989. This approach increased our understanding of the complementary nature of these wavelength regions for mineralogic determinations using actual observations of the martian surface. The research effort focused on three regions of scientific importance: Syrtis Major-Isidis Basin, Oxia Palus-Arabia, and Valles Marineris. In each region distinct spatial variations related to reflectance, and in derived mineralogic information and interpreted compositional units were analyzed. In addition, specific science questions related to the composition of volcanics and crustal evolution, soil compositions and pedogenic processes, and the relationship between pristine lithologies and weathering provided an overall science-driven framework for the work. The detailed work plan involved colocation of TES and ISM data, extraction of reflectance and emissivity spectra from areas of known reflectance variability, and quantitative analysis using factor analysis and statistical techniques to determine the degree of correspondence between these different wavelength regions. Identified coherent variations in TES spectroscopy were assessed against known atmospheric effects to validate that the variations

  14. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  15. Assembly, characterization, and operation of large-scale TES detector arrays for ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine Goodwin

    2016-01-01

    The Polarization-sensitive Receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACTPol) is designed to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies on small angular scales. Measurements of the CMB temperature and polarization anisotropies have produced arguably the most important cosmological data to date, establishing the LambdaCDM model and providing the best constraints on most of its parameters. To detect the very small fluctuations in the CMB signal across the sky, ACTPol uses feedhorn-coupled Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) detectors. A TES is a superconducting thin film operated in the transition region between the superconducting and normal states, where it functions as a highly sensitive resistive thermometer. In this thesis, aspects of the assembly, characterization, and in-field operation of the ACTPol TES detector arrays are discussed. First, a novel microfabrication process for producing high-density superconducting aluminum/polyimide flexible circuitry (flex) designed to connect large-scale detector arrays to the first stage of readout is presented. The flex is used in parts of the third ACTPol array and is currently being produced for use in the AdvACT detector arrays, which will begin to replace the ACTPol arrays in 2016. Next, we describe methods and results for the in-lab and on-telescope characterization of the detectors in the third ACTPol array. Finally, we describe the ACTPol TES R(T,I) transition shapes and how they affect the detector calibration and operation. Methods for measuring the exact detector calibration and re-biasing functions, taking into account the R(T,I) transition shape, are presented.

  16. UJI VALIDASI TES FROSTIG UNTUK MENGUKUR KEMAMPUAN PERSEPSI VISUAL ANAK PRASEKOLAH DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Widyana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui validitas dan reliabilitas Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (Tes Frostig untuk mengukur kemampuan persepsi visual anak-anak prasekolah. Subjek penelitian 102 anak-anak prasekolah yang mengikuti pendidikan Taman Kanak-Kanak di TKIT Salman Al Farisi 2 Sleman Yogyakarta, TKIT Insan Utama, Bantul, TKIT Ibnu Abbas 3 Minggir Sleman, TKIT Insan Mulia Sentolo Kulon Progo, TK ABA Margakaton 3 Seyegan Sleman Yogyakarta, dengan rentang usia antara 4 tahun 1 bulan sampai 6 tahun 3 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar aitem Tes Persepsi Visual yang disusun oleh Frostig, berkolaborasi dengan Lefever dan Whittlesey pada tahun 1963 masih teruji validitas dan reliabilitasnya hingga saat ini. Meskipun demikian, penggunaannya perlu dikuatkan dengan tes lainnya mengingat koefisien reliabilitas khususnya subtes 3 dan 5 yang relatif rendah. Untuk subtes pertama (eye motor coordination yang terdiri dari 16 butir ditemukan 11 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,213 sampai dengan 0,564. Untuk subtes kedua figure ground terdiri dari 8 aitem, semua aitem valid dengan angka korelasi 0,330 sampai dengan 0,673. Subtes ketiga (constancy of shape bagian pertama dan kedua, terdiri dari 32 aitem, terdapat 18 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,223 sampai dengan 0,692. Subtes keempat (position of shape yang terdiri dari 8 aitem, 6 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi 0,244 sampai 0,353. Subtes kelima (spatial relationship yang terdiri dari 7 aitem (untuk usia prasekolah aitem 8 tidak diberikan, 6 aitem valid dengan angka korelasi antara 0,16 sampai dengan 0,512. Reliabilitas subtes bergerak dari 0,476 – 0,820. Terdapatnya korelasi yang signifikan antara skor skala subtes dengan skor total dengan rentang korelasi 0,406 – 0,754 menunjukkan bahwa semua subtes yang terdapat dalam tes Frostig menunjukkan relevansi untuk menggambarkan skor total kemampuan persepsi visual.

  17. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  18. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM TES DIAGNOSTIK KESULITAN BELAJAR BERBASIS WEB MAHASISWA JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffan Nurhaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (a Merancang sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar mahasiswa jurusan pendidikan teknik mesin, dan, dan (b mengembangkan sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar Mahasiswa. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Research and Development dengan perangkat lunak. Model pengembangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah model modifikasi linear sequential yang disebut juga sebagai classic life cycle atau model waterfall yang memiliki 4 langkah. Analisis kebutuhan sistem dan perancangan sistem telah dilakukan pada tahun kedua. Implementasi dan validasi program dilakukan pada tahun keempat. Validasi sistem dilakukan dengan angket yang diberikan kepada 6 dosen yang mengampu di jurusan teknik pendidikan mesin untuk melihat aspek kinerja, rancangan, dan aksesbilitas sistem. Analisis data validasi dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif. Langkah terakhir, evaluasi pemanfaatan sistem, akan dilaksanakan pada tahun kelima. Sistem tes diagnostik kesulitan belajar akan dikembangkan dengan arsitektur web client-server. Sistem ini memiliki tiga kelompok pengguna, yaitu admin, dosen, dan mahasiswa. Hasil analisis aspek kinerja, rancangan, dan adaptabilitas sistem secara keseluruhan akan dianalisis dari angket yang mempunyai rata-rata penilaian yang diperoleh dari skala 1–4, sehingga termasuk kategori sangat baik. Karena itu sistem yang telah dikembangkan dapat digunakan pada penelitian lebih lanjut pada tahun keenam, yaitu evaluasi pemanfaatan sistem. 

  19. Performance of an X-ray single pixel TES microcalorimeter under DC and AC biasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottardi, L.; Kuur, J. van der; Korte, P. A. J. de; Den Hartog, R.; Dirks, B.; Popescu, M.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Bruijn, M.; Borderias, M. Parra; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of TES imaging microcalorimeter arrays for future X-ray missions like IXO. In the FDM configuration the TES is AC voltage biased at a well defined frequencies (between 0.3 to 10 MHz) and acts as an AM modulating element. In this paper we will present a full comparison of the performance of a TES microcalorimeter under DC bias and AC bias at a frequency of 370 kHz. In both cases we measured the current-to-voltage characteristics, the complex impedance, the noise, the X-ray responsivity, and energy resolution. The behaviour is very similar in both cases, but deviations in performances are observed for detector working points low in the superconducting transition (R/R N <0.5). The measured energy resolution at 5.89 keV is 2.7 eV for DC bias and 3.7 eV for AC bias, while the baseline resolution is 2.8 eV and 3.3 eV, respectively.

  20. Experimental investigation of thermal de-stratification in rock bed TES systems for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okello, Denis; Nydal, Ole J.; Banda, Eldad J.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High thermal stratifications exists rock bed TES when charge with high temperature heat. • Faster thermal degradation occurs in highly stratified bed irrespective of the bed length. • Average rate of heat loss as a function of storage time increases with increasing average bed temperature. - Abstract: Solar energy fluctuates so much that it cannot promote continuous use. Integration of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with solar energy collection devices has the potential of making solar energy available on demand. Thermal energy can be stored in a bed of rocks at temperatures suitable for applications like cooking, boiling space heating, etc. During charging, temperature stratification is observed in the bed. In a stratified system, if the heat is used immediately, then it is possible to extract heat at reasonably high temperature from the top. For cases where the system is to be used after sometime (later at night or the following morning), the high temperature heat at the top is observed to degrade as the system tries to establish thermal equilibrium irrespective of the bed height. The average rate of heat loss from the TES unit to the ambient is found to increase with increasing average bed temperatures

  1. Advances in the valorization of waste and by-product materials as thermal energy storage (TES) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche Güerisoli, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández Renna, Ana Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Today, one of the biggest challenges our society must face is the satisfactory supply, dispatchability and management of the energy. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been identified as a breakthrough concept in industrial heat recovery applications and development of renewable technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) plants or compressed air energy storage (CAES). A wide variety of potential heat storage materials has been identified depending on the implemented TES method: sensibl...

  2. Production and evaluation of the recombinant antigen TES-30 of Toxocara canis for the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, Ana M; Mesa, Jairo A; Botero, Jorge H; Patiño, Edwin B; García, Gisela M; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-03

    Toxocara canis is a pathogenic nematode of canines which can be accidentally transmitted to humans. Although serology is the most important diagnostic tool for this zoonosis, diagnostic kits use crude excretion/secretion antigens, most of them being glycoproteins which are not species-specific and may cross-react with antibodies generated against other parasites.  To produce the rTES-30 recombinant antigen of Toxocara canis and evaluate it in the immunodiagnosis of toxocariasis.  The gene that codes for TES-30 was cloned in the expression vector pET28a (+) using single-stranded oligonucleotides united by PCR. The protein rTES-30 was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromotography. Seroreactivity of rTES-30 was evaluated by immunoblot. Given that there is no gold standard test, the behaviour of the antigen was compared with the method that is routinely used to immunodiagnose toxocariasis, i.e., the conventional ELISA technique using excretion/secretion antigens.  The rTES-30 was produced from an Escherichia coli LB culture which yielded 2.25 mg/L of the antigen with a purity of 95%. The results obtained showed 73% (46/63) concordance of reactivity between the rTES-30 immunoblot and the conventional ELISA, and 100% concordance with the nonreactive sera (21). Nineteen of the 21 sera positive for other parasitoses reacted with ELISA, while only seven of these were positive with the rTES-30 immunoblot. Concordance between the ELISA and the immunoblot was moderate (kappa coefficient: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.41- 0.74).  The data presented show the potential of the rTES-30 inmunoblot for confirmation of possible ELISA positives, not only in epidemiological studies, but also as a candidate for the development of diagnostic tests for ocular toxocariasis in Colombia.

  3. Study and optimization of bolometers designed to measure both ionization and heat in order to detect black matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navick, X.F.

    1997-01-01

    The detection of black matter in the form of wimp (weakly interactive massive particle) requires the identification of the incident particle so that events due to wimp interactions can be set apart from events due to surrounding radioactivity. Bolometers allow to measure both the energy deposited and the ionization made by a particle. The amount of energy is determined by calorimetry. Wimp detection implies bolometers to run at very low temperature. After a presentation of particle interactions with matter, this thesis describes the physical phenomena involved in heat and ionization measurements. The behaviour of semiconductors at low temperature is investigated and qualitative expectations are drawn about the working of metal-semiconductor interface and the pin diode. An experimental setting is presented. The operating voltage needs to be very low in order to be the least disturbing possible. At so low voltage, a decrease of the ionization signal in terms of time appears. It is shown that this phenomenon is linked to the level density in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and to the intensity of infrared radiation reaching the detector. (A.C.)

  4. Graphene-based mid-infrared room-temperature pyroelectric bolometers with ultrahigh temperature coefficient of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, U; Parret, R; Nanot, S; Bruna, M; Borini, S; De Fazio, D; Zhao, Z; Lidorikis, E; Koppens, F H L; Ferrari, A C; Colli, A

    2017-01-31

    There is a growing number of applications demanding highly sensitive photodetectors in the mid-infrared. Thermal photodetectors, such as bolometers, have emerged as the technology of choice, because they do not need cooling. The performance of a bolometer is linked to its temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, ∼2-4% K -1 for state-of-the-art materials). Graphene is ideally suited for optoelectronic applications, with a variety of reported photodetectors ranging from visible to THz frequencies. For the mid-infrared, graphene-based detectors with TCRs ∼4-11% K -1 have been demonstrated. Here we present an uncooled, mid-infrared photodetector, where the pyroelectric response of a LiNbO 3 crystal is transduced with high gain (up to 200) into resistivity modulation for graphene. This is achieved by fabricating a floating metallic structure that concentrates the pyroelectric charge on the top-gate capacitor of the graphene channel, leading to TCRs up to 900% K -1 , and the ability to resolve temperature variations down to 15 μK.

  5. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  6. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  7. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  8. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  9. Pengembangan tes kemampuan literasi sains pada materi momentum dan impuls dengan Analisis Item Response Theory (IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Apriyani Kusuma Putri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan literasi sains adalah suatu kemampuan yang memungkinkan seseorang untuk membuat suatu keputusan dengan pengetahuan konsep dan proses sains yang dimilikinya. Berbagai macam permasalahan yang terjadi di era globalisasi ini menuntut siswa untuk tidak hanya cakap dalam aspek kognitif tapi juga mampu memberi keputusan untuk memecahkan permasalahan, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa kemampuan literasi sains adalah kemampuan yang penting dan harus dimiliki siswa. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan instrumen untuk mengukur kemampuan literasi sains. hal inilah yang mendasari peneliti mengembangkan instrumen kemampuan literasi sains. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan dan mengetahui karakteristik tes kemampuan literasi sains fisika siswa SMA pada materi momentum dan impuls berdasarkan aspek literasi sains yang dikemukakan oleh Gormally. Metode penelitian yang diterapkan adalah penelitian dan pengembangan (Research and Development yaitu metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu, dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut. Sebelum diuji coba tes telah divalidasi oleh tiga orang validator dan menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa tes cukup baik dan dapat diuji coba. Hasil analisis menggunakan Item Response Theory menunjukkan bahwa model 3PL adalah model yang sesuai dengan karakteristik tes. Sedangkan karakteristik tes yang meliputi daya pembeda, tingkat kesukaran, dan faktor tebakan termasuk dalam kategori baik. Science literacy skills is an ability that allows one to make a decision with the knowledge of the concepts and processes of science has. A wide variety of problems that occur in a globalized world requires students to not only proficient in cognitive but also able to make a decision to solve the problem, so it can be said that the ability of science literacy is an important capability and must be owned by the students. Therefore, the instrument is required to measure the ability of science literacy. This problem is

  10. All Metal Organic Deposited High-Tc Superconducting Transition Edge Bolometer on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohajeri, Roya; Opata, Yuri Aparecido; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2016-01-01

    of voltage amplitude and phase was analysed and measured through four-probe technique in a liquid nitrogen cooling system. An increase in voltage amplitude response was observed for the fabricated YBCO/CLO/YSZ bolometer compared to previously reported TEBs with similarly deposited YBCO thin film on a SrTiO3...

  11. An Ultrasensitive Hot-Electron Bolometer for Low-Background SMM Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayaa, David; Wei, Jian; Pereverzev, Sergei; Karasik, Boris S.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; McGrath, William R.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Gershenson, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a hot-electron superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) that is capable of counting THz photons and operates at T = 0.3K. The main driver for this work is moderate resolution spectroscopy (R approx. 1000) on the future space telescopes with cryogenically cooled (approx. 4 K) mirrors. The detectors for these telescopes must be background-limited with a noise equivalent power (NEP) approx. 10(exp -19)-10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 1/2) over the range v = 0.3-10 THz. Above about 1 THz, the background photon arrival rate is expected to be approx. 10-100/s), and photon counting detectors may be preferable to an integrating type. We fabricated superconducting Ti nanosensors with a volume of approx. 3x10(exp -3) cubic microns on planar substrate and have measured the thermal conductance G to the thermal bath. A very low G = 4x10(exp -14) W/K, measured at 0.3 K, is due to the weak electron-phonon coupling in the material and the thermal isolation provided by superconducting Nb contacts. This low G corresponds to NEP(0.3K) = 3x10(exp -19) W/Hz(sup 1/2). This Hot-Electron Direct Detector (HEDD) is expected to have a sufficient energy resolution for detecting individual photons with v > 0.3 THz at 0.3 K. With the sensor time constant of a few microseconds, the dynamic range is approx. 50 dB.

  12. MgB2 thin-film bolometer for applications in far-infrared instruments on future planetary missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Nguyen, L.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB 2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 2.56 × 10 -13 W/√Hz operating at 30 Hz and a responsivity of 702 kV/W. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that an optical specific detectivity of 8.3 × 10 10 cm/√Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17-250 μm spectral wavelength range.

  13. Development of a high energy resolution magnetic bolometer for the determination of photon emission intensities by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.

    2007-12-01

    In this research thesis, a first chapter describes the metrological difficulties for the determination of radionuclide photon emission intensities. Then, it discusses the understanding and the required tools for the computing of a magnetic bolometer signal with respect to the different operation parameters and to the sensor geometry. The author describes the implementation of the experimental device and its validation with a first sensor. The new sensor is then optimised for the measurement of photon emission intensities with a good efficiency and a theoretical energy resolution less than 100 eV up to 200 keV. The sensor's detection efficiency and operation have been characterized with a 133 Ba source. The author finally presents the obtained results

  14. tes2).

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The d€teloprnent of efficient rations lbt fat lamb prcduction was invesligated using a variety of succulent feeds. Forty Dohne Me no werc divided annually for thrc€ yea$ irnmediately after parturition into four groups of ten. Group I received maize silage. Group 2 Japanese radish, Group 3 grecn wheat pasture and Group 4 ...

  15. Le méga-fichier TES dans une nouvelle architecture de surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Vitalis, André

    2017-01-01

    La récente création du méga-fichier biométrique TES de tous les Français, répond, même s’il n’est pas mis en avant, à un souci sécuritaire. Si l’on veut véritablement comprendre les raisons et la portée de cette création, il faut la replacer dans la nouvelle architecture de surveillance en cours de construction depuis plus d’une décennie.

  16. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O

    2002-01-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta...... and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two...

  17. Array-scale performance of TES X-ray Calorimeters Suitable for Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, C. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Brown, A. D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Smith, S. J.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Having developed a transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeter design that enables high spectral resolution in high fill-factor arrays, we now present array-scale results from 32-pixel arrays of identical closely packed TES pixels. Each pixel in such an array contains a Mo/Au bilayer with a transition temperature of 0.1 K and an electroplated Au or Au/Bi xray absorber. The pixels in an array have highly uniform physical characteristics and performance. The arrays are easy to operate due to the range of bias voltages and heatsink temperatures over which solution better than 3 eV at 6 keV can be obtained. Resolution better than 3 eV has also been obtained with 2x8 time-division SQUID multiplexing. We will present the detector characteristics and show spectra acquired through the read-out chain from the multiplexer electronics through the demultiplexer software to real-time signal processing. We are working towards demonstrating this performance over the range of count rates expected in the observing program of the Constellation-X observatory. We mill discuss the impact of increased counting rate on spectral resolution, including the effects of crosstalk and optimal-filtering dead time.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cascetta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter. Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work.

  19. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  20. Kamppailu yleistelevisiosta. TES-TV:n, Mainos-TV:n ja Tesvision merkitykset suomalaisessa televisiokulttuurissa 1956-1964

    OpenAIRE

    Keinonen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Suomalaista televisiohistoriaa tarkastellaan usein Yleisradion historiana. Säännöllinen televisiotoiminta käynnistyi kuitenkin kaupallisesti rahoitetun televisioaseman lähetyksillä, ja vuoteen 1964 mennessä Suomessa ehti toimia kolme kaupallista televisioyhtiötä. TES-TV jatkoi pääkaupunkiseudulla vuonna 1956 säännölliset lähetykset aloittaneen Televisiokerhon toimintaa, Mainos-TV aloitti omat lähetyksensä Yleisradion televisiokanavalla seuraavana vuonna ja vuodesta 1960 lähtien TES-kanavan oh...

  1. Incidência e etiologia de uveítes em Curitiba Incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luis Gehlen

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar a incidência e a etiologia dos casos de uveítes em Curitiba-PR. Métodos: Foram estudados 68 casos de uveítes em Curitiba, PR, atendidos no ambulatório de oftalmologia no período de janeiro a abril de 1998 procurando estabelecer o diagnóstico a partir de ampla investigação clínica e laboratorial. Resultados: Em nosso estudo, constatamos que a uveíte posterior foi a mais encontrada (49%, seguindo-se a panuveíte (29% e, com menor freqüência, a uveíte anterior (22%. A etiologia mais freqüente para as uveítes posteriores foi a toxoplasmose, responsável por 88% dos casos. Entre as panuveítes, novamente a toxoplasmose prevaleceu, com 85% e, dentro das uveítes anteriores, a principal causa foi a espondilite anquilosante com 20%. Conclusão: Em Curitiba, há um predomínio de uveítes posteriores e panuveítes, sendo a causa mais comum a toxoplasmose. No entanto, enfatiza-se que existem outras causas importantes de uveítes que devem ser lembradas pelo oftalmologista na investigação clínica.Purpose: To study the incidence and etiology of uveitis in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Methods: Sixty-eight cases of uveitis were studied in Curitiba, PR between January and April, 1998. Clinical and laboratorial research was performed in order to establish the diagnosis. Results: In this study, we found that posterior uveitis was the most frequent (49%, followed by panuveitis (29%, and, less frequently, anterior uveitis (22%. The major etiology of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis, responsible for 88% of the cases; among panuveitis, toxoplasmosis also predomi-nated, representing 85% and, the main cause of anterior uveitis was ankylosing spondilytis with 20%. Conclusions: In Curitiba, posterior uveitis and panuveitis predominate, and the most frequent etiology is toxoplas-mosis. However, its important to emphasize that there are other important causes of uveitis which should be remem-bered by the ophthalmologist during the

  2. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, Shwetang N.; Sano, Ryuichi; Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Enokuchi, Akito; Takeyama, Norihide

    2014-01-01

    An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (τ 0 = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details

  3. Edge measurements of T/sub e/,T/sub i/,n,E/sub r/ on the DITE tokamak using a biased power bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; McCracken, G.M.; Erents, S.K.; Vince, J.E.; Wilden, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new edge probe, the biased power bolometer or combined heat flux/Langmuir probe, has been used on the DITE tokamak to obtain detailed spatial and temporal information on plasma density, electron and ion temperature (separately), and radial electric field. The radial electric field is of a magnitude and direction to result in local ambipolar flow to each part of a large equipotential surface such as a limiter

  4. Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā.

    OpenAIRE

    Stepiņa, Agita

    2011-01-01

    Pētījuma „Identitātes stila, pašefektivitātes un audzināšanas stilu saistība jauniešu vecumā” mērķis bija noskaidrot kā atšķirīgi identitātes stili saistīti ar pašefektivitāti un mātes audzināšanas stilu. Pētījumā arī tika iekļauti demogrāfiskie un papildus jautājumi, lai noskaidrotu noteiktu informāciju par jauniešiem. Pētījuma izlasi veidoja 60 jaunieši ( 34 sievietes un 26 vīrieši), kuri bija 18-19 gadus veci. Vidējais vecums (M = 18,35) Pētījumā, tika izmantotas trīs metodes: Identi...

