Semi-Automated Design Space Exploration for Formal Modelling
Grov, Gudmund; Ireland, Andrew; Llano, Maria Teresa; Kovacs, Peter; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy
2016-01-01
Refinement based formal methods allow the modelling of systems through incremental steps via abstraction. Discovering the right levels of abstraction, formulating correct and meaningful invariants, and analysing faulty models are some of the challenges faced when using this technique. Here, we propose Design Space Exploration, an approach that aims to assist a designer by automatically providing high-level modelling guidance in real-time. More specifically, through the combination of common p...
Towards a formal design model based on a genetic design model system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Storga, Mario; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Marjanovic, Dorian
2005-01-01
The research presented in this article is aimed to the investigation of the nature, building and practical role of a Design Ontology as a potential framework for the more efficient product development data-, information- and knowledge- description, -explanation, -understanding and -reusing...... by IEEE, provides us definitions for the most general and universal concepts, that we used in our research for derivation of terms definitions and axioms in the Design Ontology. The Design Ontology was evaluated using the OntoEdit® ontology engineering environment, on a real product example, and based....... In this article, we briefly summarize our experience of converting informal definitions of the concepts from the product development domain based on the existing theoretical background into formal design model. As a main data source for extracting the content of a design ontology, Genetic Design Model System...
Towards a formal design model based on a genetic design model system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Storga, Mario; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Marjanovic, Dorian
2005-01-01
. In this article, we briefly summarize our experience of converting informal definitions of the concepts from the product development domain based on the existing theoretical background into formal design model. As a main data source for extracting the content of a design ontology, Genetic Design Model System......The research presented in this article is aimed to the investigation of the nature, building and practical role of a Design Ontology as a potential framework for the more efficient product development data-, information- and knowledge- description, -explanation, -understanding and -reusing...... by IEEE, provides us definitions for the most general and universal concepts, that we used in our research for derivation of terms definitions and axioms in the Design Ontology. The Design Ontology was evaluated using the OntoEdit® ontology engineering environment, on a real product example, and based...
Industrial applications of formal methods to model, design and analyze computer systems
Craigen, Dan
1995-01-01
Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques, often supported by reasoning tools, that can offer a rigorous and effective way to model, design and analyze computer systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate international industrial experience in using formal methods. The cases selected are representative of industrial-grade projects and span a variety of application domains. The study had three main objectives: · To better inform deliberations within industry and government on standards and regulations; · To provide an authoritative record on the practical experience of formal m
Formal analysis of design process dynamics
Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design
Formal analysis of design process dynamics
Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2010-01-01
This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design prope
2017-04-17
requirements are often used to specify the behavior of complex cyber- physical systems . The process of transforming these requirements to a formal...Cyberphysical Systems , Formal Methods, Requirements Patterns, AADL, Assume Guarantee Reasoning Environment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...33 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 1 1. Summary Modern aircraft are complex cyber- physical systems with safety
Category Theory and Model-Driven Engineering: From Formal Semantics to Design Patterns and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zinovy Diskin
2012-08-01
Full Text Available There is a hidden intrigue in the title. CT is one of the most abstract mathematical disciplines, sometimes nicknamed "abstract nonsense". MDE is a recent trend in software development, industrially supported by standards, tools, and the status of a new "silver bullet". Surprisingly, categorical patterns turn out to be directly applicable to mathematical modeling of structures appearing in everyday MDE practice. Model merging, transformation, synchronization, and other important model management scenarios can be seen as executions of categorical specifications. Moreover, the paper aims to elucidate a claim that relationships between CT and MDE are more complex and richer than is normally assumed for "applied mathematics". CT provides a toolbox of design patterns and structural principles of real practical value for MDE. We will present examples of how an elementary categorical arrangement of a model management scenario reveals deficiencies in the architecture of modern tools automating the scenario.
Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers
McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene
2013-01-01
McKenney, S., & Visscher-Voerman, I. (2013). Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers. Educational Designer, 2(6). Available online: http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article20/index.htm
Formal Modeling of Communication Protocols.
1981-03-01
problems have been developed. 4 FORMAL MODELING OF COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS The state machine model is motivated by the observation that protocols may be...simplest types of state machine model because they have only a single state variable (the state) which takes on a relatively small range of values. For...grammar, this correspondence is very apparent. For each state of the state machine model , we define a nonterminal symbol in the grammar. The inputs
Formal modelling of cognitive interpretation
Rukšenas, R.; Curzon, P; Back, J.; Blandford, A.
2007-01-01
We formally specify the interpretation stage in a dual state space human-computer interaction cycle. This is done by extending/reorganising our previous cognitive architecture. In particular, we focus on shape related aspects of the interpretation process associated with device input prompts. A cash-point example illustrates our approach. Using the SAL model checking environment, we show how the extended cognitive architecture facilitates detection of prompt-shape induced human error. © Sprin...
A formal model of fair exchange protocols
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QING Sihan; LI Gaicheng
2005-01-01
Based on the study of existing fair exchange protocols, this paper sets up an accurate formal model by stepwise refinement. In the process of refinement an unreliable channel is employed to simulate an attack behavior. The model provides a novel formal definition of exchanged items, and presents the formal goals for fairness, accountability,etc., reflecting the inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols across-the-board. In order to check, prove, and design fair exchange protocols effectively and efficiently, the model puts forward a novel property of abuse-freeness which applies to all fair exchange protocols, gives a formal definition for trust strand of the third party, and presents general criteria of designing a secure and effective fair exchange protocol. Taking a typical fair exchange protocol as an example, this paper presents the analysis steps of fair exchange protocols appealing to our model. An unknown attack is uncovered. The analysis reveals the process of a complete attack, discovering deeper reasons for causing an attack.Finally, we modify the flawed protocol and the revised protocol ensures the desirable properties.
Designing for Non-Formal Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersson, Eva
2008-01-01
opportunities in empowerment of children with impairment, especially in respect of their ‘non-formal learning' potentials. The questioning of how to best use the technology so as to optimise possibilities and overcome constraints in education, therapy and rehabilitation is an aspect of my talk. Additionally, I...... developing responsive environments for children with different abilities. Emphasis in her current research lies on user-centred design and non-formal learning in different settings. She has lead and coordinated several research and development projects since 1998. Petersson is member of the board of the Pan...
Flexible receiver adapter formal design review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krieg, S.A.
1995-06-13
This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.
Interpretive and Formal Models of Discourse Processing.
Bulcock, Jeffrey W.; Beebe, Mona J.
Distinguishing between interpretive and formal models of discourse processing and between qualitative and quantitative research, this paper argues that formal models are the analogues of interpretive models, and that the two are complementary. It observes that interpretive models of reading are being increasingly derived from qualitative research…
Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther
of formal methods tools into the software development life cycle, and which leverage the formal specification in the subsequent validation of the system. The tools developed use a new code generation infrastructure that has been built as part of this PhD project and implemented in the Overture tool...... of the steps involved in realising the formal specification. This PhD dissertation investigates ways to improve the automation of the steps involved in realising and validating a system based on a formal specification. The approach aims to develop properly designed software tools which support the integration......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
A formal security design approach for information exchange in organisations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holbein, R.; Teufel, S.; Bauknecht, K.
1996-12-31
This paper introduces a formal security design approach for information exchange in organisations. The formal approach provides for automation of a security design method which supports security authorities in the design of individual security models. An individual security model is a fully customised specification of access control information for information exchange within a particular business environment. We introduce transaction based business process models (BPM) and utilise these models for a formal transformation to {open_quotes}need-to-know{close_quotes} authorisations. Therefore, we allocate information from BPMs which can be transformed to access control information and derive a specification of an organisation`s individual security model. Our approach provides transparency of security design because the design method ensures that a security model is directly related to the business. Moreover, security effort and costs will be reduced because BPMs must not be specified for security reasons and security design can be automated. BPMs are a result of management activities and therefore, existing resources from a security point of view.
Designing for Non-Formal Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersson, Eva
2008-01-01
Implementation of information technology is evident within different sectors of society such that adoption presents new opportunities in ever-widening circles. Such widespread use includes by, and for, disabled people. Within this community it has been reported that use of IT can augment opportun......Implementation of information technology is evident within different sectors of society such that adoption presents new opportunities in ever-widening circles. Such widespread use includes by, and for, disabled people. Within this community it has been reported that use of IT can augment...... perspective on designing for non-formal learning by elaborating from a position at the juncture of social semiotics and Vygotskian inspired socio-cultural theories. The embodied complex processes of sign transformation, by way of modes, media, play and engagement will be discussed. To support my position I...
Enhancing System Realisation in Formal Model Development
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tran-Jørgensen, Peter Würtz Vinther
– a formal methods tool that supports the Vienna Development Method. The development of the code generation infrastructure has involved the re-design of the software architecture of Overture. The new architecture brings forth the reuse and extensibility features of Overture to take into account the needs......Software for mission-critical systems is sometimes analysed using formal specification to increase the chances of the system behaving as intended. When sufficient insights into the system have been obtained from the formal analysis, the formal specification is realised in the form of a software...... implementation. One way to realise the system’s software is by automatically generating it from the formal specification – a technique referred to as code generation. However, in general it is difficult to make guarantees about the correctness of the generated code – especially while requiring automation...
Information systems validation using formal models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azadeh Sarram
2014-03-01
Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing interest to use unified modeling language (UML to consider the functional requirements. However, lacking a tool to detect the accuracy and the logic of diagrams in this language makes a formal model indispensable. In this study, conversion of primary UML model of a system to a colored Petri net has been accomplished in order to examine the precision of the model. For this purpose, first the definition of priority and implementation tags for UML activity diagram are provided; then it is turned into colored Petri net. Second, the proposed model provides translated tags in terms of net transitions and some monitoring are used to control the system characteristics. Finally, an executable model of UML activity diagram is provided so that the designer could simulate the model by using the simulation results to detect and to refine the problems of the model. In addition, by checking the results, we find out the proposed method enhances authenticity and accuracy of early models and the ratio of system validation increases compared with previous methods.
Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan
2006-01-01
There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...... and capabilities. The calculus is a step in the direction of making formal methods applicable in the area of pervasive computing....
Formal Validation of Fault Management Design Solutions
Gibson, Corrina; Karban, Robert; Andolfato, Luigi; Day, John
2013-01-01
The work presented in this paper describes an approach used to develop SysML modeling patterns to express the behavior of fault protection, test the model's logic by performing fault injection simulations, and verify the fault protection system's logical design via model checking. A representative example, using a subset of the fault protection design for the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) system, was modeled with SysML State Machines and JavaScript as Action Language. The SysML model captures interactions between relevant system components and system behavior abstractions (mode managers, error monitors, fault protection engine, and devices/switches). Development of a method to implement verifiable and lightweight executable fault protection models enables future missions to have access to larger fault test domains and verifiable design patterns. A tool-chain to transform the SysML model to jpf-Statechart compliant Java code and then verify the generated code via model checking was established. Conclusions and lessons learned from this work are also described, as well as potential avenues for further research and development.
Formal modeling of robot behavior with learning.
Kirwan, Ryan; Miller, Alice; Porr, Bernd; Di Prodi, P
2013-11-01
We present formal specification and verification of a robot moving in a complex network, using temporal sequence learning to avoid obstacles. Our aim is to demonstrate the benefit of using a formal approach to analyze such a system as a complementary approach to simulation. We first describe a classical closed-loop simulation of the system and compare this approach to one in which the system is analyzed using formal verification. We show that the formal verification has some advantages over classical simulation and finds deficiencies our classical simulation did not identify. Specifically we present a formal specification of the system, defined in the Promela modeling language and show how the associated model is verified using the Spin model checker. We then introduce an abstract model that is suitable for verifying the same properties for any environment with obstacles under a given set of assumptions. We outline how we can prove that our abstraction is sound: any property that holds for the abstracted model will hold in the original (unabstracted) model.
Formal Models of Language Learning.
Pinker, Steven
1979-01-01
Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…
Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA
Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.
2016-08-01
Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.
Formal models, languages and applications
Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M
2006-01-01
A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con
A Formal Model for Trust Lifecycle Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagealla, Waleed; Carbone, Marco; English, Colin;
2003-01-01
We propose a formal model of trust informed by the Global Computing scenario and focusing on the aspects of trust formation, evolution, and propagation. The model is based on a novel notion of trust structures which, building on concepts from trust management and domain theory, feature at the sam...
Towards a Formal Model of Context Awareness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan
2006-01-01
There is a definite lack of formal support for modeling realistic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The CONAWA calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new constructs...
A Formal Model for Context-Awareness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Bunde-Pedersen, Jonathan
here is a definite lack of formal support for modeling real- istic context-awareness in pervasive computing applications. The Conawa calculus presented in this paper provides mechanisms for modeling complex and interwoven sets of context-information by extending ambient calculus with new construc...
A Formal Model for Trust Lifecycle Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wagealla, Waleed; Carbone, Marco; English, Colin
2003-01-01
We propose a formal model of trust informed by the Global Computing scenario and focusing on the aspects of trust formation, evolution, and propagation. The model is based on a novel notion of trust structures which, building on concepts from trust management and domain theory, feature at the same...
A Formal Model of Identity Mixer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Camenisch, Jan; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Sommer, Dieter
2010-01-01
Identity Mixer is an anonymous credential system developed at IBM that allows users for instance to prove that they are over 18 years old without revealing their name or birthdate. This privacy-friendly tech- nology is realized using zero-knowledge proofs. We describe a formal model of Identity...
A formal model for total quality management
S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; H.B. Bertsch (Boudewijn); L.P.J. Groenewegen
1996-01-01
textabstractTotal Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach to managing a company. TQM is systematic in the sense that it is uses facts through observation, analysis and measurable goals. There are theoretical descriptions of this management concept, but there is no formal model of it. A for
A formal model for total quality management
S.C. van der Made-Potuijt; H.B. Bertsch (Boudewijn); L.P.J. Groenewegen
1996-01-01
textabstractTotal Quality Management (TQM) is a systematic approach to managing a company. TQM is systematic in the sense that it is uses facts through observation, analysis and measurable goals. There are theoretical descriptions of this management concept, but there is no formal model of it. A
Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Niebert, Peter
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the First International Workshop on Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems, FORMATS 2003, held in Marseille, France in September 2003. The 19 revised full papers presented together with an invited paper and the abstracts...
Formal heterogeneous system modeling with SystemC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niaki, Seyed Hosein Attarzadeh; Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Sulonen, Tero;
2012-01-01
Electronic System Level (ESL) design of embedded systems proposes raising the abstraction level of the design entry to cope with the increasing complexity of such systems. To exploit the benefits of ESL, design languages should allow specification of models which are a) heterogeneous, to describe...... different aspects of systems; b) formally defined, for application of analysis and synthesis methods; c) executable, to enable early detection of specification; and d) parallel, to exploit the multi- and many-core platforms for simulation and implementation. We present a modeling library on top of System......C, targeting heterogeneous embedded system design, based on four models of computation. The library has a formal basis where all elements are well defined and lead in construction of analyzable models. The semantics of communication and computation are implemented by the library, which allows the designer...
Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers
McKenney, S.E.; Visscher-Voerman, J.I.A.
2013-01-01
In practice, few researchers and designers have strong conceptual understanding of the marriage between the design discipline and scientific research traditions. Rather, most have strong exposure to either research methodologies or instructional design methods, theories and/or practices. Within the
Formal Analysis of Graphical Security Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aslanyan, Zaruhi
The increasing usage of computer-based systems in almost every aspects of our daily life makes more and more dangerous the threat posed by potential attackers, and more and more rewarding a successful attack. Moreover, the complexity of these systems is also increasing, including physical devices......, software components and human actors interacting with each other to form so-called socio-technical systems. The importance of socio-technical systems to modern societies requires verifying their security properties formally, while their inherent complexity makes manual analyses impracticable. Graphical...... models for security offer an unrivalled opportunity to describe socio-technical systems, for they allow to represent different aspects like human behaviour, computation and physical phenomena in an abstract yet uniform manner. Moreover, these models can be assigned a formal semantics, thereby allowing...
Towards a formal assessment of design literacy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Kasper Skov; Hjorth, Mikkel; Iversen, Ole Sejer
2016-01-01
. The Design Literacy (DeL) assessment tool contains design of a qualitative survey question, a coding scheme for assessing aspects of a designerly stance towards inquiry, and a description of how, we have validated the results through a large-scale survey administration in K-12 education. Our DeL tool......We present a tool for quantitative assessment of K-12 students' stance towards inquiry as an important part of students' development of design literacy. On a basis of design thinking literature, we position designerly stance towards inquiry as a prerequisite for engaging with wicked problems...... is meant to provide educators, leaders, and policy makers with strong arguments for introducing design literacy in K-12 schools, which, we posit, function within in an age of measurement....
Formal Model Engineering for Embedded Systems Using Real-Time Maude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Csaba Ölveczky
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper motivates why Real-Time Maude should be well suited to provide a formal semantics and formal analysis capabilities to modeling languages for embedded systems. One can then use the code generation facilities of the tools for the modeling languages to automatically synthesize Real-Time Maude verification models from design models, enabling a formal model engineering process that combines the convenience of modeling using an informal but intuitive modeling language with formal verification. We give a brief overview six fairly different modeling formalisms for which Real-Time Maude has provided the formal semantics and (possibly formal analysis. These models include behavioral subsets of the avionics modeling standard AADL, Ptolemy II discrete-event models, two EMF-based timed model transformation systems, and a modeling language for handset software.
Formal Model Engineering for Embedded Systems Using Real-Time Maude
Ölveczky, Peter Csaba
2011-01-01
This paper motivates why Real-Time Maude should be well suited to provide a formal semantics and formal analysis capabilities to modeling languages for embedded systems. One can then use the code generation facilities of the tools for the modeling languages to automatically synthesize Real-Time Maude verification models from design models, enabling a formal model engineering process that combines the convenience of modeling using an informal but intuitive modeling language with formal verification. We give a brief overview six fairly different modeling formalisms for which Real-Time Maude has provided the formal semantics and (possibly) formal analysis. These models include behavioral subsets of the avionics modeling standard AADL, Ptolemy II discrete-event models, two EMF-based timed model transformation systems, and a modeling language for handset software.
Geology and Design: Formal and Rational Connections
Eriksson, S. C.; Brewer, J.
2016-12-01
Geological forms and the manmade environment have always been inextricably linked. From the time that Upper Paleolithic man created drawings in the Lascaux Caves in the southwest of France, geology has provided a critical and dramatic spoil for human creativity. This inspiration has manifested itself in many different ways, and the history of architecture is rife with examples of geologically derived buildings. During the early 20th Century, German Expressionist art and architecture was heavily influenced by the natural and often translucent quality of minerals. Architects like Bruno Taut drew and built crystalline forms that would go on to inspire the more restrained Bauhaus movement. Even within the context of Contemporary architecture, geology has been a fertile source for inspiration. Architectural practices across the globe leverage the rationality and grounding found in geology to inform a process that is otherwise dominated by computer-driven parametric design. The connection between advanced design technology and the beautifully realized geo natural forms insures that geology will be a relevant source of architectural inspiration well into the 21st century. The sometimes hidden relationship of geology to the various sub-disciplines of Design such as Architecture, Interiors, Landscape Architecture, and Historic Preservation is explored in relation to curriculum and the practice of design. Topics such as materials, form, history, the cultural and physical landscape, natural hazards, and global design enrich and inform curriculum across the college. Commonly, these help define place-based education.
Formal verification an essential toolkit for modern VLSI design
Seligman, Erik; Kumar, M V Achutha Kiran
2015-01-01
Formal Verification: An Essential Toolkit for Modern VLSI Design presents practical approaches for design and validation, with hands-on advice for working engineers integrating these techniques into their work. Building on a basic knowledge of System Verilog, this book demystifies FV and presents the practical applications that are bringing it into mainstream design and validation processes at Intel and other companies. The text prepares readers to effectively introduce FV in their organization and deploy FV techniques to increase design and validation productivity. Presents formal verific
Towards a Formal Model of Social Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid
Computational social science (CSS) is an emerging field of research that seeks to apply computational methods and tools to important and interesting social science questions and problems. Situated within CSS, Social data analytics as a research stream aims to collect, archive, retrieve, process......, transform, analyse, and report social data from social media platforms such as Facebook and twitter. Formal methods, models and tools for social data are largely limited to graph theoretical approaches informing conceptual developments in relational sociology and methodological developments in social...
A Formal Model For Declarative Workflows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mukkamala, Raghava Rao
it as a general formal model for specification and execution of declarative, event-based business processes, as a generalization of a concurrency model, the classic event structures. The model allows for an intuitive operational semantics and mapping of execution state by a notion of markings of the graphs and we...... the declarative nature of the projected graphs (which are also DCR graphs). We have also provided semantics for distributed executions based on synchronous communication among network of projected graphs and proved that global and distributed executions are equivalent. Further, to support modeling of processes......Current business process technology is pretty good in supporting well-structured business processes and aim at achieving a fixed goal by carrying out an exact set of operations. In contrast, those exact operations needed to fulfill a business pro- cess/workflow may not be always possible to foresee...
Train Control System Formalization Modeling oriented Movement Authority
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Wang
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Chinese Train Control System-3(CTCS-3 was integrated via various control system devices, assurance of CTCS-3 system transmission probability relied on empirical judgment, it is necessary to form its formalization to support integration for system stability of the whole CTCS-3. Movement Authority(MA acts on the whole information process of CTCS-3 to control train, its process properties can be as the reflection of CTCS probability. Aiming at that, paper selected MA as the objective, proposed MA-oriented CTCS-3 formalization modeling. Paper designed generation and transmission algorithms of MA, formed MA computation models for application functions. Based on computation models, paper constructed MA hierarchical Colored Petri Nets(CPN models, and completed MA timed CPN model, the report and experimental result demonstrate that the model proposed is effective and can reflect CTCS-3 system properties accurately.
Oakes, G. L.; Felton, A. J.; Garner, K. B.
2006-01-01
The BSc in computer aided product design (CAPD) course at the University of Wolverhampton was conceived as a collaborative venture in 1989 between the School of Engineering and the School of Art and Design. The award was at the forefront of forging interdisciplinary collaboration at undergraduate level in the field of product design. It has…
Oakes, G. L.; Felton, A. J.; Garner, K. B.
2006-01-01
The BSc in computer aided product design (CAPD) course at the University of Wolverhampton was conceived as a collaborative venture in 1989 between the School of Engineering and the School of Art and Design. The award was at the forefront of forging interdisciplinary collaboration at undergraduate level in the field of product design. It has…
RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M V Achutha Kiran Kumar
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Increasing design complexity driven by feature and performance requirements and the Time to Market (TTM constraints force a faster design and validation closure. This in turn enforces novel ways of identifying and debugging behavioral inconsistencies early in the design cycle. Addition of incremental features and timing fixes may alter the legacy design behavior and would inadvertently result in undesirable bugs. The most common method of verifying the correctness of the changed design is to run a dynamic regression test suite before and after the intended changes and compare the results, a method which is not exhaustive. Modern Formal Verification (FV techniques involving new methods of proving Sequential Hardware Equivalence enabled a new set of solutions for the given problem, with complete coverage guarantee. Formal Equivalence can be applied for proving functional integrity after design changes resulting from a wide variety of reasons, ranging from simple pipeline optimizations to complex logic redistributions. We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design. The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn. The techniques presented in this paper are applicable to any complex hardware design.
Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas
2011-01-01
a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements......Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...
Starobinsky cosmological model in Palatini formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland); Borowiec, Andrzej [Wroclaw University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)
2017-06-15
We classify singularities in FRW cosmologies, which dynamics can be reduced to the dynamical system of the Newtonian type. This classification is performed in terms of the geometry of a potential function if it has poles. At the sewn singularity, which is of a finite scale factor type, the singularity in the past meets the singularity in the future. We show that such singularities appear in the Starobinsky model in f(R) = R + γR{sup 2} in the Palatini formalism, when dynamics is determined by the corresponding piecewise-smooth dynamical system. As an effect we obtain a degenerate singularity. Analytical calculations are given for the cosmological model with matter and the cosmological constant. The dynamics of model is also studied using dynamical system methods. From the phase portraits we find generic evolutionary scenarios of the evolution of the universe. For this model, the best fit value of Ω{sub γ} = 3γH{sub 0}{sup 2} is equal 9.70 x 10{sup -11}. We consider a model in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We show that after transition to the Einstein frame we obtain both the form of the potential of the scalar field and the decaying Lambda term. (orig.)
Starobinsky cosmological model in Palatini formalism
Stachowski, Aleksander; Borowiec, Andrzej
2016-01-01
We classify singularities in FRW cosmologies, which dynamics can be reduced to the dynamical system of the Newtonian type. This classification is performed in terms of geometry of a potential function if it has poles. At the sewn singularity, which is of a type of the finite scale factor, the singularity in the past meets the singularity in the future. We show, that such singularities appear in the Starobinsky model in $f(\\hat{R})=\\hat{R}+\\gamma \\hat{R}^2$ in the Palatini formalism, when dynamics is determined by the corresponding piece-wise smooth dynamical system. As an effect we obtain a degenerated singularity, which can be interpreted as a place, when history of the Universe ends and originates simultaneously. Detailed analytical calculations are given for the cosmological model with matter and the cosmological constant in the Starobinsky model. In this case we obtain an exact formula for values of redshift at the singularity points. The dynamics of model is also studied using dynamical system methods wh...
Research on system-of-systems combat simulation model formal specification and representation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Chen
2006-01-01
To makesystem-of-systems combat simulation models easy to be developed and reused, simulation model formal specification and representation are researched. According to the view of system-of-systems combat simulation, and based on DEVS, the simulation model's fundamental formalisms are explored. It includes entity model, system-of-systems model and experiment model. It also presents rigorous formal specification. XML data exchange standard is combined to design the XML based language, SCSL, to support simulation model representation. The corresponding relationship between SCSL and simulation model formalism is discussed and the syntax and semantics of elements in SCSL are detailed. Based on simulation model formal specification, the abstract simulation algorithm is given and SCSL virtual machine, which is capable of automatically interpreting and executing simulation model represented by SCSL, is designed. Finally an application case is presented, which can show the validation of the theory and verification of SCSL.
Towards a Formal Model of Privacy-Sensitive Dynamic Coalitions
Bab, Sebastian; 10.4204/EPTCS.83.2
2012-01-01
The concept of dynamic coalitions (also virtual organizations) describes the temporary interconnection of autonomous agents, who share information or resources in order to achieve a common goal. Through modern technologies these coalitions may form across company, organization and system borders. Therefor questions of access control and security are of vital significance for the architectures supporting these coalitions. In this paper, we present our first steps to reach a formal framework for modeling and verifying the design of privacy-sensitive dynamic coalition infrastructures and their processes. In order to do so we extend existing dynamic coalition modeling approaches with an access-control-concept, which manages access to information through policies. Furthermore we regard the processes underlying these coalitions and present first works in formalizing these processes. As a result of the present paper we illustrate the usefulness of the Abstract State Machine (ASM) method for this task. We demonstrate...