  5. First scintillating bolometer tests of a CLYMENE R&D on Li2MoO4 scintillators towards a large-scale double-beta decay experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşe, G.; Giuliani, A.; de Marcillac, P.; Marnieros, S.; Nones, C.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E.; Poda, D. V.; Redon, T.; Sand, J.-B.; Veber, P.; Velázquez, M.; Zolotarova, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    A new R&D on lithium molybdate scintillators has begun within a project CLYMENE (Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crYstals for the scintillating boloMeters used in the rare EveNts sEarches). One of the main goals of the CLYMENE is a realization of a Li2MoO4 crystal growth line to be complementary to the one recently developed by LUMINEU in view of a mass production capacity for CUPID, a next-generation tonne-scale bolometric experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay. In the present paper we report the investigation of performance and radiopurity of 158-g and 13.5-g scintillating bolometers based on a first large-mass (230 g) Li2MoO4 crystal scintillator developed within the CLYMENE project. In particular, a good energy resolution (2-7 keV FWHM in the energy range of 0.2-5 MeV), one of the highest light yield (0.97 keV/MeV) amongst Li2MoO4 scintillating bolometers, an efficient alpha particles discrimination (10 σ) and potentially low internal radioactive contamination (below 0.2-0.3 mBq/kg of U/Th, but 1.4 mBq/kg of 210Po) demonstrate prospects of the CLYMENE in the development of high quality and radiopure Li2MoO4 scintillators for CUPID.

  6. Quasiparticle propagation in aluminum fins and tungsten TES dynamics in the CDMS ZIP detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyle, M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)]. E-mail: mpyle1@stanford.edu; Brink, P.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cabrera, B. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Castle, J.P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Colling, P. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chang, C.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cooley, J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lipus, T. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ogburn, R.W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Young, B.A. [Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    With the aim of improving the rejection of surface beta contamination on the CDMS ZIP detector, we have studied the effectiveness of our phonon pulse-shape discrimination by matching a Monte Carlo calculation to data from a 350{mu}m long Al fin with W TESs (Transition-Edge Sensors) at both ends. From this fit, we determined the Al film diffusivity to be D{sub Al}=0.010+/-0.001m{sup 2}/s, the quasiparticle trapping length in the Al fin to be l{sub trap}=180+/-10{mu}m, and the Al to W TES transmission to be f{sub Al/W}=0.002+/-0.001.

  7. Initial results from the Mini-TES experiment in Gusev Crater from the Spirit Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Ruff, S. W.; Fergason, R. L.; Knudson, A. T.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) on Spirit has studied the mineralogy and thermophysical properties at Gusev crater. Undisturbed soil spectra show evidence for minor carbonates and bound water. Rocks are olivinerich basalts with varying degrees of dust and other coatings. Dark-toned soils observed on disturbed surfaces may be derived from rocks and have derived mineralogy (+/-5 to 10%) of 45% pyroxene (20% Ca-rich pyroxene and 25% pigeonite), 40% sodic to intermediate plagioclase, and 15% olivine (forsterite 45% +/-5 to 10). Two spectrally distinct coatings are observed on rocks, a possible indicator of the interaction of water, rock, and airfall dust. Diurnal temperature data indicate particle sizes from 40 to 80 microm in hollows to approximately 0.5 to 3 mm in soils.

  8. Energy Reconstruction for Events Detected in TES X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, M. T.; Cardiel, N.; Cobo, B.

    2015-09-01

    The processing of the X-ray events detected by a TES (Transition Edge Sensor) device (such as the one that will be proposed in the ESA AO call for instruments for the Athena mission (Nandra et al. 2013) as a high spectral resolution instrument, X-IFU (Barret et al. 2013)), is a several step procedure that starts with the detection of the current pulses in a noisy signal and ends up with their energy reconstruction. For this last stage, an energy calibration process is required to convert the pseudo energies measured in the detector to the real energies of the incoming photons, accounting for possible nonlinearity effects in the detector. We present the details of the energy calibration algorithm we implemented as the last part of the Event Processing software that we are developing for the X-IFU instrument, that permits the calculation of the calibration constants in an analytical way.

  9. Diffusion Behaviour in Superconducting Ti/Au bilayers for SAFARI TES Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, N. J.; Khosropanah, P.; van der Kuur, J.; Ridder, M. L.

    2014-08-01

    Controlling the critical temperature () of Ti/Au bilayers is vital in the development of practical TES detectors. Previously empirical studies have been done on aging effects in Ti/Au and other superconducting bilayers but no link with theory has been made. Here we attempt to explain the change in with a diffusion mechanism. The change in has been measured for a set of Ti/Au bilayer samples that have been given a variety of bake-out treatments, where we found a trend that can be partly explained by an inter-diffusion mechanism. With an empirical model based on diffusion a safe zone can be defined as a region of bake-out treatments, where the is not affected beyond the requirements. This will shine light on the bake-out and the storage condition boundaries of these detectors.

  10. Development and characterization of a TES optical imaging array for astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.; Nam, S.W.; Miller, A.J.; Martinis, J.; Wang, E.; Kenny, T.; Young, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Our research group has successfully developed photon detectors capable of both time-stamping and energy-resolving individual photons at very high rates in a wide band from the near-IR through optical and into the near-UV. We have fabricated 32-pixel arrays of these Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) devices and have mounted them in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We have characterized single pixel behavior; we have also begun operating multiple pixels simultaneously, starting the scaling process towards use of the full array. We emphasize the development of a metalized mask for our array that blocks photons from hitting the inter-pixel areas and reflects them onto the TESs. We also present calibration data on detector resolution, electronics noise, and optical alignment

  11. Characterization, 1064 nm photon signals and background events of a tungsten TES detector for the ALPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Doebrich, B.; Januschek, F.; Lindner, A.; Bastidon, N.; Horns, D.

    2015-02-01

    The high efficiency, low-background, and single-photon detection with transition-edge sensors (TES) is making this type of detector attractive in widely different types of application. In this paper, we present first characterizations of a TES to be used in the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) experiment searching for new fundamental ultra-light particles. Firstly, we describe the setup and the main components of the ALPS TES detector (TES, millikelvin-cryostat and SQUID read-out) and their performances. Secondly, we explain a dedicated analysis method for single-photon spectroscopy and rejection of non-photon background. Finally, we report on results from extensive background measurements. Considering an event-selection, optimized for a wavelength of 1064 nm, we achieved a background suppression of ∝10 -3 with a ∝ 50 % efficiency for photons passing the selection. The resulting overall efficiency was 23 % with a dark count rate of 8.6.10 -3 s -1 . We observed that pile-up events of thermal photons are the main background component.

  12. Propriétés physico-chimiques des pâtes de fruits enrichies aux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIRINA

    fois plus de calcium que le lait de vache, 4 fois plus de vitamine A que la carotte, 3 fois ... Pour pallier le risque de développement des micro-organismes lors de la ..... Figure 2A: Analyses à composantes principales (ACP) des pâtes de tamarin ...

  13. High count-rate study of two TES x-ray microcalorimeters with different transition temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Porter, Frederick S.; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward J.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays with high count-rate capability and high energy resolution to carry out x-ray imaging spectroscopy observations of various astronomical sources and the Sun. We have studied the dependence of the energy resolution and throughput (fraction of processed pulses) on the count rate for such microcalorimeters with two different transition temperatures (T c). Devices with both transition temperatures were fabricated within a single microcalorimeter array directly on top of a solid substrate where the thermal conductance of the microcalorimeter is dependent upon the thermal boundary resistance between the TES sensor and the dielectric substrate beneath. Because the thermal boundary resistance is highly temperature dependent, the two types of device with different T cs had very different thermal decay times, approximately one order of magnitude different. In our earlier report, we achieved energy resolutions of 1.6 and 2.3 eV at 6 keV from lower and higher T c devices, respectively, using a standard analysis method based on optimal filtering in the low flux limit. We have now measured the same devices at elevated x-ray fluxes ranging from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz per pixel. In the high flux limit, however, the standard optimal filtering scheme nearly breaks down because of x-ray pile-up. To achieve the highest possible energy resolution for a fixed throughput, we have developed an analysis scheme based on the so-called event grade method. Using the new analysis scheme, we achieved 5.0 eV FWHM with 96% throughput for 6 keV x-rays of 1025 Hz per pixel with the higher T c (faster) device, and 5.8 eV FWHM with 97% throughput with the lower T c (slower) device at 722 Hz.

  14. Development of ROACH firmware for microwave multiplexed X-ray TES microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, T. J.; Cecil, T. W.; Gades, L. M.; Quaranta, O.; Yan, D.; Miceli, A.; Gard, J. D.

    2016-09-04

    We are developing room temperature electronics based upon the ROACH platform for reading out microwave multiplexed X-ray TES. ROACH is an open-source hardware and software platform featuring a large Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Power PC processor, several 10GB Ethernet SFP+ interfaces, and a collection of daughter boards for analog signal generation and acquisition. The combination of a ROACH board, ADC/DAC conversion daughter boards, and hardware for RF mixing allows for the generation and capture of multiple RF tones for reading out microwave multiplexed x-ray TES microcalorimeters. The FPGA is used to generate multiple tones in base band, from 10MHz to 250MHz, which are subsequently mixed to RF in the multiple GHz range and sent through the microwave multiplexer. The tones are generated in the FPGA by storing a large lookup table in Quad Data Rate (QDR) SRAM modules and playing out the waveform to a DAC board. Once the signal has been modulated to RF, passed through the microwave multiplexer, and has been modulated back to base band, the signal is digitized by an ADC board. The tones are modulated to 0Hz by using a FPGA circuit consisting of a polyphase filter bank, several Xilinx FFT blocks, Xilinx CORDIC blocks (for converting to magnitude and phase), and special phase accumulator circuit for mixing to exactly 0Hz. Upwards of 256 channels can be simultaneously captured and written into a bank of 256 First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memories, with each FIFO corresponding to a channel. Individual channel data can be further processed in the FPGA before being streamed through a 10GB Ethernet fiber-optic interface to a Linux system. The Linux system runs software written in Python and QT C++ for controlling the ROACH system, capturing data, and processing data.

  15. Lightning NOx emissions over the USA constrained by TES ozone observations and the GEOS-Chem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, L.; Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, H. M.; Pickering, K. E.; Worden, J.; Thompson, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Improved estimates of NOx from lightning sources are required to understand tropospheric NOx and ozone distributions, the oxidising capacity of the troposphere and corresponding feedbacks between chemistry and climate change. In this paper, we report new satellite ozone observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument that can be used to test and constrain the parameterization of the lightning source of NOx in global models. Using the National Lightning Detection (NLDN) and the Long Range Lightning Detection Network (LRLDN) data as well as the HYPSLIT transport and dispersion model, we show that TES provides direct observations of ozone enhanced layers downwind of convective events over the USA in July 2006. We find that the GEOS-Chem global chemistry-transport model with a parameterization based on cloud top height, scaled regionally and monthly to OTD/LIS (Optical Transient Detector/Lightning Imaging Sensor) climatology, captures the ozone enhancements seen by TES. We show that the model's ability to reproduce the location of the enhancements is due to the fact that this model reproduces the pattern of the convective events occurrence on a daily basis during the summer of 2006 over the USA, even though it does not well represent the relative distribution of lightning intensities. However, this model with a value of 6 Tg N/yr for the lightning source (i.e.: with a mean production of 260 moles NO/Flash over the USA in summer) underestimates the intensities of the ozone enhancements seen by TES. By imposing a production of 520 moles NO/Flash for lightning occurring in midlatitudes, which better agrees with the values proposed by the most recent studies, we decrease the bias between TES and GEOS-Chem ozone over the USA in July 2006 by 40%. However, our conclusion on the strength of the lightning source of NOx is limited by the fact that the contribution from the stratosphere is underestimated in the GEOS-Chem simulations.

  16. A Microphysically-based Approach to Inferring Porosity, Grain Size, and Dust Abundance in the Seasonal Caps from Atmospherically-corrected TES Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Titus, T. N.

    2003-01-01

    One of the highlights of the TES observations in the polar regions has been the identification of a "cryptic" region in the south where CO2 appears to be in the form of a solid slab rather than a fluffy frost. While the exact mechanism(s) by which the cryptic region is formed are still subject of some debate, it appears certain that a type of rapid metamorphism related to the high volatility of CO2 ice is involved. The high volatility of CO2 ice under martian conditions has several Solar System analogs (N2 on Triton and Pluto, SO2 on Io), thus making the martian cryptic region somewhat less cryptic and certainly non-unique among planetary objects. In an endmember scenario, both the formation and the spectral properties of the cryptic region (and of other areas in the seasonal caps) can be quantitatively modeled by considering sintering of an ensemble of quasi-spherical CO2 grains. This model includes the special case of instanteneous slab formation, which occurs when the grains are sufficiently small (in the submicron range) so that their sintering timescale is short relative to the deposition timescale (a situation analogous to the "sintering" of water droplets falling into a pond).

  17. Lateral terahertz hot-electron bolometer based on an array of Sn nanothreads in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, D. S.; Lavrukhin, D. V.; Yachmenev, A. E.; Khabibullin, R. A.; Semenikhin, I. E.; Vyurkov, V. V.; Ryzhii, M.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the proposal and the theoretical and experimental studies of the terahertz hot-electron bolometer (THz HEB) based on a gated GaAs structure like the field-effect transistor with the array of parallel Sn nanothreads (Sn-NTs). The operation of the HEB is associated with an increase in the density of the delocalized electrons due to their heating by the incoming THz radiation. The quantum and the classical device models were developed, the quantum one was based on the self-consistent solution of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations, the classical model involved the Poisson equation and density of states omitting quantization. We calculated the electron energy distributions in the channels formed around the Sn-NTs for different gate voltages and found the fraction of the delocalized electrons propagating across the energy barriers between the NTs. Since the fraction of the delocalized electrons strongly depends on the average electron energy (effective temperature), the proposed THz HEB can exhibit an elevated responsivity compared with the HEBs based on more standard heterostructures. Due to a substantial anisotropy of the device structure, the THz HEB may demonstrate a noticeable polarization selectivity of the response to the in-plane polarized THz radiation. The features of the THz HEB might be useful in their practical applications in biology, medicine and material science.

  18. Frequency Modulation and Absorption Improvement of THz Micro-bolometer with Micro-bridge Structure by Spiral-Type Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jun; Niu, Qingchen; Liang, Kai; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2018-03-05

    Antenna-coupled micro-bridge structure is proven to be a good solution to extend infrared micro-bolometer technology for THz application. Spiral-type antennas are proposed in 25 μm × 25 μm micro-bridge structure with a single separate linear antenna, two separate linear antennas, or two connected linear antennas on the bridge legs, in addition to traditional spiral-type antenna on the support layer. The effects of structural parameters of each antenna on THz absorption of micro-bridge structure are discussed for optimized absorption of 2.52 THz wave radiated by far infrared CO 2 lasers. The design of spiral-type antenna with two separate linear antennas for wide absorption peak and spiral-type antenna with two connected linear antennas for relatively stable absorption are good candidates for high absorption at low absorption frequency with a rotation angle of 360*n (n = 1.6). Spiral-type antenna with extended legs also provides a highly integrated micro-bridge structure with fast response and a highly compatible, process-simplified way to realize the structure. This research demonstrates the design of several spiral-type antenna-coupled micro-bridge structures and provides preferred schemes for potential device applications in room temperature sensing and real-time imaging.

  19. Superconducting hot-electron bolometer: from the discovery of hot-electron phenomena to practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurakov, A; Lobanov, Y; Goltsman, G

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of hot-electron phenomena in a thin superconducting film in the last century was followed by numerous experimental studies of its appearance in different materials aiming for a better understanding of the phenomena and consequent implementation of terahertz detection systems for practical applications. In contrast to the competitors such as superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junctions and Schottky diodes, the hot electron bolometer (HEB) did not demonstrate any frequency limitation of the detection mechanism. The latter, in conjunction with a decent performance, rapidly made the HEB mixer the most attractive candidate for heterodyne observations at frequencies above 1 THz. The successful operation of practical instruments (the Heinrich Hertz Telescope, the Receiver Lab Telescope, APEX, SOFIA, Hershel) ensures the importance of the HEB technology despite the lack of rigorous theoretical routine for predicting the performance. In this review, we provide a summary of experimental and theoretical studies devoted to understanding the HEB physics, and an overview of various fabrication routes and materials. (topical review)

  20. An array of cold-electron bolometers with SIN tunnel junctions and JFET readout for cosmology instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, L

    2008-01-01

    A novel concept of the parallel/series array of Cold-Electron Bolometers (CEB) with Superconductor-Insulator-Normal (SIN) Tunnel Junctions has been proposed. The concept was developed specially for matching the CEB with JFET amplifier at conditions of high optical power load. The CEB is a planar antenna-coupled superconducting detector with high sensitivity. For combination of effective HF operation and low noise properties the current-biased CEBs are connected in series for DC and in parallel for HF signal. A signal is concentrated from an antenna to the absorber through the capacitance of the tunnel junctions and through additional capacitance for coupling of superconducting islands. Using array of CEBs the applications can be considerably extended to higher power load by distributing the power between N CEBs and decreasing the electron temperature. Due to increased responsivity the noise matching is so effective that photon NEP could be easily achieved at 300 mK with a room temperature JFET for wide range of optical power loads. The concept of the CEB array has been developed for the BOOMERanG balloon telescope and other Cosmology instruments

  1. Numerical modeling of Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals for heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelian, Carmen; Velázquez, Matias; Veber, Philippe; Ahmine, Abdelmounaim; Sand, Jean-Baptiste; Buşe, Gabriel; Cabane, Hugues; Duffar, Thierry

    2018-06-01

    Lithium molybdate Li2MoO4 (LMO) crystals of mass ranging between 350 and 500 g are excellent candidates to build heat-scintillation cryogenic bolometers likely to be used for the detection of rare events in astroparticle physics. In this work, numerical modeling is applied in order to investigate the Czochralski growth of Li2MoO4 crystals in an inductive furnace. The numerical model was validated by comparing the numerical predictions of the crystal-melt interface shape to experimental visualization of the growth interface. Modeling was performed for two different Czochralski furnaces that use inductive heating. The simulation of the first furnace, which was used to grow Li2MoO4 crystals of 3-4 cm in diameter, reveals non-optimal heat transfer conditions for obtaining good quality crystals. The second furnace, which will be used to grow crystals of 5 cm in diameter, was numerically optimized in order to reduce the temperature gradients in the crystal and to avoid fast crystallization of the bath at the later stages of the growth process.

  2. Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne H. Payne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard the NASA Aura satellite to determine the concentrations of the trace gases ammonia (NH3 and formic acid (HCOOH within boreal biomass burning plumes, and present the first detection of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and ethylene (C2H4 by TES. We focus on two fresh Canadian plumes observed by TES in the summer of 2008 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS-B campaign. We use TES retrievals of NH3 and HCOOH within the smoke plumes to calculate their emission ratios (1.0% ± 0.5% and 0.31% ± 0.21%, respectively relative to CO for these Canadian fires. The TES derived emission ratios for these gases agree well with previous aircraft and satellite estimates, and can complement ground-based studies that have greater surface sensitivity. We find that TES observes PAN mixing ratios of ~2 ppb within these mid-tropospheric boreal biomass burning plumes when the average cloud optical depth is low ( < 0.1 and that TES can detect C2H4 mixing ratios of ~2 ppb in fresh biomass burning smoke plumes.

  3. [Jānis Keruss, Ineta Lipša, Inese Runce, Kaspars Zellis. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991)] / Kristine Wohlfart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wohlfart, Kristine, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Keruss, Jānis, Lipša, Ineta, Runce, Inese, Zellis, Kaspars. Latvijas Universitātes Vēstures un filozofijas fakultātes vēsture padomju laikā: personības, struktūras, idejas (1944-1991). (Riga. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, 2010)

  4. Quelle formation pour les interprètes communautaires ? Le dispositif mis en œuvre en Suisse romande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Fierro-Mühlemann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methods and aims when training professional community interpreters, based on the scheme used in French-speaking Switzerland. With the founding of the Swiss association for community interpretation and intercultural mediation, an official training program has been developed: it consists of two modules, “Community interpretation in trialogue settings” and “Guidance in the fields of health, social issues and training”. After specifying Appartenance associations’s philosophical and epistemological heritages, we show how they are reflected throughout the different stages of our educational scheme.

  5. Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.

    OpenAIRE

    Zujevs, Armands

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē.” Darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorijā sniegtajām atziņām par interneta mārketingu, kā arī uz interneta lietotāju aptaujas rezultātiem un ekspertu viedokli, novērtēt Latvijas uzņēmumu mārketinga aktivitātes interneta vidē un izstrādāt priekšlikumus to pilnveidošanai. Darba izstrādē ir veikta literatūras analīze, patērētāju anketēšana un nozares ekspertu intervijas. Lai izprastu interneta mārketinga darbība...

  6. Fast neutron spectrometry by bolometers lithium target for the reduction of background experiences of direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gironnet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fast neutron spectrometry is a common interest for both direct dark matter detection and for nuclear research centres. Fast neutrons are usually detected indirectly. Neutrons are first slowed down by moderating materials for being detected in low energy range. Nevertheless, these detection techniques are and are limited in energy resolution. A new kind of fast neutron spectroscopy has been developed at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) in the aim of having a better knowledge of neutron backgrounds by the association of the bolometric technique with neutron sensitive crystals containing Li. Lithium-6 is indeed an element which has one the highest cross section for neutron capture with the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction. This reaction releases 4,78 MeV tagging energetically each neutron capture. In particular for fast neutrons, the total energy measured by the bolometer would be the sum of this energy reaction and of the incoming fast neutron energy. To validate this principle, a spectrometer for fast neutrons, compact and semi-transportable, was built in IAS. This cryogenic detector, operated at 300 - 400 mK, consists of a 0.5 g LiF 95% 6 Li enriched crystal read out by a NTD-Ge sensor. This PhD thesis was on the study of the spectrometer characteristics, from the first measurements at IAS, to the measurements in the nuclear research centre of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) until the final calibration with the Amande instrument of the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). (author)

  7. Ion Beam Analysis of Iridium-Based TES for Microcalorimeter Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M. Ribeiro; Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Barradas, N. Pessoa; Alves, E.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The physical properties of thin multilayer structures are deeply related to the crystalline quality and stoichiometry of the films. The interface roughness/mixing require a detailed study to determine its influence on the growth processes and surface topography. This is an important aspect when we have lattice mismatch between the superconducting thin-films and the substrates, and a high reliability/reproducibility is required as for large array microcalorimeter applications, as in the case of the MARE experiment, designed to measure the mass of the neutrino with sub-eV sensitivity by measuring the beta decay of 187 Re with cryogenic microcalorimeters. Ion beam analysis techniques are ideal to determine the thickness and concentration profiles of the chemical species in ultra-thin films. Here we present the results on the Ir-based superconducting films deposited on Si-substrates based on systematic investigations of the concentration depth profiles of the multilayer structure using 2.0 MeV 4 He + ions for high resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry combined with X-Ray Reflectrometry to evaluate the interface/roughness mixing and the crystalline quality in the TES prototypes.