Formal design specification of a Processor Interface Unit
Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1992-01-01
This report describes work to formally specify the requirements and design of a processor interface unit (PIU), a single-chip subsystem providing memory-interface bus-interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. The need for high-quality design assurance in such applications is an undisputed fact, given the disastrous consequences that even a single design flaw can produce. Thus, the further development and application of formal methods to fault-tolerant systems is of critical importance as these systems see increasing use in modern society.
Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B R
2006-05-17
OpenMP [1] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [1]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. This paper focuses on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a proposed formal memory model that is derived from the existing prose model [1]. Our formalization provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.
Los Alamos Center for Computer Security formal computer security model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J.; Markin, J.T.
1989-01-01
This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The need to test and verify DOE computer security policy implementation first motivated this effort. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present formal mathematical models for computer security. The fundamental objective of computer security is to prevent the unauthorized and unaccountable access to a system. The inherent vulnerabilities of computer systems result in various threats from unauthorized access. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The model is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell and LaPadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 6 refs.
Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction
Haan, de G.; Veer, van der G.C.; Vliet, van J.C.
1991-01-01
This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in hum
Formal Modeling and Verification for MVB
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mo Xia
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Multifunction Vehicle Bus (MVB is a critical component in the Train Communication Network (TCN, which is widely used in most of the modern train techniques of the transportation system. How to ensure security of MVB has become an important issue. Traditional testing could not ensure the system correctness. The MVB system modeling and verification are concerned in this paper. Petri Net and model checking methods are used to verify the MVB system. A Hierarchy Colored Petri Net (HCPN approach is presented to model and simulate the Master Transfer protocol of MVB. Synchronous and asynchronous methods are proposed to describe the entities and communication environment. Automata model of the Master Transfer protocol is designed. Based on our model checking platform M3C, the Master Transfer protocol of the MVB is verified and some system logic critical errors are found. Experimental results show the efficiency of our methods.
Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release – a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....
Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates...... sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. The generic model and safety properties can be instantiated with interlocking configuration data, resulting in a concrete model in the form of a Kripke structure, and in high-level safety properties expressed as state invariants. Using...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....
A formal account of the dual extension of knowledge and concept in C-K design theory
L. Hendriks; A.O. Kazakci
2010-01-01
The paper presents a contribution to the formalization efforts of C-K design theory. First, we analyze the notion of "dual expansion of concepts and knowledge" in C-K design theory and we discuss how such a reasoning process can be modeled using first-order logic. Then, we present a basic formal acc
Industrial application of formal models generated from domain specific languages
Hooman, J.
2016-01-01
Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) provide a lightweight approach to incorporate formal techniques into the industrial workflow. From DSL instances, formal models and other artefacts can be generated, such as simulation models and code. Having a single source for all artefacts improves maintenance and
Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B
2006-12-19
OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.
BRST Symmetric Gaugeon Formalism for Higgs Model
Miura, H; Endo, Ryusuke; Miura, Hikaru
2007-01-01
We reinvestigate Yokoyama's gaugeon formalism for the spontaneously broken Abelian gauge theory. Within the framework of the covariant linear gauges, we give a general gauge-fixing Lagrangian which includes the gauge field, the Goldstone mode, the multiplier B-field and Yokoyama's gaugeon fields (as well as Faddeev-Popov ghosts). As special choices of the values of the gauge-fixing parameters, our theory includes the usual covariant gauges and R$_\\xi$-like gauges. Although some of the gauge-fixing parameters can be shifted by the q-number gauge transformation, the $\\xi$ parameter cannot be shifted in any of the R$_\\xi$-like gauges.
A CSP-based trajectory for designing formally verified embedded control software
Jovanovic, D.S.; Liet, Geert K.; Broenink, Johannes F.
2005-01-01
This paper presents in a nutshell a procedure for producing formally verified concurrent software. The design paradigm provides means for translating block-diagrammed models of systems from various problem domains in a graphical notation for process-oriented architectures. Briefly presented CASE
A CSP-Based Trajectory for Designing Formally Verified Embedded Control Software
Jovanovic, Dusko S.; Liet, Geert K.; Broenink, Jan F.
2005-01-01
This paper presents in a nutshell a procedure for producing formally verified concurrent software. The design paradigm provides means for translating block-diagrammed models of systems from various problem domains in a graphical notation for process-oriented architectures. Briefly presented CASE too
Formal Software Design Technique – A Pattern Based Approach
Dey, Shouvik; IBM India Pvt. Ltd.; Bhattacharya, Swapan; National Institute of Technology
2010-01-01
Design patterns are usually modeled and documented in natural languages and visual languages, such as the Unified Modeling Language. UML does not keep track of pattern-related information when a design pattern is applied or composed with other patterns. Existing graphical notations are not able to provide complete information to the designers for specifying the role and scope of execution of the participating classes and their methods in a particular design pattern or combination of patterns....
Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes
Darvas, D; Blanco, E
2013-01-01
Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.
A Formal Semantic Model for the Access Specification Language RASP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Evered
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The access specification language RASP extends traditional role-based access control (RBAC concepts to provide greater expressive power often required for fine-grained access control in sensitive information systems. Existing formal models of RBAC are not sufficient to describe these extensions. In this paper, we define a new model for RBAC which formalizes the RASP concepts of controlled role appointment and transitions, object attributes analogous to subject roles and a transitive role/attribute derivation relationship.
White, Irene; Lorenzi, Francesca
2016-12-01
Creativity has been emerging as a key concept in educational policies since the mid-1990s, with many Western countries restructuring their education systems to embrace innovative approaches likely to stimulate creative and critical thinking. But despite current intentions of putting more emphasis on creativity in education policies worldwide, there is still a relative dearth of viable models which capture the complexity of creativity and the conditions for its successful infusion into formal school environments. The push for creativity is in direct conflict with the results-driven/competitive performance-oriented culture which continues to dominate formal education systems. The authors of this article argue that incorporating creativity into mainstream education is a complex task and is best tackled by taking a systematic and multifaceted approach. They present a multidimensional model designed to help educators in tackling the challenges of the promotion of creativity. Their model encompasses three distinct yet interrelated dimensions of a creative space - physical, social-emotional and critical. The authors use the metaphor of space to refer to the interplay of the three identified dimensions. Drawing on confluence approaches to the theorisation of creativity, this paper exemplifies the development of a model before the background of a growing trend of systems theories. The aim of the model is to be helpful in systematising creativity by offering parameters - derived from the evaluation of an example offered by a non-formal educational environment - for the development of creative environments within mainstream secondary schools.
Towards a Formalized Ontology-Based Requirements Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Dan-dong; ZHANG Shen-sheng; WANG Ying-lin
2005-01-01
The goal of this paper is to take a further step towards an ontological approach for representing requirements information. The motivation for ontologies was discussed. The definitions of ontology and requirements ontology were given. Then, it presented a collection of informal terms, including four subject areas. It also discussed the formalization process of ontology. The underlying meta-ontology was determined, and the formalized requirements ontology was analyzed. This formal ontology is built to serve as a basis for requirements model. Finally, the implementation of software system was given.
A FORMAL SPECIFICATION LANGUAGE FOR DYNAMIC STRAND SPACE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘东喜; 李晓勇; 白英彩
2002-01-01
Specification language is used to provide enough information for the model of the cryptographic protocol. This paper first extends strand space model to dynamic strand model, and then a formal specification language for this model is defined by using BNF grammar. Compared with those in literatures, it is simpler because of only concerning the algebraic properties of cryptographic protocols.
Towards the formal specification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit
Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
Work to formally specify the requirements and design of a Processor Interface Unit (PIU), a single-chip subsystem providing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system, is described. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance free operation, or both. The approaches that were developed for modeling the PIU requirements and for composition of the PIU subcomponents at high levels of abstraction are described. These approaches were used to specify and verify a nontrivial subset of the PIU behavior. The PIU specification in Higher Order Logic (HOL) is documented in a companion NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Specification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interfacs Unit - HOL Listings.' The subsequent verification approach and HOL listings are documented in NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit' and NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit - HOL Listings.'
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Nasution
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Low ability of formal thinking students caused the learning outcomes they get too low. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the inquiry learning model training in improving students' ability to think formal. The design was used quasi-experimental "non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design". Implementation experimental class learning with inquiry learning model training, control class learning with direct instruction. Data obtained through a formal thinking ability test thinking ability. Learning model efectivity in improving formal thinking ability is determined based on the gain score average which normalized by average difference test of statistic, namely t test. The results of the reasearch found that the inquiry training learning model is more effective in improving students formal thinking ability compared with the direct instruction learning model. The N-gain percentage of formal thinking ability of students in the experiment class in the indicators of hypothetical deductive thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category, just proportional thinking is the high category. N-gain average percentage of control class for the hypothesis deductive thinking is just in the low category, while the proportional thinking, combination thinking and reflection thinking are in the medium category.Rendahnya kemampuan berpikir formal siswa menyebabkan hasil belajar yang mereka peroleh juga rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas model pembelajaran inquiry training dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir formal siswa. Disain yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen “non-equivalent groups pretest-posttest design”. Implementasi pembelajaran kelas eksperimen dibelajarkan dengan model pembelajaran inquiry training, kelas kontrol dengan model pembelajaran direct instruction. Data kemampuan berpikir formal diperoleh melalui tes kemampuan berpikir formal. Efektivitas model
USER CONTEXT MODELS : A FRAMEWORK TO EASE SOFTWARE FORMAL VERIFICATIONS
2010-01-01
This article is accepted to appear in ICEIS 2010 proceedings; International audience; Several works emphasize the difficulties of software verification applied to embedded systems. In past years, formal verification techniques and tools were widely developed and used by the research community. However, the use of formal verification at industrial scale remains difficult, expensive and requires lot of time. This is due to the size and the complexity of manipulated models, but also, to the impo...
Formalisms for Specifying Markovian Population Models
Henzinger, Thomas A.; Jobstmann, Barbara; Wolf, Verena
We compare several languages for specifying Markovian population models such as queuing networks and chemical reaction networks. These languages —matrix descriptions, stochastic Petri nets, stoichiometric equations, stochastic process algebras, and guarded command models— all describe continuous-time Markov chains, but they differ according to important properties, such as compositionality, expressiveness and succinctness, executability, ease of use, and the support they provide for checking the well-formedness of a model and for analyzing a model.
Emotional Agents need Formal Models of Emotion
Broekens, Joost; DeGroot, Doug
2005-01-01
Embedding a computational model of emotion in virtual agents is beneficial in a variety of domains. These domains include gaming, VR training, HCI and electronic tutors. Although these domains have different motives for embedding such a model, they share the same overall approach. Once the requireme
Formal Learning Sequences and Progression in the Studio: A Framework for Digital Design Education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pontus Wärnestål
2016-02-01
Full Text Available This paper examines how to leverage the design studio learning environment throughout long-term Digital Design education in order to support students to progress from tactical, well-defined, device-centric routine design, to confidently design sustainable solutions for strategic, complex, problems for a wide range of devices and platforms in the digital space. We present a framework derived from literature on design, creativity, and theories on learning that: (a implements a theory of formal learning sequences as a user-centered design process in the studio; and (b describes design challenge progressions in the design studio environment modeled in seven dimensions. The framework can be used as a tool for designing, evaluating, and communicating course progressions within – and between series of – design studio courses. This approach is evaluated by implementing a formal learning sequence framework in a series of design studio courses that progress in an undergraduate design-oriented Informatics program. Reflections from students, teachers, and external clients indicate high student motivation and learning goal achievement, high teacher satisfaction and skill development, and high satisfaction among external clients.
Formal specification with the Java modeling language
Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas
2016-01-01
This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any
The Formalization of the Business Process Modeling Goals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ligita Bušinska
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In business process modeling the de facto standard BPMN has emerged. However, the applications of this notation have many subsets of elements and various extensions. Also, BPMN still coincides with many other modeling languages, forming a large set of available options for business process modeling languages and dialects. While, in general, the goal of modelers is a central notion in the choice of modeling languages and notations, in most researches that propose guidelines, techniques, and methods for business process modeling language evaluation and/or selection, the business process modeling goal is not formalized and not transparently taken into account. To overcome this gap, and to explicate and help to handle business process modeling complexity, the approach to formalize the business process modeling goal, and the supporting three dimensional business process modeling framework, are proposed.
Formal analysis and design of multi-party fair exchange protocols
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Based on the origin of message items and channel combination between transacting parties, and events and relations among events, this paper presents a concise, precise, and hierarchical model for general fair exchange protocols, formally specifies various security requirements which are able to reflect inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols more rigorously, and partition these security requirements with fine granularity. This work helps analyze, debug, and design multi-party fair exchange protocols more effectively and elaborately.
Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...
A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan
2005-01-01
This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.
Teaching Formal Models of Concurrency Specification and Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. V. Shilov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available There is a widespread and rapidly growing interest to the parallel programming nowadays. This interest is based on availability of supercomputers, computer clusters and powerful graphic processors for computational mathematics and simulation. MPI, OpenMP, CUDA and other technologies provide opportunity to write C and FORTRAN code for parallel speed-up of execution without races for resources. Nevertheless concurrency issues (like races are still very important for parallel systems in general and distributed systems in particular. Due to this reason, there is a need of research, study and teaching of formal models of concurrency and methods of distributed system verification.The paper presents an individual experience with teaching Formal Models of Concurrency as a graduate elective course for students specializing in high-performance computing. First it sketches course background, objectives, lecture plan and topics. Then the paper presents how to formalize (i.e. specify a reachability puzzle in semantic, syntactic and logic formal models, namely: in Petri nets, in a dialect of Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS and in Computation Tree Logic (CTL. This puzzle is a good educational example to present specifics of different formal notations.The article is published in the author’s wording.
Non-formal techniques for requirements elicitation, modeling, and early assessment for services
van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Vyas, Dhaval; Dittmar, A.; Forbig, P.
2011-01-01
Designing systems for multiple stakeholders requires frequent collaboration with multiple stakeholders from the start. In many cases at least some stakeholders lack a professional habit of formal modeling. We report observations from two case studies of stakeholder involvement in early design where
Formal Model-Driven Engineering: Generating Data and Behavioural Components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen-Wei Wang
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Model-driven engineering is the automatic production of software artefacts from abstract models of structure and functionality. By targeting a specific class of system, it is possible to automate aspects of the development process, using model transformations and code generators that encode domain knowledge and implementation strategies. Using this approach, questions of correctness for a complex, software system may be answered through analysis of abstract models of lower complexity, under the assumption that the transformations and generators employed are themselves correct. This paper shows how formal techniques can be used to establish the correctness of model transformations used in the generation of software components from precise object models. The source language is based upon existing, formal techniques; the target language is the widely-used SQL notation for database programming. Correctness is established by giving comparable, relational semantics to both languages, and checking that the transformations are semantics-preserving.
Alice and Bob: Reconciling Formal Models and Implementation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almousa, Omar; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Viganò, Luca
2015-01-01
This paper defines the “ultimate” formal semantics for Alice and Bob notation, i.e., what actions the honest agents have to perform, in the presence of an arbitrary set of cryptographic operators and their algebraic theory. Despite its generality, this semantics is mathematically simpler than any...... previous attempt. For practical applicability, we introduce the language SPS and an automatic translation to robust real-world implementations and corresponding formal models, and we prove this translation correct with respect to the semantics....
A Formal Perspective On The Pragma-Dialectical Discussion Model
Visser, J.; Garssen, B.J.; Godden, D.; Mitchell, G.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.
2015-01-01
For the development of computation tools to support the pragma-dialectical analysis of argumentative texts, a formal approximation of the pragma-dialectical ideal model of a critical discussion theory is required. A basic dialogue game for critical discussion is developed as the foundation for such
Understanding organizational congruence: formal model and simulation framework.
Dignum, M.V.; Dignum, F.P.M.
2008-01-01
Despite a large number of studies, the effect of organizational structure on the performance and the individual cognition of its members is still not well understood. Our research aims at developing tools and formalisms to model organizations and evaluate their performance under different circumstan
A Formal Perspective On The Pragma-Dialectical Discussion Model
Visser, J.; Garssen, B.J.; Godden, D.; Mitchell, G.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.
2015-01-01
For the development of computation tools to support the pragma-dialectical analysis of argumentative texts, a formal approximation of the pragma-dialectical ideal model of a critical discussion theory is required. A basic dialogue game for critical discussion is developed as the foundation for such
Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures
Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian
2011-01-01
This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.
Formal Requirements Modeling for Reactive Systems with Coloured Petri Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tjell, Simon
This dissertation presents the contributions of seven publications all concerned with the application of Coloured Petri Nets (CPN) to requirements modeling for reactive systems. The publications are introduced along with relevant background material and related work, and their contributions...... interface composed of recognizable artifacts and activities. The presentation of the three publications related to Use Cases is followed by a the presentation of a publication formalizing some of the guidelines applied for structuring the CPN requirements models|namely the guidelines that make it possible...... activity. The traces are automatically recorded during execution of the model. The second publication presents a formally specified framework for automating a large part of the tasks related to integrating Problem Frames with CPN. The framework is specified in VDM++, and allows the modeler to automatically...
Formal Modeling for Information Appliance Using Abstract MVC Architecture
Arichika, Yuji; Araki, Keijiro
2004-01-01
In information appliance development, it is important to divide core functions and display functions because information appliance have various user interface and display functions changed frequently. Using MVC architecture is one way to divide display functions and core functions. But MVC architecture is implementation architecture and there are some gaps to get abstract model. On the other hand it is known that formal methods are useful for constructing abstract model. Therefore we intend t...
Formal modeling of a system of chemical reactions under uncertainty.
Ghosh, Krishnendu; Schlipf, John
2014-10-01
We describe a novel formalism representing a system of chemical reactions, with imprecise rates of reactions and concentrations of chemicals, and describe a model reduction method, pruning, based on the chemical properties. We present two algorithms, midpoint approximation and interval approximation, for construction of efficient model abstractions with uncertainty in data. We evaluate computational feasibility by posing queries in computation tree logic (CTL) on a prototype of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.
A Formal Model of OSI X.25/FR Gateway Based on High Level Petri Net
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Specification and validation of protocol conversion in a gatewayis a difficult problem in protocol engineering. During design and implementation of an OSI X.25/FR gateway, a high-level Petri Net called EPr/TN is introduced as a formal specification tool to solve this problem. A formal model of the gateway is constructed by using Epr/TN. Based on this model, the process of protocol conversion and data transmission in the gateway are analyzed and validated. With object-oriented techniques, this model is also utilized in the software development of the gateway.
The help of formal models for healthcare security policies.
Trouessin, G; Barber, B
1997-01-01
This article is a personal contribution (i.e., from a strict security expert point of view) towards the help for specification, validation and/or evaluation of reliable, but also secure, healthcare security policies (HSP). The first part is dedicated to show, according to the various aspects of the security policy concept, that healthcare information systems (HIS) offer such a diversity of particularities and potential security needs, that it is necessary for healthcare security policies to be defined as flexible, but also as robust, as possible. Then the formal modelling approach, a wide area of solutions providing both flexibility (by means of modelling) and robustness (by means of formalization), is presented. The most well-known examples of security models are recalled. All of them try to use formal models as a security policy specification/validation tool, but none of them can be helpfully used in the very demanding context of HIS. Lastly, a new approach for the modelling of healthcare security policies, based on modal logic (i.e., epistemic and/or deontic logic) is proposed. It permits to take into account the flexibility (by means of high expressiveness due to modality) and the robustness (by means of high provability due to modelling) needs.
Formal and Informal Modeling of Fault Tolerant Noc Architectures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mostefa BELARBI
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The suggested new approach based on B-Event formal technics consists of suggesting aspects and constraints related to the reliability of NoC (Network-On-chip and the over-cost related to the solutions of tolerances on the faults: a design of NoC tolerating on the faults for SoC (System-on-Chip containing configurable technology FPGA (Field Programmable Gates Array, by extracting the properties of the NoC architecture. We illustrate our methodology by developing several refinements which produce QNoC (Quality of Service of Network on chip switch architecture from specification to test. We will show how B-event formalism can follow life cycle of NoC design and test: for example the code VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language simulation established of certain kind of architecture can help us to optimize the architecture and produce new architecture; we can inject the new properties related to the new QNoC architecture into formal B-event specification. B-event is associated to Rodin tool environment. As case study, the last stage of refinement used a wireless network in order to generate complete test environment of the studied application.
Model Driven Development of m-Health Systems (with a Touch of Formality)
Jones, Val
2006-01-01
We propose a model driven design and development methodology augmented with formal validation and verification (V&V) for the development of mobile health systems. Systems which deliver healthcare services remotely should be developed using robust and trusted engineering technologies. The methodology
Formal representation of 3D structural geological models
Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle
2016-05-01
The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.
The Use of Art Practice within Formal Design Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wallace, Jamie
2008-01-01
of the distinction between the 'material thinking' of art practice on the one hand and design orientated problem solving on the other. A framework is developed for re-contextualising art practice as a vehicle for alternative inquiry within the rational dominated design process structure. The distinction between...... science and design is touched upon with material thinking located in the dialectic between the two. This paper consists of a proposition to integrate alternative forms of practice and inquiry in order to think differently. Particularly for rational design structures to be able to embrace the unique...... subjective approaches afforded by material thinking and fine art practice to widen the understanding of problem-solving within the design space. The paper demonstrates the case for further exploration into cross disciplined design practice and understanding in order to widen the scope of what ‘design is...
A FORMAL SYSTEMS APPROACH TO SOLVER DESIGN-HILL CLIMBING METHOD WITH PUSH DOWN STACK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yasuhiko TAKAHARA; Yongmei LIU; Yoshio YANO
2003-01-01
This paper presents a formal approach to design of a solver of an intelligent management information system and its implementation. The approach implies set theoretic modeling based on the general systems concepts and implementation in the extProlog. There are research efforts which attack (optimization) problems using the set theory and logics. Furthermore, they use logic programming languages for their implementation. Although their methods look quite similar to the approach of this paper, there are clear differences between them. This paper is interested in exploration of the solving system rather than algorithms. The paper first presents a design and implementation procedure of a solver. Then, classification of problems is discussed. The least structured class of the classification is the target of this paper. A data mining system is an example of the class. Formal theories are derived for the design procedure assnming the least structured case. A solving strategy, which is called a hill climbing method with a push down stack, is proposed on the theories. A data mining system is used as an example to illustrate the results. Finally, a full implementation in extProlog is presented for the data mining system.
A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The...
A Network-Centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction
2015-07-06
AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0007 Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human- swarm Interaction Mehran Mesbahi UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final...SUBTITLE A Network-centric Formalism for Disturbance Rejection Design and Human Swarm Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0203 5b. GRANT NUMBER...proposed research is to examine fundamental structural bounds on the disturbance rejection and human- swarm interaction properties of a network of
Computational Modeling, Formal Analysis, and Tools for Systems Biology.
Bartocci, Ezio; Lió, Pietro
2016-01-01
As the amount of biological data in the public domain grows, so does the range of modeling and analysis techniques employed in systems biology. In recent years, a number of theoretical computer science developments have enabled modeling methodology to keep pace. The growing interest in systems biology in executable models and their analysis has necessitated the borrowing of terms and methods from computer science, such as formal analysis, model checking, static analysis, and runtime verification. Here, we discuss the most important and exciting computational methods and tools currently available to systems biologists. We believe that a deeper understanding of the concepts and theory highlighted in this review will produce better software practice, improved investigation of complex biological processes, and even new ideas and better feedback into computer science.
Applying Formal Methods to the Design of Smart Card Software
Butler, Michael; Hartel, Pieter; Longley, Mark; Jong, de Eduard
1997-01-01
The goal of this work is the design of a language for the implementation of smart card applications, specifically an operating system, as high integrity software. The integrity of a piece of software is demonstrated by proving various properties of the software. The language must therefore exclude a
Issues to be considered on obtaining plant models for formal verification purposes
Pacheco, R.; Gonzalez, L.; Intriago, M.; Machado, J.; Prisacaru, G.; Olaru, D.
2016-08-01
The development of dependable software for mechatronic systems can be a very complex and hard task. For facilitating the obtaining of dependable software for industrial controllers, some powerful software tools and analysis techniques can be used. Mainly, when using simulation and formal verification analysis techniques, it is necessary to develop plant models, in order to describe the plant behavior of those systems. However, developing a plant model implies that designer takes his (or her) decisions concerning granularity and level of abstraction of models; approach to consider for modeling (global or modular); and definition of strategies for simulation and formal verification tasks. This paper intends to highlight some aspects that can be considered for taking into account those decisions. For this purpose, it is presented a case study and there are illustrated and discussed very important aspects concerning above exposed issues.
A Formal Methodology to Design and Deploy Dependable Wireless Sensor Networks.
Testa, Alessandro; Cinque, Marcello; Coronato, Antonio; Augusto, Juan Carlos
2016-12-23
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are being increasingly adopted in critical applications, where verifying the correct operation of sensor nodes is a major concern. Undesired events may undermine the mission of the WSNs. Hence, their effects need to be properly assessed before deployment, to obtain a good level of expected performance; and during the operation, in order to avoid dangerous unexpected results. In this paper, we propose a methodology that aims at assessing and improving the dependability level of WSNs by means of an event-based formal verification technique. The methodology includes a process to guide designers towards the realization of a dependable WSN and a tool ("ADVISES") to simplify its adoption. The tool is applicable to homogeneous WSNs with static routing topologies. It allows the automatic generation of formal specifications used to check correctness properties and evaluate dependability metrics at design time and at runtime for WSNs where an acceptable percentage of faults can be defined. During the runtime, we can check the behavior of the WSN accordingly to the results obtained at design time and we can detect sudden and unexpected failures, in order to trigger recovery procedures. The effectiveness of the methodology is shown in the context of two case studies, as proof-of-concept, aiming to illustrate how the tool is helpful to drive design choices and to check the correctness properties of the WSN at runtime. Although the method scales up to very large WSNs, the applicability of the methodology may be compromised by the state space explosion of the reasoning model, which must be faced by partitioning large topologies into sub-topologies.
A formal model for integrity protection based on DTE technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Qingguang; QING Sihan; HE Yeping
2006-01-01
In order to provide integrity protection for the secure operating system to satisfy the structured protection class' requirements, a DTE technique based integrity protection formalization model is proposed after the implications and structures of the integrity policy have been analyzed in detail. This model consists of some basic rules for configuring DTE and a state transition model, which are used to instruct how the domains and types are set, and how security invariants obtained from initial configuration are maintained in the process of system transition respectively. In this model, ten invariants are introduced, especially, some new invariants dealing with information flow are proposed, and their relations with corresponding invariants described in literatures are also discussed.The thirteen transition rules with well-formed atomicity are presented in a well-operational manner. The basic security theorems correspond to these invariants and transition rules are proved. The rationalities for proposing the invariants are further annotated via analyzing the differences between this model and ones described in literatures. At last but not least, future works are prospected, especially, it is pointed out that it is possible to use this model to analyze SE-Linux security.
Local Lagrangian Formalism and Discretization of the Heisenberg Magnet Model
Karpeev, D
2004-01-01
In this paper we develop the Lagrangian and multisymplectic structures of the Heisenberg magnet (HM) model which are then used as the basis for geometric discretizations of HM. Despite a topological obstruction to the existence of a global Lagrangian density, a local variational formulation allows one to derive local conservation laws using a version of N\\"other's theorem from the formal variational calculus of Gelfand-Dikii. Using the local Lagrangian form we extend the method of Marsden, Patrick and Schkoller to derive local multisymplectic discretizations directly from the variational principle. We employ a version of the finite element method to discretize the space of sections of the trivial magnetic spin bundle $N = M\\times S^2$ over an appropriate space-time $M$. Since sections do not form a vector space, the usual FEM bases can be used only locally with coordinate transformations intervening on element boundaries, and conservation properties are guaranteed only within an element. We discuss possible w...
Research of Intrusion Detection Technology and its Formal Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
PENG Yali
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The intrusion detection technology is one of the most important dynamic security technologies, which can be used in the critical security system construction and the basic service protection. Apparently, applying formal specification to the procedure of developing an intrusion detection system can fulfill their security requirement and win the confidence of users of the secured systems. Taking a DDoS intrusion detection system as an example, we establish integrity sub-regular database through analyzing the default characteristics and universal characteristics in communication of DDoS attack, which can guarantee fast and effective detection in each appeared DDoS attack. At the same time, we use the association rules mining algorithm mine new rules and their association pattern to detect the unknown attack, and illustrate how Z can be used to specify and model the security-critical systems.
Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process
Briggs, Clark
2006-01-01
Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.
A formal model for access control with supporting spatial context
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Hong; HE YePing; SHI ZhiGuo
2007-01-01
There is an emerging recognition of the importance of utilizing contextual information in authorization decisions. Controlling access to resources in the field of wireless and mobile networking require the definition of a formal model for access control with supporting spatial context. However, traditional RBAC model does not specify these spatial requirements. In this paper, we extend the existing RBAC model and propose the SC-RBAC model that utilizes spatial and location-based information in security policy definitions. The concept of spatial role is presented,and the role is assigned a logical location domain to specify the spatial boundary.Roles are activated based on the current physical position of the user which obtained from a specific mobile terminal. We then extend SC-RBAC to deal with hierarchies, modeling permission, user and activation inheritance, and prove that the hierarchical spatial roles are capable of constructing a lattice which is a means for articulate multi-level security policy and more suitable to control the information flow security for safety-critical location-aware information systems. Next, constrained SC-RBAC allows express various spatial separations of duty constraints,location-based cardinality and temporal constraints for specify fine-grained spatial semantics that are typical in location-aware systems. Finally, we introduce 9 invariants for the constrained SC-RBAC and its basic security theorem is proven. The constrained SC-RBAC provides the foundation for applications in need of the constrained spatial context aware access control.
Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.
Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping
2016-05-01
This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications.
On the formal impossibility of analysing subfunctions as parts of functions in design methodology
Vermaas, P.E.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a proof is given that in design methods, the relation between technical functions and their subfunctions in functional descriptions of technical products cannot be analysed as a formal relation of parthood. This result holds for design methods in which transformations of flows of
The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects
Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960
The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images
Benson, Allen C.
2009-01-01
This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…
Experience based co-design reduces formal complaints on an acute mental health ward.
Springham, Neil; Robert, Glenn
2015-01-01
An acute mental health triage ward at Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust was attracting high levels of formal service user and family complaints. The Trust used experience based co-design to examine the issues and redesign procedures. This resulted in an immediate eradication of formal complaints for a period of 23 months. This paper describes two outcomes: firstly, the successful adaptations made to the experience based co-design methodology from its origins in physical care, in order to ensure it was safe and effective in an acute mental health setting; and, secondly, the changes made to the ward as a result of this quality improvement intervention.
Formal modeling and quantitative evaluation for information system survivability based on PEPA
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian; WANG Hui-qiang; ZHAO Guo-sheng
2008-01-01
Survivability should be considered beyond security for information system. To assess system survivability accurately, for improvement, a formal modeling and analysis method based on stochastic process algebra is proposed in this article. By abstracting the interactive behaviors between intruders and information system, a transferring graph of system state oriented survivability is constructed. On that basis, parameters are defined and system behaviors are characterized precisely with performance evaluation process algebra (PEPA), simultaneously considering the influence of different attack modes. Ultimately the formal model for survivability is established and quantitative analysis results are obtained by PEPA Workbench tool. Simulation experiments show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed method, and it can help to direct the designation of survivable system.
F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming
DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).
Los Alamos CCS (Center for Computer Security) formal computer security model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))
1989-01-01
This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The initial motivation for this effort was the need to provide a method by which DOE computer security policy implementation could be tested and verified. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present models. Formal mathematical models for computer security have been designed and developed in conjunction with attempts to build secure computer systems since the early 70's. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The mathematical basis appears to be justified and is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell-Lapadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 5 refs.
Formalization of the model of the enterprise insolvency risk prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena V. Shirinkina
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Objective to improve the conceptual apparatus and analytical procedures of insolvency risk identification. Methods general scientific methods of systemic and comparative analysis economicstatistical and dynamic analysis of economic processes and phenomena. Results nowadays managing the insolvency risk is relevant for any company regardless of the economy sector. Instability manifests itself through the uncertainty of the directions of the external environment changes and their high frequency. Analysis of the economic literature showed that currently there is no single approach to systematization of methods for insolvency risk prediction which means that there is no objective view on tools that can be used to monitor the insolvency risk. In this respect scientific and practical search of representative indicators for the formalization of the models predicting the insolvency is very important. Therefore the study has solved the following tasks defined the nature of the insolvency risk and its identification in the process of financial relations in management system proved the representativeness of the indicators in the insolvency risk prediction and formed the model of the risk insolvency prediction. Scientific novelty grounding the model of risk insolvency prediction. Practical significance development of a theoretical framework to address issues arising in the diagnosis of insolvent enterprises and application of the results obtained in the practice of the bankruptcy institution bodies. The presented model allows to predict the insolvency risk of the enterprise through the general development trend and the fluctuation boundaries of bankruptcy risk to determine the significance of each indicatorfactor its quantitative impact and therefore to avoid the risk of the enterprise insolvency. nbsp
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julian Galindo Losada
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Emerging companies involved in design and implementation of innovative products demand multidisciplinary teams to be competitive in the market. This need mainly exposes designers to extend their knowledge not only in User Interface elements of the design process but also in software methodologies to cover the lack of resources and expertise in start-ups. It raises the question of how designers can line up HCI techniques with best practices in software development while preserving usability and easy-to-use principles. To explore this gap, this paper proposes an approach which combines existing technology and methods by studying the nexus between HCI prototyping and software engineering. The approach is applied into a case study in the design of a virtual shop harmonizing the use of storyboards and the spiral. A comprehensive analysis is performed by using a Technology acceptance model (TAM regarding with two variables: usability and easy-to-use. The present finding underlines the positive integration of HCI techniques and formal methods without compromising user satisfaction with a potential benefit for small companies in a formation stage.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Shangytbayeva
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study discusses the problem distributed network attacks, formalized of model of linear kind for differentiate distributed network attacks on the basis of a weight coefficients Structured the formalized mathematical models allow to consider structure of the On network to a basis big percent, a measure of influence of each type of attack that gives the fine chance effectively to design to protect information system taking into account information on threats. Based on classification of information threats, characteristic for distributed network attacks it is offered the formalized models of a linear look for differentiation of attacks on the basis of a method of weight coefficients. By these indicators and coefficients it is possible to define the main types of threats in computer systems allowing to design effectively systems of information security taking into account information threats.
A Formal Method to Model Early Requirement of Multi-Agent System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MAO Xin-jun; YU Eric
2004-01-01
A formal specification language iFL based on i* framework is presented in this paper to formally specify and analyze the early requirement of multi-agent system. It is a branching temporal logic which defines the concepts and models in i* framework in a rigorous way. The method to transform the i* models to iFL formal specification is also put forward.
Formal modelling and analysis of socio-technical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2016-01-01
systems are still mostly identified through brainstorming of experts. In this work we discuss several approaches to formalising socio-technical systems and their analysis. Starting from a flow logic-based analysis of the insider threat, we discuss how to include the socio aspects explicitly, and show......Attacks on systems and organisations increasingly exploit human actors, for example through social engineering. This non-technical aspect of attacks complicates their formal treatment and automatic identification. Formalisation of human behaviour is difficult at best, and attacks on socio-technical...... a formalisation that proves properties of this formalisation. On the formal side, our work closes the gap between formal and informal approaches to socio-technical systems. On the informal side, we show how to steal a birthday cake from a bakery by social engineering....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lun Li
2006-04-01
Full Text Available The correct design of complex hardware continues to challenge engineers. Bugs in a design that are not uncovered in early design stages can be extremely expensive. Simulation is a predominantly used tool to validate a design in industry. Formal verification overcomes the weakness of exhaustive simulation by applying mathematical methodologies to validate a design. The work described here focuses upon a technique that integrates the best characteristics of both simulation and formal verification methods to provide an effective design validation tool, referred as Integrated Design Validation (IDV. The novelty in this approach consists of three components, circuit complexity analysis, partitioning based on design hierarchy, and coverage analysis. The circuit complexity analyzer and partitioning decompose a large design into sub-components and feed sub-components to different verification and/or simulation tools based upon known existing strengths of modern verification and simulation tools. The coverage analysis unit computes the coverage of design validation and improves the coverage by further partitioning. Various simulation and verification tools comprising IDV are evaluated and an example is used to illustrate the overall validation process. The overall process successfully validates the example to a high coverage rate within a short time. The experimental result shows that our approach is a very promising design validation method.
An Evaluation of the Preceptor Model versus the Formal Teaching Model.
Shamian, Judith; Lemieux, Suzanne
1984-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of two teaching methods to determine which is more effective in enhancing the knowledge base of participating nurses: the preceptor model embodies decentralized instruction by a member of the nursing staff, and the formal teaching model uses centralized teaching by the inservice education department. (JOW)
An Evaluation of the Preceptor Model versus the Formal Teaching Model.
Shamian, Judith; Lemieux, Suzanne
1984-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of two teaching methods to determine which is more effective in enhancing the knowledge base of participating nurses: the preceptor model embodies decentralized instruction by a member of the nursing staff, and the formal teaching model uses centralized teaching by the inservice education department. (JOW)
Poelmans, J.; Dedene, G.; Snoeck, M.; Viaene, S.; Fox, R.; Golubski, W.
2010-01-01
One of the first steps in a software engineering process is the elaboration of the conceptual domain model. In this paper, we investigate how Formal Concept Analysis can be used to formally underpin the construction of a conceptual domain model. In particular, we demonstrate that intuitive verificat
Constraint algebra of general relativity from a formal continuum limit of canonical tensor model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasakura, Naoki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sato, Yuki [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics andMandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand,Wits 2050 (South Africa)
2015-10-16
Canonical tensor model (CTM for short below) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system in the canonical formalism. In the classical case, the constraints form a first-class constraint Poisson algebra with structures similar to that of the ADM formalism of general relativity, qualifying CTM as a possible discrete formalism for quantum gravity. In this paper, we show that, in a formal continuum limit, the constraint Poisson algebra of CTM with no cosmological constant exactly reproduces that of the ADM formalism. To this end, we obtain the expression of the metric tensor field in general relativity in terms of one of the dynamical rank-three tensors in CTM, and determine the correspondence between the constraints of CTM and those of the ADM formalism. On the other hand, the cosmological constant term of CTM seems to induce non-local dynamics, and is inconsistent with an assumption about locality of the continuum limit.
Towards the formal verification of the requirements and design of a processor interface unit
Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
The formal verification of the design and partial requirements for a Processor Interface Unit (PIU) using the Higher Order Logic (HOL) theorem-proving system is described. The processor interface unit is a single-chip subsystem within a fault-tolerant embedded system under development within the Boeing Defense and Space Group. It provides the opportunity to investigate the specification and verification of a real-world subsystem within a commercially-developed fault-tolerant computer. An overview of the PIU verification effort is given. The actual HOL listing from the verification effort are documented in a companion NASA contractor report entitled 'Towards the Formal Verification of the Requirements and Design of a Processor Interface Unit - HOL Listings' including the general-purpose HOL theories and definitions that support the PIU verification as well as tactics used in the proofs.
Pereira, José N; Silva, Porfírio; Lima, Pedro U; Martinoli, Alcherio
2014-01-01
The work described is part of a long term program of introducing institutional robotics, a novel framework for the coordination of robot teams that stems from institutional economics concepts. Under the framework, institutions are cumulative sets of persistent artificial modifications made to the environment or to the internal mechanisms of a subset of agents, thought to be functional for the collective order. In this article we introduce a formal model of institutional controllers based on Petri nets. We define executable Petri nets-an extension of Petri nets that takes into account robot actions and sensing-to design, program, and execute institutional controllers. We use a generalized stochastic Petri net view of the robot team controlled by the institutional controllers to model and analyze the stochastic performance of the resulting distributed robotic system. The ability of our formalism to replicate results obtained using other approaches is assessed through realistic simulations of up to 40 e-puck robots. In particular, we model a robot swarm and its institutional controller with the goal of maintaining wireless connectivity, and successfully compare our model predictions and simulation results with previously reported results, obtained by using finite state automaton models and controllers.
Enhancing Formal Modelling Tool Support with Increased Automation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lausdahl, Kenneth
Progress report for the qualification exam report for PhD Student Kenneth Lausdahl. Initial work on enhancing tool support for the formal method VDM and the concept of unifying a abstract syntax tree with the ability for isolated extensions is described. The tool support includes a connection to ...... to UML and a test automation principle based on traces written as a kind of regular expressions....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camille Fayollas
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Critical human-machine interfaces are present in many systems including avionics systems and medical devices. Use error is a concern in these systems both in terms of hardware panels and input devices, and the software that drives the interfaces. Guaranteeing safe usability, in terms of buttons, knobs and displays is now a key element in the overall safety of the system. New integrated development environments (IDEs based on formal methods technologies have been developed by the research community to support the design and analysis of high-confidence human-machine interfaces. To date, little work has focused on the comparison of these particular types of formal IDEs. This paper compares and evaluates two state-of-the-art toolkits: CIRCUS, a model-based development and analysis tool based on Petri net extensions, and PVSio-web, a prototyping toolkit based on the PVS theorem proving system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Lamas
2012-12-01
ón estratégica por los jugadores. La estructura formal presentada comienza una línea de investigación que puede ayudar a reducir la subjetividad en la definición de los criterios para el análisis de los futuros diseños experimentales, dando lugar a interpretaciones más precisas y comparaciones mas acuradas de los resultados del los estudios.The development of a formal model integrating the strategy and the match dynamics constitute an original scientific contribution in the context of invasion team sports. The constructive procedure of a team strategy defined by the model is composed of sets of hierarchically organized elements, which support the design of strategies that can adequatelly orient a team in a match. Once defined the strategy model, the formalization of the match dynamics contextualizes the strategy on its application to orient players in the opposition. The match structure was decomposed and its main dynamical properties were defined. Thus, the modeling of the match dynamics complements the strategy model, since the first of them defines the circunstances in which the strategic information is applied by the players. The formal model presented inaugurates a research field which may contribute to limit the subjectivity in the definition of analysis criteria of future research designs, leading to more accurate interpretation and comparisons between results of studies.
Formal verification technique for grid service chain model and its application
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Ke; WANG YueXuan; WU Cheng
2007-01-01
Ensuring the correctness and reliability of large-scale resource sharing and complex job processing is an important task for grid applications. From a formal method perspective, a grid service chain model based on state Pi calculus is proposed in this work as the theoretical foundation for the service composition and collaboration in grid. Following the idea of the Web Service Resource Framework (WSRF), state Pi calculus enables the life-cycle management of system states by associating the actions in the original Pi calculus with system states. Moreover, model checking technique is exploited for the design-time and run-time logical verification of grid service chain models. A grid application scenario of the dynamic analysis of material deformation structure is also provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed work.
L.I.M.E. A recommendation model for informal and formal learning, engaged
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Burgos
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In current eLearning models and implementations (e.g. Learning Management Systems-LMS there is a lack of engagement between formal and informal activities. Furthermore, the online methodology focuses on a standard set of units of learning and learning objects, along with pre-defined tests, and collateral resources like, i.e. discussion fora and message wall. They miss the huge potential of learning via the interlacement of social networks, LMS and external sources. Thanks to user behaviour, user interaction, and personalised counselling by a tutor, learning performance can be improved. We design and develop an adaptation eLearning model for restricted social networks, which supports this approach. In addition, we build an eLearning module that implements this conceptual model in a real application case, and present the preliminary analysis and positive results.
Formal Behavior Modeling: Business Processes Based on Cloud Platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Huang
2013-06-01
Full Text Available From a macro level, cloud computing is gathering all the distributed resources originally, and then provided them as a service to the users. Current research focuses the cloud architecture and local small-scale grid computing mainly. The researchers are ignoring to provide a channel to help users to understand the business processes of the entire platform. This article focuses the communication and business links and abstracts them into business processes behaviors. At the same time, this article provides a modeling method to help these behaviors being visual depiction at the initial design of the cloud computing. We combine the SOA architecture and cloud computing together. At last the transferring and the dynamic processing of the service\\data of the business processes can be shown to the stakeholders to verify whether the cloud platform was meeting their requirements which are regarded as simulation of cloud services.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadeem AKHTAR
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an approach based on the analysis, design, and formal verification of a multi-agent based university Information Management System (IMS. University IMS accesses information, creates reports and facilitates teachers as well as students. An orchestrator agent manages the coordination between all agents. It also manages the database connectivity for the whole system. The proposed IMS is based on BDI agent architecture, which models the system based on belief, desire, and intentions. The correctness properties of safety and liveness are specified by First-order predicate logic.
Modelling of Robotized Manufacturing Systems Using MultiAgent Formalism
Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Banaś, W.
2016-08-01
The evolution of manufacturing systems has greatly accelerated due to development of sophisticated control systems. On top of determined, one way production flow the need of decision making has arisen as a result of growing product range that are manufactured simultaneously, using the same resources. On the other hand, the intelligent flow control could address the “bottleneck” problem caused by the machine failure. This sort of manufacturing systems uses advanced control algorithms that are introduced by the use of logic controllers. The complex algorithms used in the control systems requires to employ appropriate methods during the modelling process, like the agent-based one, which is the subject of this paper. The concept of an agent is derived from the object-based methodology of modelling, so it meets the requirements of representing the physical properties of the machines as well as the logical form of control systems. Each agent has a high level of autonomy and could be considered separately. The multi-agent system consists of minimum two agents that can interact and modify the environment, where they act. This may lead to the creation of self-organizing structure, what could be interesting feature during design and test of manufacturing system.
Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.
Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R
2016-01-01
Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.
Dependencies among Architectural Views Got from Software Requirements Based on a Formal Model
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Osis Janis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A system architect has software requirements and some unspecified knowledge about a problem domain (e.g., an enterprise as source information for assessment and evaluation of possible solutions and getting the target point, a preliminary software design. The solving factor is architect’s experience and expertise in the problem domain (“AS-IS”. A proposed approach is dedicated to assist a system architect in making an appropriate decision on the solution (“TO-BE”. It is based on a formal mathematical model, Topological Functioning Model (TFM. Compliant TFMs can be transformed into software architectural views. The paper demonstrates and discusses tracing dependency links from the requirements to and between the architectural views.
Extended sigma-model in nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism
Batalin, Igor A
2015-01-01
We propose an action for the extended sigma - models in the most general setting of the kinetic term allowed in the nontrivially deformed field - antifield formalism. We show that the classical motion equations do naturally take their desired canonical form.
Formal Analysis of an Agent Support Model for Behaviour Change Intervention
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Ojeniyi Adegoke
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Agent applications have been widely used in behaviour change intervention nowadays. This is due to the four features of agents: proactive, reactivity, social ability and autonomy. However, psychological reactance is one of the major limiting causes of agent interventions. Although, many studies have investigated into both psychological reactance and behaviour change nevertheless how reactive intervention can be supported to obtain an improved behaviour change intervention is still lacking in most previous studies. Therefore, this paper describes the formal analysis of agent support model for behaviour change intervention. The analysis made use of two widely accepted approaches in agent formal evaluation namely mathematical analysis and automated verification. The mathematical analysis examined the correctness of the formal model representation and formalization that aimed to ensure that all syntax and semantic representations used in the formal model is consistent. The mathematical analysis used equilibrium property to explore the formal model consistency. Likewise, automated verification depicts the checking of the model properties against its specifications and theoretical traces. The automated verification used Temporal Trace Language (TTL, which verifies the model properties and states against generated traces. The paper presents an agent support model that allows building agent-based software and applications that deflect psychological reactance and enhance an improved behavioural change intervention.
A Survey of Formal Models for Computer Security.
1981-09-30
presenting the individual models. 6.1 Basic Concepts and Trends The finite state machine model for computation views a computer system as a finite...top-level specification. The simplest description of the top-level model for DSU is given by Walker, et al. [36]. It is a finite state machine model , with
A Formal Model for Compliance Verification of Service Compositions
Groefsema, Heerko; van Beest, Nick; Aiello, Marco
2016-01-01
Business processes design and execution environments increasingly need support from modular services in service compositions to offer the flexibility required by rapidly changing requirements. With each evolution, however, the service composition must continue to adhere to laws and regulations, resu
A Formal Model for Compliance Verification of Service Compositions
Groefsema, Heerko; van Beest, Nick; Aiello, Marco
2016-01-01
Business processes design and execution environments increasingly need support from modular services in service compositions to offer the flexibility required by rapidly changing requirements. With each evolution, however, the service composition must continue to adhere to laws and regulations,
Compositional design and reuse of a generic agent model
Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.
2000-01-01
This article introduces a formally specified design of a compositional generic agent model (GAM). This agent model abstracts from specific application domains; it provides a unified formal definition of a model for weak agenthood. It can be (re) used as a template or pattern for a large variety of a
Models and formal verification of multiprocessor system-on-chips
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Madsen, Jan
2008-01-01
In this article we develop a model for applications running on multiprocessor platforms. An application is modelled by task graphs and a multiprocessor system is modelled by a number of processing elements, each capable of executing tasks according to a given scheduling discipline. We present a d...... could verify a smart-phone application consisting of 103 tasks executing on 4 processing elements....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.
1993-12-31
New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary.
A Reflexive Model for Teaching Instructional Design.
Shambaugh, Neal; Magliaro, Susan
2001-01-01
Documents a five-year study of two instructors who collaborated on formally studying their teaching of a master's level instructional design course. Outlines their views on learning, teaching, and instructional design (ID), describes the ID course, and explains the reflexive instructional model used, in which the teachers examined their teaching…
Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes
Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V
2014-01-01
In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.
B to Z-Dna Transition Probed by the Feoli's Formalism for a Kirchhoff Model
Yavari, Morteza
2013-09-01
In this paper, we are going to use the techniques of quantum field theory to describe the free energy of DNA structures. The exact solutions of the general equilibrium shape equations for DNA structures in a Kirchhoff model by using the Feoli's formalism [A. Feoli, V. V. Nesterenko and G. Scarpetta, Nucl. Phys. B705, 577 (2005)] are investigated. The free energy of the B- to Z-DNA transition is also calculated in this formalism.
Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan
2016-01-01
checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, it is verified that the generated model instance satisfies the generated safety properties. Using this method, we are able to verify the safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments show that BMC is also...
Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.
2009-01-01
Both the human factors engineering (HFE) and formal methods communities are concerned with finding and eliminating problems with safety-critical systems. This work discusses a modeling effort that leveraged methods from both fields to use model checking with HFE practices to perform formal verification of a human-interactive system. Despite the use of a seemingly simple target system, a patient controlled analgesia pump, the initial model proved to be difficult for the model checker to verify in a reasonable amount of time. This resulted in a number of model revisions that affected the HFE architectural, representativeness, and understandability goals of the effort. If formal methods are to meet the needs of the HFE community, additional modeling tools and technological developments are necessary.
特征设计的形式化描述%A Formal Scheme for Describing Feature-Based Design Methodology
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙知信
2001-01-01
Benefiting from advances in feature-based design in design can not be expected before a formal methodology is established.This paper makes attempt to establish a domain-independent description formalism for feature-based design from two aspects:formalized definition and design process description. A formal definition and implementation scheme of feature-based design including feature taxonomy,feature operator,feature model validation and feature transformation are presented in the paper. The operational and processive representations of feature-based design process are described respectively. A framework of feature-based design algorithm is outlined correspondingly. The proposed scheme contributes to several aspects of feature-based design research,especially to provides elementarily a formal methodology for feature-based design system development and operation in a structural way.%特征设计方法在设计中的成功应用取决于其形式化设计理论的建立。文章从形式化定义和设计过程描述这两个方面研究了特征设计的形式化描述方法。文中提出了特征定义、特征表示的形式化方法，探讨了特征设计过程的操作性和过程性描述，并给出了相应的设计算法。为解决特征设计系统开发和运行缺乏统一方法学这一课题作了有益的尝试。
Formal analytical modeling of blog content as personal narrative
Coombs, Michael J.; Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.
2008-04-01
This paper contrasts two techniques for analyzing blog content and making use of this information to model blog content. One method uses classical text content and analysis presented for human interpretation. The second method relies on a data mined list of descriptive words characterizing the blogs. We examine the use of different data mining tools, Kryltech's "Subject Search Summarizer", Leximancer, and QUEST, to provide orthogonal and independently generated key word lists. These lists are then converted into Data Models, enabling mathematical modeling of blog content.
Design and Implementation of a Port Simulator Using Formal Graphical Approach (FGA
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Maged Elazony
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The continuing growth of marine container transport, as well as, the complexity in the analysis of terminal portoperations has created an ideal area for applying computer simulation. Simulators are able to generate considerable benefitsand added value for the operational training. The traditional formal and on-the-job training of operational personnel isbecoming inadequate, not only for providing proper skills and competencies regarding the operations to be performed, butalso for addressing safety and efficiency standards in critical situations. Many ports and logistics structures have equippedthemselves with simulation tools that allow an effective training activity without taking vehicles out of the normal operationalcycle. This paper focuses on design and implementation of reusable, interactive, simulation-based training activities at the portand logistics sector using Formal Graphical Approach (FGA and e-learning system, to deliver the learning objects tolearners in an interactive, adaptive and flexible manner. We apply the simulator at Damietta port in Egypt as a real-worldcase study and developing effective web-based and computer-based learning contents in order to reach an optimal use ofsimulators in operational port training actions. We analyze the performance of the system and benefits of applying formalgraphical approach on the training simulator. The results show the contribution of service routes, ports, container ships, andcontainers to the cost and performance of the system and a significant improvement is demonstrated in the operational andeconomic performance as a result of using the Training Simulator.