  8. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  9. Progress Towards Improved Analysis of TES X-ray Data Using Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, S. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J. A.; Eckart, M. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Lee, S.-J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method of applying a digital optimal filter to measure X-ray pulses from transition-edge sensor (TES) devices does not achieve the best energy resolution when the signals have a highly non-linear response to energy, or the noise is non-stationary during the pulse. We present an implementation of a method to analyze X-ray data from TESs, which is based upon principal component analysis (PCA). Our method separates the X-ray signal pulse into orthogonal components that have the largest variance. We typically recover pulse height, arrival time, differences in pulse shape, and the variation of pulse height with detector temperature. These components can then be combined to form a representation of pulse energy. An added value of this method is that by reporting information on more descriptive parameters (as opposed to a single number representing energy), we generate a much more complete picture of the pulse received. Here we report on progress in developing this technique for future implementation on X-ray telescopes. We used an 55Fe source to characterize Mo/Au TESs. On the same dataset, the PCA method recovers a spectral resolution that is better by a factor of two than achievable with digital optimal filters.

  10. Performance of compact TES arrays with integrated high-fill-fraction X-ray absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, Mark A.; Bandler, Simon; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chervenak, James A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Saab, Tarek; Stahle, Caroline K.; Talley, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have recently produced and tested two-dimensional arrays of Mo/Au transition-edge-sensor (TES) calorimeters with Bi/Cu absorbers. The arrays represent a significant step towards meeting the specifications of NASA's Constellation-X mission. The calorimeters are compactly spaced within 5x5 arrays of 250 μm square pixels necessary for an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. Lithographically produced absorbers hang over the substrate and wiring between the TESs for high filling fraction and high quantum efficiency. We designed the calorimeters with heat capacities and thermal couplings such that X-rays produce pulses with fall times of approximately 300 μs to allow relatively high count rates with low dead time. We read out up to four of the pixels simultaneously. The arrays demonstrated very good energy resolution (5 eV at 1.5 keV and 7 eV at 6 keV) and little crosstalk between neighboring pixels

  11. Performance-based service acquisition (PBSA) of TRIDENT strategic weapons systems (SWS) technical engineering support (TES) services

    OpenAIRE

    Arcidiacono, William J.

    2003-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to determine whether the Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) should apply the concepts of Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) to Strategic Weapons Systems (SWS) Technical Engineering Support (TES) Services. This thesis provides a Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Navy (DON), and SSP SWS program acquisition and PBSA history background, ...

  12. rTES-30USM: cloning via assembly PCR, expression, and evaluation of usefulness in the detection of toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhaida, A; Suharni, M; Liza Sharmini, A T; Tuda, J; Rahmah, N

    2008-03-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati, mainly relies on serological tests. Unfortunately, however, the specificities of most of the commercial tests that are available for the serodiagnosis of this disease are not very high and this may cause problems, especially in tropical countries where co-infections with other helminths are common. In an effort to develop a serological assay with improved specificity for the detection of Toxocara infection, an IgG(4)-ELISA based on a recombinant version (rTES-30USM) of the 30-kDa Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES-30) has recently been developed. To produce the antigen, the TES-30 gene was cloned via assembly PCR, subcloned into a His-tagged prokaryotic expression vector, and purified by affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic-acid (Ni-NTA) resin. The performance of the ELISA based on the recombinant antigen was then compared with that of commercial kit, based on an IgG-ELISA, for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis (Toxocara IgG-ELISA; Cypress Diagnostics, Langdorp, Belgium). Both assays were used to test 338 serum samples, including 26 samples from probable cases of toxocariasis. Assuming that all the probable cases were true cases, the assay based on rTES-30USM demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.3% (24/26) and a specificity of 89.6% (103/115) whereas the commercial kit exhibited a sensitivity of 100% (26/26) but a specificity of only 55.7% (64/115). The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the new IgG(4)-ELISA should make the assay a good choice for use in tropical countries and any other area where potentially cross-reactive helminthic infections are common.

  13. Phenolic compounds as antioxidants and chemopreventive drugs from Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 isolated from rhizosphere of Camellia sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Riveka; Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Jeevanjot; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari

    2018-03-09

    Oxidative stress in an intracellular environment created by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative damage to biomolecules which ultimately become a hallmark for severe diseases like cancer, aging, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Various in vitro assays were employed to assess the antioxidant potential of strain, DNA protective activity was demonstrated using DNA nicking assay and cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using MTT assay. Further identification of the compounds was done using UPLC analysis. The extract of Streptomyces cellulosae strain TES17 demonstrated significant antioxidant activity with percentage inhibition of 78.47 ± 0.23, 91.08 ± 0.98 and 82.08 ± 0.93 for DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radical assays at 5 mg/mL, respectively. Total antioxidant and reducing power were found to be 76.93 ± 0.76 and 231.96 ± 0.51 mg AAE/100 mg of dry extract, respectively. Moreover, the extract was shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation upto 67.18 ± 1.9% at 5 mg/mL. TPC and TFC measured in the extract was 55 mg GAE/100 mg and 11.17 ± 4.05 mg rutin/100 mg, respectively. The protective nature of the TES17 extract to oxidative stress induced damaged DNA was shown by percentage of supercoiled DNA i.e. Form I was increased from 26.38 to 38.20% at concentrations ranging from 2 μg to 10 μg. TES17 extract also showed the cytotoxic activity against lung cancer cell line with 74.7 ± 1.33% inhibition whereas, limited toxicity was observed against normal cell line with percentage viability of 87.71 ± 6.66 at same concentration (30 μg/mL) tested. The antioxidant capacity of extract was well correlated with its TPC and TFC and this in turn was in keeping with the UPLC analysis which also revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that were responsible for the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of S. cellulosae strain TES17. The present study describes that S. cellulosae

  14. Searching for an Improved Spectral Match to TES and IRIS Sinus Meridiani Spectra: Coatings and Cemented Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Herr, K. C.; Adams, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    A region on Mars within Sinus Meridiani has been interpreted as a surface partially covered by coarse-grained (gray) hematite, using spectra measured by the 1996 Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) [Lane et al., 1999; Christensen et al., 2000]. The band strengths recorded by TES of this region are consistent with either coarse-grained hematite, or cemented poorly crystalline or cemented fine-grained hematite. The band strengths are inconsistent with unconsolidated, poorly crystalline or fine-grained hematite, including nanophase hematite dust [Christensen et al., 2000]. Currently the gray hematite interpretation is based on bands centered near 22 and 33 microns. TES also records a band centered near 18 microns that was used in early hematite interpretations [Lane et al., 1999]. However, it was noted [Kirkland et al., 1999a] that the 18 micron band is too narrow in both TES and the 1971 Mariner Mars IRIS spectra to be a good match to typical spectra of well-crystalline hematite [e.g. Salisbury et al., 1991]. The 18 micron band is near the very strong 15 micron atmospheric CO2 band, but if anything the nearby CO2 band should cause the 18 micron band to appear wider, not narrower. In addition, the higher spectral resolution of IRIS allows improved separation of the bands [Kirkland et al., 1999b]. More recent publications no longer show the TES 18 micron band [e.g. Lane et al., 2000; Christensen et al., 2000], which temporarily resolved the issue. However, we feel it is important to understand why TES and IRIS spectra exhibit an 18 micron band that is too narrow to match typical spectra of coarse-grained hematite. Smooth-surfaced cemented (e.g. ferricrete) or coated materials (e.g. desert varnish) have spectral contrast that is consistent with the observed IRIS and TES band contrast. On Mars, one possible source for cemented material or coatings would be the nanophase hematite dust. Cemented materials may occur in bulk (e.g. duricrust or ferricrete), or

  15. Evaluating climate model performance in the tropics with retrievals of water isotopic composition from Aura TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert; Kim, Daehyun; Kelley, Max; LeGrande, Allegra; Worden, John; Schmidt, Gavin

    2014-05-01

    Observational and theoretical arguments suggest that satellite retrievals of the stable isotope composition of water vapor could be useful for climate model evaluation. The isotopic composition of water vapor is controlled by the same processes that control water vapor amount, but the observed distribution of isotopic composition is distinct from amount itself . This is due to the fractionation that occurs between the abundant H216O isotopes (isotopologues) and the rare and heavy H218O and HDO isotopes during evaporation and condensation. The fractionation physics are much simpler than the underlying moist physics; discrepancies between observed and modeled isotopic fields are more likely due to problems in the latter. Isotopic measurements therefore have the potential for identifying problems that might not be apparent from more conventional measurements. Isotopic tracers have existed in climate models since the 1980s but it is only since the mid 2000s that there have been enough data for meaningful model evaluation in this sense, in the troposphere at least. We have evaluated the NASA GISS ModelE2 general circulation model over the tropics against water isotope (HDO/H2O) retrievals from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), alongside more conventional measurements. A small ensemble of experiments was performed with physics perturbations to the cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes, done in the context of the normal model development process. We examined the degree to which model-data agreement could be used to constrain a select group of internal processes in the model, namely condensate evaporation, entrainment strength, and moist convective air mass flux. All are difficult to parameterize, but exert strong influence over model performance. We found that the water isotope composition was significantly more sensitive to physics changes than precipitation, temperature or relative humidity through the depth of the tropical troposphere. Among the

  16. Compositions of Bedrock Containing Craters on Mars as Viewed by TES, THEMIS, and CRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. S.; Rogers, D.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of Martian high thermal inertia crater surfaces has been made using derived THEMIS thermal inertia data. High thermal inertia surfaces or interpreted bedrock are defined as any pixel in a THEMIS image with a thermal inertia over 1200 J K-1m-2s-1/2 and may refer to in situ rock exposures or rock-dominated surfaces. While three different surface morphologies (valley and crater walls, crater floors, and plains surface) were originally identified [Edwards et al., in press], the focus of this study is to better characterize the compositional, thermophysical, and geological characteristics of the crater floors surface. These surfaces may be related to impact-associated volcanism that often occurs in conjunction with large energetic impacts. These craters are commonly modified, lack a central peak, have shallow sloped walls, and little to no visible ejecta, indicating the relatively old ages of these impacts. They are generally large, ranging in size from 18.5 to 179km in diameter, with an average of ~52km [Edwards et al., in press]. Boulders are also observed in high-resolution imagery (e.g. HiRISE) along with fine scale randomly oriented cracks and fractures. TES spectra for ~60 of the 92 originally identified sites have been examined in detail and can be broken down into two distinctive spectral groups, olivine bearing (~80%, with >10% olivine and often >20%) and non-olivine bearing craters (~20%, with inertia crater floors. In this case, magma is likely derived from decompression melting of the mantle due to the removal of overlying material. This magma reaches the surface through fractures and cracks in the basement rock likely caused by the impact event. This is consistent with the observed compositions, as material derived directly from the Martian mantle is expected to be significantly more mafic than the surrounding country rock. These sites are likely locations where the some of the most primitive material on Mars is observed and can be used to

  17. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  18. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...... stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative...

  19. Når to mennesker møtes: Hvordan kan sykepleier møte pasienter med selvskadende atferd

    OpenAIRE

    Eikrem, Mats Ulstein

    2017-01-01

    Høgskulen på Vestlandet Institutt for sykepleie Avdeling for helsefag Tittel: Når to mennesker møtes Bakgrunn for val av tema: Bakgrunnen for tema er mine egne erfaringer innenfor legevakts arbeid, og de observasjonene jeg har tilnærmet meg der. Noe som har ført til at jeg opplever at sykepleiere ikke skaper nok rom for pasienter med selvskadende atferd. Jeg ønsker derfor å lære mer om hvordan man bør møte denne pasientgruppen på en god måte. Problemstilling: Hvordan kan syk...

  20. Pyroelectric response mechanism of barium strontium titanate ceramics in dielectric bolometer mode: The underlying essence of the enhancing effect of direct current bias field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Chaoliang; Cao, Sheng; Yan, Shiguang; Yao, Chunhua; Cao, Fei; Wang, Genshui; Dong, Xianlin; Hu, Xu; Yang, Chunli

    2013-01-01

    Pyroelectric response mechanism of Ba 0.70 Sr 0.30 TiO 3 ceramics under dielectric bolometer (DB) mode was investigated by dielectric and pyroelectric properties measurement. The variations of total, intrinsic, and induced pyroelectric coefficients (p tot , p int , p ind ) with temperatures and bias fields were analyzed. p int plays the dominant role to p tot through most of the temperature range and p ind will be slightly higher than p int above T 0 . The essence of the enhancing effect of DC bias field on pyroelectric coefficient can be attributed to the high value of p int . This mechanism is useful for the pyroelectric materials (DB mode) applications.

  1. First test of an enriched {sup 116}CdWO{sub 4} scintillating bolometer for neutrinoless double-beta-decay searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Umatov, V.I. [ITEP, National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Danevich, F.A. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Gimbal-Zofka, Y. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Linnaeus University, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Kalmar (Sweden); Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); DISAT, Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Novati, V.; Olivieri, E. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Nones, C.; Zolotarova, A.S. [DSM/IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Poda, D.V. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Orsay (France); Shlegel, V.N. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tretyak, V.I. [MSP, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    For the first time, a cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator enriched in {sup 116}Cd has been succesfully tested as a scintillating bolometer. The measurement was performed above ground at a temperature of 18 mK. The crystal mass was 34.5 g and the enrichment level ∝ 82 %. Despite a substantial pile-up effect due to above-ground operation, the detector demonstrated high energy resolution (2-7 keV FWHM in 0.2-2.6 MeV γ energy range and 7.5 keV FWHM at the {sup 116}Cd double-beta decay transition energy of 2813 keV), a powerful particle identification capability and a high level of internal radio-purity. These results prove that cadmium tungstate is a promising detector material for a next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay bolometric experiment, like that proposed in the CUPID project (CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification). (orig.)

  2. Transition edge sensor-energy-dispersive spectrometer (TES-EDS) using a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masanori; Baba, Yukari; Nakayama, Satoshi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    A cryogen-free energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using a transition edge sensor (TES) was developed for material analysis. This system can maintain a temperature at 130 mK within 30 μK, and has good energy resolution (19 eV for Mn-Kα) for long-time measurement with a drift in the DC level of less than 0.02 eV/min. This system utilizes a dilution refrigerator (φ 272 mmxheight 572 mm) and has a snout (370 mm long and φ25 mm) similar to that in a conventional EDS system. The dilution refrigerator is pre-cooled by a GM refrigerator. A flexible tube between the dilution refrigerator and GM refrigerator damps the mechanical vibration of the GM refrigerator. Two shields (4 and 80 K) thermally protect the Cu rod (φ8 mm) cooled to be 100 mK. Windows composed of polyimide+Al film allow X-ray detection above the C-Kα line. A TES (6 mmx6 mm) and array SQUID amplifier (1.5 mmx3 mm) are mounted on top of the Cu rod. For Mn-Kα, the pulse height is 5.5 μA and decay time (τ eff ) is 90 μs. The maximum count rate (1/20 τ eff ) is estimated at about 500 cps

  3. A feedforward IMC structure for controlling the charging temperature of a TES system of a solar cooker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawire, A.; McPherson, M.

    2008-01-01

    A feedforward internal model control (IMC) structure for controlling and maintaining the outlet charging temperature of a thermal energy storage (TES) system of a solar cooker is presented. The TES system consists of a packed pebble bed in thermal contact with a heat transfer oil contained in a storage tank. An electrical hot plate simulates the collector/concentrator which heats up the oil circulating in a hollow copper spiral coil thus charging the storage. A model for the collector/concentrator system is developed to enable simulation of the feedforward IMC structure. Using a Simulink block model, the simulation results reveal that a feedforward IMC structure performs better than a feedforward structure. The feedforward IMC structure is tested experimentally and the performance of the control structure is acceptable within a few degrees of the set temperatures. Experimental results are also compared with the simulation results. The simulated responses are found to relate closely to the experimental ones and any discrepancies between the two are discussed. Furthermore, the feedforward IMC structure is also compared experimentally with a combined feedforward and PID feedback structure. Results of the comparison indicate that the feedforward IMC structure performs better than the combined feedforward and PID feedback structure. The thermal profile of the storage during the charging experiment with the feedforward IMC structure is also presented and the results obtained from the storage profile indicate that the storage tank is thermally stratified

  4. Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We combine CO column measurements from the MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and TES satellite instruments in a full-year (May 2004–April 2005 global inversion of CO sources at 4°×5° spatial resolution and monthly temporal resolution. The inversion uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM and its adjoint applied to MOPITT, AIRS, and SCIAMACHY. Observations from TES, surface sites (NOAA/GMD, and aircraft (MOZAIC are used for evaluation of the a posteriori solution. Using GEOS-Chem as a common intercomparison platform shows global consistency between the different satellite datasets and with the in situ data. Differences can be largely explained by different averaging kernels and a priori information. The global CO emission from combustion as constrained in the inversion is 1350 Tg a−1. This is much higher than current bottom-up emission inventories. A large fraction of the correction results from a seasonal underestimate of CO sources at northern mid-latitudes in winter and suggests a larger-than-expected CO source from vehicle cold starts and residential heating. Implementing this seasonal variation of emissions solves the long-standing problem of models underestimating CO in the northern extratropics in winter-spring. A posteriori emissions also indicate a general underestimation of biomass burning in the GFED2 inventory. However, the tropical biomass burning constraints are not quantitatively consistent across the different datasets.

  5. A Wearable EEG-HEG-HRV Multimodal System With Simultaneous Monitoring of tES for Mental Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Unsoo; Lee, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunki; Roh, Taehwan; Bae, Joonsung; Kim, Changhyeon; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal mental management system in the shape of the wearable headband and earplugs is proposed to monitor electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) for accurate mental health monitoring. It enables simultaneous transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) together with real-time monitoring. The total weight of the proposed system is less than 200 g. The multi-loop low-noise amplifier (MLLNA) achieves over 130 dB CMRR for EEG sensing and the capacitive correlated-double sampling transimpedance amplifier (CCTIA) has low-noise characteristics for HEG and HRV sensing. Measured three-physiology domains such as neural, vascular and autonomic domain signals are combined with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal kernel canonical correlation analysis (tkCCA) algorithm to find the neural-vascular-autonomic coupling. It supports highly accurate classification with the 19% maximum improvement with multimodal monitoring. For the multi-channel stimulation functionality, after-effects maximization monitoring and sympathetic nerve disorder monitoring, the stimulator is designed as reconfigurable. The 3.37 × 2.25 mm(2) chip has 2-channel EEG sensor front-end, 2-channel NIRS sensor front-end, NIRS current driver to drive dual-wavelength VCSEL and 6-b DAC current source for tES mode. It dissipates 24 mW with 2 mA stimulation current and 5 mA NIRS driver current.

  6. Iedzīvotāju mobilitātes izpausmes Kārsavas pilsētā

    OpenAIRE

    Bleive, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Iedzīvotāju mobilitātes izpausmes Kārsavas pilsētā” mērķis ir izanalizēt migrācijas procesu Kārsavas pilsētā. Iedzīvotāju mobilitāte ir jēdziens, ar ko tiek apzīmēta personu kustība vai pārvietošanās. Bakalaura darbā tiek aplūkota galvenokārt iedzīvotāju mobilitāte un tai raksturīgākās iezīmes Kārsavas pilsētā. Darbs tiek strukturēts divās daļās – teorētiskās studijas un Kārsavas pilsētas iedzīvotāju mobilitātes analīze. Pētījumā tiek apskatīti un raksturoti iedzīvotāju s...

  7. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Nitzan; Quinn, Alexander; O'Neill, Helen C; Koopman, Peter; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2017-01-01

    During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES), which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  8. Normal Levels of Sox9 Expression in the Developing Mouse Testis Depend on the TES/TESCO Enhancer, but This Does Not Act Alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Gonen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During mouse sex determination, transient expression of the Y-linked gene Sry up-regulates its direct target gene Sox9, via a 3.2 kb testis specific enhancer of Sox9 (TES, which includes a core 1.4 kb element, TESCO. SOX9 activity leads to differentiation of Sertoli cells, rather than granulosa cells from the bipotential supporting cell precursor lineage. Here, we present functional analysis of TES/TESCO, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in mice. Deletion of TESCO or TES reduced Sox9 expression levels in XY fetal gonads to 60 or 45% respectively relative to wild type gonads, and reduced expression of the SOX9 target Amh. Although human patients heterozygous for null mutations in SOX9, which are assumed to have 50% of normal expression, often show XY female sex reversal, mice deleted for one copy of Sox9 do not. Consistent with this, we did not observe sex reversal in either TESCO-/- or TES-/- XY embryos or adult mice. However, embryos carrying both a conditional Sox9 null allele and the TES deletion developed ovotestes. Quantitative analysis of these revealed levels of 23% expression of Sox9 compared to wild type, and a significant increase in the expression of the granulosa cell marker Foxl2. This indicates that the threshold in mice where sex reversal begins to be seen is about half that of the ~50% levels predicted in humans. Our results demonstrate that TES/TESCO is a crucial enhancer regulating Sox9 expression in the gonad, but point to the existence of additional enhancers that act redundantly.

  9. Korelasi Tes Formatif dengan Hasil Belajar Siswa Pembelajaran Matematika Sdn 06 Mempawah Hilir

    OpenAIRE

    Yuningsih, Syarifah; Nurhadi; Sabri, Tahmid

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research are describes the corelation between the formative tests and the students learning result in mathmatics. The method of this research is descriptive with the corelation form. The sample was 30 students. The result showed the number of rxy > rtable (0.7820> 0.374). in perticular (1) the provision of formative test in mathmatics learning was indicated quite. The formative test is 1817.5 with an average of 60.58. (2) Result of study on learning mathmatics by 1940 wit...

  10. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  11. Alus kosmētikas produktu vizuālās identitātes izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfelde, Lelde

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir “Alus kosmētikas produktu vizuālās identitātes izstrāde”. Darba teorētiskajā daļā tiek apskatīts iepakojuma dizaina jēdziens, iepakojuma dizaina nozīme, dizaina veidošanas principi, populārākie iepakojuma materiāli. Pētījuma mērķis ir izpētīt, vai mūsdienu alus kosmētikas iepakojuma dizainā ir nepieciešamība izmantot alus iepakojuma dizaina raksturīgākos principus. Hipotēze: Alus kosmētikas iepakojuma dizainā nepieciešams izmantot alus etiķešu dizaina grafiskos elementus...

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT and NASBA-oligochromatography for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basiye, Frank L.; Mbuchi, Margaret; Magiri, Charles; Kirigi, George; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Schoone, Gerard J.; Saad, Alfarazdeg A.; El-Safi, Sayda; Matovu, Enock; Wasunna, Monique K.

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the OligoC-TesT and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification coupled to oligochromatography (NASBA-OC) for molecular detection of Leishmania in blood from patients with confirmed visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and healthy endemic controls from Kenya.

  13. Producción y evaluación del antígeno recombinante TES-30 de Toxocara canis para el inmunodiagnóstico de toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Olave

    2016-03-01

    Conclusiones. Los datos presentados respaldan la utilidad del immunoblot rTES-30 para la confirmación de los posibles positivos por ELISA, no solo en los estudios epidemiológicos, sino también, como candidato para el desarrollo de pruebas diagnósticas de la toxocariasis ocular en Colombia.

  14. Optically Immersed Bolometer IR Detectors Based on V2O5 Thin Films with Polyimide Thermal Impedance Control Layer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumesh, M. A.; Thomas, Beno; Vijesh, T. V.; Mohan Rao, G.; Viswanathan, M.; Karanth, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    Optically immersed bolometer IR detectors were fabricated using electron beam evaporated vanadium oxide as the sensing material. Spin-coated polyimide was used as medium to optically immerse the sensing element to the flat surface of a hemispherical germanium lens. This optical immersion layer also serves as the thermal impedance control layer and decides the performance of the devices in terms of responsivity and noise parameters. The devices were packaged in suitable electro-optical packages and the detector parameters were studied in detail. Thermal time constant varies from 0.57 to 6.0 ms and responsivity from 75 to 757 V W-1 corresponding to polyimide thickness in the range 2 to 70 μm for a detector bias of 9 V in the wavelength region of 14-16 μm. Highest D* obtained was 1.2×108 cmHz1/2 W-1. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 20 mK was achieved for devices with polyimide thickness more than 32 μm. The figure of merit, NETD × τ product which describes trade-off between thermal time constant and sensitivity is also extensively studied for devices having different thickness of thermal impedance layers.

  15. Status of LUMINEU program to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 100}Mo with cryogenic ZnMoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F. A., E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Boiko, R. S.; Chernyak, D. M.; Kobychev, V. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Bergé, L.; Chapellier, M.; Drillien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Humbert, V.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Marrache-Kikuchi, C.; Olivieri, E.; Plantevin, O.; Tenconi, M. [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Coron, N.; Redon, T.; Torres, L. [IAS, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Devoyon, L.; Koskas, F. [CEA, Centre d’Etudes Saclay, Orphée, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2015-10-28

    The LUMTNEU program aims at performing a pilot experiment on 0ν2β decay of {sup 100}Mo using radiopure ZnMoO{sub 4} crystals enriched in {sup 100}Mo operated as cryogenic scintillating bolometers. Large volume ZnMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators (∼ 0.3 kg) were developed and tested showing high performance in terms of radiopurity, energy resolution and α/β particle discrimination capability. Zinc molybdate crystal scintillators enriched in {sup 100}Mo were grown for the first time by the low-thermal-gradient Czochralski technique with a high crystal yield and an acceptable level of enriched molybdenum irrecoverable losses. A background level of ∼ 0.5 counts/(yr keV ton) in the region of interest can be reached in a large detector array thanks to the excellent detectors radiopurity and particle discrimination capability, suppression of randomly coinciding events by pulse-shape analysis, and anticoincidence cut. These results pave the way to future sensitive searches based on the LUMTNEU technology, capable of approachingand exploring the inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass pattern.

  16. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; White, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600μm high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000μm) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance

  17. Utilisation des mousses et des pâtes syntactiques pour combler les lacunes des poteries archéologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bechoux

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Filling potteries missing parts with plaster raises now complex problems during the de-restoration treatments. Ceramics restorers have recurrently questions on the use of plaster in the field of archaeological ceramics restoration. Some researches point to the choice of other filling materials. At the present time other methods can be devised by proposing plaster replacement by a lightened composite material: syntactic foams and pastes.Le comblement des lacunes des poteries à partir du plâtre pose actuellement des problèmes complexes lors des traitements de dérestauration. Les restaurateurs de céramiques s'interrogent de manière récurrente sur l'utilisation du plâtre dans le domaine de la restauration des céramiques archéologiques. Des recherches s'orientent vers le choix d'autres matériaux d'obturation. Actuellement, d'autres méthodes peuvent être mises en place en proposant le remplacement du plâtre par un matériau composite allégé, les mousses et les pâtes syntactiques.

  18. Characterization of Low Noise TES Detectors Fabricated by D-RIE Process for SAFARI Short-Wavelength Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Suzuki, T.; Hijmering, R. A.; Ridder, M. L.; Lindeman, M. A.; Gao, J.-R.; Hoevers, H.

    2014-08-01

    SRON is developing TES detectors based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN membrane for the short-wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA mission. We have recently replaced the wet KOH etching of the Si substrate by deep reactive ion etching. The new process enables us to fabricate the detectors on the substrate and release the membrane at the very last step. Therefore the production of SAFARI large arrays (4343) on thin SiN membrane (250 nm) is feasible. It also makes it possible to realize narrow supporting SiN legs of 1 m, which are needed to meet SAFARI NEP requirements. Here we report the current-voltage characteristics, noise performance and impedance measurement of these devices. The measured results are then compared with the distributed leg model that takes into account the thermal fluctuation noise due to the SiN legs. We measured a dark NEP of 0.7 aW/, which is 1.6 times higher than the theoretically expected phonon noise.

  19. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  20. Constraints on the Within Season and Between Year Variability of the North Residual Cap from MGS-TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.; Mahoney, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    There is a long history of telescopic and spacecraft observations of the polar regions of Mars. The finely laminated ice deposits and surrounding layered terrains are commonly thought to contain a record of past climate conditions and change. Understanding the basic nature of the deposits and their mineral and ice constituents is a continued focus of current and future orbited missions. Unresolved issues in Martian polar science include a) the unusual nature of the CO2 ice deposits ("Swiss Cheese", "slab ice" etc.) b) the relationship of the ice deposits to underlying layered units (which differs from the north to the south), c) understanding the seasonal variations and their connections to the finely laminated units observed in high-resolution images and d) the relationship of dark materials in the wind-swept lanes and reentrant valleys to the surrounding dark dune and surface materials. Our work focuses on understanding these issues in relationship to the north residual ice cap. Recent work using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets have described evolution of the seasonal CO2 frost deposits. In addition, the north polar residual ice cap exhibits albedo variations between Mars years and within the summer season. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data set can augment these observations providing additional constraints such as temperature evolution and spectral properties associated with ice and rocky materials. Exploration of these properties is the subject of our current study.

  1. Impact of nonlinearity on changing the a priori of trace gas profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP estimates of atmospheric profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES contains a priori information that may vary geographically, which is a confounding factor in the analysis and physical interpretation of an ensemble of profiles. One mitigation strategy is to transform profile estimates to a common prior using a linear operation thereby facilitating the interpretation of profile variability. However, this operation is dependent on the assumption of not worse than moderate non-linearity near the solution of the non-linear estimate. The robustness of this assumption is tested by comparing atmospheric retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer processed with a uniform prior with those processed with a variable prior and converted to a uniform prior following the non-linear retrieval. Linearly converting the prior following a non-linear retrieval is shown to have a minor effect on the results as compared to a non-linear retrieval using a uniform prior when compared to the expected total error, with less than 10% of the change in the prior ending up as unbiased fluctuations in the profile estimate results.

  2. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Technologies LLC, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Terrafore successfully demonstrated and optimized the manufacturing of capsules containing phase-changing inorganic salts. The phase change was used to store thermal energy collected from a concentrating solar-power plant as latent heat. This latent heat, in addition to sensible heat increased the energy density (energy stored per unit weight of salt) by over 50%, thus requiring 40% less salt and over 60% less capsule container. Therefore, the cost to store high-temperature thermal energy collected in a concentrating solar power plant will be reduced by almost 40% or more, as compared to conventional two-tank, sensible-only storage systems. The cost for thermal energy storage (TES) system is expected to achieve the Sun Shot goal of $15 per kWh(t). Costs associated with poor heat-transfer in phase change materials (PCM) were also eliminated. Although thermal energy storage that relies on the latent heat of fusion of PCM improves energy density by as much as 50%, upon energy discharge the salt freezes and builds on the heat transfer surfaces. Since these salts have low thermal conductivity, large heat-transfer areas, or larger conventional heat-exchangers are needed, which increases costs. By encapsulating PCM in small capsules we have increased the heat transfer area per unit volume of salt and brought the heat transfer fluid in direct contact with the capsules. These two improvements have increased the heat transfer coefficient and boosted heat transfer. The program was successful in overcoming the phenomenon of melt expansion in the capsules, which requires the creation of open volume in the capsules or shell to allow for expansion of the molten salt on melting and is heated above its melting point to 550°C. Under contract with the Department of Energy, Terrafore Inc. and Southwest Research Institute, developed innovative method(s) to economically create the open volume or void in the capsule. One method consists of using a sacrificial polymer coating as the

  3. Uzņēmumu "Circle K", "Neste" un "Virši-A" lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Stabrovska, Viktorija

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Uzņēmumu "Circle K", "Neste" un "Virši-A" lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums”. Darba mēr is ir veikt uzņēmuma «Circle K», “Neste” un «Virši-A» komunikācijas analīzi par lojalitātes programmām un klientu vērtējumu par uzņēmumu veiktajām klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas aktivitātēm. Darbs sastāv no trīs da ām: teorētiskās, metodolo iskās un empīriskās da as. Darba teorētiskājā da ā izmantota literatūra par zīmolu, mārketingu, mārketinga kompleksu, mārketinga komun...

  4. Efeitos do trimetilaminoetano (TES e ringer lactato em sêmen de macacos-aranha mantidos em cativeiro ( Ateles paniscus e A. marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S.M. Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the diluents TES and CEBRAN II were compared as cryopreservatives of semen from non human primates of the genus Ateles. The experiment was carried out using one Ateles marginatus and two Ateles paniscus specimens, males and adults, maintained in the same captivity conditions at the National Center of Primates (CENP-SVS/MS. The animals were subjected to clinical and andrological examinations - testicular biometry - before the semen collection by eletroejaculation. Evaluations of motility and forward movement in the fresh semen were made. Semen were made dilution was made with the diluents TES and CEBRAN II. The ejaculates were diluted with the diluents (2:1proportion, packed in 0.25mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the packed ejaculates were appraised in thermo resistance test (TTR. The averages of volume and concentration were, respectively, 1.94mL (0.83 and 3,020,000 sptz/mL (275.97. The pH 8 and seminal coagulation were observed in all samples. The results suggest that the TES diluent presents better efficiency in the preservation of Ateles semen than CEBRAN II.

  5. Augsnes un zemes kvalitātes novērtējuma karšu digitizēšana

    OpenAIRE

    Stalīdzāns, Didzis

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir nodrošināt augšņu agroķīmiskās izpētes izstrādes procesa kartogrāfiskā materiāla lietošanas efektivitātes pieaugumu. Maģistra darbā tiek aprakstīts līdzšinējais augšņu agroķīmiskās izstrādes process Valsts augu aizsardzības dienestā un digitālo augšņu karšu izmantošanas iespējas. Pamatojoties uz darbā veiktās izpētes rezultātiem ir definēta problēma: augšņu agroķīmiskās kartes nav pieejamas telpisko datu formātā. Problēmas risinājumam tiek piedāvātas projekta alternat...

  6. Cross-validation of IASI/MetOp derived tropospheric δD with TES and ground-based FTIR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J.-L.; Clarisse, L.; Worden, J.; Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; Risi, C.; Clerbaux, C.; Hurtmans, D.; Coheur, P.-F.

    2015-03-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) flying onboard MetOpA and MetOpB is able to capture fine isotopic variations of the HDO to H2O ratio (δD) in the troposphere. Such observations at the high spatio-temporal resolution of the sounder are of great interest to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling humidity in the troposphere. In this study we aim to empirically assess the validity of our error estimation previously evaluated theoretically. To achieve this, we compare IASI δD retrieved profiles with other available profiles of δD, from the TES infrared sounder onboard AURA and from three ground-based FTIR stations produced within the MUSICA project: the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) sites Kiruna and Izaña, and the TCCON site Karlsruhe, which in addition to near-infrared TCCON spectra also records mid-infrared spectra. We describe the achievable level of agreement between the different retrievals and show that these theoretical errors are in good agreement with empirical differences. The comparisons are made at different locations from tropical to Arctic latitudes, above sea and above land. Generally IASI and TES are similarly sensitive to δD in the free troposphere which allows one to compare their measurements directly. At tropical latitudes where IASI's sensitivity is lower than that of TES, we show that the agreement improves when taking into account the sensitivity of IASI in the TES retrieval. For the comparison IASI-FTIR only direct comparisons are performed because the sensitivity profiles of the two observing systems do not allow to take into account their differences of sensitivity. We identify a quasi negligible bias in the free troposphere (-3‰) between IASI retrieved δD with the TES, which are bias corrected, but important with the ground-based FTIR reaching -47‰. We also suggest that model-satellite observation comparisons could be optimized with IASI thanks to its high

  7. Study of new germanium bolometers with interleaved concentric electrodes for non-baryonic cold dark matter direct detection in the Edelweiss-II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domange, J.

    2011-09-01

    EDELWEISS is a direct non-baryonic cold dark matter detection experiment in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (also known as WIMPs), which currently constitute the most popular candidates to account for the missing mass in the Universe. To this purpose, EDELWEISS uses germanium bolometers at cryogenic temperature (20 mK approximately) in the Underground Laboratory of Modane (LSM) at the French-Italian border. Since 2008, a new type of detector is operated, equipped with concentric electrodes to optimize the rejection of surface events (coplanar-grid detectors). This thesis work is divided into several research orientations. First, we carried out measurements concerning charge collection in the crystals. The velocity laws of the carriers (electrons and holes) have been determined in germanium at 20 mK in the orientation, and a complete study of charge sharing has been done, including an evaluation of the transport anisotropy and of the straggling of the carriers. These results lead to a better understanding of the inner properties of the EDELWEISS detectors. Then, studies relating to the improvement of the performances were carried out. In particular, we have optimized the space-charge cancellation procedure in the crystals and improved the passive rejection of surface events (β). The fiducial volume of the detectors has been evaluated using two X-ray lines from cosmically activated radionuclides: 68 Ge and 65 Zn. Finally, an exhaustive study of the low energy spectra has been carried out, which makes it possible to develop a systematic analysis method for the search of low-mass WIMPs in EDELWEISS. (author)

  8. Thermo-physical stability of fatty acid eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated aging for thermal energy storage (TES) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, Hadi; Metselaar, Hendrik S.C.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    The thermo-physical stability of fatty acids eutectic mixtures subjected to accelerated number of melting/solidification processes has been identified using thermal cycling test in this study. Myristic acid/palmitic acid (MA/PA) (70/30, wt.%) and myristic acid/palmitic acid/sodium stearate (MA/PA/SS) (70/30/5, wt.%) were selected as eutectic phase change materials (PCMs) to evaluate their stability of phase transition temperature, latent heat of fusion, chemical structure, and volume changes after 200, 500, 1000, and 1500 thermal cycles. The thermal properties of each eutectic PCMs measured by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) indicated the phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion values of MA/PA/SS has a smallest changes after 1500 thermal cycles than MA/PA eutectic mixture. MA/PA/SS also has a better chemical structure stability and smaller volume change which is 1.2%, compared to MA/PA with a volume change of 1.6% after 1500 cycles. Therefore, it is concluded that the MA/PA/SS eutectic mixture is suitable for use as a phase change material in thermal energy storage (TES) such as solar water heating and solar space heating applications. - Highlights: •The prepared MA/PA and MA/PA/SS were used as eutectic phase change materials (PCM). •Thermo-physical reliability of eutectic PCMs evaluated using a thermal cycling test. •MA/PA/SS has a great thermo-physical stability than MA/PA after 1500 thermal cycles

  9. Study and optimization of bolometers designed to measure both ionization and heat in order to detect black matter; Etude et optimisation de bolometres a mesure simultanee de l`ionisation et de la chaleur pour la recherche de matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navick, X F

    1997-09-25

    The detection of black matter in the form of wimp (weakly interactive massive particle) requires the identification of the incident particle so that events due to wimp interactions can be set apart from events due to surrounding radioactivity. Bolometers allow to measure both the energy deposited and the ionization made by a particle. The amount of energy is determined by calorimetry. Wimp detection implies bolometers to run at very low temperature. After a presentation of particle interactions with matter, this thesis describes the physical phenomena involved in heat and ionization measurements. The behaviour of semiconductors at low temperature is investigated and qualitative expectations are drawn about the working of metal-semiconductor interface and the pin diode. An experimental setting is presented. The operating voltage needs to be very low in order to be the least disturbing possible. At so low voltage, a decrease of the ionization signal in terms of time appears. It is shown that this phenomenon is linked to the level density in the forbidden band of the semiconductor and to the intensity of infrared radiation reaching the detector. (A.C.) 193 refs.

  10. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  11. Evidence of enrichment by individual SN from elemental abundance ratios in the very metal-poor dSph galaxy Boötes I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltzing, S.; Eriksson, K.; Kleyna, J.; Wilkinson, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Aims. We establish the mean metallicity from high-resolution spectroscopy for the recently found dwarf spheroidal galaxy Boötes I and test whether it is a common feature for ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies to show signs of inhomogeneous chemical evolution (e.g. as found in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy). Methods: We analyse high-resolution, moderate signal-to-noise spectra for seven red giant stars in the Boötes I dSph galaxy using standard abundance analysis techniques. In particular, we assume local thermodynamic equilibrium and employ spherical model atmospheres and codes that take the sphericity of the star into account when calculating the elemental abundances. Results: We confirm previous determinations of the mean metallicity of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy to be -2.3 dex. Whilst five stars are clustered around this metallicity, one is significantly more metal-poor, at -2.9 dex, and one is more metal-rich at, -1.9 dex. Additionally, we find that one of the stars, Boo-127, shows an atypically high [Mg/Ca] ratio, indicative of stochastic enrichment processes within the dSph galaxy. Similar results have previously only been found in the Hercules and Draco dSph galaxies and appear, so far, to be unique to this type of galaxy. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  13. Oligochètes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cognetti de Martiis, L.

    1913-01-01

    La collection qui forme le sujet de ce travail se compose de huit espèces, dont quatre sont nouvelles. A mr. le Docteur L. F. de Beaufort, qui a bien voulu me la communiquer, j’exprime ici mes sentiments de gratitude.

  14. Electron-Beam Deposition of Superconducting Molybdenum Thin Films for the Development of Mo/Au TES X-Ray Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Fred Michael; Adams, Joseph S.; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancour-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Brown, Ari David; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chervenak, James A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Datesman, Aaron; Eckart, Megan E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We are exploring the properties of electron-beam evaporated molybdenum thin films on silicon nitride coated silicon wafers at substrate temperatures between room temperature and 650 C. The temperature dependence of film stress, transition temperature, and electrical properties are presented. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to gain information on molybdenum crystallite size and growth. Results show the dominant influence of the crystallite size on the intrinsic properties of our films. Wafer-scale uniformity, wafer yield, and optimal thermal bias regime for TES fabrication are discussed.

  15. Profiles of CH4, HDO, H2O, and N2O with improved lower tropospheric vertical resolution from Aura TES radiances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Noone

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (IR radiances measured near 8 microns contain information about the vertical distribution of water vapor (H2O, the water isotopologue HDO, and methane (CH4, key gases in the water and carbon cycles. Previous versions (Version 4 or less of the TES profile retrieval algorithm used a "spectral-window" approach to minimize uncertainty from interfering species at the expense of reduced vertical resolution and sensitivity. In this manuscript we document changes to the vertical resolution and uncertainties of the TES version 5 retrieval algorithm. In this version (Version 5, joint estimates of H2O, HDO, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are made using radiances from almost the entire spectral region between 1100 cm−1 and 1330 cm−1. The TES retrieval constraints are also modified in order to better use this information. The new H2O estimates show improved vertical resolution in the lower troposphere and boundary layer, while the new HDO/H2O estimates can now profile the HDO/H2O ratio between 925 hPa and 450 hPa in the tropics and during summertime at high latitudes. The new retrievals are now sensitive to methane in the free troposphere between 800 and 150 mb with peak sensitivity near 500 hPa; whereas in previous versions the sensitivity peaked at 200 hPa. However, the upper troposphere methane concentrations are biased high relative to the lower troposphere by approximately 4% on average. This bias is likely related to temperature, calibration, and/or methane spectroscopy errors. This bias can be mitigated by normalizing the CH4 estimate by the ratio of the N2O estimate relative to the N2O prior, under the assumption that the same systematic error affects both the N2O and CH4 estimates. We demonstrate that applying this ratio theoretically reduces the CH4 estimate for non-retrieved parameters that jointly affect both the N2O and CH4 estimates. The relative upper troposphere to lower troposphere bias is approximately 2.8% after this bias

  16. Corneal specular microscopy in infectious and noninfectious uveitis Microscopia especular de córnea em pacientes com uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Involvement of the cornea endothelium during uveitis has not been extensively studied even though it might participate in or constitute a target of ocular inflammation. Formation of keratic precipitates (KP is a characteristic finding in several forms of uveitis. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the vicinity of keratic precipitates in infectious and noninfectious uveitis by specular microscopy. METHODS: Patients with infectious and noninfectious uveitis in any activity level and presence of keratic precipitates were enrolled. The mean age was 40.5 years (± 14.2 years. A Topcon SP-2000P noncontact specular microscope was used to capture endothelial images in the vicinity of keratic precipitates. Automated morphometric analysis was done for cell size, cell density and cells coefficient of variation. Statistical comparisons were made between the infectious and noninfectious groups. RESULTS: From the 25 patients enrolled in this study, 16 (44% eyes presented infectious uveitis, 19 (53% noninfectious uveitis and 1 (3% eye was excluded due to the impossibility to obtain a specular image. The mean cell density estimated was 2,628 ± 204 cells/mm² in infectious group and 2,622 ± 357 cells/mm² in noninfectious group. The mean cellular area in infectious and noninfectious group was respectively 385 ± 31 µm² and 390 ± 60 µm². The coefficient of variation (% of the cellular area in the vicinity of keratic precipitates was 26.36 ±3.44 in infectious and 27.69 ± 4.61 in noninfectious group. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant (POBJETIVO: Avaliar o endotélio corneano na presença de precipitados ceráticos em pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não-infecciosas com emprego da microscopia especular de não-contato. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente foram incluídos 25 pacientes com média de idade de 40,5 (±14,2 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a etiologia

  17. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  18. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Glotch, T. D.; Rogers, A. D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of mineralogy, thermophysical properties, and atmospheric temperature profile and composition of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. The mineralogy of volcanic rocks provides insights into the composition of the source regions and the nature of martian igneous processes. Carbonates, sulfates, evaporites, and oxides provide information on the role of water in the surface evolution. Oxides, such as crystalline hematite, provide insight into aqueous weathering processes, as would the occurrence of clay minerals and other weathering products. Diurnal temperature measurements can be used to determine particle size and search for the effects of sub-surface layering, which in turn provide clues to the origin of surficial materials through rock disintegration, aeolian transport, atmospheric fallout, or induration. In addition to studying the surface properties, Mini-TES spectra have also been used to determine the temperature profile in the lower boundary layer, providing evidence for convective activity, and have determined the seasonal trends in atmospheric temperature and dust and cloud opacity.