Establishing formal state space models via quantization for quantum control systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Daoyi; Chen Zonghai
2005-01-01
Formal state space models of quantum control systems are deduced and a scheme to establish formal state space models via quantization could been obtained for quantum control systems is proposed. State evolution of quantum control systems must accord with Schrodinger equations, so it is foremost to obtain Hamiltonian operators of systems. There are corresponding relations between operators of quantum systems and corresponding physical quantities of classical systems,such as momentum, energy and Hamiltonian, so Schrodinger equation models of corresponding quantum control systems via quantization could been obtained from classical control systems, and then establish formal state space models through the suitable transformation from Schrodinger equations for these quantum control systems. This method provides a new kind of path for modeling in quantum control.
Formal Relationships Between Geometrical and Classical Models for Concurrency
Goubault, Eric
2010-01-01
A wide variety of models for concurrent programs has been proposed during the past decades, each one focusing on various aspects of computations: trace equivalence, causality between events, conflicts and schedules due to resource accesses, etc. More recently, models with a geometrical flavor have been introduced, based on the notion of cubical set. These models are very rich and expressive since they can represent commutation between any bunch of events, thus generalizing the principle of true concurrency. While they seem to be very promising - because they make possible the use of techniques from algebraic topology in order to study concurrent computations - they have not yet been precisely related to the previous models, and the purpose of this paper is to fill this gap. In particular, we describe an adjunction between Petri nets and cubical sets which extends the previously known adjunction between Petri nets and asynchronous transition systems by Nielsen and Winskel.
CALPHAD formalism for Portland clinker: thermodynamic models and databases
De Noirfontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Girod-Labianca, Caroline; Pontikis, V.
2012-01-01
International audience; The so-called CALPHAD method is widely used in metallurgy to predict phase diagrams of multi-component systems. The application of the method to oxide systems is much more recent, because of the difficulty of modelling the ionic liquid phase. Since the 1980s, several models have been proposed by various communities. Thermodynamic databases for oxides are available and still under development. The purpose of this article is to discuss the distinct approaches of the meth...
Formal Specifications and Verification of a Secure Communication Protocol Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏阳; 陆余良; 蒋凡
2003-01-01
This paper presents a secure communication protocol model-EABM, by which network security communication can be realized easily and efficiently. First, the paper gives a thorough analysis of the protocol system, systematic construction and state transition of EABM. Then , it describes the channels and the process of state transition of EABM in terms of ESTELLE. At last, it offers a verification of the accuracy of the EABM model.
Economic development and the transition to democracy a formal model
Baizhu Chen; Yi Feng
1998-01-01
In this essay, we have developed a rational choice model to study the transition to democracy. Such a model implies that the change or maintenance of a political system is the result of rational decisions by individuals, interest groups, and political parties under specific constraints. Our analysis shows that political systems are critically dependent upon the level of economic development. If a nation is at the lower stage of economic development, and, particularly, if its citizenry is poor...
Bridging the Semantic Gap Between Heterogeneous Modeling Formalisms and FMI
2014-04-25
FMUs Synchronous Data Flow (SDF) [11] is a dataflow model where a set of actors execute asynchronously and communicate via FIFO queues of (a-priori...concurrency with FIFO queue based communication that SDF is based on, and the somewhat synchronous model that FMI uses, based on persistent signals as...an output FIFO queue, denoted Q o A. FB has a state variable holding an input FIFO queue, denoted QiB , and another state variable holding an output
A Formal Comparison of Model Variants for Performance Prediction
2009-12-01
400 450 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P e rf o rm a n c e S c o re s Mission Team Performance in UAS Predator Simulation CERI , 2005 Humans Model...Simulation CERI , 2005 Humans Model Team Performance in F-16 Simulator Missions DMO Testbd, Mesa Table 2. Cross-validation RMSD...Warfighter Readiness Research Division. The authors would like to thank the Cognitive Engineering Research Institute ( CERI ) and researchers from Mesa’s
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-01-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators
Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.
2015-12-01
The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.
Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design
He, Ze; Qiu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Neng-Jian
2005-09-01
The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment. According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into, three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.
Study of the ship design process model for collaborative design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
The ship design process model is the basis for developing the ship collaborative design system under network environment.According to the characteristics of the ship design, a method for dividing the ship design process into three layers is pat forward, that is project layer, design task layer and design activity layer, then the formalized definitions of the ship design process model, the decomposing principles of the ship design process and the architecture of the ship collaborative design (SDPM) system are presented. This method simplifies the activity network, makes the optimization and adjustment of the design plan convenient and also makes the design process easier to control and change, at last the architecture of the ship collaborative design system is discussed.
Ontology Mapping of Business Process Modeling Based on Formal Temporal Logic
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Irfan Chishti
2014-08-01
Full Text Available A business process is the combination of a set of activities with logical order and dependence, whose objective is to produce a desired goal. Business process modeling (BPM using knowledge of the available process modeling techniques enables a common understanding and analysis of a business process. Industry and academics use informal and formal techniques respectively to represent business processes (BP, having the main objective to support an organization. Despite both are aiming at BPM, the techniques used are quite different in their semantics. While carrying out literature research, it has been found that there is no general representation of business process modeling is available that is expressive than the commercial modeling tools and techniques. Therefore, it is primarily conceived to provide an ontology mapping of modeling terms of Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN, Unified Modeling Language (UML Activity Diagrams (AD and Event Driven Process Chains (EPC to temporal logic. Being a formal system, first order logic assists in thorough understanding of process modeling and its application. However, our contribution is to devise a versatile conceptual categorization of modeling terms/constructs and also formalizing them, based on well accepted business notions, such as action, event, process, connector and flow. It is demonstrated that the new categorization of modeling terms mapped to formal temporal logic, provides the expressive power to subsume business process modeling techniques i.e. BPMN, UML AD and EPC.
Modelling in Business Model design
Simonse, W.L.
2013-01-01
It appears that business model design might not always produce a design or model as the expected result. However when designers are involved, a visual model or artefact is produced. To assist strategic managers in thinking about how they can act, the designers challenge is to combine strategy and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chayanopparat Piyanan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Non-formal vocational education provides practical experiences in a particular occupational field to non-formal semi-skilled learners. Non-formal vocational teachers are the key persons to deliver particular occupational knowledge. The essential competencies enhancement for non-sformal vocational teachers will improve teaching performance. The question of the research is what the essential competencies for the nonformal vocational teachers are. The research method was 1 to review related literature, 2 to collect a needs assessment, and 3 to analyse the essential competencies for non-formal vocational teachers. The population includes non-formal vocational teachers at the executive level and nonformal vocational teachers. The results from the essential competencies analysis found that the essential competencies for non-formal vocational teachers consist of 5 capabilities including 1 Adult learning design capability, 2 Adult learning principle application capability, 3 ICT searching capability for teaching preparation, 4 Instructional plan development capability and 5 Instructional media development capability.
Formalism Challenges of the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture
Bohner, Shawn A.; George, Boby; Gracanin, Denis; Hinchey, Michael G.
2004-01-01
The Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is one of the most sophisticated distributed agent architectures developed today. As part of its research and evolution, Cougaar is being studied for application to large, logistics-based applications for the Department of Defense (DoD). Anticipiting future complex applications of Cougaar, we are investigating the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to understand how effective it would be for increasing productivity in Cougar-based development efforts. Recognizing the sophistication of the Cougaar development environment and the limitations of transformation technologies for agents, we have systematically developed an approach that combines component assembly in the large and transformation in the small. This paper describes some of the key elements that went into the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture approach and the characteristics that drove the approach.
Modeling cellular deformations using the level set formalism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Liu
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cellular processes involve substantial shape changes. Traditional simulations of these cell shape changes require that grids and boundaries be moved as the cell's shape evolves. Here we demonstrate that accurate cell shape changes can be recreated using level set methods (LSM, in which the cellular shape is defined implicitly, thereby eschewing the need for updating boundaries. Results We obtain a viscoelastic model of Dictyostelium cells using micropipette aspiration and show how this viscoelastic model can be incorporated into LSM simulations to recreate the observed protrusion of cells into the micropipette faithfully. We also demonstrate the use of our techniques by simulating the cell shape changes elicited by the chemotactic response to an external chemoattractant gradient. Conclusion Our results provide a simple but effective means of incorporating cellular deformations into mathematical simulations of cell signaling. Such methods will be useful for simulating important cellular events such as chemotaxis and cytokinesis.
Towards a Formal Model of the X86 ISA
2012-03-30
the logic of the ACL2 theorem prover. It can be executed as a Lisp program on concrete data, which provides the capability to validate the model against...File x86-64/x86-general.lisp ========== 140 16 ========== File x86-64/x86. lisp ========== 171 17 ========== File tools/script.lisp ========== 190... Lisp ”. As the name suggests, the logic of ACL2 is based on an applicative (purely functional) subset of the Common Lisp programming language [5]. The
Grey, Simon; Grey, David; Gordon, Neil; Purdy, Jon
2017-01-01
This paper offers an approach to designing game-based learning experiences inspired by the Mechanics-Dynamics-Aesthetics (MDA) model (Hunicke et al., 2004) and the elemental tetrad model (Schell, 2008) for game design. A case for game based learning as an active and social learning experience is presented including arguments from both teachers and…
OPEN NETWORK OF FORMAL CORPORATIVE KNOWLEDGE: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Savchenko A. P.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Within emerging knowledge economy, the current issue is efficient use and reproduction of knowledge in socio-economic systems. One of the promising approaches to the creation of working knowledge management system is based on the open ontological knowledge network. The knowledge network is the model of the process of knowledge sharing, implemented in the virtual space, which inherits the advantages of this process and removes some of its shortcomings. Ontology is a basic component of the conceptual model of the knowledge network; it describes a system of knowledge and defines the structure of data storage in the network. The hierarchy of ontologies involves three levels: metaontology, basic and subject-specific ontology. The ontology use solves two tasks: providing a tool for semantic markup of information resources and disclosing the structure of the information storage for the user. The second task is especially important to ensure an efficient search in large data arrays. The technology of construction of open network includes a set of principles and tools for filling and updating of the domain ontology, fast semantic markup and retrieval of information resources taking into account their semantic links
QOS Aware Formalized Model for Semantic Web Service Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Divya Sachan
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Selecting the most relevant Web Service according to a client requirement is an onerous task, as innumerous number of functionally same Web Services(WS are listed in UDDI registry. WS are functionally same but their Quality and performance varies as per service providers. A web Service Selection Process involves two major points: Recommending the pertinent Web Service and avoiding unjustifiable web service. The deficiency in keyword based searching is that it doesn’t handle the client request accurately as keyword may have ambiguous meaning on different scenarios. UDDI and search engines all are based on keyword search, which are lagging behind on pertinent Web service selection. So the search mechanism must be incorporated with the Semantic behavior of Web Services. In order to strengthen this approach, the proposed model is incorporated with Quality of Services (QoS based Ranking of semantic web services.
Meanings Generated while Using Algebraic-Like Formalism to Construct and Control Animated Models
Kynigos, Chronis; Psycharis, Giorgos; Moustaki, Foteini
2010-01-01
This paper reports on a design experiment conducted to explore the construction of meanings by 17 year old students, emerging from their interpretations and uses of algebraic like formalism. The students worked collaboratively in groups of two or three, using MoPiX, a constructionist computational environment with which they could create concrete…
Boundary States and Correlation Functions of Tricritical Ising Model from Coulomb-Gas Formalism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Smain Balaska; Toufik Sahabi
2009-01-01
We consider the minimal conformal model describing the tricritical Ising model on the disk and on the upper half plane. Using the coulomb-gas formalism we determine its consistents boundary states as well as its one-point and two-point correlation functions.
Directly executable formal models of middleware for MANET and Cloud Networking and Computing
Pashchenko, D. V.; Sadeq Jaafar, Mustafa; Zinkin, S. A.; Trokoz, D. A.; Pashchenko, T. U.; Sinev, M. P.
2016-04-01
The article considers some “directly executable” formal models that are suitable for the specification of computing and networking in the cloud environment and other networks which are similar to wireless networks MANET. These models can be easily programmed and implemented on computer networks.
Expectations of Formal Model Analysis Methods: Implications for SIG-MA
Slinger, J.H.
2009-01-01
At the 2008 System Dynamics Conference in Athens a survey of the understanding and expectations of conference participants regarding model analysis was conducted. Respondents included both those active in research on formal model analysis methods and those only vaguely familiar with the term. Result
TheME: an environment for building formal KADS II models of expertise
Balder, John; Akkermans, J.M.; Akkermans, Hans
1992-01-01
COMMONKADS is a well-known methodology for the development of knowledge-based systems. In this methodology one constructs so-called models of expertise as a basis for the development. A new feature with respect to older versions of the KADS methodology is a formal version of these models, whereby
Steps Towards a Method for the Formal Modeling of Dynamic Objects
Wieringa, Roelf J.
1991-01-01
Fragments of a method to formally specify object-oriented models of a universe of discourse are presented. The task of finding such models is divided into three subtasks, object classification, event specification, and the specification of the life cycle of an object. Each of these subtasks is
Team automata : a formal approach to the modeling of collaboration between system components
Beek, Maurice Henri ter
2003-01-01
This thesis studies formal aspects of team automata, a mathematical framework introduced in 1997 by C.A. Ellis to model components of groupware systems and their interconnections. We focus on the flexibility that team automata offer when modeling collaboration between system components
Formal analysis of executions of organizational scenarios based on process-oriented models
Popova, V.; Sharpanskykh, A.
2007-01-01
This paper presents various formal techniques for analysis of executions of organizational scenarios based on process-oriented models of organizations. Process-oriented models describe (prescribe) ordering and timing relations on organizational processes, modes of use of resources, allocations of
Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories
Oberauer, Klaus
2006-01-01
The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…
Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jelmer P Borst
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping from model components to brain regions. Although such mappings can be based on the experience of the modeler or on a reading of the literature, a formal method is preferred to prevent researcher-based biases. In this paper we used model-based fMRI analysis to create a data-driven model-brain mapping for five modules of the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We then validated this mapping by applying it to two new datasets with associated models. The new mapping was at least as powerful as an existing mapping that was based on the literature, and indicated where the models were supported by the data and where they have to be improved. We conclude that data-driven model-brain mappings can provide strong constraints on cognitive models, and that model-based fMRI is a suitable way to create such mappings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
JANICEK, G.P.
2000-06-08
Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gotzon Ibarretxe Txakartegi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Responsables de educación y cultura de diferentes países europeos han alertado sobre la falta de nuevas voces y el peligro de continuidad de las agrupaciones corales existentes. No obstante, algunas instituciones corales están llevando a cabo una intensa labor de cantera, avalados por su trayectoria y prestigio históricos, así como por la organización e infraestructuras de calidad de que disponen. Así ocurre con determinados coros y orfeones vascos, que atraen a un número considerable de voces infantiles y juveniles, y con ello consiguen garantizar de algún modo el relevo generacional. En concreto, esta investigación ha estudiado los coros infantiles pertenecientes a cuatro instituciones corales (Orfeón Donostiarra, Coral Andra Mari, Sociedad Coral de Bilbao y Asociación Musical Luis Dorao, para ahondar en las claves que explican el éxito de su funcionamiento: los recursos humanos, técnicos y didácticos que utilizan en su trabajo cotidiano. A través de entrevistas semiestructuradas se ha examinado el punto de vista de los propios protagonistas (los niños y jóvenes coralistas, y los directores y responsables de dichas entidades, acerca del tipo de relaciones que esos coros mantienen con los diferentes entornos de educación formal y no formal.Those responsible for education and culture in several European countries have passed the alarm on the lack of new voices and the danger of extinction of existing choral groups. Nevertheless, some choral institutions are carrying out intense quarry labour, supported by their tradition and historical prestige as well as by the quality organization and infrastructures that are available to them. This happens with some Basque choirs and choral societies which attract a great number of infantile and juvenile voices, thus guaranteeing somehow that there will be a new generation of voices. Specifically, this research work studied the infantile choirs belonging to four choral organisations (Orfe
First-order formalism for twinlike models with several real scalar fields
Bazeia, D; Losano, L; Menezes, R
2014-01-01
We investigate the presence of twinlike models in theories described by several real scalar fields. We focus on the first-order formalism, and we show how to build distinct scalar field theories that support the same extended solution, with the same energy density and the very same linear stability. The results are valid for two distinct classes of generalized models, that include the standard model and cover a diversity of generalized models of current interest in high energy physics.
Evaluating the effect of a lightweight formal technique in industry
Osaiweran, A.; Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.; Groote, J.F.; Rijnsoever, B. van
2016-01-01
We evaluate the effect of applying the commercial formal technique Analytical Software Design (ASD) to an industrial project. In ASD, interfaces and software designs are modelled using a formal tabular notation. The ASD tool set supports formal checks of these models, such as deadlock freedom and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Page Michel
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of biological networks has led to the development of increasingly large and detailed models. Computer tools are essential for the simulation of the dynamical behavior of the networks from the model. However, as the size of the models grows, it becomes infeasible to manually verify the predictions against experimental data or identify interesting features in a large number of simulation traces. Formal verification based on temporal logic and model checking provides promising methods to automate and scale the analysis of the models. However, a framework that tightly integrates modeling and simulation tools with model checkers is currently missing, on both the conceptual and the implementational level. Results We have developed a generic and modular web service, based on a service-oriented architecture, for integrating the modeling and formal verification of genetic regulatory networks. The architecture has been implemented in the context of the qualitative modeling and simulation tool GNA and the model checkers NUSMV and CADP. GNA has been extended with a verification module for the specification and checking of biological properties. The verification module also allows the display and visual inspection of the verification results. Conclusions The practical use of the proposed web service is illustrated by means of a scenario involving the analysis of a qualitative model of the carbon starvation response in E. coli. The service-oriented architecture allows modelers to define the model and proceed with the specification and formal verification of the biological properties by means of a unified graphical user interface. This guarantees a transparent access to formal verification technology for modelers of genetic regulatory networks.
TRL - A FORMAL TEST REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE AND TOOL FOR FUNCTIONAL TEST DESIGNS
Hops, J. M.
1994-01-01
A Formal Test Representation Language and Tool for Functional Test Designs (TRL) is an automatic tool and a formal language that is used to implement the Category-Partition Method and produce the specification of test cases in the testing phase of software development. The Category-Partition Method is particularly useful in defining the inputs, outputs and purpose of the test design phase and combines the benefits of choosing normal cases with error exposing properties. Traceability can be maintained quite easily by creating a test design for each objective in the test plan. The effort to transform the test cases into procedures is simplified by using an automatic tool to create the cases based on the test design. The method allows the rapid elimination of undesired test cases from consideration, and easy review of test designs by peer groups. The first step in the category-partition method is functional decomposition, in which the specification and/or requirements are decomposed into functional units that can be tested independently. A secondary purpose of this step is to identify the parameters that affect the behavior of the system for each functional unit. The second step, category analysis, carries the work done in the previous step further by determining the properties or sub-properties of the parameters that would make the system behave in different ways. The designer should analyze the requirements to determine the features or categories of each parameter and how the system may behave if the category were to vary its value. If the parameter undergoing refinement is a data-item, then categories of this data-item may be any of its attributes, such as type, size, value, units, frequency of change, or source. After all the categories for the parameters of the functional unit have been determined, the next step is to partition each category's range space into mutually exclusive values that the category can assume. In choosing partition values, all possible kinds
Formal computer-aided product family architecture design for mass customization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars; Clarkson, John
2015-01-01
are informal, providing limited support for domain experts to communicate, synthesize and document architectures effectively. In single product design explicit visual models such as design structure matrices and node-link diagrams have been used in combination with structural analysis methods to overcome...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gustavo Betarte
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we investigate the security of security-critical applications, i.e. applications in which a failure may produce consequences that are unacceptable. We consider three areas: mobile devices, virtualization platforms, and domain name systems. The Java Micro Edition platform defines the Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP to facilitate the development of applications for mobile devices, like cell phones and PDAs. We first study and compare formally several variants of the security model specified by MIDP to access sensitive resources of a mobile device. Hypervisors allow multiple guest operating systems to run on shared hardware, and offer a compelling means of improving the security and the flexibility of software systems. In this work we present a formalization of an idealized model of a hypervisor. We establish (formally that the hypervisor ensures strong isolation properties between the different operating systems, and guarantees that requests from guest operating systems are eventually attended. We show also that virtualized platforms are transparent, i.e. a guest operating system cannot distinguish whether it executes alone or together with other guest operating systems on the platform. The Domain Name System Security Extensions (DNSSEC is a suite of specifications that provides origin authentication and integrity assurance services for DNS data. We finally introduce a minimalistic specification of a DNSSEC model which provides the grounds needed to formally state and verify security properties concerning the chain of trust of the DNSSEC tree. We develop all our formalizations in the Calculus of Inductive Constructions --formal language that combines a higher-order logic and a richly-typed functional programming language-- using the Coq proof assistant.
Formal Analysis of Self-Efficacy in Job Interviewee’s Mental State Model
Ajoge, N. S.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, S. A. Mohd
2017-08-01
This paper presents a formal analysis approach for self-efficacy model of interviewee’s mental state during a job interview session. Self-efficacy is a construct that has been hypothesised to combine with motivation and interviewee anxiety to define state influence of interviewees. The conceptual model was built based on psychological theories and models related to self-efficacy. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of self-efficacy are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the proposed model exhibits those patterns. In addition, this formal model has been mathematically analysed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in a software agent or robot-based platform. Such platform can provide an interview coaching approach where support to the user is provided based on their individual metal state during interview sessions.
Canonical Formalism for a 2n-Dimensional Model with Topological Mass Generation
Deguchi, Shinichi
2008-01-01
The 4-dimensional model with topological mass generation that was found by Dvali, Jackiw and Pi has recently been generalized to any even number of dimensions (2n-dimensions) in a nontrivial manner in which a Stueckelberg-type mass term is introduced [S. Deguchi and S. Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. D77, 045003 (2008), arXiv:0711.1446]. The present paper deals with a self-contained model, called here modified hybrid model, proposed in this 2n-dimensional generalization and considers the canonical formalism for this model. For the sake of convenience, the canonical formalism itself is studied for a model equivalent to the modified hybrid model by following the recipe for treating constrained Hamiltonian systems. This formalism is applied to the canonical quantization of the equivalent model in order to clarify observable and unobservable particles in the model. The equivalent model (with a gauge-fixing term) is converted to the modified hybrid model (with a corresponding gauge-fixing term) in a BRST-invariant manner. Th...
Category Theory as a Formal Mathematical Foundation for Model-Based Systems Engineering
Mabrok, Mohamed
2017-01-09
In this paper, we introduce Category Theory as a formal foundation for model-based systems engineering. A generalised view of the system based on category theory is presented, where any system can be considered as a category. The objects of the category represent all the elements and components of the system and the arrows represent the relations between these components (objects). The relationship between these objects are the arrows or the morphisms in the category. The Olog is introduced as a formal language to describe a given real-world situation description and requirement writing. A simple example is provided.
An approach to the formalism of the Standard Model of Particle Physics
B, O E Casas; T., N Poveda
2010-01-01
So far, the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) describes the phenomenology observed in high energy physics. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to find the Higgs boson, which is an essential part of SM; also expects to see new particles or deviations from the SM, which would be evidence of other truly fundamental theory. Consequently, a clear understanding of the SM and, in general, quantum field theory is of great importance for particle physics, however, students face a formalism and a set of concepts with which they are unfamiliar. This paper shows how to make an approach to SM to introduce students to the formalism and some fundamental concepts.
Reushle, Shirley, Ed.; Antonio, Amy, Ed.; Keppell, Mike, Ed.
2016-01-01
The discipline of education is a multi-faceted system that must constantly integrate new strategies and procedures to ensure successful learning experiences. Enhancements in education provide learners with greater opportunities for growth and advancement. "Open Learning and Formal Credentialing in Higher Education: Curriculum Models and…
J.J.H. Fey
1996-01-01
textabstractControl and verification of hybrid systems is studied using two industrial examples. The hybrid models of a conveyor-belt and of a biochemical plant for the production of ethanol are specified in the formalism $chi .$ A verification of the closed-loop systems for those examples,
Extended sigma-model in nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism
Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.
2015-08-01
We propose an action for the extended sigma-models in the most general setting of the kinetic term allowed in the nontrivially deformed field-antifield formalism. We show that the classical motion equations do naturally take their desired canonical form.
Formalization and Verification of Business Process Modeling Based on UML and Petri Nets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAN Zhi-jun; GAN Ren-chu
2005-01-01
In order to provide a quantitative analysis and verification method for activity diagrams based business process modeling, a formal definition of activity diagrams is introduced. And the basic requirements for activity diagrams based business process models are proposed. Furthermore, the standardized transformation technique between business process models and basic Petri nets is presented and the analysis method for the soundness and well-structured properties of business processes is introduced.
An insight into DVB-T system using formal modelling in Event-B
Krayem, Said; Pátíková, Zuzana
2017-07-01
Digital Video Broadcast - Terrestrial (DVB-T) can be seen as a complex system with many concrete features and aspects. This paper presents a simplified model and the first insight into this system from point of view of formal modelling methods. Using Event-B a start-up model concerning relations between signals, multiplexes and channels is introduced. As a background the standards for DVB-T in the Czech Republic are taken.
Linguistic Models at the Crossroads of Agents, Learning and Formal Languages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonor BECERRA-BONACHE
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing the most relevant linguistic applications developed in the intersection between three different fields: machine learning, formal language theory and agent technologies. On the one hand, we present some of the main linguistic contributions of the intersection between machine learning and formal languages, which constitutes a well-established research area known as Grammatical Inference. On the other hand, we present an overview of the main linguistic applications of models developed in the intersection between agent technologies and formal languages, such as colonies, grammar systems and eco-grammar systems. Our goal is to show how interdisciplinary research between these three fields can contribute to better understand how natural language is acquired and processed.
Vermolen, F J; Meijden, R P van der; Es, M van; Gefen, A; Weihs, D
2015-07-01
A phenomenological model is formulated to model the early stages of tumor formation. The model is based on a cell-based formalism, where each cell is represented as a circle or sphere in two-and three dimensional simulations, respectively. The model takes into account constituent cells, such as epithelial cells, tumor cells, and T-cells that chase the tumor cells and engulf them. Fundamental biological processes such as random walk, haptotaxis/chemotaxis, contact mechanics, cell proliferation and death, as well as secretion of chemokines are taken into account. The developed formalism is based on the representation of partial differential equations in terms of fundamental solutions, as well as on stochastic processes and stochastic differential equations. We also take into account the likelihood of seeding of tumors. The model shows the initiation of tumors and allows to study a quantification of the impact of various subprocesses and possibly even of various treatments.
Cellulose hydrolysis in evolving substrate morphologies I: A general modeling formalism.