  19. Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SIA "3K MANAGEMENT"

    OpenAIRE

    Penēze, Aija

    2015-01-01

    Aizvien lielāka nozīmē mūsdienās tiek pievērsta atšķirībai starp uzņēmumu vadīšanu un efektīvu uzņēmumu vadīšanu. Uzņēmēji organizācijas vadīšanā savu uzmanību koncentrē uz to, kā uzņēmums preces un pakalpojumus piedāvā, kāds ir tā tēls, kā tiek organizēta uzņēmuma darbība un kultūra. Uzņēmumi arvien vairāk vērš uzmanību uz uzņēmumu vadīšanu ar pievienoto vērtību, tas ir, efektivitātes uzlabošanu. Aijas Penēzes maģistra darba tēma ir „Biznesa efektivitātes uzlabošanas iespējas uzņēmumā SI...

  20. Rejection of randomly coinciding events in Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} scintillating bolometers using light detectors based on the Neganov-Luke effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, D.M.; Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Dumoulin, L.; Marcillac, P. de; Marnieros, S.; Olivieri, E. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Giuliani, A.; Mancuso, M. [CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); DISAT, Universita dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); Nones, C. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN, Rome (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Random coincidences of nuclear events can be one of the main background sources in low-temperature calorimetric experiments looking for neutrinoless double-beta decay, especially in those searches based on scintillating bolometers embedding the promising double-beta candidate {sup 100}Mo, because of the relatively short half-life of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of this nucleus. We show in this work that randomly coinciding events of the two-neutrino double-beta decay of {sup 100}Mo in enriched Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} detectors can be effectively discriminated by pulse-shape analysis in the light channel if the scintillating bolometer is provided with a Neganov-Luke light detector, which can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by a large factor, assumed here at the level of ∝750 on the basis of preliminary experimental results obtained with these devices. The achieved pile-up rejection efficiency results in a very low contribution, of the order of ∝6 x 10{sup -5} counts/(keV.kg.y), to the background counting rate in the region of interest for a large volume (∝90 cm{sup 3}) Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} detector. This background level is very encouraging in view of a possible use of the Li{sub 2}{sup 100}MoO{sub 4} solution for a bolometric tonne-scale next-generation experiment as that proposed in the CUPID project. (orig.)

  1. Constraining the 0-20 km Vertical Profile of Water Vapor in the Martian Atmosphere with MGS-TES Limb Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.; McDonald, G. D.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical profile of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Mars is a crucial but poorly-measured detail of the water cycle. Most of our existing water vapor data sets (e.g. Smith, 2002, JGR 107; Smith et al., 2009, JGR 114; Maltagliati et al., 2011, Icarus 213) rely on the traditional assumption of uniform mass mixing from the surface up to a saturation level, but GCM models (Richardson et al., 2002, JGR 107; Navarro et al., 2014, JGR 119) imply that this is not the case in at least some important seasons and locations. For example at the equator during northern summer the water vapor mixing ratio in aforementioned GCMs increases upwards by a factor of two to three in the bottom scale height. This might influence the accuracy of existing precipitable water column (PWC) data sets. Even if not, the correct vertical distribution is critical for determining the extent to which high-altitude cold trapping interferes with inter-hemispheric transport, and its details in the lowest scale heights will be a critical test of the accuracy of modeled water vapor transport. Meanwhile attempts to understand apparent interactions of water vapor with surface soils (e.g. Ojha et al. 2015, Nature Geoscience 8; Savijärvi et al., 2016, Icarus 265) need an estimate for the amount of water vapor in the boundary layer, and existing PWC data sets can't provide this unless the lower atmospheric vertical distribution is known or constrained. Maltagliati et al. (2013, Icarus 223) have obtained vertical profiles of water vapor at higher altitudes with SPICAM on Mars Express, but these are commonly limited to altitudes greater 20 km and they never extend below 10 km. We have previously used Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb-sounding to measure the vertical profile of water vapor (e.g. McConnochie and Smith, 2009, Fall AGU #P54B-06), but these preliminary results were clearly not quantitatively accurate in the lower atmosphere. We will present improved TES

  2. De la motte au château d’artillerie, la fouille du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Beuchet

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L’opération d’archéologie préventive du château de Guingamp (Côtes-d’Armor a été réalisée dans le cadre d'un projet de création d'une salle culturelle sur le site du château. La fouille a été menée sur une superficie de 2000 m², sur une durée effective de cinq mois entre octobre 2004 et mars 2005, avec un effectif moyen de sept personnes.À l’issue de la fouille, trois phases principales d’occupation peuvent être identifiées :la motte des Comtes de Guingamp (XIe-XIIe s. ;une enceinte polygon...

  3. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  4. Plato’s Republic to Rivers’Five Spot: Poets Among Painters De la République de Platon au « Five Spot » à Manhattan : des poètes chez les peintres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Wall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, Eamonn Wall considère les œuvres de divers artistes et penseurs de l’âge classique à l’époque actuelle, et tente de décrire les diverses méthodologies choisies par les écrivains et leurs commentateurs pour écrire des poèmes et les interpréter. Il sera principalement question ici des poètes de l’École de New York qui, apparue dans les années 1950, comprenait parmi ses membres des poètes tels que John Ashbery, Frank O’ Hara, James Schuyler, Kenneth Koch, et bien d’autres encore. Ce mouvement poétique empruntait son nom au groupe de peintres qui occupa la scène new yorkaise après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale. Eamonn Wall s’arrête sur différents points de convergence et de dissonance entre les poètes et les peintres de ces Écoles, avant de considérer les liens entre poésie et arts visuels dans l’Irlande et la Grande-Bretagne tant contemporaines qu’anciennes afin de montrer les échecs et les réussites des poètes qui essayèrent de faire de la poésie à partir des arts visuels. Il conclut que pour un poète, un tableau est toujours un sujet irrésistible et se montre certain que tant qu’il y aura des œuvres aux murs des musées, il y aura des poètes pour les mettre en poésie.

  5. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  6. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  7. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  8. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  9. Global O3-CO correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July-August: evaluation with TES satellite observations and sensitivity to input meteorological data and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Considine, David B.; Allen, Dale J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Strahan, Susan E.; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xiong; Damon, Megan R.; Steenrod, Stephen D.

    2017-07-01

    We examine the capability of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model to reproduce global mid-tropospheric (618 hPa) ozone-carbon monoxide (O3-CO) correlations determined by the measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard NASA's Aura satellite during boreal summer (July-August). The model is driven by three meteorological data sets (finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) with sea surface temperature for 1995, Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 4 (GEOS-4 DAS) for 2005, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for 2005), allowing us to examine the sensitivity of model O3-CO correlations to input meteorological data. Model simulations of radionuclide tracers (222Rn, 210Pb, and 7Be) are used to illustrate the differences in transport-related processes among the meteorological data sets. Simulated O3 values are evaluated with climatological profiles from ozonesonde measurements and satellite tropospheric O3 columns. Despite the fact that the three simulations show significantly different global and regional distributions of O3 and CO concentrations, they show similar patterns of O3-CO correlations on a global scale. All model simulations sampled along the TES orbit track capture the observed positive O3-CO correlations in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude continental outflow and the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. While all simulations show strong negative correlations over the Tibetan Plateau, northern Africa, the subtropical eastern North Pacific, and the Caribbean, TES O3 and CO concentrations at 618 hPa only show weak negative correlations over much narrower areas (i.e., the Tibetan Plateau and northern Africa). Discrepancies in regional O3-CO correlation patterns in the three simulations may be attributed to differences in convective transport, stratospheric influence, and subsidence, among other processes. To understand how various

  10. Benchmarking CCMI models' top-of-atmosphere flux in the 9.6-µm ozone band using AURA TES Instantaneous Radiative Kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, L.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.; Paulot, F.; Paynter, D.; Oman, L.; Strode, S. A.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Revell, L. E.; Plummer, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    The estimated ozone radiative forcing (RF) from chemical-climate models range widely from +0.2 to +0.6 Wm-2. The reason has never been well understood. Since the ozone absorption in the 9.6 μm band contributes 97% of the O3 longwave RF, the variation of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) due to ozone is dominant by this band. The observed TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) shows the global distribution has unique spatial patterns. In addition, the simulated TOA fluxes over 9.6 µm ozone band by different models have never been evaluated against observations. The bias of TOA flux from model could be primarily contributed by the bias of temperature, water vapor and ozone. Furthermore, the sensitivity of TOA flux to tropospheric ozone (instantaneous radiative kernel, IRK) may also affected by these biases (Kuai et al., 2017). The bias in TOA flux would eventually propagate into model calculations of ozone RF and cause divergence of the predictions of future climate by models. In this study, we applied the observation-based IRK product by AURA TES to attribute the CCMI model bias in TOA flux over 9.6 µm ozone band to ozone, water vapor, air temperature, and surface temperature. The comparisons of the three CCMI models (AM3, SOCOL3 and GEOCCM) to TES observations suggest that 1) all models underestimate the TOA flux at tropics and subtropics. 2) The TOA flux bias is comparable similar by AM3 and GEOSCC (-0.2 to -0.3 W/m2) however is larger for the relative young model, SOCOL3 (-0.4 to -0.6 W/m2). 3) The contributions by surface temperature are similarly moderate (-0.2 W/m2). 4) The contribution of ozone is largest by SOCOL3 (-0.3 W/m2), smallest by GEOSCCM (less than 0.1 W/m2) and moderate by AM3 (-0.2 W/m2). 5) Overall, the contributions by atmospheric temperature are all small (less than 0.1 W/m2). 6) The contribution of water vapor is negative and small by both SOCOL3 and GEOSCCM (0.1 W/m2) however large and positive by AM3 (0

  11. Transition-Edge Hot-Electron Microbolometers for Millimeter and Submillimeter Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Stevenson, Thomas; U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward; Barrentine, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The millimeter and the submillimeter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum hold a wealth of information about the evolution of the universe. In particular, cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and its polarization carry the oldest information in the universe, and provide the best test of the inflationary paradigm available to astronomy today. Detecting gravity waves through their imprint on the CMB polarization would have extraordinary repercussions for cosmology and physics. A transition-edge hot-electron micro - bolometer (THM) consists of a superconducting bilayer transition-edge sensor (TES) with a thin-film absorber. Unlike traditional monolithic bolometers that make use of micromachined structures, the THM em ploys the decoupling between electrons and phonons at millikelvin temperatures to provide thermal isolation. The devices are fabricated photolithographically and are easily integrated with antennas via microstrip transmission lines, and with SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) readouts. The small volume of the absorber and TES produces a short thermal time constant that facilitates rapid sky scanning. The THM consists of a thin-film metal absorber overlapping a superconducting TES. The absorber forms the termination of a superconducting microstripline that carries RF power from an antenna. The purpose of forming a separate absorber and TES is to allow flexibility in the optimization of the two components. In particular, the absorbing film's impedance can be chosen to match the antenna, while the TES impedance can be chosen to match to the readout SQUID amplifier. This scheme combines the advantages of the TES with the advantages of planar millimeter-wave transmission line circuits. Antenna-coupling to the detectors via planar transmission lines allows the detector dimensions to be much smaller than a wavelength, so the technique can be extended across the entire microwave, millimeter, and submillimeter wavelength ranges. The

  12. Development and implementation of a dynamic TES dispatch control component in a PV-CSP techno-economic performance modelling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Linus; Guédez, Rafael; Larchet, Kevin; Laumert, Bjorn

    2017-06-01

    The dispatchability offered by thermal energy storage (TES) in concentrated solar power (CSP) and solar hybrid plants based on such technology presents the most important difference compared to power generation based only on photovoltaics (PV). This has also been one reason for recent hybridization efforts of the two technologies and the creation of Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) payment schemes based on offering higher payment multiples during daily hours of higher (peak or priority) demand. Recent studies involving plant-level thermal energy storage control strategies are however to a large extent based on pre-determined approaches, thereby not taking into account the actual dynamics of thermal energy storage system operation. In this study, the implementation of a dynamic dispatch strategy in the form of a TRNSYS controller for hybrid PV-CSP plants in the power-plant modelling tool DYESOPT is presented. In doing this it was attempted to gauge the benefits of incorporating a day-ahead approach to dispatch control compared to a fully pre-determined approach determining hourly dispatch only once prior to annual simulation. By implementing a dynamic strategy, it was found possible to enhance technical and economic performance for CSP-only plants designed for peaking operation and featuring low values of the solar multiple. This was achieved by enhancing dispatch control, primarily by taking storage levels at the beginning of every simulation day into account. The sequential prediction of the TES level could therefore be improved, notably for evaluated plants without integrated PV, for which the predicted storage levels deviated less than when PV was present in the design. While also featuring dispatch performance gains, optimal plant configurations for hybrid PV-CSP was found to present a trade-off in economic performance in the form of an increase in break-even electricity price when using the dynamic strategy which was offset to some extent by a reduction in

  13. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT OF THE BOOeTES I ULTRAFAINT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Norris, John E.; Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Monaco, Lorenzo [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3900 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geisler, D., E-mail: gil@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: lmonaco@eso.org, E-mail: wyse@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-01-20

    We present a double-blind analysis of high-dispersion spectra of seven red giant members of the Booetes I ultrafaint dwarf spheroidal galaxy, complemented with re-analysis of a similar spectrum of an eighth-member star. The stars cover [Fe/H] from -3.7 to -1.9 and include a CEMP-no star with [Fe/H] = -3.33. We conclude from our chemical abundance data that Booetes I has evolved as a self-enriching star-forming system, from essentially primordial initial abundances. This allows us uniquely to investigate the place of CEMP-no stars in a chemically evolving system, in addition to limiting the timescale of star formation. The elemental abundances are formally consistent with a halo-like distribution, with enhanced mean [{alpha}/Fe] and small scatter about the mean. This is in accord with the high-mass stellar initial mass function in this low-stellar-density, low-metallicity system being indistinguishable from the present-day solar neighborhood value. There is a non-significant hint of a decline in [{alpha}/Fe] with [Fe/H]; together with the low scatter, this requires low star formation rates, allowing time for supernova ejecta to be mixed over the large spatial scales of interest. One star has very high [Ti/Fe], but we do not confirm a previously published high value of [Mg/Fe] for another star. We discuss the existence of CEMP-no stars, and the absence of any stars with lower CEMP-no enhancements at higher [Fe/H], a situation that is consistent with knowledge of CEMP-no stars in the Galactic field. We show that this observation requires there be two enrichment paths at very low metallicities: CEMP-no and 'carbon-normal'.

  14. Calorimetric determination of enthalpies for the proton ionization of N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) in water-methanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, B.N.; Jumean, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    The enthalpies of proton ionization of the biochemical buffers N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) were obtained in water-methanol mixtures in which the methanol mole fraction (X m ) varied in the range 0-0.36. For both buffers, ionization enthalpy for the first proton (ΔH 1 ) was small in all solvent media. However, upon addition of methanol, ΔH 2 increased steadily from 22.2 to a maximum of 27.2 kJ mol -1 for BES, whereas for TES it varied from 30.0 to 32.4, with a minimum of 28.6 kJ mol -1 at X m =0.123. It is noteworthy that this solvent composition lies within the region of maximum structure enhancement of water by methanol. The results were interpreted in terms of methanol-water interactions

  15. La primera urbanització dels «Abunás». Mamelucs, indis i jesuïtes a les ciutats portugueses de l'Amazònia, segles XVII i XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Décio de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    Entre els anys de 1650 i 1750 de l'època colonial, diverses «llogarets» d'indis, o reduccions indígenes, van ser creades a la vall de l'Amazones pels missioners jesuïtes. El pla dels seus llogarets va ser viable fins a la seva expulsió en 1759. Els llocs d'aquests llogarets variaven i podien desplaçar-se. L'anàlisi d'aquest moment de fundació subratlla els conflictes en la societat colonial, les seves fronteres i la seva vida quotidiana. Es posarà en dubte el paper jugat pels jesuïtes -pares ...

  16. La primera urbanització dels «Abunás». Mamelucs, indis i jesuïtes a les ciutats portugueses de l'Amazònia, segles XVII i XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    De Alencar Guzmán, Décio

    2017-01-01

    Entre els anys de 1650 i 1750 de l'època colonial, diverses «llogarets» d'indis, o reduccions indígenes, van ser creades a la vall de l'Amazones pels missioners jesuïtes. El pla dels seus llogarets va ser viable fins a la seva expulsió en 1759. Els llocs d'aquests llogarets variaven i podien desplaçar-se. L'anàlisi d'aquest moment de fundació subratlla els conflictes en la societat colonial, les seves fronteres i la seva vida quotidiana. Es posarà en dubte el paper jugat pels jesuïtes -...

  17. Studentu identitātes prezentēšana sociālajos tīklos: “draugiem.lv” un “facebook.com” gadījumu analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Bajāre, Regija

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir studentu identitātes prezentēšana sociālajos tīklos: "draugiem.lv" un "facebook.com" gadījumu analīze. Šī bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot Latvijas studentu identitātes prezentēšanu sociālajos tīklos draugiem.lv un facebook.com. Šī darba ietvaros ir izstrādāti trīs pētnieciskie jautājumi: kādu informāciju studenti prezentē savos profilos, kādi ir sevis prezentēšanas paradumi, vai studentu prezentētā identitāte atšķiras portālā draugiem.lv no facebook.com? Teorij...

  18. Klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas kritēriji: fitnesa klubu "Atletika", "MyFitness", "Veselības Fabrika" piemērs

    OpenAIRE

    Rožkalna, Kristīne

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir “Klientu lojalitātes veicināšanas kritēriji: fitnesa klubu “Atletika”, “MyFitness”, “Veselības Fabrika” piemērs”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir fitnesa klubu “Atletika”, “MyFitness”, “Veselības Fabrika” izpēte, identificējot kritērijus klientu lojalitātes veicināšanā. Darbu veido ievads, teorētiskā, metodoloģijas, empīriskā daļa, secinājumi, ieteikumi, pielikums. Teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par uzņēmējdarbību, zīmolu, klientu lojalitāti, mārketingu, komunikāciju...

  19. LOFAR-Boötes: properties of high- and low-excitation radio galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W. L.; Calistro Rivera, G.; Best, P. N.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Duncan, K. J.; de Gasperin, F.; Jarvis, M. J.; Miley, G. K.; Mahony, E. K.; Morabito, L. K.; Nisbet, D. M.; Prandoni, I.; Smith, D. J. B.; Tasse, C.; White, G. J.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the redshift evolution of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of the properties of their galaxy hosts in the Boötes field. To achieve this we match low-frequency radio sources from deep 150-MHz LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) observations to an I-band-selected catalogue of galaxies, for which we have derived photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame colours. We present spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to determine the mid-infrared AGN contribution for the radio sources and use this information to classify them as high- versus low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs and LERGs) or star-forming galaxies. Based on these classifications, we construct luminosity functions for the separate redshift ranges going out to z = 2. From the matched radio-optical catalogues, we select a sub-sample of 624 high power (P150 MHz > 1025 W Hz-1) radio sources between 0.5 ≤ z negative evolution of the LERG luminosity functions over this redshift range, is consistent with LERGs being fuelled by hot gas in quiescent galaxies.

  20. HOSPITALIDADE E TROCAS CONTEMPORÂNEAS NA HOTELARIA UM ESTUDO DE CASO DO QUALITY SUÍTES VILA OLÍMPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Soares Lopes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo contempla pesquisa exploratória de caráter bibliográfico a respeito de temas como a hospitalidade e a hotelaria, em que no seu desenvolvimento buscaram-se consultar sites, livros, e periódicos nacionais e internacionais. Logo após utilizou-se de pesquisa de campo em que se discorre sobre questões associadas a gestão e a prestação de serviços nos meios de hospedagem. Para tanto define como objeto de estudo os empreendimentos administrados pela Atlantica Hotels International, representado pelo Quality Suítes Vila Olímpia. Apresenta análise diagnóstica dos procedimentos operacionais padrão efetuados pelos seus colaboradores ao abordar situações distintas vivenciadas pelo homem em que por meio destas torna-se comum as trocas de gentilezas e atos relacionados ao caráter da hospitalidade. Por fim, em seus resultados demonstra, entre outras considerações, atividades relacionadas a boa receptividade dos visitantes e dos hóspedes por meio de treinamentos, aspectos da gestão e características próprias do prestador de serviço, também chamado de anfitrião comercial.

  1. Le Procès des poètes : Flaubert contre « l’écume du cœur »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Loiseleur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans sa correspondance, si Flaubert prend peu les poètes pour destinataires premiers, il les vise pourtant en permanence. Ses lettres, en particulier celles qu’il écrit à la poétesse Louise Colet, sont en effet l’occasion pour lui de revenir sur son credo esthético-sentimental et de préciser ses propres positions (de poète de la prose dans une lutte déclarée contre les représentants de « la poésie du cœur ».In Flaubert’s correspondence poets are rarely his principal addressees, yet they are his main target. Indeed, his letters, specially those written to the poet Louise Colet, give him the opportunity to re-examine his esthetical-sentimental creed and specify his own position as a prose poet in an open war against those who represent “the poetry of the heart”.

  2. Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nadežda

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura tēma ir “Franšīzes izmantošanas iespējas un efektivitātes novērtēšana Baltijā”. Perspektīva biznesa attīstībā ir viens galvenajiem dzinējspēkiem, kurš motivē uzņēmējus, uzsākot savu darbību. Viens no mūsdienās plaši izmantojamajiem biznesa modeļiem ir franšīzes sistēma. Pasaulē bizness uz franšīzes pamata skaitās kā drošs, jo uzņēmējam ir spēja veiksmīgi attīstīt savu komercdarbību bez iepriekšējām zināšanām un pieredzi, jo franšīze paredz ne tikai gatavo biznesa rokasgrāmatu, bet a...

  3. "KinLeaves" reklāmas aktivitātes sociālajā tīklā “Facebook” 2016. gadā

    OpenAIRE

    Mandrika, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kādas reklāmas aktivitātes uzņēmums ir veicis un noskaidrot, vai sociālajā tīklā “Facebook” ar reklāmas aktivitātēm ir iespējams sasniegt mērķauditoriju. Darbs sastāv no trīs daļām – teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās. Teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par reklāmu, sociālo tīklu vietnēm, sociālo tīklu „Facebook” un reklāmu sociālo tīklu vietnēs. Metodoloģiskajā daļā apskatītas pētījumā izmantotās metodes - kontentanalīze, intervija, anketēšana. Empīrisk...

  4. Calendula officinalis L. saturošo produktu bioloģiskās aktivitātes izvērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Zepa, Līva

    2016-01-01

    Ārstniecības kliņģerītes ir vienas no senākajiem un pazīstamākajiem ārstniecības augiem pasaulē. Tās ir ātraudzīgas un jau vēsturiski plaši izmantotas tautas medicīnā. Pētījumi par ārstniecības kliņģerīšu lomu veselības saglabāšanā un stiprināšanā, izvērtējot aktīvo vielu saturu un sastāvu tajās, tās var pozitīvi ietekmēt cilvēka organismu gan profilakses nolūkos, gan kā papildus terapija ārstēšanas brīdī. Maģistra darba mērķis bija noskaidrot, kādas un cik daudz aktīvās vielas atrodamas pašg...

  5. SeTES, a Self-Teaching Expert System for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales and a prototype for a new generation of Expert Systems in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Boyle, K.; Pullman, S.; Reagan, M. T.; Moridis, G. J.; Blasingame, T. A.; Rector, J. W.; Nikolaou, M.

    2010-12-01

    A Self Teaching Expert System (SeTES) is being developed for the analysis, design and prediction of gas production from shales. An Expert System is a computer program designed to answer questions or clarify uncertainties that its designers did not necessarily envision which would otherwise have to be addressed by consultation with one or more human experts. Modern developments in computer learning, data mining, database management, web integration and cheap computing power are bringing the promise of expert systems to fruition. SeTES is a partial successor to Prospector, a system to aid in the identification and evaluation of mineral deposits developed by Stanford University and the USGS in the late 1970s, and one of the most famous early expert systems. Instead of the text dialogue used in early systems, the web user interface of SeTES helps a non-expert user to articulate, clarify and reason about a problem by navigating through a series of interactive wizards. The wizards identify potential solutions to queries by retrieving and combining together relevant records from a database. Inferences, decisions and predictions are made from incomplete and noisy inputs using a series of probabilistic models (Bayesian Networks) which incorporate records from the database, physical laws and empirical knowledge in the form of prior probability distributions. The database is mainly populated with empirical measurements, however an automatic algorithm supplements sparse data with synthetic data obtained through physical modeling. This constitutes the mechanism for how SeTES self-teaches. SeTES’ predictive power is expected to grow as users contribute more data into the system. Samples are appropriately weighted to favor high quality empirical data over low quality or synthetic data. Finally, a set of data visualization tools digests the output measurements into graphical outputs.

  6. Evaluation par l'analyse sensorielle des qualité organoleptiques d'anciennes variétes de pommes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateur M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic properties of old apple cultivars evaluated by sensory analysis. In the framework of a research programme focused on the evaluation and the valorization of fruit tree genetic resources, the sensory analysis technique has been used in order to evaluate the organoleptic properties of six old apple cultivars which are on trial in Belgium and North of France. The aims were to define their optimal picking time and storage aptitude, therefore marketing advices could be given to growers. Methodological aspects have been investigated on different sensory analysis parameters adapted to fresh fruits e.g. panel selection and formation, choice of descriptors. Sensory analysis was applied just after picking and periodically during the storage period. For each fruit sample, different characteristics were measured (brix, pH and flesh firmness with the objective to calculate the correlation between sensory analysis data and analytical data. The results show that for the Jonagold cv., there is a very high correlation between ""crunchiness"", ""flesh firmness"" and ""juiciness"" sensory evaluated data. Other results, based on the experimentation of the six old cvs, confirm the correlation between the sensory analysis of the ""flesh firmness"" and the ""juiciness"", they show that the ""flesh firmness"" can be well assessed by a sensory analysis panel, and that the global fruit quality appreciation depends mostly on ""juiciness"", ""flesh firmness"" and sweet sensation. The sensory analysis can give good indication for a better commercial management of apple cvs concerning picking date, storage capacity and the best storage conditions to be chosen.

  7. Résultats de recherches récentes sur la structure géologique des gîtes de houille de la Ruhr Results of Recent Research on the Geological Structure of Coal Beds in the Ruhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaulfuss R.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Un inventaire exact des gîtes de houille était lié à la réorganisation des rapports de propriété dans la région de la Ruhr (Fondation de la Ruhrkohle AG. Du fait que dans les domaines de gîtes de houille en exploitation les réserves de houille ne suffiront pas à assurer à long terme un rendement d'extraction suffisant, on commença une vaste exploration dans des parties de quartier encore inconnues. Il fut ainsi possible d'élargir considérablement les connaissances sur la situation géologique des gîtes de houille grâce à des études par réflexion sismique, des forages profonds et des enregistrements de forages géophysiques. An accurate inventory of the coal beds was dependent upon the reorganization of property reports in the Ruhr region (Ruhrkohle Fondation AG. Because the working coal fields do not contain sufficient coal reserves to guarantee satisfactory productivity rates on a long-term basis, extensive exploration in previously unexplored parts of the area was undertaken. Thus, it became possible to extend considerably our knowledge of the geological structure of the coal beds through refraction shooting, deep drilling, and the well logging.

  8. Skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības skolotāju grupā

    OpenAIRE

    Radziņš, Rolands

    2018-01-01

    No skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa pārvarēšanas un pašefektivitātes ir atkarīga ne tikai viena konkrēta darbinieka, bet visas izglītības iestādes skolotāju un personāla labizjūta un pedagoģiskā darba efektivitāte kopumā. Pētījuma „Skolotāju apmierinātības ar darbu, stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības skolotāju grupā” mērķis, saskaņā ar pasūtījumu, bija noskaidrot skolotāju apmierinātību ar darbu, darba stresa un pašefektivitātes sakarības un izstrādāt atbalsta pasākumus un rekomend...

  9. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  10. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  11. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  12. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  13. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  14. Du karma aux planètes From the Karma to the Planets: Arakanese Healers and their Heterogeneous Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Coderey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En Arakan, les conceptions de la maladie et les pratiques thérapeutiques relevant du bouddhisme theravāda, de l’astrologie, du culte des esprits, de la médecine et de bien d’autres domaines forment un ensemble signifiant et hiérarchisé. Ensemble signifiant parce que malades et thérapeutes considèrent ces conceptions et pratiques comme indissociables les unes des autres et devant donc être combinées afin de mener à bien le processus de guérison. Ensemble hiérarchisé car, à l’intérieur de celui-ci, le bouddhisme occupe une place hégémonique au niveau des valeurs. Néanmoins, dans le domaine thérapeutique, son apport est limité. Ce n’est que combinées aux pratiques astrologiques, médicales, etc. que les pratiques bouddhiques peuvent contribuer à la prévention et au soin des maladies. L’attention est ici portée sur la manière dont laquelle cette totalité signifiante et hiérarchisée s’exprime dans les pratiques des thérapeutes. Sur la base d’une étude de cas, l’article montre que souvent les thérapeutes cumulent plusieurs formations et pratiques plus ou moins hétérogènes afin de pouvoir intervenir sur le plus grand nombre possible de facteurs de la maladie : déséquilibre des éléments corporels, mauvais karma, influences planétaires néfastes, agressions par des puissances maléfiques.In Arakan, sickness-related conceptions and therapeutic practices issuing from Theravada Buddhism, astrology, spirits cult and medicine form a meaningful and hierarchical whole. This whole is meaningful because patients and healers consider that it is the combination of various conceptions and various practices which makes sense and which guarantees the succes of the healing treatement. The whole is hierarchical because conceptions and practices are organised into a hierarchy where Buddhism occupies an hegemonic position. Nevertheless, in the healing field its contribution is limited. Only if combined with

  15. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment; Recherche de matiere sombre non-baryonique au moyen d`un bolometre a ionisation dans le cadre de l`experience edelweiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, Ph [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d` Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l` Instrumentation Associee; [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-24

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author) 196 refs.

  16. Advanced Multiplexed TES Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — X-ray measurements are critical for the understanding of cycles of matter and energy in the Universe, for understanding the nature of dark matter and dark energy,...

  17. Nebanku kredītdevēju ”SMScredit” un ”InCREDIT GROUP” lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbauma, Egija

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba temats ir „Nebanku kredītdevēju ”SMScredit” un ”InCREDIT GROUP” lojalitātes programmas un to novērtējums.” Darba mērķis ir lojalitātes programmu komunikācijas kanālu vērtējums un klientu vērtējums par programmu noderīgumu, to priekšrocībām un vai programmu darbības principi klientiem ir saprotami. Darbs sastāv no trīs daļām: teorētiskās, metodoloģiskās un empīriskās daļas. Teorētiskajā daļā tiek pētīta literatūra par mārketingu, integrētā mārketinga komunikāciju, patērēt...

  18. "A/S PET Baltija" kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Goldšteins, Jānis

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir ,,A/S PET Baltija’’ kvalitātes pārvaldību sistēmu loma uzņēmuma konkurētspējas nodrošināšanā. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir izpētīt A/S PET Baltija kvalitātes pārvaldības sistēmu darbības ietekmi uz uzņēmuma konkurētspēju, atklāt problēmas un izstrādāt priekšlikumus problēmu samazināšanai. Bakalaura darbs satur: 65 lapas, 4 tabulas, 24 attēlus. Darba pirmajā daļā autors analizē Eiropas Direktīvu un LR likumdošanas normatīvo aktu analīzi atkritumu apsaimniek...

  19. Calorimetric determination of enthalpies for the proton ionization of N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) in water-methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulos, B.N.; Jumean, F.H

    2004-02-19

    The enthalpies of proton ionization of the biochemical buffers N,N-bis[2-hydroxyethyl]-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (BES) and N-tris[hydroxymethyl]methyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (TES) were obtained in water-methanol mixtures in which the methanol mole fraction (X{sub m}) varied in the range 0-0.36. For both buffers, ionization enthalpy for the first proton ({delta}H{sub 1}) was small in all solvent media. However, upon addition of methanol, {delta}H{sub 2} increased steadily from 22.2 to a maximum of 27.2 kJ mol{sup -1} for BES, whereas for TES it varied from 30.0 to 32.4, with a minimum of 28.6 kJ mol{sup -1} at X{sub m}=0.123. It is noteworthy that this solvent composition lies within the region of maximum structure enhancement of water by methanol. The results were interpreted in terms of methanol-water interactions.

  20. Piedošanas, subjektīvās labklājības un uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes saistība

    OpenAIRE

    Plauča, Ilze

    2010-01-01

    Darbā tiek apskatīti piedošanas, uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes un subjektīvās labklājības saistība. Piedošana tiek aplūkota M.Makkuloka (McCullough) izstrādātā modeļa ietvaros, ka piedošana ir atriebības, izvairīšanās un labvēlības motivācijas izmaiņu komplekss. Uztvertās attiecību kvalitātes komponentes ir apmierinātība ar attiecībām , nodošanās, intimitāte jeb tuvība, uzticēšanās, kaislība un mīlestība (Fletcher et al). Subjektīvās labklājības modelis tiek aplūkots Dīnera (Diener) teor...

  1. Latvijas Komercbanku pasīvās operācijas, to nozīme stabilitātes nodrošināšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Supe, Gita

    2014-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir izanalizēt banku pasīvo operāciju nozīmi Latvijas komercbanku stabilitātes nodrošināšanā, kā arī apskatīt, kādi ir banku pasīvo operāciju ietekmējošie faktori, un kā tie ietekmē Latvijas komercbanku darbību. Lai sasniegtu izvirzīto mērķi darba gaitā tika veikti šādi uzdevumi: •raksturotas banku pasīvās operācijas un loma stabilitātes nodrošināšanā; •izpētīti Latvijas komercbanku pasīvi laika periodā 2010. – 2013.g. •izanalizēta banku pasīvo operāciju faktoru ietekm...

  2. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  3. Why adult formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the primary aim of adult formation is comprehensive personality development which is supposed to ensure quality existence in modern world. The article also suggests that formarion is a permanent process. Justinek puts special emphasis on adult formation methodology and defines fundamental formation styles which encourage independent action in individuals. Justinek differentiates between formation and education. methods and concludes that formation methods are related to the emotional sphere of personality, and education methods mostly to the rational. Justinek believes that formation of adults is based primarily on appropriate formation methodology.

  4. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  5. A Low G Ideal Integrating Bolometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  Achievable sensitivity for these devices is roughly 2 orders of...

  6. Applications of superconducting bolometers in security imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukanen, A; Leivo, M M; Rautiainen, A; Grönholm, M; Toivanen, H; Grönberg, L; Helistö, P; Mäyrä, A; Aikio, M; Luukanen, A; Grossman, E N

    2012-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (MMW) imaging systems are currently undergoing deployment World-wide for airport security screening applications. Security screening through MMW imaging is facilitated by the relatively good transmission of these wavelengths through common clothing materials. Given the long wavelength of operation (frequencies between 20 GHz to ∼ 100 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths between 1.5 cm and 3 mm), existing systems are suited for close-range imaging only due to substantial diffraction effects associated with practical aperture diameters. The present and arising security challenges call for systems that are capable of imaging concealed threat items at stand-off ranges beyond 5 meters at near video frame rates, requiring substantial increase in operating frequency in order to achieve useful spatial resolution. The construction of such imaging systems operating at several hundred GHz has been hindered by the lack of submm-wave low-noise amplifiers. In this paper we summarize our efforts in developing a submm-wave video camera which utilizes cryogenic antenna-coupled microbolometers as detectors. Whilst superconducting detectors impose the use of a cryogenic system, we argue that the resulting back-end complexity increase is a favorable trade-off compared to complex and expensive room temperature submm-wave LNAs both in performance and system cost.

  7. Saint-André-des-Eaux (Côtes-d’Armor : étude archéologique d’une église paroissiale et de ses peintures murales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Dupuis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Le petit village de Saint-André-des-Eaux se situe dans les Côtes-d’Armor, à une dizaine de kilomètres au sud-est de Dinan. Les vestiges de l’ancienne église paroissiale et de son cimetière prennent place quelques centaines de mètres à l’écart du bourg (fig. 1, sur les abords boisés de l’étang de Bétineuc, un vaste plan d’eau artificiel créé dans les années 1970 afin d’assainir cette zone autrefois marécageuse. En effet, le contexte de plaine, la proximité de la Rance et le maillage resserré ...

  8. Tellurium sulfates from reactions in oleum and sulfur trioxide: syntheses and crystal structures of TeO(SO_4), Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5, and Te(S_2O_7)_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logemann, Christian; Bruns, Joern; Schindler, Lisa Verena; Zimmermann, Vanessa; Wickleder, Mathias S.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of K_2TeO_4 with fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) in sealed glass ampoules at 250 C led to colorless single crystals of TeO(SO_4) [triclinic, P anti 1, Z = 8, a = 819.89(3) pm, b = 836.95(4) pm, c = 1179.12(5) pm, α = 82.820(2) , β = 70.645(2) , γ = 81.897(2) , V = 753.11(6) x 10"6 pm"3]. A horseshoe type [Te_4O_3] fragment is the basic motif in the layer structure of the compound. The [Te_4O_3] moieties are linked to infinite chains by further oxide ions. Monomeric [Te_4O_3] horseshoes are found in the crystal structure of Te_4O_3(SO_4)_5 [trigonal, P3_221, Z = 3, a = 859.05(2) pm, c = 2230.66(7) pm, V = 1425.61(6) x 10"6 pm"3], which was obtained from TeO_2 and fuming sulfuric acid (65 % SO_3) at 200 C as colorless single crystals. By switching to neat SO_3 as reaction medium colorless crystals of Te(S_2O_7)_2 [P2_1/n, Z = 4, a = 1065.25(3) pm, b = 818.50(2) pm, c = 1206.27(3) pm, β = 102.097(1) , V = 1028.40(5) x 10"6 pm"3] form when ortho-telluric acid, H_6TeO_6, is used as the tellurium source. The compound was reported previously, however, obviously with a wrong crystallographic description. In the crystal structure the tellurium atoms are coordinated by two chelating disulfate ions. Further Te-O contacts link the [Te(S_2O_7)_2] units to an extended network. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  10. Terminal Alkene Formation by the Thioesterase of Curacin A Biosynthesis: Structure of a Decarboxylating Thioesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehret, Jennifer J.; Gu, Liangcai; Gerwick, William H.; Wipf, Peter; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L. (Pitt); (Michigan); (UCSD)

    2011-11-07

    Curacin A is a polyketide synthase (PKS)-non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-derived natural product with potent anticancer properties generated by the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Type I modular PKS assembly lines typically employ a thioesterase (TE) domain to off-load carboxylic acid or macrolactone products from an adjacent acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. In a striking departure from this scheme the curacin A PKS employs tandem sulfotransferase and TE domains to form a terminal alkene moiety. Sulfotransferase sulfonation of {beta}-hydroxy-acyl-ACP is followed by TE hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and sulfate elimination (Gu, L., Wang, B., Kulkarni, A., Gehret, J. J., Lloyd, K. R., Gerwick, L., Gerwick, W. H., Wipf, P., Hakansson, K., Smith, J. L., and Sherman, D. H. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 16033-16035). With low sequence identity to other PKS TEs (<15%), the curacin TE represents a new thioesterase subfamily. The 1.7-{angstrom} curacin TE crystal structure reveals how the familiar {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase architecture is adapted to specificity for {beta}-sulfated substrates. A Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad is centered in an open active site cleft between the core domain and a lid subdomain. Unlike TEs from other PKSs, the lid is fixed in an open conformation on one side by dimer contacts of a protruding helix and on the other side by an arginine anchor from the lid into the core. Adjacent to the catalytic triad, another arginine residue is positioned to recognize the substrate {beta}-sulfate group. The essential features of the curacin TE are conserved in sequences of five other putative bacterial ACP-ST-TE tridomains. Formation of a sulfate leaving group as a biosynthetic strategy to facilitate acyl chain decarboxylation is of potential value as a route to hydrocarbon biofuels.

  11. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  12. A 16 channel frequency-domain-modulation readout system with custom superconducting LC filters for the SWIPE instrument of the balloon-borne LSPE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signorelli, G., E-mail: giovanni.signorelli@pi.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Baldini, A.M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Biasotti, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Cei, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ceriale, V.; Corsini, D.; Fontanelli, F. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Galli, L.; Gallucci, G. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gatti, F. [INFN Sezione di Genova and Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Incagli, M.; Grassi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Spinella, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Vaccaro, D. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Venturini, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We present the design, implementation and first tests of the superconducting LC filters for the frequency domain readout of spiderweb TES bolometers of the SWIPE experiment on the balloon-borne LSPE mission which aims at measuring the linear polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background at large angular scales to find the imprint of inflation on the B-mode CMB polarization. LC filters are designed, produced and tested at the INFN sections of Pisa and Genoa where thin film deposition and cryogenic test facilities are present, and where also the TES spiderweb bolometers are being produced.

  13. Global O3–CO correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July–August: evaluation with TES satellite observations and sensitivity to input meteorological data and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-D. Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the capability of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI chemistry and transport model to reproduce global mid-tropospheric (618 hPa ozone–carbon monoxide (O3–CO correlations determined by the measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard NASA's Aura satellite during boreal summer (July–August. The model is driven by three meteorological data sets (finite-volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM with sea surface temperature for 1995, Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 4 (GEOS-4 DAS for 2005, and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA for 2005, allowing us to examine the sensitivity of model O3–CO correlations to input meteorological data. Model simulations of radionuclide tracers (222Rn, 210Pb, and 7Be are used to illustrate the differences in transport-related processes among the meteorological data sets. Simulated O3 values are evaluated with climatological profiles from ozonesonde measurements and satellite tropospheric O3 columns. Despite the fact that the three simulations show significantly different global and regional distributions of O3 and CO concentrations, they show similar patterns of O3–CO correlations on a global scale. All model simulations sampled along the TES orbit track capture the observed positive O3–CO correlations in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude continental outflow and the Southern Hemisphere subtropics. While all simulations show strong negative correlations over the Tibetan Plateau, northern Africa, the subtropical eastern North Pacific, and the Caribbean, TES O3 and CO concentrations at 618 hPa only show weak negative correlations over much narrower areas (i.e., the Tibetan Plateau and northern Africa. Discrepancies in regional O3–CO correlation patterns in the three simulations may be attributed to differences in convective transport, stratospheric influence, and subsidence, among other processes. To

  14. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  15. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  16. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  17. ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-09-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  18. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  19. ENDF/B Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B, the evaluated neutron nuclear data library of the US National Nuclear Data Center. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-50274 (ENDF-102) should be consulted. (author)

  20. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  1. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    today is less about exercising the authority of an office and more about embodying authenticity. I argue that traditional homiletic education can benefit from implementing a learner-centered approach to teaching moving from sermon formation towards preacher formation, in order to develop and train...... preachers. This involves a learning strategy to ministry where theological skills, pastoral competences, and own personality are interwoven. Teaching here means facilitating a room of learning where teacher’s power and control is reduced, allowing the preacher to reflect upon own practice without being...... judged, evaluated, or critiqued. In this paper, I explain how a learner-centered approach to education works in practice and show how pastors experience the teaching method and the congregations’ positive response to their improvements. I shall present the results of a focus-group interview with pastors...

  2. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  3. Apmierinātības ar dzīvi, apmierinātības ar darbu, lojalitātes pret organizāciju un darba-dzīves līdzsvara saistība

    OpenAIRE

    Heifeca, Poļina

    2013-01-01

    Darba mērķis - noskaidrot kādas ir saistības starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi, apmierinātību ar darbu, darbinieka lojalitāti pret organizāciju un darba – dzīves līdzsvaru. Pētījumā piedalījās 120 respondenti, 62 sievietes un 58 – vīrieši vecumposmā no 21 līdz 60 gadiem.Maģistra darba pētījumā apmierinātības ar dzīvi izpētei tika izmantota apmierinātības ar dzīvi skala, lojalitātes pret organizāciju noteikšanai tika izmantota lojalitātes pret organizāciju aptauja (Organizational Commitment Questi...

  4. E-pasta mārketings un tā izmantošanas efektivitātes analīze Latvijas uzņēmumos

    OpenAIRE

    Ovčiņņikova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma “E-pasta mārketings un tā izmantošanas efektivitātes analīze Latvijas uzņēmumos”. Mūsdienās viens no lielākajiem ienākuma avotiem uzņēmumiem ir spēja pārdod savus produktus, lai iegūtu vislielāko peļņu. Priekš tā tiek izmantoti dažādi mārketinga paņēmieni un mārketinga kanāli. Laba mārketinga stratēģija var panākt to ka produkts sevi pardod, bet papildus pirmreizējam pirkumam ir jāpanāk tas, lai tiktu veikts arī atkārtotais pirkums. Tā kā mūsdienās uzņēmumos ir ļoti sīva ...

  5. Biedrības "Latvijas Universitātes Sports" zīmola izveide un attīstīšana integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā

    OpenAIRE

    Dārznieks, Kārlis

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz zīmola un mārketinga komunikāciju teorijas analīzi, izpētīt biedrības ,,Latvijas Universitātes sports’’ zīmola veiksmīgas izstrādes un pozicionēšanas iespējas integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā, nosakot visatbilstošāko zīmola pozicionēšanas stratēģiju, kā arī izstrādāt komunikāciju plānu zīmola attīstīšanai. Rezultātā tiek izanalizētas līdzšinēji realizētās integrētā mārketinga komunikācijas zīmola atpazīstamības veidošanai, kā arī izstrādāts...

  6. tes audzināšanas stila saistība ar emocionālā intelekta (EI) līmeni 8-12 gadu veciem bērniem

    OpenAIRE

    Grjunberga, Inese

    2014-01-01

    Mūsdienās arvien biežāk var sastapties ar bērniem kuriem ir grūtības adaptēties, mācīties. Bērniem bieži neveidojas labas attiecības ar vienaudžiem, draudzība. Iepriekšējos pētījumos noskaidrots, ka bērna emocionālā attīstība ir saistīta arī ar vecāku audzināšanu.Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot vai mātes audzināšanas stils saistīts ar bērnu emocionālā intelekta līmeni. Pētījumā peidalījās bērni (N=100) no divām Latvijas skolām. Dalībnieki vecumā no 8 – 12 gadiem (M=11. 00, SD=1. 38). No kuri...