Zhou, Wen; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Hao, Zhiqian; Xu, Ying
2009-10-01
We develop a general framework for a realistic rate equation modeling of cellulose hydrolysis using non-complexed cellulase. Our proposed formalism, for the first time, takes into account explicitly the time evolution of the random substrate morphology resulting from the hydrolytic cellulose chain fragmentation and solubilization. This is achieved by integrating novel geometrical concepts to quantitatively capture the time-dependent random morphology, together with the enzymatic chain fragmentation, into a coupled morphology-plus-kinetics rate equation approach. In addition, an innovative site number representation, based on tracking available numbers of beta(1,4) glucosidic bonds, of different "site" types, exposed to attacks by different enzyme types, is presented. This site number representation results in an ordinary differential equation (ODE) system, with a substantially reduced ODE system size, compared to earlier chain fragmentation kinetics approaches. This formalism enables us to quantitatively simulate both the hydrolytically evolving random substrate morphology and the profound, and heretofore neglected, morphology effects on the hydrolysis kinetics. By incorporating the evolving morphology on an equal footing with the hydrolytic chain fragmentation, our formalism provides a framework for the realistic modeling of the entire solubilization process, beyond the short-time limit and through near-complete hydrolytic conversion. As part I of two companion papers, the present paper focuses on the development of the general modelling formalism. Results and testable experimental predictions from detailed numerical simulations are presented in part II.
Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NON LANL; Gupta, Hoshin V [NON LANL
2008-01-01
In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naeem Akhtar Khan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The wireless mesh network (WMN is an emerging and cost-effective alternative paradigm for the next generation wireless networks in many diverse applications. In the performance evaluation of routing protocol for the WMN, it is essential that it should be evaluated under realistic conditions. The usefulness of specific mobility protocol can be determined by selection of mobility model. This paper introduces a coloured Petri nets (CP-nets based formal model for implementation, simulation, and analysis of most widely used random waypoint (RWP mobility model for WMNs. The formal semantics of hierarchical timed CP-nets allow us to investigate the terminating behavior of the transitions using state space analysis techniques. The proposed implementation improves the RWP mobility model by removing the “border effect” and resolves the “speed decay” problem.
A Formal Model of Trust Chain based on Multi-level Security Policy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kong Xiangying
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Trust chain is the core technology of trusted computing. A formal model of trust chain based on finite state automata theory is proposed. We use communicating sequential processes to describe the system state transition in trust chain and by combining with multi-level security strategy give the definition of trust system and trust decision theorem of trust chain transfer which is proved meantime. Finally, a prototype system is given to show the efficiency of the model.
Denning, Peter J.
1991-01-01
The ongoing debate over the role of formalism and formal specifications in software features many speakers with diverse positions. Yet, in the end, they share the conviction that the requirements of a software system can be unambiguously specified, that acceptable software is a product demonstrably meeting the specifications, and that the design process can be carried out with little interaction between designers and users once the specification has been agreed to. This conviction is part of a larger paradigm prevalent in American management thinking, which holds that organizations are systems that can be precisely specified and optimized. This paradigm, which traces historically to the works of Frederick Taylor in the early 1900s, is no longer sufficient for organizations and software systems today. In the domain of software, a new paradigm, called user-centered design, overcomes the limitations of pure formalism. Pioneered in Scandinavia, user-centered design is spreading through Europe and is beginning to make its way into the U.S.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamke, Martin
2015-01-01
Appearing almost alive, a novel set of computational design models can become an active counterpart for architects in the design process. The ability to loop, sense and query and the integration of near real-time simulation provide these models with a depth and agility that allows for instant...... and informed feedback. Introducing the term "Aware models", the paper investigates how computational models become an enabler for a better informed architectural design practice, through the embedding of knowledge about constraints, behaviour and processes of formation and making into generative design models....... The inspection of several computational design projects in architectural research highlights three different types of awareness a model can possess and devises strategies to establish and finally design with aware models. This design practice is collaborative in nature and characterized by a bidirectional flow...
Endicott, Julia S; Izmaylov, Artur F
2014-01-01
We consider a fully quadratic vibronic model Hamiltonian for studying photoinduced electronic transitions through conical intersections. Using a second order perturbative approximation for diabatic couplings we derive an analytical expression for the time evolution of electronic populations at a given temperature. This formalism extends upon a previously developed perturbative technique for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian. The advantage of the quadratic model Hamiltonian is that it allows one to use separate quadratic representations for potential energy surfaces of different electronic states and a more flexible representation of interstate couplings. We explore features introduced by the quadratic Hamiltonian in a series of 2D models, and then apply our formalism to the 2,6-bis(methylene) adamantyl cation, and its dimethyl derivative. The Hamiltonian parameters for the molecular systems have been obtained from electronic structure calculations followed by a diabatization procedure. The evolution of e...
Vassiliev, Oleg N; Grosshans, David R; Mohan, Radhe
2017-08-23
We propose a new formalism for calculating parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model of cell survival. This formalism, primarily intended for calculating relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for treatment planning in hadron therapy, is based on a recently proposed microdosimetric revision of the single-target multi-hit model. The main advantage of our formalism is that it reliably produces α and β that have correct general properties with respect to their dependence on physical properties of the beam, including the asymptotic behavior for very low and high linear energy transfer (LET) beams. For example, in the case of monoenergetic beams, our formalism predicts that, as a function of LET, (a) α has a maximum and (b) the α/β ratio increases monotonically with increasing LET. No prior models reviewed in this study predict both properties (a) and (b) correctly, and therefore, these prior models are valid only within a limited LET range. We first present our formalism in a general form, for polyenergetic beams. A signicant new result in this general case is that parameter β is represented as an average over the joint distribution of energies E1 and E2 of two particles in the beam. This result is consistent with the role of the quadratic term in the linear quadratic model. It accounts for the two-track mechanism of cell kill, in which two particles, one after another, damage the same site in the cell nucleus. We then present simplified versions of the formalism and discuss predicted properties of α and β. Finally, to demonstrate consistency of our formalism with experimental data, we apply it to fit two sets of experimental data: (1) α for heavy ions, covering a broad range of LETs, and (2) β for protons. In both cases, good agreement was achieved. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
Formal models in animal-metacognition research: the problem of interpreting animals' behavior.
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Church, Barbara A
2016-10-01
Ongoing research explores whether animals have precursors to metacognition-that is, the capacity to monitor mental states or cognitive processes. Comparative psychologists have tested apes, monkeys, rats, pigeons, and a dolphin using perceptual, memory, foraging, and information-seeking paradigms. The consensus is that some species have a functional analog to human metacognition. Recently, though, associative modelers have used formal-mathematical models hoping to describe animals' "metacognitive" performances in associative-behaviorist ways. We evaluate these attempts to reify formal models as proof of particular explanations of animal cognition. These attempts misunderstand the content and proper application of models. They embody mistakes of scientific reasoning. They blur fundamental distinctions in understanding animal cognition. They impede theoretical development. In contrast, an energetic empirical enterprise is achieving strong success in describing the psychology underlying animals' metacognitive performances. We argue that this careful empirical work is the clear path to useful theoretical development. The issues raised here about formal modeling-in the domain of animal metacognition-potentially extend to biobehavioral research more broadly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamil Ahmad
Full Text Available The discrete modeling formalism of René Thomas is a well known approach for the modeling and analysis of Biological Regulatory Networks (BRNs. This formalism uses a set of parameters which reflect the dynamics of the BRN under study. These parameters are initially unknown but may be deduced from the appropriately chosen observed dynamics of a BRN. The discrete model can be further enriched by using the model checking tool HyTech along with delay parameters. This paves the way to accurately analyse a BRN and to make predictions about critical trajectories which lead to a normal or diseased response. In this paper, we apply the formal discrete and hybrid (discrete and continuous modeling approaches to characterize behavior of the BRN associated with MyD88-adapter-like (MAL--a key protein involved with innate immune response to infections. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our current work, different trajectories and corresponding conditions that may lead to the development of cerebral malaria (CM are identified. Our results suggest that the system converges towards hyperinflammation if Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK remains constitutively active along with pre-existing high cytokine levels which may play an important role in CM pathogenesis.
A system for deduction-based formal verification of workflow-oriented software models
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Klimek Radosław
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The work concerns formal verification of workflow-oriented software models using the deductive approach. The formal correctness of a model’s behaviour is considered. Manually building logical specifications, which are regarded as a set of temporal logic formulas, seems to be a significant obstacle for an inexperienced user when applying the deductive approach. A system, along with its architecture, for deduction-based verification of workflow-oriented models is proposed. The process inference is based on the semantic tableaux method, which has some advantages when compared with traditional deduction strategies. The algorithm for automatic generation of logical specifications is proposed. The generation procedure is based on predefined workflow patterns for BPMN, which is a standard and dominant notation for the modeling of business processes. The main idea behind the approach is to consider patterns, defined in terms of temporal logic, as a kind of (logical primitives which enable the transformation of models to temporal logic formulas constituting a logical specification. Automation of the generation process is crucial for bridging the gap between the intuitiveness of deductive reasoning and the difficulty of its practical application when logical specifications are built manually. This approach has gone some way towards supporting, hopefully enhancing, our understanding of deduction-based formal verification of workflow-oriented models.
Wieringa, R.J.
1993-01-01
This report describes a method called MCM (Method for Conceptual Modeling) for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented models of database system behavior. An important aim of MCM is to bridge the gap between formal specification and informal understanding. Building a MCM mod
Wieringa, Roelf J.
1993-01-01
This report describes a method called MCM (Method for Conceptual Modeling) for building and evaluating formal specifications of object-oriented models of database system behavior. An important aim of MCM is to bridge the gap between formal specification and informal understanding. Building a MCM mod
Golden, R. L.; Badhwar, G. D.; Stephens, S. A.
1975-01-01
The continuity equation for cosmic ray propagation is used to derive a set of linear equations interrelating the fluxes of multiply charged nuclei as observed at any particular part of the galaxy. The derivation leads to model independent definitions for cosmic ray storage time, mean density of target nuclei and effective mass traversed. The set of equations form a common framework for comparisons of theories and observations. As an illustration, it is shown that there exists a large class of propagation models which give the same result as the exponential path length model. The formalism is shown to accommodate dynamic as well as equilibrium models of production and propagation.
Formal Modeling and Verification of Context-Aware Systems using Event-B
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Hong Anh Le
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Context awareness is a computing paradigm that makes applications responsive and adaptive with their environment. Formal modeling and verification of context-aware systems are challenging issues in the development as they are complex and uncertain. In this paper, we propose an approach to use a formal method Event-B to model and verify such systems. First, we specify a context aware system’s components such as context data entities, context rules, context relations by Event-B notions. In the next step, we use the Rodin platform to verify the system’s desired properties such as context constraint preservation. It aims to benefit from natural representation of context awareness concepts in Event-B and proof obligations generated by refinement mechanism to ensure the correctness of systems. We illustrate the use of our approach on a scenario of an Adaptive Cruise Control system.
Formal modeling of Gene Ontology annotation predictions based on factor graphs
Spetale, Flavio; Murillo, Javier; Tapia, Elizabeth; Arce, Débora; Ponce, Sergio; Bulacio, Pilar
2016-04-01
Gene Ontology (GO) is a hierarchical vocabulary for gene product annotation. Its synergy with machine learning classification methods has been widely used for the prediction of protein functions. Current classification methods rely on heuristic solutions to check the consistency with some aspects of the underlying GO structure. In this work we formalize the GO is-a relationship through predicate logic. Moreover, an ontology model based on Forney Factor Graph (FFG) is shown on a general fragment of Cellular Component GO.
On complex Langevin dynamics and zeroes of the measure I: Formal proof and simple models
Aarts, Gert; Sexty, Denes; Stamatescu, Ion-Olimpiu
2016-01-01
In the complex Langevin approach to lattice simulations at nonzero density, zeroes of the fermion determinant lead to a meromorphic drift and hence a need to revisit the theoretical derivation. We discuss how poles in the drift affect the formal justification of the approach and then explore the various potential issues in simple models, in a manner that is applicable to heavy dense and full QCD.
A Formal Model of Corruption, Dishonesty and Selection into Public Service
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barfort, Sebastian; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Hjorth, Frederik Georg
2015-01-01
Recent empirical studies have found that in high corruption countries, inherently more dishonest individuals are more likely to want to enter into public service, while the reverse is true in low corruption countries. In this note, we provide a simple formal model that rationalizes this empirical...... pattern as the result of countries being stuck in different selfsustaining equilibria where high levels of corruption and negative selection into public service are mutually reinforcing....
Endicott, Julia S; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F
2014-07-21
We consider a fully quadratic vibronic model Hamiltonian for studying photoinduced electronic transitions through conical intersections. Using a second order perturbative approximation for diabatic couplings, we derive an analytical expression for the time evolution of electronic populations at a given temperature. This formalism extends upon a previously developed perturbative technique for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian. The advantage of the quadratic model Hamiltonian is that it allows one to use separate quadratic representations for potential energy surfaces of different electronic states and a more flexible representation of interstate couplings. We explore features introduced by the quadratic Hamiltonian in a series of 2D models, and then apply our formalism to the 2,6-bis(methylene) adamantyl cation and its dimethyl derivative. The Hamiltonian parameters for the molecular systems have been obtained from electronic structure calculations followed by a diabatization procedure. The evolution of electronic populations in the molecular systems using the perturbative formalism shows a good agreement with that from variational quantum dynamics.
Systems of Systems Modeled by a Hierarchical Part-Whole State-Based Formalism
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Luca Pazzi
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an explicit state-based modeling approach aimed at modeling Systems of Systems behavior. The approach allows to specify and verify incrementally safety and liveness rules without using model checking techniques. The state-based approach allows moreover to use the system behavior directly as an interface, greatly improving the effectiveness of the recursive composition needed when assembling Systems of Systems. Such systems are, at the same time, both parts and wholes, thus giving a formal characterization to the notion of Holon.
A new model test in high energy physics in frequentist and Bayesian statistical formalisms
Kamenshchikov, Andrey
2016-01-01
A problem of a new physical model test given observed experimental data is a typical one for modern experiments of high energy physics (HEP). A solution of the problem may be provided with two alternative statistical formalisms, namely frequentist and Bayesian, which are widely spread in contemporary HEP searches. A characteristic experimental situation is modeled from general considerations and both the approaches are utilized in order to test a new model. The results are juxtaposed, what demonstrates their consistency in this work. An effect of a systematic uncertainty treatment in the statistical analysis is also considered.
A new model test in high energy physics in frequentist and Bayesian statistical formalisms
Kamenshchikov, A.
2017-01-01
A problem of a new physical model test given observed experimental data is a typical one for modern experiments of high energy physics (HEP). A solution of the problem may be provided with two alternative statistical formalisms, namely frequentist and Bayesian, which are widely spread in contemporary HEP searches. A characteristic experimental situation is modeled from general considerations and both the approaches are utilized in order to test a new model. The results are juxtaposed, what demonstrates their consistency in this work. An effect of a systematic uncertainty treatment in the statistical analysis is also considered.
Modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge for the Geospatial Semantic Web
Huang, Hong; Gong, Jianya
2008-12-01
GML can only achieve geospatial interoperation at syntactic level. However, it is necessary to resolve difference of spatial cognition in the first place in most occasions, so ontology was introduced to describe geospatial information and services. But it is obviously difficult and improper to let users to find, match and compose services, especially in some occasions there are complicated business logics. Currently, with the gradual introduction of Semantic Web technology (e.g., OWL, SWRL), the focus of the interoperation of geospatial information has shifted from syntactic level to Semantic and even automatic, intelligent level. In this way, Geospatial Semantic Web (GSM) can be put forward as an augmentation to the Semantic Web that additionally includes geospatial abstractions as well as related reasoning, representation and query mechanisms. To advance the implementation of GSM, we first attempt to construct the mechanism of modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge, which are also two mostly foundational phases in knowledge engineering (KE). Our attitude in this paper is quite pragmatical: we argue that geospatial context is a formal model of the discriminate environment characters of geospatial knowledge, and the derivation, understanding and using of geospatial knowledge are located in geospatial context. Therefore, first, we put forward a primitive hierarchy of geospatial knowledge referencing first order logic, formal ontologies, rules and GML. Second, a metamodel of geospatial context is proposed and we use the modeling methods and representation languages of formal ontologies to process geospatial context. Thirdly, we extend Web Process Service (WPS) to be compatible with local DLL for geoprocessing and possess inference capability based on OWL.
Implementation of K-matrix formalism in the D0 -> K_s pi+ pi- amplitude model
Petrossian-Byrne, Rudin
2014-01-01
This report presents the work of a summer student project aimed at the implementation of a model for the decay amplitude of $D^0 \\rightarrow K_S \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ in the context of investigating mixing and CP violation in the charm sector. The analysis of this decay gives direct axis to the mixing parameters $x$ and $y$ which can be measured by fitting the model constructed to data. Decay dynamics are understood in terms of resonances, which can as a first aproximation be parametrised by Breit-Wigner curves, failing however to always respect unitarity. To avoid this problem the so-called K-matrix formalism with Production vector is implemented by the student as part of an alternative model making use of techniques from scattering theory. The implementation is done in the framework of a fitter written in CUDA designed to run on a GPU.
Formal Modeling of Greedy Nodes in 802.15.4 WSN
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Youcef Hammal
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with formal specification of the non-slotted CSMA/CA protocol in wireless sensor networks(WSN whose some nodes own a greedy behavior. This protocol requires sensor nodes to wait some time before initiating a transmission, whereas greedy nodes may try to reduce their waiting duration, which may penalize other nodes. To analyze their impact on WSN mode in operation, we use timed automata of the model-checker UPPAAL to capture the abstract behavior of communication medium, sane, and greedy nodes in WSN. This enables the use of analysis tools to check whether these models satisfy intended properties.
Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs
Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O
2014-01-01
One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.
S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems
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Namhun Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.
Model-based design of self-Adapting networked signal processing systems
Oliveira Filho, J.A. de; Papp, Z.; Djapic, R.; Oostveen, J.C.
2013-01-01
The paper describes a model based approach for architecture design of runtime reconfigurable, large-scale, networked signal processing applications. A graph based modeling formalism is introduced to describe all relevant aspects of the design (functional, concurrency, hardware, communication, energy
Formal Verification of a Secure Model for Building E-Learning Systems
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Farhan M Al Obisat
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Internet is considered as common medium for E-learning to connect several parties with each other (instructors and students as they are supposed to be far away from each other. Both wired and wireless networks are used in this learning environment to facilitate mobile access to educational systems. This learning environment requires a secure connection and data exchange. An E-learning model was implemented and evaluated by conducting student’s experiments. Before the approach is deployed in the real world a formal verification for the model is completed which shows that unreachability case does not exist. The model in this paper which is concentrated on the security of e-content has successfully validated the model using SPIN Model Checker where no errors were found.
Bravo, Carlos; Suarez, Carlos; González, Carolina; López, Diego; Blobel, Bernd
2014-01-01
Healthcare information is distributed through multiple heterogeneous and autonomous systems. Access to, and sharing of, distributed information sources are a challenging task. To contribute to meeting this challenge, this paper presents a formal, complete and semi-automatic transformation service from Relational Databases to Web Ontology Language. The proposed service makes use of an algorithm that allows to transform several data models of different domains by deploying mainly inheritance rules. The paper emphasizes the relevance of integrating the proposed approach into an ontology-based interoperability service to achieve semantic interoperability.
Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael
2014-01-01
protocols. Furthermore, we perform formal verification of the CPN model prior to code generation, and test the implementation for interoperability against the Autobahn WebSocket test-suite resulting in 97% and 99% success rate for the client and server implementation, respectively. The tests show...... with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...
Formal Modeling of Trust Web Service Composition Using Pi-calculus
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Bensheng YUN
2013-08-01
Full Text Available To enhance the credibility of Web service composition, Pi-calculus based formal modeling of trust Web service composition is proposed. Trust Web service composition is firstly defined abstractly; then Pi-calculus is used to depict structure and internal interaction of Trust Web service composition, the mapping relation between trust entity and Pi-calculus is provided. Automatic reasoner MWB is adopted to analyze and reason the Trust Web service composition system, which is aimed at finding and correcting the faults before the implementation of trust authentication of Web service composition. It thus meets the users’ demands on trust quality effectively.
First-order formalism for flat branes in generalized N-field models
Bazeia, D; Losano, L; Menezes, R
2013-01-01
This work deals with braneworld scenarios obtained from N real scalar fields, whose dynamics is generalized to include higher order power in the derivative of the fields. For the scalar fields being driven by nonstandard dynamics, we show how a first-order formalism can be obtained for flat brane in the presence of several fields. We then illustrate our findings investigating distinct potentials with one and two fields, obtaining stable standard and compact solutions in the braneworld theory. In particular, we have found different models describing the very same warp factor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Jae Chang; Cheon, Se Woo; Jung, Kwang Tae; Baek, Seung Min; Han, Seung; Park, Hee Suk; Son, Ki Chang; Kim, Jung Man; Jung Yung Woo
1999-11-01
This report describe a technical transfer under the title of ''A formal design verification and validation on the human factors of a computerized information system in nuclear power plants''. Human factors requirements for the information system designs are extracted from various regulatory and industrial standards and guidelines, and interpreted into a more specific procedures and checklists for verifying the satisfaction of those requirements. A formalized implementation plan is established for human factors verification and validation of a computerized information system in nuclear power plants. Additionally, a Computer support system, named as DIMS-web (design Issue Management System), is developed based upon web internet environment so as to enhance the implementation of the human factors activities. DIMS-Web has three maine functions: supporting requirements review, tracking design issues, and management if issues screening evaluation. DIMS-Web shows its benefits in practice through a trial application to the design review of CFMS for YGN nuclear unit 5 and 6. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crichlow, H.B.; Crichlow, H.B. (ed.)
1980-02-07
A design tool is discussed whereby the various components that enter the design process of a hydraulic fracturing job are combined to provide a realistic appraisal of a stimulation job in the field. An interactive computer model is used to solve the problem numerically to obtain the effects of various parameters on the overall behavior of the system.
Vrugt, J.A.; ter Braak, C.J.F.; Gupta, H.V.; Robinson, B.A.
2009-01-01
This is our reply to the comment by Beven (2008) on our paper ‘‘Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) Bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?’’ recently published in Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.
Croll, Peter R
2011-02-01
To ensure that patient confidentiality is securely maintained, health ICT applications that contain sensitive personal information demand comprehensive privacy policies. Determining the adequacy of these policies to meet legal conformity together with clinical users and patient expectation is demanding in practice. Organisations and agencies looking to analyse their Privacy and Security policies can benefit from guidance provided by outside entities such as the Privacy Office of their State or Government together with law firms and ICT specialists. The advice given is not uniform and often open to different interpretations. Of greater concern is the possibility of overlooking any important aspects that later result in a data breach. Based on three case studies, this paper considers whether a more formal approach to privacy analysis could be taken that would help identify the full coverage of a Privacy Impact Analysis and determine the deficiencies with an organisation's current policies and approach. A diagrammatic model showing the relationships between Confidentiality, Privacy, Trust, Security and Safety is introduced. First the validity of this model is determined by mapping it against the real-world case studies taken from three healthcare services that depend on ICT. Then, by using software engineering methods, a formal mapping of the relationships is undertaken to identify a full set of policies needed to satisfy the model. How effective this approach may prove as a generic method for deriving a comprehensive set of policies in health ICT applications is finally discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2011-01-01
The advantages and disadvantages of formalization in philosophy are summarized. It is concluded that formalized philosophy is an endangered speciality that needs to be revitalized and to increase its interactions with non-formalized philosophy. The enigmatic style that is common in philosophical logic must give way to explicit discussions of the problematic relationship between formal models and the philosophical concepts and issues that motivated their development.
Discounting of Reward Sequences: a Test of Competing Formal Models of Hyperbolic Discounting
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Noah eZarr
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Humans are known to discount future rewards hyperbolically in time. Nevertheless, a formal recursive model of hyperbolic discounting has been elusive until recently, with the introduction of the hyperbolically discounted temporal difference (HDTD model. Prior to that, models of learning (especially reinforcement learning have relied on exponential discounting, which generally provides poorer fits to behavioral data. Recently, it has been shown that hyperbolic discounting can also be approximated by a summed distribution of exponentially discounted values, instantiated in the µAgents model. The HDTD model and the µAgents model differ in one key respect, namely how they treat sequences of rewards. The µAgents model is a particular implementation of a parallel discounting model, which values sequences based on the summed value of the individual rewards whereas the HDTD model contains a nonlinear interaction. To discriminate among these models, we ascertained how subjects discounted a sequence of three rewards, and then we tested how well each candidate model fit the subject data. The results show that the parallel model generally provides a better fit to the human data.
Designing Business Model Change
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cavalcante, Sergio Andre
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper is to base organisational change on the firm's business model, an approach that research has only recently start to address. This study adopts a process-based perspective on business models and insights from a variety of theories as the basis for the development of ideas...... on the design of business model change. This paper offers a new, process-based strategic analytical artefact for the design of business model change, consisting of three main phases. Designing business model change as suggested in this paper allows ex ante analysis of alternative scenarios of change...... in a structured and comprehensive way. Such a tool is useful for obtaining an overall view of the working logic of the firm and to facilitate innovation through change. The main contribution of this paper is to transform management theories into an instrument that can be helpful for companies to develop...
Mark, David M. (David Michael), 1947-; Egenhofer, Max J.; Hornsby, Kathleen
1997-01-01
This report describes the outcome of the Specialist Meeting of the NCGIA Research Initiative 21 on "Formal Models of Commonsense Geographic Worlds". The meeting was held in San Marcos, TX on October 30- November 3, 1996. Research Initiative 21 is concerned with the development of formal models of commonsense geographic worlds. Discussions at the Specialist Meeting focused on the commonsense or naive geographic reasoning that people perform and whose outcome makes intuitive sense to m...
A formal model for measuring the effect of technological change on telecentre usage
Azizi, Azizi; Ahmad, Faudziah; Yusop, Nor Iadah; Aji, Zahurin Mat
2016-08-01
Technological change (TC), in general refers to continuous invention, innovation and diffusion of technology. In relation to telecentre, TC is seen as the driving force of the centre's operation. However, in recent years, telecentre's usage and operation is declining slowly and this leads to the question about the continued relevance of these centres as well as calls for evidence of impacts to justify further resources and program improvements. The paper aims to present the simulation results on an agent-based model that was developed to show the impact of TC on telecentre's usage. The model was constructed in four phases, Abstraction, Formalization, Simulation and Evaluation. Results showed that the computational model was able to show the effective usage of telecentre in different types of scenarios.
Thermo-magnetic nonlocal NJL model in the real and imaginary time formalisms
Márquez, F
2016-01-01
In this article we study a nonlocal Nambu--Jona-Lasinio (nNJL) model with a Gaussian regulator in presence of a uniform magnetic field. We take a mixed approach to the incorporation of temperature in the model, and consider aspects of both real and imaginary time formalisms. We include confinement in the model through the quasiparticle interpretation of the poles of the propagator. The effect of the magnetic field in the deconfinement phase transition is then studied. It is found that, like with chiral symmetry restoration, magnetic catalysis occurs for the deconfinement phase transition. It is also found that the magnetic field enhances the thermodynamical instability of the system. We work in the weak field limit, i.e. $(eB)<5m_\\pi^2$. At this level there is no splitting of the critical temperatures for chiral and deconfinement phase transitions.