  7. Spatio-temporal variability of CO and O3 in Hyderabad (17°N, 78°E, central India, based on MOZAIC and TES observations and WRF-Chem and MOZART-4 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Sheel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the study of the seasonal and interannual variability of carbon monoxide (CO and ozone (O3 at different altitudes of the troposphere over Hyderabad, India, during 2006–2010 using Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC and observation from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard NASA's Aura satellite. The MOZAIC observations show maximum seasonal variability in both CO and O3 during winter and pre-monsoon season, with CO in the range (100–200±13 ppbv and O3 in the range (50–70±9 ppbv. The time-series of MOZAIC data shows a significant increase of 4.2±1.3 % in the surface CO and 6.7±1.3 % in the surface O3 during 2006–2010 in Hyderabad. From MOZAIC observations, we identify CO and O3 profiles that are anomalous with respect to the monthly mean and compare those with Weather Research Forecast model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem and Model for OZone and Related Tracers, version 4 profiles for the same day. The anomalous profiles of WRF-Chem are simulated using three convection schemes. The goodness of comparison depends on the convection scheme and the altitude region of the troposphere.

  8. Onze mille pages. Les Œuvres complètes de Montesquieu à Oxford : projet, réalisations, perspectives (février 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Volpilhac-Auger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La nouvelle édition des œuvres complètes de Montesquieu en vingt et un volumes (huit sont parus depuis 1998, rattachée à l’École normale supérieure Lettre et Sciences humaines (Lyon depuis 2000 et publiée par la Voltaire Foundation (Oxford, se fonde sur une approche nouvelle du corpus manuscrit comme de la conception même de l’œuvre, saisie dans son devenir ; l’établissement du texte comme l’annotation cherchent à en restituer la force initiale, telle qu’elle a pu apparaître aux contemporains de Montesquieu. Cette entreprise se double d’une réflexion constante sur sa propre pratique, par rapport à l’histoire de l’édition et à la réception (et donc l’interprétation des œuvres de Montesquieu.

  9. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  10. Efektivitātes pētījums: Ceļu Satiksmes drošības direkcijas sociālās vides reklāmas

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, Zanda

    2013-01-01

    Darba tēma ir „Efektivitātes pētījums: Ceļu Satiksmes drošības direkcijas sociālās vides reklāmas”. Pētījuma problēma – ik gadu palielinās upuru un negadījumu skaits uz Latvijas ceļiem, tāpēc ir svarīgi noskaidrot, cik efektīvas ir CSDD vides reklāmas, lai šo tendenci novērstu. Darba mērķis – noskaidrot sabiedrības viedokli un attieksmi pret CSDD vides reklāmām, atklājot, kā un vai reklāmu vēstījums ietekmē sabiedrību. Darbā izmantota Bārta teorija semiotiskās analīzes izpratnei, Kot...

  11. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  12. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  13. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  15. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  16. Fracturing formations in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroza, R A

    1964-05-15

    This well stimulation method comprises introducing through the well bore a low-penetrating, dilatant fluid, and subjecting the fluid to sufficient pressure to produce fractures in the formation. The fluid is permitted to remain in contact with the formation so as to become diluted by the formation fluids, and thereby lose its properties of dilatancy. Also, a penetrating fluid, containing a propping agent suspended therein, in introduced into contact with the fractures at a pressure substantially reduced with respect to that pressure which would have been required, prior to the fracturing operation performed using the low-penetrating dilatant fluid. The propping agent is deposited within the fractures, and thereafter, fluid production is resumed from the fractured formation. (2 claims)

  17. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  18. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  19. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  20. Detection of WIMPs in the Edelweiss experiment. Study of the radioactive background noise and measurements with bolometers; Recherche des wimp's du halo galactique dans l'experience edelweiss: etude du bas bruit radioactif et mesures a l'aide de bolometres a double detection ionisation/chaleur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miramonti, L. [CEA/Saclay, Dept. d' Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l' Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the detection of black matter in the form of WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particle). The characteristics of the interaction of WIMPs with matter are recalled. The very low number of expected events (<1 event/day.Kg) implies a radioactive background noise as weak as possible, furthermore the exponential decrease of the interacting rate with increasing energy calls for detectors with very low thresholds. Bolometers present advantages in WIMPs detection: i) very good resolution and very low thresholds, ii) very broad range of materials that can be used as absorber, the only requirements are: a crystal structure, to be a diamagnetic isolator and to have a convenient Debye temperature, iii) the possibility of detecting ionizing or non-ionizing particles, iv) the possibility of identifying the incident particle by measuring both temperature and another parameter such as ionization or scintillation, and v) the possibility of localizing the interaction inside the absorber by detecting ballistic phonons. The problematic of radioactive background noise is presented and the answers to the different sources (cosmic radiation,natural and artificial radioactivity) generating the background noise are examined. The materials used in the building of the detector and cryostat must be carefully chosen, they should be as little radioactive as possible. The test benches used to select materials for the Edelweiss experiment are described. The first measurements concerning the detectors Ge-4 and Ge-7 are presented. (A.C.)

  1. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  2. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  3. Les poètes latins et la Méditerranée The Latin Poets and the Mediterranean Sea Los poetas latinos y el Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Plichon-Mauger

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available La Méditerranée, chez les poètes latins du 1er siècle avant J.-C, représente, par sa nature même, un monde inquiétant et hostile pour l'homme. Qui plus est, lui sont attachés des interdits religieux et la philosophie épicurienne en fait le lien antinomique du Jardin.Seule la bataille navale d'Actium permet une évocation positive de la mer puisque, sous la conduite d'Octave, le monde a ainsi pu accéder à un ordre nouveau, au retour de l'âge d'or.For the Latin poets in the first century B.C., the Mediterranean Sea vas a naturally strange and hostile world to man. Moreover, religious interdicts were attached to it, and Epicurian philosophy regarded it as the antithesis of the Garden.It was only the naval battle of Actium that made it possible to evoke the Sea in a more positive way, since the world was then able, under Octavian's leadership, to reach for a new order, to return to the Golden Age.El Mediterráneo, entre los poetas latinos del 1er siglo antes de Cristo, representa, aun por su carácter, un mundo inquietante y hostil para el hombre. Además, se relacionan con él algunos entredichos religiosos, y la filosofía epicúrea hace de él lugar contrario al del Jardín. Solo la batalla naval de Accio permite una evocación positiva del mar ya que, conducido por Octavio, el mundo pudo acceder así a un nuevo orden, al regreso de la edad de oro.

  4. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  5. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  7. Observsational Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Planets form in gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding newborn stars. As such, the most direct way to learn how they form from observations, is to directly watch them forming in disks. In the past, this was very difficult due to a lack of observational capabilities; as such, planet formation was largely a subject of pure theoretical astrophysics. Now, thanks to a fleet of new instruments with unprecedented resolving power that have come online recently, we have just started to unveil features in resolve images of protoplanetary disks, such as gaps and spiral arms, that are most likely associated with embedded (unseen) planets. By comparing observations with theoretical models of planet-disk interactions, the masses and orbits of these still forming planets may be constrained. Such planets may help us to directly test various planet formation models. This marks the onset of a new field — observational planet formation. I will introduce the current status of this field.

  8. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  9. Planetesimals and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John

    The first step in the standard model for planet formation is the growth of gravitationally bound bodies called ``planetesimals'' from dust grains in a protoplanetary disk. Currently, we do not know how planetesimals form, how long they take to form, or what their sizes and mechanical properties are. The goal of this proposal is to assess how these uncertainties affect subsequent stages of planetary growth and the kind of planetary systems that form. The work will address three particular questions: (i) Can the properties of small body populations in the modern Solar System constrain the properties of planetesimals? (ii) How do the properties of planetesimals affect the formation of giant planets? (iii) How does the presence of a water ice condensation front (the ``snow line'') in a disk affect planetesimal formation and the later stages of planetary growth? These questions will be examined with computer simulations of planet formation using new computer codes to be developed as part of the proposal. The first question will be addressed using a statistical model for planetesimal coagulation and fragmentation. This code will be merged with the proposer's Mercury N-body integrator code to model the dynamics of large protoplanets in order to address the second question. Finally, a self- consistent model of disk evolution and the radial transport of water ice and vapour will be added to examine the third question. A theoretical understanding of how planets form is one of the key goals of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems programme. Researchers have carried out many studies designed to address this goal, but the questions of how planetesimals form and how their properties affect planet formation have received relatively little attention. The proposed work will help address these unsolved questions, and place other research in context by assessing the importance of planetesimal origins and properties for planet formation.

  10. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  11. Formation of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, A.S.

    1984-12-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities and the correlation function of galaxies points to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. Scale invariant properties of the cluster-cluster correlations are discussed. Comparing the correlation functions in a dimensionless way, galaxies appear to be stronger clustered, in contrast with the comparison of the dimensional amplitudes of the correlation functions. Theoretical implications of several observations as Lyman-α clouds, correlations of faint galaxies are discussed. None of the present theories of galaxy formation can account for all facts in a natural way. 29 references

  12. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  13. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...

  14. High-mass Star Formation and Its Initial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. P.

    2017-11-01

    In this thesis, we present four works on the infrared dark clouds, fragmentation and deuteration of compact and cold cores, hyper-compact (HC) HII regions, and infrared dust bubbles, respectively. They are not only the products of early high-mass star formation, but reflect different evolutionary sequences of high-mass star formation. (1) Using the IRAM (Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique) 30 m telescope, we obtained HCO^+, HNC, N_2^+, and C^{18}O emission in six IRDCs (infrared dark clouds), and study their dynamics, stability, temperature, and density. (2) Fragmentation at the earliest phases is an important process of massive star formation. Eight massive precluster clumps (G18.17, G18.21, G23.97N, G23.98, G23.44, G23.97S, G25.38, and G25.71) were selected from the SCUBA (submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) 850 μm and 450 μm data. The VLA (Very Large Array) at 1.3 cm, PbBI at 3.5 mm and 1.3 mm, APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope) at 870 μm observations were followed up, and archival infrared data at 4.5 μm, 8.0 μm, 24 μm, and 70 μm were combined to study the fragmentation and evolution of these clumps. We explored the habitats of the massive clumps at large scale, cores/condensations at small scale, and the fragmentation process at different wavelengths. Star formation in these eight clumps may have been triggered by the UC (ultra-compact) HII regions nearby. (3) The formation of hyper-compact (HC) HII regions is an important stage in massive star formation. We present high angular resolution observations carried out with the SMA (Submillimeter Array) and the VLA (Very Large Array) toward the HC HII region G35.58-0.03. With the 1.3 mm SMA and 1.3 cm VLA, we detected a total of about 25 transitions of 8 different species and their isotopologues (CO, CH_3CN, SO_2, CH_3CCH, OCS, CS, H30α/38β, and NH_{3}). G35.58-0.03 consists of an HC HII core with electron temperature Te* ≥ 5500 K, emission measure EM ≈ 1.9×10^{9} pc

  15. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  16. Formation of topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaspati, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the formation of point and line topological defects (monopoles and strings) from a general point of view by allowing the probability of formation of a defect to vary. To investigate the statistical properties of the defects at formation we give qualitative arguments that are independent of any particular model in which such defects occur. These arguments are substantiated by numerical results in the case of strings and for monopoles in two dimensions. We find that the network of strings at formation undergoes a transition at a certain critical density below which there are no infinite strings and the closed-string (loop) distribution is exponentially suppressed at large lengths. The results are contrasted with the results of statistical arguments applied to a box of strings in dynamical equilibrium. We argue that if point defects were to form with smaller probability, the distance between monopoles and antimonopoles would decrease while the monopole-to-monopole distance would increase. We find that monopoles are always paired with antimonopoles but the pairing becomes clean only when the number density of defects is small. A similar reasoning would also apply to other defects

  17. The formation of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The presently fashionable ideas for galaxy formation are reviewed briefly, and it is concluded that the standard isothermal heirarchy fits the available data best. A simple infall picture is presented which explains many of the observed properties of disk galaxies. (orig.)

  18. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  19. Chlorination and chloramines formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Lim Fang; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Sadia Ata; Abbas Abdullah; Basar IShak; Khairul Nidzham

    2008-01-01

    Chlorination is the most important method of disinfection in Malaysia which aims at ensuring an acceptable and safe drinking water quality. The dosing of chlorine to surface water containing ammonia and nitrogen compounds may form chloramines in the treated water. During this reaction, inorganic and organic chloramines are formed. The recommended maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) for chloramines in drinking water is 3000 μg/L. The production of monochloramine, dichloramine and trichloramine is highly dependent upon pH, contact time and the chlorine to ammonia molar ratio. The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of chloramines that occur upon the chlorination during the treatment process. Chloramines were determined using the N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) colorimetric method. The influences of ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage on the chloramines formation were also studied. This paper presents a modeling approach based on regression analysis which is designed to estimate the formation of chloramines. The correlation between the concentration of chloramines and the ammonia, pH and chlorine dosage was examined. In all cases, the quantity of chloramines formed depended linearly upon the amount of chlorine dosage. On the basis of this study it reveals that the concentration of chloramines is a function of chlorine dosage and the ammonia concentration to the chlorination process. PH seems to not significantly affect the formation of chloramines. (author)

  20. Temperature controlled 'void' formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, P.; Sharma, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of voids in structural materials during high temperature deformation or irradiation is essentially dependent upon the existence of 'vacancy supersaturation'. The role of temperature dependent diffusion processes in 'void' formation under varying conditions, and the mechanical property changes associated with this microstructure are briefly reviewed. (author)

  1. Triggered star formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 35-36 ISSN 1405-2059 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003705; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : interstellar medium * star formation * HI shells Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Syntactic Formats for Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    A framework of Plotkin and Turi’s, originally aimed at providing an abstract notion of bi-simulation, is modified to cover other operational equivalences and preorders. Combined with bi-algebraic methods, it yields a technique for the derivation of syntactic formats for transition system specific...

  3. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  4. COMPETENCYTHE FORMATION FOR LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Mederos-Piñeiro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of life competences is the result of a quality education that prepares students to meet the challenges of a fast moving world where equality and equal opportunities should constitute premises of education; training them is a challenge teachers to assume new generations contribute actively to a better world. In Cuba are important research on the formation of communication competences and self-regulated learning in primary school. The paper shows the result of an investigation that provides a methodology for the formation of life competences in primary school education, used as an essential pathway research activity. The methodological approach of research has a quantitative approach and an explanatory scope to establish and make sense of understanding the causal relationship between the direction of research activity and training of life competences. Theoretical, empirical and mathematical-statistical, for characterizing the initial state, processing of results and analysis: research methods are used. The application of the methodology for the formation of life competences makes teachers lead the teaching-learning process with a research and transforming teaching concept, where the school is the protagonist of their learning and causes changes in their performances, which are evident in the formed competences related to effective and affective communication; the solution of problems related to life; the use of means in obtaining the knowledge and the expression of a behavior consistent with school and social demands. The effectiveness of the methodology confirms that there is a causal relationship between the direction of research activity by teachers and the formation of life competences in school.

  5. Medusae Fossae Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  6. Selenopentathionic and Telluropentathionic Acids as Precursors for Formation of Semiconducting Layers on the Surface of Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skirma Zalenkiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The layers of copper chalcogenides, which were formed on the surface of semihydrophilic polymer—polyamide 6 (PA using monoselenopentathionic H2SeS4O6 and monotelluropentathionic H2TeS4O6 acids as precursors of chalcogens, were characterized. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV spectroscopy were used to monitor the effect of chalcogens on the changes in structure of PA corresponding to the concentration of the precursor's solution and an exposure time. The IR spectra of modified PA were completely different from that of the initial PA. Further interaction of chalcogenized PA with copper (II/I salt solution leads to the formation of CuxS, CuxSe, CuxTe, and mixed –CuxS–CuySe and CuxS–CuyTe layers which have different electric transport properties. The surface properties of PA after treatment are studied using AFM and XRD. The electrical resistances of layers with various composition formed over a wide concentration range 0.01–0.5 mol⋅dm−3 of precursor's solution were measured. Variation in the conductivity of layers of Cu–Se–S and Cu–Te–S on the surface of PA shows an evident increase with the increasing of the mass fraction of selenium or tellurium.

  7. The format of things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth

    this conception is identified as “the Format of Things.” The format is embedded in our everyday thinking. In relation to design,it is found in the name taken by the design community, that is human-computer interaction (HCI), and it is mirrored in the desktop metaphor, wherein information is conceived...... available. It consists of philosophical considerations on matters of relevance for the design of interfaces. It takes the position that the graphical user interfaces of computers (the Desktop Metaphor or Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers [‘WIMP’]) that ordinarily come to mind for most people are cognates......The development of novel interfaces is one of the most important current design challenges for the intellectual, cultural and cognitive evolution of human imagination and knowledge work. Unfortunately, the thinking surrounding this design challenge is heavily mired in conceptions that harbor...

  8. Plasma formation in TBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bosco, E.

    1981-01-01

    In this work are presented and discussed results of the formation and equilibrium of the plasma current in TBR, a small tokamak, designed and contructed at the Instituto de Fisica of Universidade de Sao Paulo. The measured breakdown curves for H 2 , A and He are compared with the predictions of a simple model with reasonable agreement. The influence of stray magnetic fields in the plasma formation is investigated and conditions are chosen to facilitate the breakdown. The time profile of loop voltage and plasma current for shots with plasma equilibrium are shown. A comparison is made between experimental results and analytical-numerical model for tokamaks discharges with ohmic heating. Reasonable agreement is obtained when Z, effective atomic number, is assumed as a parameter. (Author) [pt

  9. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  10. Characterizing filaments in regions of high-mass star formation: High-resolution submilimeter imaging of the massive star-forming complex NGC 6334 with ArTéMiS

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ph.; Revéret, V.; Könyves, V.; Arzoumanian, D.; Tigé, J.; Gallais, P.; Roussel, H.; Le Pennec, J.; Rodriguez, L.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Talvard, M.; Delisle, C.; Visticot, F.; Dumaye, L.; De Breuck, C.; Shimajiri, Y.; Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Hennemann, M.; Zavagno, A.; Russeil, D.; Schneider, N.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Hill, T.; Minier, V.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Herschel observations of nearby molecular clouds suggest that interstellar filaments and prestellar cores represent two fundamental steps in the star formation process. The observations support a picture of low-mass star formation according to which filaments of ~0.1 pc width form first in the cold interstellar medium, probably as a result of large-scale compression of interstellar matter by supersonic turbulent flows, and then prestellar cores arise from gravitational fragmentation of the densest filaments. Whether this scenario also applies to regions of high-mass star formation is an open question, in part because the resolution of Herschel is insufficient to resolve the inner width of filaments in the nearest regions of massive star formation. Aims: In an effort to characterize the inner width of filaments in high-mass star-forming regions, we imaged the central part of the NGC 6334 complex at a resolution higher by a factor of >3 than Herschel at 350 μm. Methods: We used the large-format bolometer camera ArTéMiS on the APEX telescope and combined the high-resolution ArTéMiS data at 350 μm with Herschel/HOBYS data at 70-500 μm to ensure good sensitivity to a broad range of spatial scales. This allowed us to study the structure of the main narrow filament of the complex with a resolution of 8″ or Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory, and the Onsala Space Observatory.The final ArTéMiS+SPIRE 350 μm map (Fig. 1b) is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A54

  11. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    military, transportation, and communications technologies, which caused every place in the world to be politically significant. Second, “divisions of power...test a similar claim about the association between distance and dyadic alliance formation. In their first model, in which they use the complete data...1885 to 1990] are positively related to dyadic trade levels, and that their non- defense-pact counterparts are not significantly related to trade in

  12. Alkali metal hydride formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing alkali metal hydrides by absorbing hydrogen gas under pressure into a mixture of lower alkyl mono amines and alkali metal alkyl amides selected from sodium and potassium amides formed from said amines. The present invention also includes purification of a mixture of the amines and amides which contain impurities, such as is used as a catalytic exchange liquid in the enrichment of deuterium, involving the formation of the alkali metal hydride

  13. Formation of TRAPPIST-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, C. W.; Liu, B.; Schoonenberg, D.

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for the formation of the recently-discovered TRAPPIST-1 planetary system. In our scenario planets form in the interior regions, by accretion of mm to cm-size particles (pebbles) that drifted from the outer disk. This scenario has several advantages: it connects to the observation that disks are made up of pebbles, it is efficient, it explains why the TRAPPIST-1 planets are ˜Earth mass, and it provides a rationale for the system's architecture.

  14. THE ALLIANCE FORMATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Whipple, Judith M.; Frankel, Robert

    1998-01-01

    While interest in developing strategic alliances within the food system continues to increase, there remains considerable risk when firms adopt such a cooperative strategy. The risk is due in part to the lack of concrete guidelines that illustrate the steps or stages of alliance development and the important strategic and operational decisions required at each stage. The existence of such guidelines would facilitate alliance formation and enable managers and researchers to better understand a...

  15. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  16. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  17. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  18. Fracturing of subterranean formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O.M.; Kidwell, A.L.

    1968-03-19

    This method of propping fractured formations results in high conductivities. In the method, certain naturally occurring crystals are used as propping agents. Suitable crystals include garnet, corundum, zircon, rutile, high-temperature quartz, and other minerals which have Moh's hardness values of about 6 or greater and weather out as individual crystals of about 40 mesh or larger. These are said to result in permeabilities significantly higher than those obtained with ordinary quartz sand, metallic shot, glass beads, plastic particles, walnut hulls, or similar materials. (10 claims)

  19. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...... theoretical textual analysis method. Asynchronous written dialogue from an online master’s course at Aalborg University forms the empirical basis of the study. The findings suggests in general that students play an essential role in SFF and that students and educators are equal in the COP, but holds different...

  20. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einasto, J; Joeveer, M; Saar, E [Tartu Astrophysical Observatory, Toravere, Estonia (USSR)

    1980-01-03

    A study of the structure of superclusters in the Southern galactic hemisphere using Zwicky clusters as principal tracers of the large-scale structure of the Universe is reported. The data presented suggest that the formation of galaxies was a two stage process involving larger spatial dimensions than earlier workers have postulated. In the first stage proto-superclusters and big holes had to form from the non-dissipative dark matter while in the second hot gas, by cooling and settling down into the potential wells caused by dark matter, will form galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

  1. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.

  2. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  3. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  4. A Mesoproterozoic iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Donald E.; Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Huajian; Wang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Wenzhi; Su, Jin; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Haxen, Emma R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.

    2018-04-01

    We describe a 1,400 million-year old (Ma) iron formation (IF) from the Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We estimate this IF to have contained at least 520 gigatons of authigenic Fe, comparable in size to many IFs of the Paleoproterozoic Era (2,500–1,600 Ma). Therefore, substantial IFs formed in the time window between 1,800 and 800 Ma, where they are generally believed to have been absent. The Xiamaling IF is of exceptionally low thermal maturity, allowing the preservation of organic biomarkers and an unprecedented view of iron-cycle dynamics during IF emplacement. We identify tetramethyl aryl isoprenoid (TMAI) biomarkers linked to anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and thus phototrophic Fe oxidation. Although we cannot rule out other pathways of Fe oxidation, iron and organic matter likely deposited to the sediment in a ratio similar to that expected for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Fe reduction was likely a dominant and efficient pathway of organic matter mineralization, as indicated by organic matter maturation by Rock Eval pyrolysis combined with carbon isotope analyses: Indeed, Fe reduction was seemingly as efficient as oxic respiration. Overall, this Mesoproterozoic-aged IF shows many similarities to Archean-aged (>2,500 Ma) banded IFs (BIFs), but with an exceptional state of preservation, allowing an unprecedented exploration of Fe-cycle dynamics in IF deposition.

  5. Endocytosis and Enamel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Dat Pham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel formation requires consecutive stages of development to achieve its characteristic extreme mineral hardness. Mineralization depends on the initial presence then removal of degraded enamel proteins from the matrix via endocytosis. The ameloblast membrane resides at the interface between matrix and cell. Enamel formation is controlled by ameloblasts that produce enamel in stages to build the enamel layer (secretory stage and to reach final mineralization (maturation stage. Each stage has specific functional requirements for the ameloblasts. Ameloblasts adopt different cell morphologies during each stage. Protein trafficking including the secretion and endocytosis of enamel proteins is a fundamental task in ameloblasts. The sites of internalization of enamel proteins on the ameloblast membrane are specific for every stage. In this review, an overview of endocytosis and trafficking of vesicles in ameloblasts is presented. The pathways for internalization and routing of vesicles are described. Endocytosis is proposed as a mechanism to remove debris of degraded enamel protein and to obtain feedback from the matrix on the status of the maturing enamel.

  6. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  7. Standard exercise report format (SERF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This talk summarizes the reasons for the development of draft SERF the Standard Exercise Report Format used for reporting the results of emergency preparedness exercises, and gives a summary of the format and rational behind it

  8. Restoring formation after leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    A method of restoring a formation which had uranium and other mineral values extracted by an alkaline lixiviant comprises introducing a source of phosphate in an amount sufficient to lower the level of soluble uranium compounds below that previously existing in the formation by the formation of insoluble uranium phosphate compounds

  9. Formative Research in Educational Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Timothy

    This paper distinguishes between basic research, applied research, and evaluation. Evaluation is broken down into two types: summative and formative. The limitations of formative research are presented, followed by a discussion of the value of the formative researcher participating in the product planning process. The types of data which formative…

  10. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive...

  11. Determinants for gallstone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Monsted; Sorensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    . Gallstone incidence was assessed through repeated ultrasound examinations. Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, self-rated health, lifestyle variables, blood lipids, and use of female sex hormones were measured at the baseline examination. Statistical analyses included logistic regression. Based...... re-examination were followed-up completely (mean 11.6 years, N = 2848). The overall cumulative incidence of gallstones was 0.60% per year. Independent positive determinants for incident gallstones were age, female sex, non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, and gallbladder polyps...... associations were found for blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides in meta-analyses. Conclusions: Age, female sex, BMI, non-HDL cholesterol, and polyps are independent determinants for gallstone formation. Incident gallstones and the metabolic syndrome share common risk...

  12. Standardizing exchange formats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    An international network of co-operating data centres is described who maintain identical data bases which are simultaneously updated by an agreed data exchange procedure. The agreement covers ''data exchange formats'' which are compatible to the centres' internal data storage and retrieval systems which remain different, optimized at each centre to the available computer facilities and to the needs of the data users. Essential condition for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data exchange is an agreement on common procedures for the data compilation, including critical data analysis and validation. The systems described (''EXFOR'', ''ENDF'', ''CINDA'') are used for ''nuclear reaction data'', but the principles used for data compilation and exchange should be valid also for other data types. (author). 24 refs, 4 figs

  13. Recipes for planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael R.

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has ever used baking soda instead of baking powder when trying to make a cake knows a simple truth: ingredients matter. The same is true for planet formation. Planets are made from the materials that coalesce in a rotating disk around young stars - essentially the "leftovers" from when the stars themselves formed through the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds of gas and dust. The planet-making disk should therefore initially have the same gas-to-dust ratio as the interstellar medium: about 100 to 1, by mass. Similarly, it seems logical that the elemental composition of the disk should match that of the star, reflecting the initial conditions at that particular spot in the galaxy.

  14. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  15. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  16. A relação entre o comprimento dos processos ciliares medidos pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica e a duração, localização e gravidade das uveítes The relationship between the length of ciliary processes as measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy and the duration, localization and severity of uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Socci da Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a relação entre o comprimento dos processos ciliares com a duração, localização e gravidade das uveítes. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados em estudo prospectivo, 58 indivíduos, incluindo pacientes com diferentes estágios de uveíte e indivíduos sem a doença (112 olhos, sendo 18 normais, no período de agosto de 2001 a agosto de 2002, no Departamento de Uveítes do Cole Eye Institute da Cleveland Clinic Foundation - Ohio - EUA. Todos os pacientes foram referidos para o exame de biomicroscopia ultra-sônica, pelo Departamento de Uveítes após exame oftalmológico de rotina. O aparelho modelo 840 (Zeiss-Humphrey com transdutor de 50 MHz foi utilizado para análise dos processos ciliares sob anestesia tópica e técnica de imersão. RESULTADOS: Em relação à etiologia das uveítes, a de maior freqüência foi a idiopática (27,8%. As uveítes recorrentes, agressivas e difusas levaram ao significante dano nos processos ciliares. A maior perda significativa na medida dos processos ciliares foi encontrada no quadrante inferior e as maiores medidas foram encontradas em olhos normais e no quadrante temporal. CONCLUSÃO: A biomicroscopia ultra-sônica mostrou ser método útil para avaliar as alterações anatômicas encontradas nos processos ciliares dos pacientes com uveíte. De acordo com estes achados, podemos criar recomendações para futuros trabalhos, que nos ajudem a avaliar a necessidade destes pacientes vir a receber tratamento mais agressivo em qualquer sinal de inflamação, com o objetivo de prevenir futuro dano e eventual hipotonia.PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between the length of ciliary processes as measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy and the duration, localization and severity of uveitis. METHODS: We analyzed in this prospective study, 58 individuals including patients with different stages of uveitis and normal patients (112 eyes including 18 normal, between August 2001 and August 2002, at the

  17. Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Huélamo, N.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Bayo, A.; Palau, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Rivière-Marichalar, P.; Bouy, H.; Morata, Ó.; Stauffer, J. R.; Eiroa, C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2018-04-01

    Aims: The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs (BDs) is not very well characterized, especially during the embedded phase. Our goal is to gain insight into the dominant formation mechanism of very low-mass objects and BDs. Methods: We have conducted deep observations at 870 μm obtained with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope in order to identify young submillimeter (submm) sources in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. We have complemented these data with multi-wavelength observations from the optical to the far-IR and compiled complete spectral energy distributions in order to identify the counterparts, characterize the sources and to assess their membership to the association and stellar or substellar status based on the available photometric information. Results: We have identified 34 submm sources and a substantial number of possible and probable Barnard 30 members within each individual APEX/LABOCA beam. They can be classified into three distinct groups. First, 15 of these 34 have a clear optical or IR counterpart to the submm peak and nine of them are potential proto-BD candidates. Moreover, a substantial number of them could be multiple systems. A second group of 13 sources comprises candidate members with significant infrared excesses located away from the central submm emission. All of them include BD candidates, some displaying IR excess, but their association with submm emission is unclear. In addition, we have found six starless cores and, based on the total dust mass estimate, three might be pre-substellar (or pre-BDs) cores. Finally, the complete characterization of our APEX/LABOCA sources, focusing on those detected at 24 and/or 70 μm, indicates that in our sample of 34 submm sources there are, at least: two WTTs, four CTTs, five young stellar objects, eight proto-BD candidates (with another three dubious cases), and one very low luminosity objects. Conclusions: Our findings provide additional evidence concerning the BD formation mechanism

  18. Effects of carprofen administered by different routes to control experimental uveitis in dogs Efeitos do carprofeno, aplicado por diferentes vias, no controle de uveítes experimentais em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of carprofen, administered by different routes, was studied in experimental uveitis in dogs. Anterior chamber paracenteses was accomplished at two different moments (M0 and M1, with a five hour interval between them. At M0 and M1, 0.2mL of aqueous humor was collected and quantitation of total protein and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined. Four groups were formed (n=8, which received carprofen at the end of M0, by the following routes: subcutaneous (GIm, subconjunctival (GII, and topical (GIII. A fourth group that received no treatment was instituted (Control. Conjunctival histopathology of the GII animals was performed. In all groups, values of protein and PGE2 significantly enhanced at M1; however, they did not significantly change among groups at M1. Inflammatory exudate of acute character and mild hemorrhage were seen at histopathology after carprofen administration. Carprofen was unable to inhibit PGE2 synthesis and the protein influx to the anterior chamber by any of the tested routes. However, the reduction of 44% in protein levels (topical suggests that the agent can be used by this route as an adjuvant to control uveitis in dogs.Estudaram-se os efeitos do carprofeno, aplicado por diferentes vias, em uveítes experimentais em cães. Realizou-se paracentese de câmara anterior em dois momentos (M0 e M1, com intervalo de cinco horas entre si. Em M0 e M1, colheram-se 0,2mL de humor aquoso e determinaram-se as concentrações de proteína total e de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2. Constituíram-se quatro grupos (n = 8, que receberam carprofeno ao final de M0 pelas vias subcutânea (GI, subconjuntival (GII e tópica (GIII. Um quarto grupo não recebeu tratamento (controle. Procedeu-se à avaliação histopatológica nos indivíduos do GII. Em todos os grupos, encontrou-se aumento significativo dos níveis proteicos e de PGE2 em M1. Não se observou diferença significativa, em M1, entre os grupos para nenhum dos parâmetros estudados

  19. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  20. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  1. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  2. Designing for informed group formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Juel Jacobsen, Alice; Riis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A new design ―project preparation‖ preparing for the group formation in problem based project work is proposed and investigated. The main problem is to overcome group formation based on existing relations. The hypothesis is that theme development and group formation are somewhat counterproductive....... Following research based design methodology an experiment separating the two was initiated.This was to provide for more openness and creativity in contrast to a design in which existing relations seem predominant....

  3. Light meromyosin paracrystal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowrashi, P K; Pepe, F A

    1977-07-01

    STUDIES OF PARACRYSTAL FORMATION BY COLUMN PURIFIED LIGHT MEROMYOSIN (LMM) PREPARED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS LED TO THE FOLLOWING CONCLUSIONS: (a) different portions of the myosin rod may be coded for different stagger relationships. This was concluded from observations that paracrystals with different axial repeat periodicities could be obtained either with LMM framents of different lengths prepared with the same enzyme, or with LMM fragments of identical lengths but prepared with different enzymes. (b) Paracrystals with a 14-nm axial repeat periodicity are most likely formed by the aggregation of sheets with a 44-nm axial repeat within the sheets which are staggered by 14 nm. All of the axial repeat patterns expected from one sheet or aggregates of more than one sheet, on this basis, were observed in the same electron micrograph. (c) C-protein binding probably occurs preferentially to LMM molecules related in some specific way. This was concluded from the observation that the same axial repeat pattern was obtained in paracrystals formed from different LMM preparations in the presence of C-protein, regardless of differences in the axial repeat obtained in the absence of C-protein. (d) Nucleic acid is responsible for the 43-nm axial repeat patterns observed in paracrystals formed by the ethanol-resistant fraction of LMM. In the absence of nuclei acid, paracrystals with a 14nm axial repeat are obtained. (e) The 43-nm axial repeat pattern observed with the ethanol-resistant fraction of LMM is different for LMM preparations obtained by trypsin and papain digestions.

  4. Pattern formation during electropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, V.V.; Chang, H.; Miller, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Using atomic force microscopy, we find that the surface morphology of a dissolving aluminum anode in a commercial electropolishing electrolyte can exhibit both highly regular and randomly packed stripe and hexagonal patterns with amplitudes of about 5 nm and wavelengths of 100 nm. The driving instability of this pattern formation phenomenon is proposed to be the preferential adsorption of polar or polarizable organic molecules on surface ridges where the contorted double layer produces a higher electric potential gradient. The enhanced relative coverage shields the anode and induces a smaller dissolution rate at the ridges. The instability is balanced by surface diffusion of the adsorbate to yield a length scale of 4π(D s /k d ) 1/2 , where D s is the surface diffusivity and k d is the desorption coefficient of the adsorbate, which correlates well with the measured wavelength. A long-wavelength expansion of the double-layer field yields an interface evolution equation that reproduces all of the observed patterns. In particular, bifurcation analysis and numerical simulation yield a single voltage-dependent dimensionless parameter ξ that measures a balance between smoothing of adsorbate concentration by electric-field-dependent surface diffusion and fluctuation due to interfacial curvature and stretching. Randomly oriented stripes are favored at large ξ (low voltage), while random hills dominate at small ξ (high voltage) with perfectly periodic stripes and hexagonal hill patterns within a small window near ξ=1. These predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with our measurements. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Formative assessment : Enriching teaching and learning with formative assesment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diggelen, M.R.; Morgan, C.M.; Funk, M.; Bruns, M.

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment is a valuable aspect in teaching and learning, and is proven to be an e ective learning method. There is evidence that adding formative assessment to your teaching increases students’ learning results (Black and William, 1998), but in practice many of the possibilities are left

  6. Revolution evolution: tracing angular momentum during star and planetary system formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire Louise

    2015-04-01

    disc to expand. I used spatially resolved submillimetre detections of the dust and gas components of protoplanetary discs, gathered from the literature, to measure the radial extent of discs around low-mass pre-main sequence stars of ∼ 1-10 Myr and probe their viscous evolution. I find no clear observational evidence for the radial expansion of the dust component. However, I find tentative evidence for the expansion ofthe gas component. This suggests that the evolution of the gas and dust components of protoplanetary discs are likely governed by different astrophysical processes. Observations of jets and outflows emanating from protostars and pre-main sequence stars highlight that it may also be possible to remove angular momentum from the circumstellar material. Using the sample of spatially resolved protoplanetary discs, I find no evidence for angular momentum removal during disc evolution. I also use the spatially resolved debris discs from the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 Observations of Nearby Stars survey to constrain the amount of angular momentum retained within planetary systems. This sample is compared to the protoplanetary disc angular momenta and to the angular momentum contained within pre-stellar cores. I find that significant quantities of angular momentum must be removed during disc formation and disc dispersal. This likely occurs via magnetic braking during the formation of the disc, via the launching of a disc or photo-evaporative wind, and/or via ejection of planetary material following dynamical interactions.

  7. Formation of interstellar anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senent, Maria Luisa

    2012-05-01

    Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H → CnH and Cn- +H → CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H → CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M

  8. From clouds to cores to envelopes to disks: a multi-scale view of magnetized star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles; Plambeck, R. L.; TADPOL survey Team

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields are thought to play an important role in the formation of stars. However, that importance has been called into question by previous observations showing misalignment between protostellar outflows and magnetic fields (B-fields), as well as inconsistency in field morphology between 10,000 and 1000 AU scales. To investigate these inconsistencies, we used the 1.3 mm full-Stokes polarimeter — which I tested, installed, and calibrated for CARMA, a mm-wave interferometer — to map dust polarization with ~2.5" resolution toward 29 star-forming cores and 8 star-forming regions as part of the TADPOL survey. We find that a subset of the sources have consistent B-field orientations between the large 20") scales measured by single-dish submm bolometers and the small scales measured by CARMA. Those same sources also tend to have higher fractional polarizations (measured by CARMA), presumably because the B-fields are less twisted by dynamic effects. However, even in these sources, which seem to have retained the memory of the global B-field direction, the fields in the cores are misaligned with the disks and outflows in the central protostars — a key result of the TADPOL survey. Furthermore, the cores with lower polarization fractions tend to have B-fields that are perpendicular to outflows, which suggests that in these sources the B-fields have lost the memory of the larger-scale global field, and have been wrapped up by core rotation. This is an important result for disk formation theory, as it suggests that field misalignment may indeed be the solution to the magnetic braking catastrophe. Finally, we find that all sources exhibit the so-called “polarization hole” effect, where the polarization drops significantly near the total intensity peak. When this effect was seen in low-resolution single-dish maps, it was attributed to the averaging of unresolved structure in the plane of the sky. However, the higher resolution maps we present here resolve these

  9. Satellite formation flying relative dynamics, formation design, fuel optimal maneuvers and formation maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danwei; Poh, Eng Kee

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically describes the concepts and principles for multi-satellite relative motion, passive and near passive formation designs, trajectory planning and control for fuel optimal formation maneuvers, and formation flying maintenance control design. As such, it provides a sound foundation for researchers and engineers in this field to develop further theories and pursue their implementations. Though satellite formation flying is widely considered to be a major advance in space technology, there are few systematic treatments of the topic in the literature. Addressing that gap, the book offers a valuable resource for academics, researchers, postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of satellite science and engineering.

  10. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  11. Professional Development through Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsibande, Rejoice; Garraway, James

    2011-01-01

    Formative evaluation and its associated methodology of reflection on practice are used extensively in academic staff development. In reflecting on formative evaluation processes in both more traditional and newer programmes conducted at a university of technology, a number of variables reported in the literature were observed to have influenced…

  12. Star formation in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  13. A format for phylogenetic placements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick A Matsen

    Full Text Available We have developed a unified format for phylogenetic placements, that is, mappings of environmental sequence data (e.g., short reads into a phylogenetic tree. We are motivated to do so by the growing number of tools for computing and post-processing phylogenetic placements, and the lack of an established standard for storing them. The format is lightweight, versatile, extensible, and is based on the JSON format, which can be parsed by most modern programming languages. Our format is already implemented in several tools for computing and post-processing parsimony- and likelihood-based phylogenetic placements and has worked well in practice. We believe that establishing a standard format for analyzing read placements at this early stage will lead to a more efficient development of powerful and portable post-analysis tools for the growing applications of phylogenetic placement.

  14. Uranium logging in earth formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A technique is provided for assaying the formations surrounding a borehole for uranium. A borehole logging tool cyclically irradiates the formations with neutrons and responds to neutron fluxes produced during the period of time that prompt neutrons are being produced by the neutron fission of uranium in the formations. A borehole calibration tool employs a steady-state (continuous output) neutron source, firstly, to produce a response to neutron fluxes in models having known concentrations of uranium and, secondly, to to produce a response to neutron fluxes in the formations surrounding the borehole. The neutron flux responses of the borehole calibration tool in both the model and the formations surrounding the borehole are utilized to correct the neutron flux response of the borehole logging tool for the effects of epithermal/thermal neutron moderation, scattering, and absorption within the borehole itself

  15. Geological factors of deposit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grushevoj, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic factors of hydrogenic uranium deposit formation are considered. Structural, formation and lithological-facies factors of deposit formation, connected with zones of stratal oxidation, are characterized. Peculiarities of deposit localization, connected with orogenic structures of Mesozoic and lenozoic age, are described. It is noted that deposits of anagenous group are widely spread in Paleozoic formations, infiltration uranium deposits are localized mainly in Cenozoic sediments, while uranium mineralization both anagenous and infiltration groups are widely developed in Mesozoic sediments. Anagenous deposits were formed in non-oxygen situation, their age varies from 200 to 55 mln years. Infiltration deposit formation is determined by asymmetric oxidation zonation, their age varies from 10 - 40 mln years to dozens of thousand years [ru

  16. Análise da qualidade de vida de portadores de uveítes de causas infecciosas e não infecciosas pelo questionário NEI-VFQ-25 Analysis of the life quality of infectious and non-infectious patients with uveitis using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Resende Aquino de Assis Pereira Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não infecciosas avaliados no setor de uveíte do serviço de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho - UFRJ, por meio da aplicação do questionário NEI-VFQ-25, de modo a esclarecer melhor a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento das uveítes, assim como suas conseqüências na função visual e social dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo composto de 30 pacientes com uveítes que foram divididos em dois grupos conforme a etiologia, infecciosa e não infecciosa, tendo sido aplicado duas vezes em cada paciente o questionário NEI-VFQ-25 que avalia a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde geral e visual. RESULTADOS: A toxoplasmose foi a principal causa de uveíte infecciosa, enquanto a não infecciosa foi a síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. Quanto à qualidade de vida, a saúde geral é melhor no grupo de causa infecciosa, sendo que a saúde ocular é regular nos dois grupos. Apesar do déficit visual não provocar grandes distúrbios e restrições sociais, ambos os grupos apresentam comprometimento emocional importante, sendo que no grupo de causa não infecciosa, esse comprometimento gera grau maior de dependência para a realização de tarefas do cotidiano. CONCLUSÃO: A maior dependência social e na realização de atividades do dia-a-dia no grupo de uveítes de causa não infecciosas, se explica pelo modo crônico e recidivante dessas afecções, o que leva à qualidade de vida inferior se comparada ao outro grupo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the life quality of patients with infectious and non-infectious uveitis evaluated at the uveitis service of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho-UFRJ, using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire in order to clarify the importance of uveitis diagnosis and treatment as well as its consequences to visual and social functions of the patients. METHODS: Prospective study of 30 patients

  17. Thermal Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of Synthetic Allophane and its Potential Formation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, Douglas W.

    2010-01-01

    Allophane is a poorly-crystalline, hydrous aluminosilicate with variable Si/Al ratios approx.0.5-1 and a metastable precursor of clay minerals. On Earth, it forms rapidly by aqueous alteration of volcanic glass under neutral to slightly acidic conditions [1]. Based on in situ chemical measurements and the identification of alteration phases [2-4], the Martian surface is interpreted to have been chemically weathered on local to regional scales. Chemical models of altered surfaces detected by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in Gusev crater suggest the presence of an allophane-like alteration product [3]. Thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution models are primary tools for determining the mineralogy of the Martian surface [5]. Spectral models of data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) indicate a global compositional dichotomy, where high latitudes tend to be enriched in a high-silica material [6,7], interpreted as high-silica, K-rich volcanic glass [6,8]. However, later interpretations proposed that the high-silica material may be an alteration product (such as amorphous silica, clay minerals, or allophane) and that high latitude surfaces are chemically weathered [9-11]. A TIR spectral library of pure minerals is available for the public [12], but it does not contain allophane spectra. The identification of allophane on the Martian surface would indicate high water activity at the time of its formation and would help constrain the aqueous alteration environment [13,14]. The addition of allophane to the spectral library is necessary to address the global compositional dichotomy. In this study, we characterize a synthetic allophane by IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to create an IR emission spectrum of pure allophane for the Mars science community to use in Martian spectral models.

  18. Process for fracturing underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, O M

    1974-01-25

    This invention concerns a process for fracturing underground formations and has as one object the mixing of viscous compositions. Through a borehole, a fluid is injected into the formation. This fluid contains a complex prepared by the reaction of an aliphatic quaternary ammonium compound with a water-soluble compound chosen from monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, polysaccharides, and synthetic hydroxylated polymers with long chains. These complexes are formed at temperatures between 20/sup 0/ and 205/sup 0/C. The process also includes production of formation fluid into the borehole.

  19. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  20. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h