Formal Modeling and Analysis of Fairness Characterization of E-Commerce Protocols
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Chengwei Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the past, fairness verification of exchanges between the traders in E-commerce was based on a common assumption, so-called nonrepudiation property, which says that if the parties involved can deny that they have received or sent some information, then the exchanging protocol is unfair. So, the nonrepudiation property is not a sufficient condition. In this paper, we formulate a new notion of fairness verification based on the strand space model and propose a method for fairness verification, which can potentially determine whether evidences have been forged in transactions. We first present an innovative formal approach not to depend on nonrepudiation, and then establish a relative trader model and extend the strand space model in accordance with traders’ behaviors of E-commerce. We present a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of our verification method.
Formal Learning Sequences and Progression in the Studio: A Framework for Digital Design Education
Wärnestål, Pontus
2016-01-01
This paper examines how to leverage the design studio learning environment throughout long-term Digital Design education in order to support students to progress from tactical, well-defined, device-centric routine design, to confidently design sustainable solutions for strategic, complex, problems for a wide range of devices and platforms in the…
Park, A; Zid, D; Russell, J; Malone, A; Rendon, A; Wehr, A; Li, X
2014-01-01
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Increasing evidence shows that physical exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, and animal models suggest that it may help slow progression of disease. Using a randomized delayed-start design, 31 patients were randomized to an early start group (ESG) or a delayed start group (DSG) exercise program. The ESG underwent a rigorous formal group exercise program for 1 h, three days/week, for 48 weeks (November 2011-October 2012). The DSG participated in this identical exercise program from weeks 24-48. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Walking Test (get-up-and-go), Tinetti Mobility Test, PDQ-39 Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. There was minimal attrition in this study, with only one patient dropping out. Results did not show improvement in total UPDRS scores with early exercise. At week 48, the mean change from baseline total UPDRS score was 6.33 in the ESG versus 5.13 in the DSG (p = 0.58). However, patients randomized to the ESG scored significantly better on the Beck Depression Inventory, with a mean improvement of 1.07 points relative to those in the DSG (p = 0.04). The findings demonstrate that long-term, group exercise programs are feasible in the Parkinson's disease population, with excellent adherence and minimal drop out. While the outcome measures used in our study did not provide strong evidence that exercise has a neuroprotective effect on motor function, earlier participation in a group exercise program had a significant effect on symptoms of depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, A.; Zid, D.; Russell, J.; Malone, A.; Rendon, A.; Wehr, A.; Li, X.
2014-01-01
Introduction Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Increasing evidence shows that physical exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, and animal models suggest that it may help slow progression of disease. Methods Using a randomized delayed-start design, 31 patients were randomized to an early start group (ESG) or a delayed start group (DSG) exercise program. The ESG underwent a rigorous formal group exercise program for 1 h, three days/week, for 48 weeks (November 2011–October 2012). The DSG participated in this identical exercise program from weeks 24–48. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Walking Test (get-up-and-go), Tinetti Mobility Test, PDQ-39 Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results There was minimal attrition in this study, with only one patient dropping out. Results did not show improvement in total UPDRS scores with early exercise. At week 48, the mean change from baseline total UPDRS score was 6.33 in the ESG versus 5.13 in the DSG (p = 0.58). However, patients randomized to the ESG scored significantly better on the Beck Depression Inventory, with a mean improvement of 1.07 points relative to those in the DSG (p = 0.04). Conclusions The findings demonstrate that long-term, group exercise programs are feasible in the Parkinson’s disease population, with excellent adherence and minimal drop out. While the outcome measures used in our study did not provide strong evidence that exercise has a neuroprotective effect on motor function, earlier participation in a group exercise program had a significant effect on symptoms of depression. PMID:24209458
Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic
Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert
1998-01-01
Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mª Begoña Alfageme González
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Our proposal is to present a model of educational planning for museums. The school cannot be assumed to render all the education that a person needs. Therefore other social institutions are called upon to complement a person?s training. We begin by justifying the interest of including non-formal education in this context. Subsequently, we focus our study on an educational model that can be used as a planning tool in museums, thus expanding its use as a formative institution as well. Nuestra propuesta se centra en presentar un modelo de planificación educativa para las instituciones museísticas. La escuela no puede asumir toda la educación que un sujeto necesita, de ahí que tengan que ser otras instituciones sociales las que ayuden a complementar su formación. Comenzamos justificando el interés de abarcar la educación no formal en este contexto, y terminamos profundizando en el estudio de un modelo de enseñanza que nos puede ayudar a planificar en los museos, potenciando, así, sus posibilidades de uso formativo.
Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations
Sussman, Roberto A.
2013-03-01
We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.
ACHIEVING HIGH INTEGRITY OF PROCESS-CONTROL SOFTWARE BY GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND FORMAL VERIFICATION
HALANG, WA; Kramer, B.J.
1992-01-01
The International Electrotechnical Commission is currently standardising four compatible languages for designing and implementing programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The language family includes a diagrammatic notation that supports the idea of software ICs to encourage graphical design technique
ACHIEVING HIGH INTEGRITY OF PROCESS-CONTROL SOFTWARE BY GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND FORMAL VERIFICATION
HALANG, WA; Kramer, B.J.
The International Electrotechnical Commission is currently standardising four compatible languages for designing and implementing programmable logic controllers (PLCs). The language family includes a diagrammatic notation that supports the idea of software ICs to encourage graphical design
Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten
2013-01-01
Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during
Models of atoms in plasmas based on common formalism for bound and free electrons
Blenski, T.; Piron, R.; Caizergues, C.; Cichocki, B.
2013-12-01
Atom-in-plasma models: Thomas-Fermi (TF) and INFERNO, AJCI and VAAQP, that use the same formalism for all electrons are briefly described and analyzed from the point of view of their thermodynamic consistence. While the TF and VAAQP models may be derived from variational principle and respect the virial theorem, it appears that two earlier quantum extensions of the quasi-classical TF model, INFERNO and AJCI, are not fully variational. The problems of the two latter approaches are analyzed from the point of view of the VAAQP model. However all quantum models seem to give unrealistic description of atoms in plasma at low temperature and high plasma densities. These difficulties are connected with the Wigner-Seitz cavity approach to non-central ions that is present in all considered models. Comparison of some equation-of-state data from TF, INFERNO and VAAQP models are shown on a chosen example. We report also on the status of our research on the frequency-dependent linear-response theory of atoms in plasma. A new Ehrenfest-type sum rule, originally proposed in the quantum VAAQP model, was proven in the case of the response of the TF atom with the Bloch hydrodynamics (TFB) and checked by numerical example. The TFB case allows one to have a direct insight into the rather involved mathematics of the self-consistent linear response calculations in situations when both the central atom and its plasma vicinity are perturbed by an electric field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sadegh
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature how to properly treat non-traditional error residual distributions and quantify parameter and predictive uncertainty. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether such uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian context using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation techniques, or whether such a framework should be based on a quite different philosophy and implement informal likelihood functions and simplistic search methods to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper we introduce an alternative framework, called Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC that summarizes the differing viewpoints of formal and informal Bayesian approaches. This methodology has recently emerged in the fields of biology and population genetics and relaxes the need for an explicit likelihood function in favor of one or multiple different summary statistics that measure the distance of each model simulation to the data. This paper is a follow up of the recent publication of Nott et al. (2012 and further studies the theoretical and numerical equivalence of formal (DREAM and informal (GLUE Bayesian approaches using data from different watersheds in the United States. We demonstrate that the limits of acceptability approach of GLUE is a special variant of ABC in which each discharge observation of the calibration data set is used as a summary diagnostic.
A Dynamic Subgrid Scale Model for Large Eddy Simulations Based on the Mori-Zwanzig Formalism
Parish, Eric J
2016-01-01
The development of reduced models for complex systems that lack scale separation remains one of the principal challenges in computational physics. The optimal prediction framework of Chorin et al., which is a reformulation of the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, provides a methodology for the development of mathematically-derived reduced models of dynamical systems. Several promising models have emerged from the optimal prediction community and have found application in molecular dynamics and turbulent flows. In this work, a novel M-Z-based closure model that addresses some of the deficiencies of existing methods is developed. The model is constructed by exploiting similarities between two levels of coarse-graining via the Germano identity of fluid mechanics and by assuming that memory effects have a finite temporal support. The appeal of the proposed model, which will be referred to as the `dynamic-$\\tau$' model, is that it is parameter-free and has a structural form imp...
Continuous surface charge polarizable continuum models of solvation. I. General formalism.
Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J
2010-03-21
Continuum solvation models are appealing because of the simplified yet accurate description they provide of the solvent effect on a solute, described either by quantum mechanical or classical methods. The polarizable continuum model (PCM) family of solvation models is among the most widely used, although their application has been hampered by discontinuities and singularities arising from the discretization of the integral equations at the solute-solvent interface. In this contribution we introduce a continuous surface charge (CSC) approach that leads to a smooth and robust formalism for the PCM models. We start from the scheme proposed over ten years ago by York and Karplus and we generalize it in various ways, including the extension to analytic second derivatives with respect to atomic positions. We propose an optimal discrete representation of the integral operators required for the determination of the apparent surface charge. We achieve a clear separation between "model" and "cavity" which, together with simple generalizations of modern integral codes, is all that is required for an extensible and efficient implementation of the PCM models. Following this approach we are now able to introduce solvent effects on energies, structures, and vibrational frequencies (analytical first and second derivatives with respect to atomic coordinates), magnetic properties (derivatives with respect of magnetic field using GIAOs), and in the calculation more complex properties like frequency-dependent Raman activities, vibrational circular dichroism, and Raman optical activity.
Design Choices in a Compiler Course or How to Make Undergraduates Love Formal Notation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff
2008-01-01
The undergraduate compiler course offers a unique opportunity to combine many aspects of the Computer Science curriculum. We discuss the many design choices that are available for the instructor and present the current compiler course at the University of Aarhus, the design of which displays...
Making Games after School: Participatory Game Design in Non-Formal Learning Environments
Clark, Kevin; Brandt, Jami; Hopkins, Rhonda; Wilhelm, Jason
2009-01-01
Participatory design principles were used with primarily African-American and Latino children in the Washington, DC area in the development of sports-themed digital game prototypes in an after-school program. The three stages in participatory design are the discovery stage, the evaluative stage, and prototyping. Within the participatory design…
Institutional Design and Formal Autonomy: Political versus Historical and Cultural Explanations
Yesilkagit, A.K.; Christensen, J.
2010-01-01
This article tests two competing hypotheses in the study of the institutional design of regulatory agencies. Political explanations consider the degree of institutional design of regulatory agencies as a function of political factors, such as the degree of policy conflict and political uncertainty.
Wybo, Willem A M; Boccalini, Daniele; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Gewaltig, Marc-Oliver
2015-12-01
We prove that when a class of partial differential equations, generalized from the cable equation, is defined on tree graphs and the inputs are restricted to a spatially discrete, well chosen set of points, the Green's function (GF) formalism can be rewritten to scale as O(n) with the number n of inputs locations, contrary to the previously reported O(n(2)) scaling. We show that the linear scaling can be combined with an expansion of the remaining kernels as sums of exponentials to allow efficient simulations of equations from the aforementioned class. We furthermore validate this simulation paradigm on models of nerve cells and explore its relation with more traditional finite difference approaches. Situations in which a gain in computational performance is expected are discussed.
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Wulan Dwi Purnamasari
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The Growing up of Informal Sector is slowly affected space use and the morphological forms Kampung Sekayu, views of the circulation or movement changes and changes in space for. The model changes of Kampung Sekayu shown in matrix form, diagrams, and mapping by using symbols was adapted from Zahnd theory (2008 which were previously done uantitative analysis to know the category changes.Based on the theory of Lazarus (1984 about the adjustment, the results of this study shows that the activities of people in Kampung Sekayu is an adaptation because people trying to be part of the formal trade sector that grows rapidly. Each activity requires space as a container. In this case, the changes is happening in Kampung Sekayu is a form of adjustment due to some space available (such as public space is intended to support the work done by street vendors and parking attendants.
A Formal Cognitive Model of the Go/No-Go Discrimination Task: Evaluation and Implications
Yechiam, Eldad; Goodnight, Jackson; Bates, John E.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Newman, Joseph P.
2009-01-01
This article proposes and tests a formal cognitive model for the go/no-go discrimination task. In this task, the performer chooses whether to respond to stimuli and receives rewards for responding to certain stimuli and punishments for responding to others. Three cognitive models were evaluated on the basis of data from a longitudinal study involving 400 adolescents. The results show that a cue-dependent model presupposing that participants can differentiate between cues was the most accurate and parsimonious. This model has 3 parameters denoting the relative impact of rewards and punishments on evaluations, the rate that contingent payoffs are learned, and the consistency between learning and responding. Commission errors were associated with increased attention to rewards; omission errors were associated with increased attention to punishments. Both error types were associated with low choice consistency. The parameters were also shown to have external validity: Attention to rewards was associated with externalizing behavior problems on the Achenbach scale, and choice consistency was associated with low Welsh anxiety. The present model can thus potentially improve the sensitivity of the task to differences between clinical populations. PMID:16953727
Non-local Closure Models for Large Eddy Simulations using the Mori-Zwanzig Formalism
Parish, Eric J
2016-01-01
This work uses the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism, a concept originating from non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, as a basis for the development of coarse-grained models of turbulence. The mechanics of the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) are considered and a methodology for approximating the orthogonal (unresolved) dynamics equation is presented. Insight gained from the GLE is used as a starting point for model development. A class of sub-grid models is considered which represent non-local behavior via a finite memory approximation (Stinis, 2012), the length of which is determined using a heuristic that is related to the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the resolved variables. The resulting models are intimately tied to the underlying numerical resolution and are capable of approximating non-Markovian effects. Numerical experiments on the Burgers equation demonstrate that the M-Z based models can accurately predict the temporal evolution of the total kinetic energy and the total dissipation rate at var...
Correlating Formal Semantic Models of Reo Connectors: Connector Coloring and Constraint Automata
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Sung-Shik T.Q. Jongmans
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Over the past decades, coordination languages have emerged for the specification and implementation of interaction protocols for communicating software components. This class of languages includes Reo, a platform for compositional construction of connectors. In recent years, various formalisms for describing the behavior of Reo connectors have come to existence, each of them serving its own purpose. Naturally, questions about how these models relate to each other arise. From a theoretical point of view, answers to these questions provide us with better insight into the fundamentals of Reo, while from a more practical perspective, these answers broaden the applicability of Reo's development tools. In this paper, we address one of these questions: we investigate the equivalence between coloring models and constraint automata, the two most dominant and practically relevant semantic models of Reo. More specifically, we define operators that transform one model to the other (and vice versa, prove their correctness, and show that they distribute over composition. To ensure that the transformation operators map one-to-one (instead of many-to-one, we extend coloring models with data constraints. Though primarily a theoretical contribution, we sketch some potential applications of our results: the broadening of the applicability of existing tools for connector verification and animation.
Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.
1973-01-01
The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.
Chayanopparat Piyanan; Charungkaittikul Suwithida; Ratana-Ubol Archanya
2016-01-01
Non-formal vocational education provides practical experiences in a particular occupational field to non-formal semi-skilled learners. Non-formal vocational teachers are the key persons to deliver particular occupational knowledge. The essential competencies enhancement for non-sformal vocational teachers will improve teaching performance. The question of the research is what the essential competencies for the nonformal vocational teachers are. The research method was 1) to review related lit...
Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models, part II: a formalism of exact perturbations
Sussman, Roberto A
2013-01-01
We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take a FLRW "look alike" form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q--scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with a FLRW region (Swiss cheese type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a "contrast" of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned t...
Shukla, A.; Krishna, S.; Malik, R. P.
2014-12-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the (1-form) Yang-Mills (YM) and (2-form) tensorial gauge symmetries of the four (3+1)-dimensional (4D) Freedman-Townsend (FT) model, by exploiting the augmented version of Bonora-Tonin's (BT) superfield approach to BRST formalism where the 4D flat Minkowskian theory is generalized onto the (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. One of the novel observations is the fact that we are theoretically compelled to go beyond the horizontality condition (HC) to invoke an additional set of gauge-invariant restrictions (GIRs) for the derivation of the full set of proper (anti-)BRST symmetries. To obtain the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the tensorial (2-form) gauge symmetries within the framework of augmented version of BT-superfield approach, we are logically forced to modify the FT-model to incorporate an auxiliary 1-form field and the kinetic term for the antisymmetric (2-form) gauge field. This is also a new observation in our present investigation. We point out some of the key differences between the modified FT-model and Lahiri-model (LM) of the dynamical non-Abelian 2-form gauge theories. We also briefly mention a few similarities.
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-12-01
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Karniadakis, George Em, E-mail: george-karniadakis@brown.edu [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Li, Xiantao [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)
2015-12-28
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.
Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism.
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em
2015-12-28
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.
Non-Markovian closure models for large eddy simulations using the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Parish, Eric J.; Duraisamy, Karthik
2017-01-01
This work uses the Mori-Zwanzig (M-Z) formalism, a concept originating from nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, as a basis for the development of coarse-grained models of turbulence. The mechanics of the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) are considered, and insight gained from the orthogonal dynamics equation is used as a starting point for model development. A class of subgrid models is considered which represent nonlocal behavior via a finite memory approximation [Stinis, arXiv:1211.4285 (2012)], the length of which is determined using a heuristic that is related to the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the resolved variables. The resulting models are intimately tied to the underlying numerical resolution and are capable of approximating non-Markovian effects. Numerical experiments on the Burgers equation demonstrate that the M-Z-based models can accurately predict the temporal evolution of the total kinetic energy and the total dissipation rate at varying mesh resolutions. The trajectory of each resolved mode in phase space is accurately predicted for cases where the coarse graining is moderate. Large eddy simulations (LESs) of homogeneous isotropic turbulence and the Taylor-Green Vortex show that the M-Z-based models are able to provide excellent predictions, accurately capturing the subgrid contribution to energy transfer. Last, LESs of fully developed channel flow demonstrate the applicability of M-Z-based models to nondecaying problems. It is notable that the form of the closure is not imposed by the modeler, but is rather derived from the mathematics of the coarse graining, highlighting the potential of M-Z-based techniques to define LES closures.
Krylov, Piotr
2017-01-01
This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...
Schnieder, Ann M.
This paper describes an ethnographic study of four intern pairs in a specific local setting to explore the effects of specific mandates of the New York State Mentor Teacher Internship Project (MTIP). Guidelines and regulations designed to be supportive of both mentors and beginning teachers were in conflict with local cultural norms and resources.…
Formal Design and Analysis of a Wastewater Treatment Control System based on Petrinet
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Seno D. Panjaitan
2012-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new control design approach for industrial wastewater treatment where its logic control is verifiable. In this research, a treatment control design in a lab-scale was controlled by a microcontroller circuit. The developed system combined anaerobic digestion, aeration and filtration process. Its logic control algorithm was designed by using Signal Interpreted Petri Net. In the logic verification, six analysis properties were satisfied: conflict free (logical process had no conflict behavior, termination (the process could be terminated from any state, non-contradictory outputs, live (any process state could always be reached from other state, deadlock-free, and reversible (the process could always back to initial condition. In the design evaluation, the average value of transparency metrics was 0.984 close to 1 as the best value. The system performance was evaluated by pollutant removal efficiency. The highest removal efficiencies were obtained when each anaerobic and aeration treatment were performed for three days respectively and followed by filtration. Within this condition, the system obtained average removal efficiency 91.7% of Chemical Oxygen Demand and 95.4% of Total Suspended Solids. In terms of electricity consumption, the system needed only 1,857.6 Watt-hour for a batch treatment process.
Formal Model for Data Dependency Analysis between Controls and Actions of a Graphical User Interface
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SKVORC, D.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available End-user development is an emerging computer science discipline that provides programming paradigms, techniques, and tools suitable for users not trained in software engineering. One of the techniques that allow ordinary computer users to develop their own applications without the need to learn a classic programming language is a GUI-level programming based on programming-by-demonstration. To build wizard-based tools that assist users in application development and to verify the correctness of user programs, a computer-supported method for GUI-level data dependency analysis is necessary. Therefore, formal model for GUI representation is needed. In this paper, we present a finite state machine for modeling the data dependencies between GUI controls and GUI actions. Furthermore, we present an algorithm for automatic construction of finite state machine for arbitrary GUI application. We show that proposed state aggregation scheme successfully manages state explosion in state machine construction algorithm, which makes the model applicable for applications with complex GUIs.
Albert, Dietrich; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Matsuda, Fumiko
2008-01-01
The developmental course in the distance-speed-time domain is still a matter of debate. Traditional stage models are contested by theories of continuous development and adaptive thinking. In the present work, we introduce a formal framework for modelling the developmental course in this domain, grounding on Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory.…
Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications
Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana
2012-01-01
"Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...
Formal modeling and analysis of ER-α associated Biological Regulatory Network in breast cancer
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Samra Khalid
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Background Breast cancer (BC is one of the leading cause of death among females worldwide. The increasing incidence of BC is due to various genetic and environmental changes which lead to the disruption of cellular signaling network(s. It is a complex disease in which several interlinking signaling cascades play a crucial role in establishing a complex regulatory network. The logical modeling approach of René Thomas has been applied to analyze the behavior of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α associated Biological Regulatory Network (BRN for a small part of complex events that leads to BC metastasis. Methods A discrete model was constructed using the kinetic logic formalism and its set of logical parameters were obtained using the model checking technique implemented in the SMBioNet software which is consistent with biological observations. The discrete model was further enriched with continuous dynamics by converting it into an equivalent Petri Net (PN to analyze the logical parameters of the involved entities. Results In-silico based discrete and continuous modeling of ER-α associated signaling network involved in BC provides information about behaviors and gene-gene interaction in detail. The dynamics of discrete model revealed, imperative behaviors represented as cyclic paths and trajectories leading to pathogenic states such as metastasis. Results suggest that the increased expressions of receptors ER-α, IGF-1R and EGFR slow down the activity of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs such as BRCA1, p53 and Mdm2 which can lead to metastasis. Therefore, IGF-1R and EGFR are considered as important inhibitory targets to control the metastasis in BC. Conclusion The in-silico approaches allow us to increase our understanding of the functional properties of living organisms. It opens new avenues of investigations of multiple inhibitory targets (ER-α, IGF-1R and EGFR for wet lab experiments as well as provided valuable insights in the treatment of cancers
Formalization of the General Model of the Green Economy at the Regional Level
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Ivan Mikhaylovich Potravny
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The subject-matter of the article is the research of the problems of economic and mathematical modelling of the green economy at the regional level. The purpose of the research is the substantiation and development of economic and mathematical tools for the modelling of economic and ecological systems at the regional level on the basis of the principles of the green economy. The hypothesis of the study is based on the thesis that in the conditions of the resource exhaustion and depletion of natural capital, the technogenic deposits as well as production waste and consumption can be considered as the resource base for modern production, whose use leads to the elimination of accumulated environmental damage and substitution of natural resources. In the article, the approaches to the system modelling problems are considered to develop the green economy at the level of the country and its regions. The relevance of the transition to a green economy is confirmed by the theoretical and practical research in the field of the cyclic development of socio-eco-economic systems. A number of formalized models and methods for solving current environmental-economic issues including the economic valuation of accumulated environmental damage, eco-economic assessment of the efficiency of natural resource substitution with resource-substitute are proposed as well as the choice of an optimal set of resources-substitutes taking into account the financial and natural resource constraints. The standard models of green growth are considered. These models take into account the exhaustion of natural resources, involvement of the resources of technogenic deposits in the economic circulation through the implementation of investment projects on the elimination of accumulated environmental damage. The results of the study may be used in the different regions of the country for the justification and implementation of investment projects in the framework of the Federal Target
Formal modeling and analysis of ER-α associated Biological Regulatory Network in breast cancer
Tareen, Samar H.K.; Siddiqa, Amnah; Bibi, Zurah; Ahmad, Jamil
2016-01-01
Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cause of death among females worldwide. The increasing incidence of BC is due to various genetic and environmental changes which lead to the disruption of cellular signaling network(s). It is a complex disease in which several interlinking signaling cascades play a crucial role in establishing a complex regulatory network. The logical modeling approach of René Thomas has been applied to analyze the behavior of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) associated Biological Regulatory Network (BRN) for a small part of complex events that leads to BC metastasis. Methods A discrete model was constructed using the kinetic logic formalism and its set of logical parameters were obtained using the model checking technique implemented in the SMBioNet software which is consistent with biological observations. The discrete model was further enriched with continuous dynamics by converting it into an equivalent Petri Net (PN) to analyze the logical parameters of the involved entities. Results In-silico based discrete and continuous modeling of ER-α associated signaling network involved in BC provides information about behaviors and gene-gene interaction in detail. The dynamics of discrete model revealed, imperative behaviors represented as cyclic paths and trajectories leading to pathogenic states such as metastasis. Results suggest that the increased expressions of receptors ER-α, IGF-1R and EGFR slow down the activity of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) such as BRCA1, p53 and Mdm2 which can lead to metastasis. Therefore, IGF-1R and EGFR are considered as important inhibitory targets to control the metastasis in BC. Conclusion The in-silico approaches allow us to increase our understanding of the functional properties of living organisms. It opens new avenues of investigations of multiple inhibitory targets (ER-α, IGF-1R and EGFR) for wet lab experiments as well as provided valuable insights in the treatment of cancers such as BC.
The Formal Language and Design Principles of Autonomous DNA Walker Circuits.
Boemo, Michael A; Lucas, Alexandra E; Turberfield, Andrew J; Cardelli, Luca
2016-08-19
Simple computation can be performed using the interactions between single-stranded molecules of DNA. These interactions are typically toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions in a well-mixed solution. We demonstrate that a DNA circuit with tethered reactants is a distributed system and show how it can be described as a stochastic Petri net. The system can be verified by mapping the Petri net onto a continuous-time Markov chain, which can also be used to find an optimal design for the circuit. This theoretical machinery can be applied to create software that automatically designs a DNA circuit, linking an abstract propositional formula to a physical DNA computation system that is capable of evaluating it. We conclude by introducing example mechanisms that can implement such circuits experimentally and discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses.
Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
This technical report contains the Higher-Order Logic (HOL) listings of the partial verification of the requirements and design for a commercially developed processor interface unit (PIU). The PIU is an interface chip performing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. This report contains the actual HOL listings of the PIU verification as it currently exists. Section two of this report contains general-purpose HOL theories and definitions that support the PIU verification. These include arithmetic theories dealing with inequalities and associativity, and a collection of tactics used in the PIU proofs. Section three contains the HOL listings for the completed PIU design verification. Section 4 contains the HOL listings for the partial requirements verification of the P-Port.
Semantic modeling of e-solutions using a view formalism with conceptual & logical extensions
Rajugan, R.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.; Dillon, T.
2005-01-01
In industrial informatics, there exists a requirement to model and design views at a higher level of abstraction. Since the classical view definitions are only available at the query or instance level, modelling and maintaining such views for complex enterprise information systems (EIS) is a challen
A new formal model for privilege control with supporting POSIX capability mechanism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI Qingguang; QING Sihan; HE Yeping
2005-01-01
In order to enforce the least privilege principle in the operating system, it is necessary for the process privilege to be effectively controlled; but this is very difficult because a process always changes as time changes. In this paper, based on the analysis on how the process privilege is generated and how it works, a hierarchy implementing the least privilege principle with three layers, i.e. administration layer, functionality control layer and performance layer, is posed. It is clearly demonstrated that to bound privilege's working scope is a critical part for controlling privilege, but this is only mentioned implicitly while not supported in POSIX capability mechanism. Based on analysis of existing control mechanism for privilege, not only an improved capability inheritance formula but also a new complete formal model for controlling process based on integrating RBAC, DTE, and POSIX capability mechanism is introduced. The new invariants in the model show that this novel privilege control mechanism is different from RBAC's, DTE's, and POSIX's, and it generalizes subdomain control mechanism and makes this mechanism dynamic.
Shukla, A; Malik, R P
2013-01-01
We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the (1-form) Yang-Mills (YM) and (2-form) tensor gauge symmetries of the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) Freedman-Townsend (FT) model, by exploiting the augmented version of Bonora-Tonin's (BT) superfield approach to BRST formalism where the 4D flat Minkowskian theory is generalized onto the (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. One of the novel observations is the fact that we are theoretically compelled to go beyond the horizontality condition (HC) to invoke an additional set of gauge-invariant restrictions (GIRs) for the derivation of the full set of proper (anti-)BRST symmetries. To obtain the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the tensorial (2-form) gauge symmetries (within the framework of augmented version of BT-superfield approach), we are theoretically forced to modify the FT-model to incorporate an auxiliary 1-form field and the kineti...
Extended Hamiltonian Formalism of the Pure Space-Like Axial Gauge Schwinger Model II
Nakawaki, Y; Nakawaki, Yuji; Cartor, Gary Mc
2004-01-01
Canonical methods are not sufficient to properly quantize space-like axial gauges. In this paper, we obtain guiding principles which allow the construction of an extended Hamiltonian formalism for pure space-like axial gauge fields. To do so, we clarify the general role residual gauge fields play in the space-like axial gauge Schwinger model. In all the calculations we fix the gauge using a rule, $n{\\cdot}A=0$, where $n$ is a space-like constant vector and we refer to its direction as $x_-$. Then, to begin with, we construct a formulation in which the quantization surface is space-like but not parallel to the direction of $n$. The quantization surface has a parameter which allows us to rotate it, but when we do so we keep the direction of the gauge field fixed. In that formulation we can use canonical methods. We bosonize the model to simplify the investigation. We find that the antiderivative, $({\\partial}_-)^{-1}$, is ill-defined whatever quantization coordinates we use as long as the direction of $n$ is sp...
Fura, David A.; Windley, Phillip J.; Cohen, Gerald C.
1993-01-01
This technical report contains the HOL listings of the specification of the design and major portions of the requirements for a commercially developed processor interface unit (or PIU). The PIU is an interface chip performing memory interface, bus interface, and additional support services for a commercial microprocessor within a fault-tolerant computer system. This system, the Fault-Tolerant Embedded Processor (FTEP), is targeted towards applications in avionics and space requiring extremely high levels of mission reliability, extended maintenance-free operation, or both. This report contains the actual HOL listings of the PIU specification as it currently exists. Section two of this report contains general-purpose HOL theories that support the PIU specification. These theories include definitions for the hardware components used in the PIU, our implementation of bit words, and our implementation of temporal logic. Section three contains the HOL listings for the PIU design specification. Aside from the PIU internal bus (I-Bus), this specification is complete. Section four contains the HOL listings for a major portion of the PIU requirements specification. Specifically, it contains most of the definition for the PIU behavior associated with memory accesses initiated by the local processor.
A Formal Model for BPEL4WS Description of Web Service Composition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GU Xiwu; LU Zhengding
2006-01-01
Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) is a kind of process algebra, which is suitable for modeling and verifying Web service composition.This paper describes how to model Web service composition with CSP.A set of rules for translating composition constructor of Business Process Execution Language for Web Services (BPEL4WS) to CSP notations is defined.According to the rules that have been defined, the corresponding translation algorithm is designed and illustrated with examples.The methods for model checking,model verification and model simulation are also introduced.
Correlating Formal Semantic Models of Reo Connectors: Connector Coloring and Constraint Automata
Jongmans, S.-S.T.Q.; Arbab, F.; Silva, A.M.; Bliudze, S.; Bruni, R.; Carbone, M.
2011-01-01
Over the past decades, coordination languages have emerged for the specification and implementation of interaction protocols for communicating software components. This class of languages includes Reo, a platform for compositional construction of connectors. In recent years, various formalisms for d
Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danilo Bzdok
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81 by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition.
Formal Methods: Practice and Experience
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Woodcock, Jim; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Bicarregui, Juan
2009-01-01
Formal methods use mathematical models for analysis and verification at any part of the program life-cycle. We describe the state of the art in the industrial use of formal methods, concentrating on their increasing use at the earlier stages of specification and design. We do this by reporting...... on a new survey of industrial use, comparing the situation in 2009 with the most significant surveys carried out over the last 20 years. We describe some of the highlights of our survey by presenting a series of industrial projects, and we draw some observations from these surveys and records of experience....... Based on this, we discuss the issues surrounding the industrial adoption of formal methods. Finally, we look to the future and describe the development of a Verified Software Repository, part of the worldwide Verified Software Initiative. We introduce the initial projects being used to populate...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
2013-01-01
are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hay, B.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1997-10-01
The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.
Weyers, Benjamin; Burkolter, Dina; Luther, Wolfram; Kluge, Annette
2012-01-01
Controlling and observing complex systems is central to the study of human-machine interaction. In our understanding, there is much to be gained from integrating formal modeling and analysis, including the reconfiguration of user interfaces, with the development of user interfaces with high usabilit
Santally, Mohammad Issack; Cooshna-Naik, Dorothy; Conruyt, Noel; Wing, Caroline Koa
2015-01-01
This paper describes a social partnership model based on the living lab concept to promote the professional development of educators through formal and informal capacity-building initiatives. The aim is to have a broader impact on society through community outreach educational initiatives. A Living Lab is an environment for user-centered…
A Formal Communication Model for Lookup Operations in a Hypercube-based P2P Data Store
Fahrenholtz, Dietrich; Wombacher, Andreas
2005-01-01
P2P data stores achieve high data availability by introducing replication of data. As a consequence, searching data may require to follow several routing paths introducing additional communication. A formal model of this additional communication is introduced and evaluated based on a hypercube-based
A Formal Communication Model for Lookup Operations in a Hypercube-based P2P Data Store
Fahrenholtz, Dietrich; Wombacher, Andreas
2005-01-01
P2P data stores achieve high data availability by introducing replication of data. As a consequence, searching data may require to follow several routing paths introducing additional communication. A formal model of this additional communication is introduced and evaluated based on a hypercube-based P2P data store.
Using data-driven model-brain mappings to constrain formal models of cognition
Borst, Jelmer P; Nijboer, Menno; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik; Anderson, John R
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a method to create data-driven mappings from components of cognitive models to brain regions. Cognitive models are notoriously hard to evaluate, especially based on behavioral measures alone. Neuroimaging data can provide additional constraints, but this requires a mapping f
Extended Hamiltonian Formalism of the Pure Space-Like Axial Gauge Schwinger Model. II
Nakawaki, Y.; McCartor, G.
2004-06-01
Canonical methods are not sufficient to properly quantize space-like axial gauges. In this paper, we obtain guiding principles that allow for the construction of an extended Hamiltonian formalism for pure space-like axial gauge fields. To do so, we clarify the general role that residual gauge fields play in the space-like axial gauge Schwinger model. In all the calculations, we fix the gauge using the rule n•A=0, where n is a space-like constant vector, and we refer to its direction as x-. Then, to begin with, we construct a formulation in which the quantization surface is space-like but not parallel to the direction of n. The quantization surface has a parameter that allows us to rotate it, but when we do so, we keep the gauge fixing direction fixed. In that formulation, we can use canonical methods. We bosonize the model to simplify the investigation. We find that the inverse differentiation, (∂-)-1, is ill-defined whatever quantization coordinates we use, as long as the direction of n is space-like. We find that the physical part of the dipole ghost field includes infrared divergences. However, we also find that if we introduce residual gauge fields in such a way that the dipole ghost field satisfies the canonical commutation relations, then the residual gauge fields are determined so as to regularize the infrared divergences contained in the physical part. The propagators then take the form prescribed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. We make use of these properties to develop guiding principles that allow us to construct consistent operator solutions in the pure space-like case, in which the quantization surface is parallel to the direction of n, and canonical methods do not suffice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dave Odden
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Two problematic trends have dominated modern phonological theorizing: over-reliance on machinery of Universal Grammar, and reification of functional properties in grammar. The former trend leads to arbitrary postulation of grammatical principles because UG “has no cost”, which leads to a welter of contradictory and unresolvable claims. The latter trend amounts to rejection of phonology and indeed grammatical computation, as a legitimate independent area of scientific investigation. This paper outlines Formal Phonology, which is a metatheoretical approach rooted in an inductive epistemology, committed to seriously engaging the fundamental logic of the discipline, one which demands justification of claims and an integrated consideration of what is known about phonological grammars, eschewing ad libitum conjectures and isolated positing of novel claims without evaluating how the claim interacts with other aspects of phonology. Debate over the proper mechanism for apparent segment-transparency in harmony, or the binary vs. privative nature of features, is ultimately doomed if we do not have a clear awareness of what a “grammar” and a “phonology” are. Misconstruing the nature of a phonology as being a model of observed behavior negatively affects theoretical choices, leads to confusion over what could motivate a claim about the nature of grammar, and in general, a lack of developed epistemological foundation leads to confusion over how to approach theory-construction.
Design Modelling Symposium 2015
Tamke, Martin; Gengnagel, Christoph; Faircloth, Billie; Scheurer, Fabian
2015-01-01
This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science. The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Masloboev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Bao-Xin
2006-01-01
An elliptical Gaussian wave formalism model of a charged-particle beam is proposed by analogy with an elliptical Gaussian light beam.In the paraxial approximation.the charged-particle beam can be described as a whole by a complex radius of curvature in the real space domains.Therefore,the propagation and transform of charged-particle beam passing through a first-order optical system is represented by the ABCD-like law.As an example of the application of this model,the relation between the beam waist and the minimum beam spot at a fixed target is discussed.The result.well matches that from conventional phase space model,and proves that the Gaussian wave formalism model is highly effective and reasonable.
Ishida, Toshikazu
2005-01-01
In the Japanese post WWII urban planning and design field, concerns for formal features regarding the sequential street-front visual image in new high-density urban spaces have been a rather subordinated subject. Famous New Town schemes such as Tsukuba Science City (1963), or Minato Mirai 21 (1965) for instance, are typical inland and reclaimed land examples that summarize the validity and limitations of functional zoning systems applied to these artificial urban developments for the last half century. In those examples, the interaction between space mobility and land use has not been explored sufficiently in order to create attractive street-front images, yet such interaction is essential to the way the cityscape and its character are perceived by the eye. However, current insight regarding the sustainable New Town paradigm has brought a renewed perspective regarding design policy of the pedestrian precinct. This study investigates the formal features of the sequential street-front image of Dutch late-medieval town examples which could help re-formulate the existing design policies regarding the quality of pedestrian space especially in the artificial reclaimed land design field. The purpose is to find out how the principles of those old high-density artificial environmental design models generate such effective interaction between mobility and land usage, creating an enriched aesthetic visual image of street-front space as a result.
Formal Assurance for Cognitive Architecture Based Autonomous Agent
Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Eskridge, Thomas; Neogi, Natasha; Carvalho, Marco
2017-01-01
Autonomous systems are designed and deployed in different modeling paradigms. These environments focus on specific concepts in designing the system. We focus our effort in the use of cognitive architectures to design autonomous agents to collaborate with humans to accomplish tasks in a mission. Our research focuses on introducing formal assurance methods to verify the behavior of agents designed in Soar, by translating the agent to the formal verification environment Uppaal.
Force on Force Modeling with Formal Task Structures and Dynamic Geometry
2017-03-24
shared metrics and an executable integration architecture. • Generate a formal top-down mission specification for sample operating force organizations...in a simulation environment. The mission specification team applied best military judgement to specify required capability for collective tasks by
Joosten, Joost Johannes
2004-01-01
The dissertation is in the first place a treatment of mathematical interpretations. Interpretations themselves will be studied, but also shall they be used to study formal theories. Interpretations, when used in comparing theories, tell us, in a natural way, something about proof-strength of form
Mahajan, Gaurang
2007-01-01
The quantum theory of a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency arises in several important physical problems, especially in the study of quantum field theory in an external background. While the mathematics of this system is straightforward, several conceptual issues arise in such a study. We present a general formalism to address some of the conceptual issues like the emergence of classicality, definition of particle content, back reaction etc. In particular, we parametrize the wave function in terms of a complex number (which we call excitation parameter) and express all physically relevant quantities in terms it. Many of the notions -- like those of particle number density, effective Lagrangian etc., which are usually defined using asymptotic in-out states -- are generalized as time-dependent concepts and we show that these generalized definitions lead to useful and reasonable results. Having developed the general formalism we apply it to several examples. Exact analytic expressions are found ...
Lyon, Stephen M.
2013-01-01
Pakistani Punjabi landlords use marriage both strategically as well as affectively. That is to say, they seek maximal political advantage and minimal household disruption with marriage arrangements. Using a set of formal networks analyses tools, this article examines two hundred years of marriage decisions for one Punjabi landlord family. The radical shift in marriage decisions beginning from the 1920s is the result of an earlier shift in inheritance rules. The resulting change in marriage de...
Industrial use of formal methods formal verification
Boulanger, Jean-Louis
2012-01-01
At present the literature gives students and researchers of the very general books on the formal technics. The purpose of this book is to present in a single book, a return of experience on the used of the "formal technics" (such proof and model-checking) on industrial examples for the transportation domain. This book is based on the experience of people which are completely involved in the realization and the evaluation of safety critical system software based. The implication of the industrialists allows to raise the problems of confidentiality which could appear and so allow
A Variational Formalism for the Radiative Transfer Equation: Prelude to Model 3
Achtemeier, Gary L.
1991-01-01
The MODEL III variational data assimilation model is the third of four general assimilation models designed to blend weather data measured from space based platforms in the meteorological data mainstream in a way that maximizes the information content of the satellite data. Because there are many different observation locations and there are many instruments with different measurement error characteristics, it is also necessary to require that the blending be done to maximize the information content of the data and simultaneously to retain a dynamically consistent and reasonably accurate description of the state of the atmosphere. This is ideally a variational problem for which the data receive relative weights that are inversely proportional to measurement error and are adjusted to satisfy a set of dynamical equations that govern atmospheric processes. The advantage of MODEL III over the previous two models is that radiance, the atmospheric variable measured by satellite, becomes a dependent variable. In the previous versions, mean layer temperatures that had been retrieved from the radiances by some method, were included in the assimilation by substituting them in place of the rawinsonde temperatures. Now both rawinsonde temperatures and satellite radiances are included independently in the assimilation.
Student Models of Instructional Design
Magliaro, Susan G.; Shambaugh, Neal
2006-01-01
Mental models are one way that humans represent knowledge (Markman, 1999). Instructional design (ID) is a conceptual model for developing instruction and typically includes analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation (i.e., ADDIE model). ID, however, has been viewed differently by practicing teachers and instructional designers…
Le Deunff, Erwan; Tournier, Pierre-Henri; Malagoli, Philippe
2016-01-01
The ion influx isotherms obtained by measuring unidirectional influx across root membranes with radioactive or stable tracers are mostly interpreted by enzyme-substrate-like modeling. However, recent analyses from ion transporter mutants clearly demonstrate the inadequacy of the conventional interpretation of ion isotherms. Many genetically distinct carriers are involved in the root catalytic function. Parameters Vmax and Km deduced from this interpretation cannot therefore be regarded as microscopic parameters of a single transporter, but are instead macroscopic parameters (V[Formula: see text] and K[Formula: see text], apparent maximum velocity and affinity constant) that depend on weighted activities of multiple transporters along the root. The flow-force interpretation based on the thermodynamic principle of irreversible processes is an alternative macroscopic modeling approach for ion influx isotherms in which macroscopic parameters Lj (overall conductance of the root system for the substrate j) and πj (thermodynamic parameter when Jj = 0) have a straightforward meaning with respect to the biological sample studied. They characterize the efficiency of the entire root catalytic structure without deducing molecular characteristics. Here we present the basic principles of this theory and how its use can be tested and improved by changing root pre- and post-wash procedures before influx measurements in order to come as close as possible to equilibrium conditions. In addition, the constant values of Vm and Km in the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formalism of enzyme-substrate interpretation do not reflect variations in response to temperature, nutrient status or nutrient regimes. The linear formalism of the flow-force approach, which integrates temperature effect on nutrient uptake, could usefully replace MM formalism in the 1-3-dimension models of plants and phytoplankton. This formalism offers a simplification of parametrization to help find more realistic analytical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hay, B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-10-01
The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.
Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education
Nathan, Mitchell J.
2012-01-01
I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Desheng Li
2012-11-01
Full Text Available For past years, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, one of the evolutionary computational techniques, has been intensively studied and applied in both academia and industry. Recently there has been a shift from consideration of design of concrete algorithms to a consideration of the formalization models of optimization approaches. However, the meta-search procedure is not the primitive of the algebra, which not participates in the derivation of the inference of expressions. For this reason, the models above could not be seen as a unity in a strict mathematics form. Moreover, the operators of traditional algebra limit the express of complicated processes, such as concurrent patterns. As a result, the cost calculation of the whole process is not an easy thing only according to the algebraic form itself. Attempting to solve these issues, a new formal modeling of particle swarm optimizer from a perspective of an extend version of Pi calculus is proposed in this study, which treats the whole operations in PSO as a kind of meta-search procedure and owns the cost operator and other operators supporting concurrent patterns. On the basis of this algebra, the QoS-aware service selection problem can be seen as a particular cost derivation under the LTS semantics. Based on the theoretical model, a simulator with a core of Pi calculus compiler is developed to verify our theory and also show the practical applicability in a real scenario.
Duchemin, Ivan; Jacquemin, Denis; Blase, Xavier
2016-04-28
We have implemented the polarizable continuum model within the framework of the many-body Green's function GW formalism for the calculation of electron addition and removal energies in solution. The present formalism includes both ground-state and non-equilibrium polarization effects. In addition, the polarization energies are state-specific, allowing to obtain the bath-induced renormalisation energy of all occupied and virtual energy levels. Our implementation is validated by comparisons with ΔSCF calculations performed at both the density functional theory and coupled-cluster single and double levels for solvated nucleobases. The present study opens the way to GW and Bethe-Salpeter calculations in disordered condensed phases of interest in organic optoelectronics, wet chemistry, and biology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gudiksen, Sune Klok
2015-01-01
with diverse perspectives internally (managers, marketers, designer etc.) and externally (potential end-users/customers, potential partners and experts on special issues) meet in order to collaboratively design business models, and what might be gained and be problematic about such a situation. In regards...... in a system, product or service for a particular end-user. In this dissertation, co-design and design games enter a new frontier - business models - and move towards being a part of a broader innovation agenda. The research deals with a double concern: First, the transfer of co-design and the subfield design...... games into business model experimentation to investigate how this might be useful in this new application domain. Second, investigate what can be added to the transferring field co-design, hereunder especially design games. The research into this double concern is conducted through an approach assembled...
Nourali, Mahrouz; Ghahraman, Bijan; Pourreza-Bilondi, Mohsen; Davary, Kamran
2016-09-01
In the present study, DREAM(ZS), Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis combined with both formal and informal likelihood functions, is used to investigate uncertainty of parameters of the HEC-HMS model in Tamar watershed, Golestan province, Iran. In order to assess the uncertainty of 24 parameters used in HMS, three flood events were used to calibrate and one flood event was used to validate the posterior distributions. Moreover, performance of seven different likelihood functions (L1-L7) was assessed by means of DREAM(ZS)approach. Four likelihood functions, L1-L4, Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) efficiency, Normalized absolute error (NAE), Index of agreement (IOA), and Chiew-McMahon efficiency (CM), is considered as informal, whereas remaining (L5-L7) is represented in formal category. L5 focuses on the relationship between the traditional least squares fitting and the Bayesian inference, and L6, is a hetereoscedastic maximum likelihood error (HMLE) estimator. Finally, in likelihood function L7, serial dependence of residual errors is accounted using a first-order autoregressive (AR) model of the residuals. According to the results, sensitivities of the parameters strongly depend on the likelihood function, and vary for different likelihood functions. Most of the parameters were better defined by formal likelihood functions L5 and L7 and showed a high sensitivity to model performance. Posterior cumulative distributions corresponding to the informal likelihood functions L1, L2, L3, L4 and the formal likelihood function L6 are approximately the same for most of the sub-basins, and these likelihood functions depict almost a similar effect on sensitivity of parameters. 95% total prediction uncertainty bounds bracketed most of the observed data. Considering all the statistical indicators and criteria of uncertainty assessment, including RMSE, KGE, NS, P-factor and R-factor, results showed that DREAM(ZS) algorithm performed better under formal likelihood functions L5 and L7
Solid model design simplification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ames, A.L.; Rivera, J.J.; Webb, A.J.; Hensinger, D.M.
1997-12-01
This paper documents an investigation of approaches to improving the quality of Pro/Engineer-created solid model data for use by downstream applications. The investigation identified a number of sources of problems caused by deficiencies in Pro/Engineer`s geometric engine, and developed prototype software capable of detecting many of these problems and guiding users towards simplified, useable models. The prototype software was tested using Sandia production solid models, and provided significant leverage in attacking the simplification problem.
Two Formal Gas Models For Multi-Agent Sweeping and Obstacle Avoidance
Kerr, Wesley; Spears, Diana; Spears, William; Thayer, David
2004-01-01
The task addressed here is a dynamic search through a bounded region, while avoiding multiple large obstacles, such as buildings. In the case of limited sensors and communication, maintaining spatial coverage - especially after passing the obstacles - is a challenging problem. Here, we investigate two physics-based approaches to solving this task with multiple simulated mobile robots, one based on artificial forces and the other based on the kinetic theory of gases. The desired behavior is achieved with both methods, and a comparison is made between them. Because both approaches are physics-based, formal assurances about the multi-robot behavior are straightforward, and are included in the paper.
Formalisms for reuse and systems integration
Rubin, Stuart
2015-01-01
Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms. This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...
A Robust Design Applicability Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ebro, Martin; Lars, Krogstie; Howard, Thomas J.
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a model for assessing the applicability of Robust Design (RD) in a project or organisation. The intention of the Robust Design Applicability Model (RDAM) is to provide support for decisions by engineering management considering the relevant level of RD activities. The applic...
Prototyping the Semantics of a DSL using ASF+SDF: Link to Formal Verification of DSL Models
Andova, Suzana; Engelen, Luc; 10.4204/EPTCS.56.5
2011-01-01
A formal definition of the semantics of a domain-specific language (DSL) is a key prerequisite for the verification of the correctness of models specified using such a DSL and of transformations applied to these models. For this reason, we implemented a prototype of the semantics of a DSL for the specification of systems consisting of concurrent, communicating objects. Using this prototype, models specified in the DSL can be transformed to labeled transition systems (LTS). This approach of transforming models to LTSs allows us to apply existing tools for visualization and verification to models with little or no further effort. The prototype is implemented using the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, an IDE for the algebraic specification language ASF+SDF, which offers efficient execution of the transformation as well as the ability to read models and produce LTSs without any additional pre or post processing.
Prototyping the Semantics of a DSL using ASF+SDF: Link to Formal Verification of DSL Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzana Andova
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A formal definition of the semantics of a domain-specific language (DSL is a key prerequisite for the verification of the correctness of models specified using such a DSL and of transformations applied to these models. For this reason, we implemented a prototype of the semantics of a DSL for the specification of systems consisting of concurrent, communicating objects. Using this prototype, models specified in the DSL can be transformed to labeled transition systems (LTS. This approach of transforming models to LTSs allows us to apply existing tools for visualization and verification to models with little or no further effort. The prototype is implemented using the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, an IDE for the algebraic specification language ASF+SDF, which offers efficient execution of the transformation as well as the ability to read models and produce LTSs without any additional pre or post processing.
Informal work and formal plans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
2012-01-01
trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...
Informal work and formal plans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalsted, Rikke Juul; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm;
2012-01-01
trajectories. METHODS AND THEORY: An in-depth case study of patient trajectories at a Danish hospital and surrounding municipality using individual interviews with patients. Theory about trajectory and work by Strauss was included. RESULTS: Patients continuously took initiatives to organize their treatment...... and care. They initiated processes in the trajectories, and acquired information, which they used to form their trajectories. Patients presented problems to the healthcare professionals in order to get proper help when needed. DISCUSSION: Work done by patients was invisible and not perceived as work....... The patients' requests were not sufficiently supported in the professional organisation of work or formal planning. Patients' insertion and use of information in their trajectories challenged professional views and working processes. And the design of the formal pathway models limits the patients' active...
AXIOLOGICAL MODEL OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takushevich I. A.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article presents instructional design as a new approach to the issue of developing value-oriented worldview. Scientific research and analysis led the author to summarize instructional design theory, broaden the definition of instructional design and apply it to instruction and learning in a new manner. The goal to build a pattern of instruction aimed at developing learners’ value-oriented worldview required the author to study the existing instructional design model, to analyse and generalize a number of monographs and articles devoted to the problem of building value systems and value orientations, and finally to investigate and apply the new knowledge to real life in the form of experiment. The work conducted brought the author to axiological model of instructional design, which consists of three dimensions: a linear sequence of the events from designing the instructional material to independent learning activities, interaction between a teacher and a learner, pace of learning and design. The article touches upon every dimension, level and stage of the model, describes and defines the procedures that take place on each of them, as well as suggests a possible way to visualize the model in a form of a sketch. The author also points out the advantages of using instructional design as an efficient and smart tool to organize learning and justifies the use of the new instructional design model in XXI century
A Formal Verification Methodology for Checking Data Integrity
Umezawa, Yasushi
2011-01-01
Formal verification techniques have been playing an important role in pre-silicon validation processes. One of the most important points considered in performing formal verification is to define good verification scopes; we should define clearly what to be verified formally upon designs under tests. We considered the following three practical requirements when we defined the scope of formal verification. They are (a) hard to verify (b) small to handle, and (c) easy to understand. Our novel approach is to break down generic properties for system into stereotype properties in block level and to define requirements for Verifiable RTL. Consequently, each designer instead of verification experts can describe properties of the design easily, and formal model checking can be applied systematically and thoroughly to all the leaf modules. During the development of a component chip for server platforms, we focused on RAS (Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability) features and described more than 2000 properties in...
Rijmen, Frank
2010-01-01
Testlet effects can be taken into account by incorporating specific dimensions in addition to the general dimension into the item response theory model. Three such multidimensional models are described: the bi-factor model, the testlet model, and a second-order model. It is shown how the second-order model is formally equivalent to the testlet…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouissou, Marc; Bon, Jean-Louis
2003-11-01
This paper introduces a modeling formalism that enables the analyst to combine concepts inherited from fault trees and Markov models in a new way. We call this formalism Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes (BDMP). It has two advantages over conventional models used in dependability assessment: it allows the definition of complex dynamic models while remaining nearly as readable and easy to build as fault-trees, and it offers interesting mathematical properties, which enable an efficient processing for BDMP that are equivalent to Markov processes with huge state spaces. We give a mathematical definition of BDMP, the demonstration of their properties, and several examples to illustrate how powerful and easy to use they are. From a mathematical point of view, a BDMP is nothing more than a certain way to define a global Markov process, as the result of several elementary processes which can interact in a given manner. An extreme case is when the processes are independent. Then we simply have a fault-tree, the leaves of which are associated to independent Markov processes.
Non-Markovian coarse-grained modeling of polymeric fluids based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George
The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables based on the Mori-Zwanzig formalism. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons on both static and dynamic properties between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations will be presented. Supported by the DOE Center on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) and an INCITE grant.
A Synthesized Framework for Formal Verification of Computing Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Bogunovic
2003-12-01
Full Text Available Design process of computing systems gradually evolved to a level that encompasses formal verification techniques. However, the integration of formal verification techniques into a methodical design procedure has many inherent miscomprehensions and problems. The paper explicates the discrepancy between the real system implementation and the abstracted model that is actually used in the formal verification procedure. Particular attention is paid to the seamless integration of all phases of the verification procedure that encompasses definition of the specification language and denotation and execution of conformance relation between the abstracted model and its intended behavior. The concealed obstacles are exposed, computationally expensive steps identified and possible improvements proposed.
Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.
2011-01-01
We provide a mathematical formalism for optimizing the mirror nodal positions along the optical axis and the tilt of a commonly employed detector configuration at the focus of a x-ray telescope consisting of nested mirror shells with known mirror surface prescriptions. We adopt the spatial resolution averaged over the field-of-view as the figure of merit M. A more complete description appears in our paper in these proceedings.
Computational Design Modelling : Proceedings of the Design Modelling Symposium
Kilian, Axel; Palz, Norbert; Scheurer, Fabian
2012-01-01
This book publishes the peer-reviewed proceeding of the third Design Modeling Symposium Berlin . The conference constitutes a platform for dialogue on experimental practice and research within the field of computationally informed architectural design. More than 60 leading experts the computational processes within the field of computationally informed architectural design to develop a broader and less exotic building practice that bears more subtle but powerful traces of the complex tool set and approaches we have developed and studied over recent years. The outcome are new strategies for a reasonable and innovative implementation of digital potential in truly innovative and radical design guided by both responsibility towards processes and the consequences they initiate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maja Lebeničnik
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources (learning content and learning tools facilitates informed use and enables students to create the learning environment that is most appropriate for their personal learning needs and preferences. In contemporary society, the creation of an inclusive learning environment supported by ICT is pervasive. The model of Universal Design for Learning is becoming increasingly significant in responding to the need for inclusive learning environments. In this article, we categorize different online learning activities into the principles of Universal Design for Learning. This study examines ICT use among university students (N = 138, comparing student teachers with students in other study programs. The findings indicate that among all students, activities with lower demands for engagement are most common. Some differences were observed between student teachers and students from other programs. Student teachers were more likely than their peers to perform certain activities aimed at meeting diverse learner needs, but the percentage of students performing more advanced activities was higher for students in other study programs than for student teachers. The categorization of activities revealed that student teachers are less likely to undertake activities that involve interaction with others. Among the sample of student teachers, we found that personal innovativeness is correlated with diversity of activities in only one category. The results show that student teachers should be encouraged to perform more advanced activities, especially activities involving interaction with others, collaborative learning and use of ICT to
2012-01-01
The causal assumptions, the study design and the data are the elements required for scientific inference in empirical research. The research is adequately communicated only if all of these elements and their relations are described precisely. Causal models with design describe the study design and the missing data mechanism together with the causal structure and allow the direct application of causal calculus in the estimation of the causal effects. The flow of the study is visualized by orde...
Different models of the active cochlea, and how to implement them in the state-space formalism.
Sisto, Renata; Moleti, Arturo; Paternoster, Nicolo; Botti, Teresa; Bertaccini, Daniele
2010-09-01
The state-space formalism [Elliott S. J., et al. (2007). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2759-2771] allows one to discretize cochlear models in a straightforward matrix form and to modify the main physical properties of the cochlear model by changing the position and functional form of a few matrix elements. Feed-forward and feed-backward properties can be obtained by simply introducing off-diagonal terms in the matrixes expressing the coupling between the dynamical variables and the additional active pressure on the basilar membrane. Some theoretical issues related to different cochlear modeling choices, their implementation in a state-space scheme, and their physical consequences on the cochlear phenomenology, as predicted by numerical simulations, are discussed. Different schematizations of the active term describing the behavior of the outer hair cell's feedback mechanism, including nonlinear and nonlocal dependences on either pressure or basilar membrane displacement, are also discussed, showing their effect on some measurable cochlear properties.
Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design
2009-01-01
Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.
Designerly Visualisation: Conceptions, Methods, Models, Perceptions
Breen, J.L.H.
2013-01-01
If we wish to reach a deeper, more objective understanding of the phenomena of Architectural and Environmental Design, we need to develop and apply working methods that allow us to imaginatively analyse and consequently envision the formal issues which are at (inter)play: demonstrating their working
Object Oriented Modeling and Design
Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
The Object Oriented Modeling and Design seminar is intended for software professionals and students, it covers the concepts and a language-independent graphical notation that can be used to analyze problem requirements, and design a solution to the problem. The seminar discusses the three kinds of object-oriented models class, state, and interaction. The class model represents the static structure of a system, the state model describes the aspects of a system that change over time as well as control behavior and the interaction model describes how objects collaborate to achieve overall results. Existing knowledge of object oriented programming may benefit the learning of modeling and good design. Specific expectations are: Create a class model, Read, recognize, and describe a class model, Describe association and link, Show abstract classes used with multiple inheritance, Explain metadata, reification and constraints, Group classes into a package, Read, recognize, and describe a state model, Explain states and transitions, Read, recognize, and describe interaction model, Explain Use cases and use case relationships, Show concurrency in activity diagram, Object interactions in sequence diagram.
Threat modeling designing for security
Shostack, Adam
2014-01-01
Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørner, Dines; Havelund, Klaus
2014-01-01
In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification-oriented met......In this "40 years of formal methods" essay we shall first delineate, Sect. 1, what we mean by method, formal method, computer science, computing science, software engineering, and model-oriented and algebraic methods. Based on this, we shall characterize a spectrum from specification...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Éric Fanchon
2012-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for the modeling of biological networks. It makes use of recent tools analyzing the robust satisfaction of properties of (hybrid dynamical systems. The main challenge of this approach as applied to biological systems is to get access to the relevant parameter sets despite gaps in the available knowledge. An initial estimate of useful parameters was sought by formalizing the known behavior of the biological network in the STL logic using the tool Breach. Then, once a set of parameter values consistent with known biological properties was found, we tried to locally expand it into the largest possible valid region. We applied this methodology in an effort to model and better understand the complex network regulating iron homeostasis in mammalian cells. This system plays an important role in many biological functions, including erythropoiesis, resistance against infections, and proliferation of cancer cells.
Lahti, Richard Dennis, II
Knowledge of scientific models and their uses is a concept that has become a key benchmark in many of the science standards of the past 30 years, including the proposed Next Generation Science Standards. Knowledge of models is linked to other important nature of science concepts such as theory change which are also rising in prominence in newer standards. Effective methods of instruction will need to be developed to enable students to achieve these standards. The literature reveals an inconsistent history of success with modeling education. These same studies point to a possible cognitive development component which might explain why some students succeeded and others failed. An environmental science course, rich in modeling experiences, was used to test both the extent to which knowledge of models and modeling could be improved over the course of one semester, and more importantly, to identify if cognitive ability was related to this improvement. In addition, nature of science knowledge, particularly related to theories and theory change, was also examined. Pretest and posttest results on modeling (SUMS) and nature of science (SUSSI), as well as data from the modeling activities themselves, was collected. Cognitive ability was measured (CTSR) as a covariate. Students' gain in six of seven categories of modeling knowledge was at least medium (Cohen's d >.5) and moderately correlated to CTSR for two of seven categories. Nature of science gains were smaller, although more strongly correlated with CTSR. Student success at creating a model was related to CTSR, significantly in three of five sub-categories. These results suggest that explicit, reflective experience with models can increase student knowledge of models and modeling (although higher cognitive ability students may have more success), but successfully creating models may depend more heavily on cognitive ability. This finding in particular has implications in the grade placement of modeling standards and
FORMALIZATION OF LOCOMOTIVE DRIVER ACTIVITY TENSION INDICATOR BASED ON THE ERGONOMIC MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. M. Horobchenko
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Purpose. A key factor contributing to the safety and quality of ergatic system "train-driver" is the intensity of the locomotive crew’s work. The aim of this work is formalization of locomotive driver activity tension indicator. Methodology. One of the characteristics of driver activity tension is the difference between the time allotted to complete the task, and the necessary (external reserve or deficiency time. The sets of major and minor operations in the management of the train locomotive in different train situations were identified. Using the methods of fuzzy logic, the concept of "materiality of the operation of the locomotive control" is presented in the form of a set of linguistic variables. To determine the function membership of the elements of the set "the importance of the operation of the locomotive control" the method of expert evaluations was used. Coefficient of temporary tension is presented in the form of fuzzy number L-R-type. Findings. It was found the value of the relative number of operations of locomotive control according to the distribution using the parameter of operation "importance". To determine the most tensioned mode of the driver ranking the traffic condition according to the parameter of relative amounts of the important management operations was conducted. The most difficult modes are the "front hindrance", "movement in unfavorable weather conditions" and "departure from the station to the running line". Originality. The introduction of the value "conventional importance of the operation" allowed us to more accurately describe the terms of train driving. For the first time the work presents determination of tension of the driver’s work in the form of a unimodal fuzzy number, which will make it possible to use the methods of the theory of artificial intelligence to simulate activity of the locomotive driver and develop intelligent control systems. Practical value. There were obtained the opportunity to
Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.
Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A
2016-06-01
Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.
Introducing formalism in economics: The growth model of John von Neumann
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gloria-Palermo Sandye
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The objective is to interpret John von Neumann's growth model as a decisive step of the forthcoming formalist revolution of the 1950s in economics. This model gave rise to an impressive variety of comments about its classical or neoclassical underpinnings. We go beyond this traditional criterion and interpret rather this model as the manifestation of von Neumann's involvement in the formalist programme of mathematician David Hilbert. We discuss the impact of Kurt Gödel's discoveries on this programme. We show that the growth model reflects the pragmatic turn of the formalist programme after Gödel and proposes the extension of modern axiomatisation to economics.
DEPICT: A High-level Formal Language for Modeling Constraint Satisfaction Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Abdulwahed M. Abbas; Edward P. K. Tsang; Ahmad H. Nasri
2008-01-01
The past decade witnessed rapid development of constraint satisfaction technologies, where algorithms are now able to cope with larger and harder problems. However, owing to the fact that constraints are inherently declarative, attention is quickly turning toward developing high-level programming languages within which such problems can be modeled and also solved. Along these lines, this paper presents DEPICT, the language. Its use is illustrated through modeling a number of benchmark examples. The paper continues with a description of a prototype system within which such models may be interpreted. The paper concludes with a description of a sample run of this interpreter showing how a problem modeled as such is typically solved.
Keeping the Faith: A Model of Cultural Transmission in Formal Organizations.
Harrison, J. Richard; Carroll, Glenn R.
1991-01-01
Develops a cultural transmission model with the following variables: worker entry and exit rate, organization growth rate, recruiting selectivity, socialization intensity, and the rate that socialization decays if not reinforced. A computer simulation of the model found that cultural systems in organizations are highly robust and reach equilibrium…
Combining Generated Data Models with Formal Invalidation for Insider Threat Analysis
Kammüller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.
In this paper we revisit the advances made on invalidation policies to explore attack possibilities in organizational models. One aspect that has so far eloped systematic analysis of insider threat is the integration of data into attack scenarios and its exploitation for analyzing the models. We
Steps to a formal analysis of the cognitive-energetic model of stress and human performance
P.C.M. Molenaar; M.W. van der Molen
1986-01-01
A. F. Sanders's cognitive-energetic model of stress and human performance attempts to bridge linear stage and capacity models of information processing. It is argued that the identifiability of effects of variations of some subset of component processes can only be properly evaluated through an appr
Combining Generated Data Models with Formal Invalidation for Insider Threat Analysis
Kammüller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.
2014-01-01
In this paper we revisit the advances made on invalidation policies to explore attack possibilities in organizational models. One aspect that has so far eloped systematic analysis of insider threat is the integration of data into attack scenarios and its exploitation for analyzing the models. We dra
Formal Modelling of a Usable Identity Management Solution for Virtual Organisations
Haidar, Ali N; Abdallah, Ali E; Ryan, P Y A; Beckles, B; Brooke, J M; Jones, M A S; 10.4204/EPTCS.16.4
2010-01-01
This paper attempts to accurately model security requirements for computational grid environments with particular focus on authentication. We introduce the Audited Credential Delegation (ACD) architecture as a solution to some of the virtual organisations identity management usability problems. The approach uses two complementary models: one is state based, described in Z notation, and the other is event-based, expressed in the Process Algebra of Hoare's Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). The former will be used to capture the state of the WS and to model back-end operations on it whereas the latter will be used to model behavior, and in particular, front-end interactions and communications. The modelling helps to clearly and precisely understand functional and security requirements and provide a basis for verifying that the system meets its intended requirements.
Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium
Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)
2009-01-01
Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.
A 3D unstructured grid nearshore hydrodynamic model based on the vortex force formalism
Zheng, Peng; Li, Ming; van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; Wolf, Judith; Chen, Xueen; Wang, Caixia
2017-08-01
A new three-dimensional nearshore hydrodynamic model system is developed based on the unstructured-grid version of the third generation spectral wave model SWAN (Un-SWAN) coupled with the three-dimensional ocean circulation model FVCOM to enable the full representation of the wave-current interaction in the nearshore region. A new wave-current coupling scheme is developed by adopting the vortex-force (VF) scheme to represent the wave-current interaction. The GLS turbulence model is also modified to better reproduce wave-breaking enhanced turbulence, together with a roller transport model to account for the effect of surface wave roller. This new model system is validated first against a theoretical case of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach, and then applied to three test cases: a laboratory scale experiment of normal waves on a beach with a fixed breaker bar, a field experiment of oblique incident waves on a natural, sandy barred beach (Duck'94 experiment), and a laboratory study of normal-incident waves propagating around a shore-parallel breakwater. Overall, the model predictions agree well with the available measurements in these tests, illustrating the robustness and efficiency of the present model for very different spatial scales and hydrodynamic conditions. Sensitivity tests indicate the importance of roller effects and wave energy dissipation on the mean flow (undertow) profile over the depth. These tests further suggest to adopt a spatially varying value for roller effects across the beach. In addition, the parameter values in the GLS turbulence model should be spatially inhomogeneous, which leads to better prediction of the turbulent kinetic energy and an improved prediction of the undertow velocity profile.
Cammi, Roberto
2013-01-01
This Brief presents the main aspects of the response functions theory (RFT) for molecular solutes described within the framework of the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). PCM is a solvation model for a Quantum Mechanical molecular system in which the solvent is represented as a continuum distribution of matter. Particular attention is devoted to the description of the basic features of the PCM model, and to the problems characterizing the study of the response function theory for molecules in solution with respect to the analogous theory on isolated molecules.
New aspects of quantization of Jackiw-Pi model: field-antifield formalism and noncommutativity
Nikoofard, Vahid
2016-01-01
The so-callled Jackiw-Pi (JP) model for massive vector fields is a three dimensional, gauge invariant and parity preserving model which was discussed in several contexts. In this paper we have discussed its quantum aspects through the introduction of Planck scale objects, i.e., via noncommutativity and the well known BV quantization. Namely, we have constructed the JP noncommutative space-time version and we have provided the BV quantization of the commutative JP model and we have discussed its features. The noncommutativity has introduced interesting new objects in JP's Planck scale framework. The anomaly issue was discussed.
de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Costa, Mônica Vieira; Bocardi, Matheus Bortolosso; Cortezzi, Mariana; De Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes
2013-12-01
The assessment of visuospatial abilities is usually performed by drawing tasks. In patients with very low formal education, the use of these tasks might be biased by their cultural background. The Stick Design Test was developed for the assessment of this population. We aim to expand the test psychometric properties by assessing its construct, criterion-related and ecological validity in older adults with low formal education. Healthy older adults (n = 63) and Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 92) performed the Stick Design Test, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span Forward and the Clock Drawing Test. Their caregivers answered Personal Care and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living). Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis, convergent correlations (with the Clock Drawing Test), and divergent correlations (with Digit Span Forward); criterion-related validity by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and binary logistic regression; and Ecological validity by correlations with ADL. The test factor structure was composed by one component (R 2 = 64%). Significant correlations with the Clock Drawing Test and Digit Span Forward were found, and the relationship was stronger with the first measure. The test was less associated with formal education than the Clock Drawing Test. It classified about 76% of the participants correctly and had and additive effect with the Mini-Mental State Examination (84% of correct classification). The test also correlated significantly with measures of ADL, suggesting ecological validity. The Stick Design Test shows evidence of construct, criterion-related and ecological validity. It is an interesting alternative to drawing tasks for the assessment of visuospatial abilities.
Generic Model Host System Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, Chungming; /SLAC; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC; Qiang, Ji; /LBL, Berkeley; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven
2012-06-22
There are many simulation codes for accelerator modelling; each one has some strength but not all. A platform which can host multiple modelling tools would be ideal for various purposes. The model platform along with infrastructure support can be used not only for online applications but also for offline purposes. Collaboration is formed for the effort of providing such a platform. In order to achieve such a platform, a set of common physics data structure has to be set. Application Programming Interface (API) for physics applications should also be defined within a model data provider. A preliminary platform design and prototype is discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhnert, Barbara; Lindner, Felix; Bentzen, Martin Mose
We introduce causal agency models as a modeling technique for representing and reasoning about ethical dilemmas. We find that ethical dilemmas, although they look similar on the surface, have very different causal structures. Based on their structural properties, as identified by the causal agency...... models, we cluster a set of dilemmas in Type 1 and Type 2 dilemmas. We observe that for Type 2 dilemmas but not for Type 1 dilemmas a utilitarian action dominates the possibility of refraining from action. Hence, we hypothesize, based on the model, that Type 2 dilemmas are perceived as less difficult...... than Type 1 dilemmas by human reasoners. A behavioral study where participants rated the difficulty of dilemmas supports the models’ predictions....
Beyond the quantum formalism: consequences of a neural-oscillator model to quantum cognition
de Barros, J Acacio
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a neural oscillator model of stimulus response theory that exhibits quantum-like behavior. We then show that without adding any additional assumptions, a quantum model constructed to fit observable pairwise correlations has no predictive power over the unknown triple moment, obtainable through the activation of multiple oscillators. We compare this with the results obtained in de Barros (2013), where a criteria of rationality gives optimal ranges for the triple moment.
Eguzkiza, Aitor; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Andonegui, José
2015-08-01
Most healthcare services use information and communication technologies to reduce and redistribute the workload associated with follow-up of chronic conditions. However, the lack of normalization of the information handled in and exchanged between such services hinders the scalability and extendibility. The use of medical standards for modelling and exchanging information, especially dual-model based approaches, can enhance the features of screening services. Hence, the approach of this paper is twofold. First, this article presents a generic methodology to model patient-centered clinical processes. Second, a proof of concept of the proposed methodology was conducted within the diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening service of the Health Service of Navarre (Spain) in compliance with a specific dual-model norm (openEHR). As a result, a set of elements required for deploying a model-driven DR screening service has been established, namely: clinical concepts, archetypes, termsets, templates, guideline definition rules, and user interface definitions. This model fosters reusability, because those elements are available to be downloaded and integrated in any healthcare service, and interoperability, since from then on such services can share information seamlessly.
Lazega, E; vanDuijn, M
1997-01-01
This paper presents a statistical model for the analysis of binary sociometric choice data, the p(2) model, which provides a flexible way for using explanatory variables to model network structure. It is applied to examine the influence of the formal structure of an organization on interactions amon
Saïghi, S; Bornat, Y; Tomas, J; Le Masson, G; Renaud, S
2011-02-01
In this paper, we present a library of analog operators used for the analog real-time computation of the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism. These operators make it possible to design a silicon (Si) neuron that is dynamically tunable, and that reproduces different kinds of neurons. We used an original method in neuromorphic engineering to characterize this Si neuron. In electrophysiology, this method is well known as the "voltage-clamp" technique. We also compare the features of an application-specific integrated circuit built with this library with results obtained from software simulations. We then present the complex behavior of neural membrane voltages and the potential applications of this Si neuron.
Li, Jing; D'Avino, Gabriele; Duchemin, Ivan; Beljonne, David; Blase, Xavier
2016-07-21
We present an original hybrid QM/MM scheme merging the many-body Green's function GW formalism with classical discrete polarizable models and its application to the paradigmatic case of a pentacene crystal. Our calculated transport gap is found to be in excellent agreement with reference periodic bulk GW calculations, together with properly parametrized classical microelectrostatic calculations, and with photoionization measurements at crystal surfaces. More importantly, we prove that the gap is insensitive to the partitioning of pentacene molecules in QM and MM subsystems, as a result of the mutual compensation of quantum and classical polarizabilities, clarifying the relation between polarization energy and delocalization. The proposed hybrid method offers a computationally attractive strategy to compute the full spectrum of charged excitations in complex molecular environments, accounting for both QM and MM contributions to the polarization energy, a crucial requirement in the limit of large QM subsystems.
Combining Generated Data Models with Formal Invalidation for Insider Threat Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.
2014-01-01
draw from recent insights into generation of insider data to complement a logic based mechanical approach. We show how insider analysis can be traced back to the early days of security verification and the Lowe-attack on NSPK. The invalidation of policies allows modelchecking organizational structures......In this paper we revisit the advances made on invalidation policies to explore attack possibilities in organizational models. One aspect that has so far eloped systematic analysis of insider threat is the integration of data into attack scenarios and its exploitation for analyzing the models. We...
Combining Generated Data Models with Formal Invalidation for Insider Threat Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.
2014-01-01
In this paper we revisit the advances made on invalidation policies to explore attack possibilities in organizational models. One aspect that has so far eloped systematic analysis of insider threat is the integration of data into attack scenarios and its exploitation for analyzing the models. We...... to detect insider attacks. Integration of higher order logic specification techniques allows the use of data refinement to explore attack possibilities beyond the initial system specification. We illustrate this combined invalidation technique on the classical example of the naughty lottery fairy. Data...... techniques here allows the systematic exploration of such scenarios and exploit data centric views into insider threat analysis....
Internal and external radiative widths in the combined R-matrix and potential model formalism
Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Hao, T V Nhan
2016-01-01
Using the $R$-matrix approach we calculate the radiative width for a resonance decaying to a bound state through electric dipole, $E1$, transitions. The total radiative width is determined by the interference of the nuclear internal and external radiative width amplitudes. For a given channel radius the external radiative width amplitude is model independent and is determined by the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the bound state to which the resonance decays. It also depends on the partial resonance width. To calculate the internal radiative width amplitude we show that a single particle potential model is appropriate. We compare our results with a few experimental data.
El Salvador - Formal Technical Education
Millennium Challenge Corporation — With a budget of nearly $20 million, the Formal Technical Education Sub-Activity was designed to strengthen technical and vocational educational institutions in the...
Application of the Faddeev-Jackiw formalism to the gauged WZW model
Paschalis, J E; Paschalis, J E; Porfyriadis, P I
1995-01-01
The two-flavor Wess-Zumino model coupled to electromagnetism is treated as a constraint system using the Faddeev-Jackiw method. Expanding into series of powers of the pion fields and keeping terms up to second and third order we obtain Coulomb- gauge Lagrangeans containing non-local terms.
Es-haghi, Siamak Shams
2012-01-01
In this paper, diffusion in polymer solutions undergoing evaporation of solvent is modeled as a coupled heat and mass transfer problem with moving boundary condition within the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The proposed governing equations derived from the fundamental equation of classical thermodynamics using the local equilibrium hypothesis display more complex connection between heat and non-convective mass fluxes than what has been presented in the previous research works. Numerical computations, performed using an explicit finite difference scheme, indicate that the model is able to capture the effect of thermal diffusion in polymer solutions. This effect manifests itself as an increase in local concentration of solvent near warm substrates during solution casting process.
Bootstrapping in a language of thought: a formal model of numerical concept learning.
Piantadosi, Steven T; Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Goodman, Noah D
2012-05-01
In acquiring number words, children exhibit a qualitative leap in which they transition from understanding a few number words, to possessing a rich system of interrelated numerical concepts. We present a computational framework for understanding this inductive leap as the consequence of statistical inference over a sufficiently powerful representational system. We provide an implemented model that is powerful enough to learn number word meanings and other related conceptual systems from naturalistic data. The model shows that bootstrapping can be made computationally and philosophically well-founded as a theory of number learning. Our approach demonstrates how learners may combine core cognitive operations to build sophisticated representations during the course of development, and how this process explains observed developmental patterns in number word learning.
2008-11-30
the project personnel. All publications are available on request. [Pl| R. Canetti , L. Cheung, D. Kaynar, M. Liskov, N". Lynch, O. Pereira, and R...March 2008. [P2] Ran Canetti , Ling Cheung, Dilsun Kaynar, Nancy Lynch, and Oliviei Pereira. Modeling Bounded Computation in Long-Lived Systems. CONCUR...pages 153-1G2, 2001. [4] R. Canetti , L. Cheung. D. Kaynar, M. Liskov, N. Lynch, O. Pereirt, and R. Segala. Analyz- ing Security Protocol Using Thne
Modeling Interferometric Structures with Birefringent Elements: A Linear Vector-Space Formalism
2013-11-12
the conventional representation, state |si〉 is repre- sented by the 3D vector ~si as well as a “fiducial paddle ” which permits an overall phase to be...which is represented by a fiducial paddle attached to ~s. Thus, in rotating through angle φ, the orientation of the initial fiducial paddle at ~si is...changed to the grey shaded paddle at ~sf . The overall phase change is represented by a rotation of the fiducial paddle by an additional Modeling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cooper, Antony K
2011-07-01
Full Text Available an aggregator of VGI, such as Ushahidi, and the provider of the infrastructure for collecting VGI, such as OpenStreetMap. 3) Broker: A stakeholder who brings End Users and Providers together and assists in the negotiation of contracts between them... model of a spatial data infrastructure to include volunteered geographical information Antony K Cooper*, Petr Rapant?, Jan Hjelmager?, Dominique Laurent?, Adam Iwaniak#, Serena Coetzee$, Harold Moellering? and Ulrich D?ren? *Logistics...
Marais, Ida; Andrich, David
2008-01-01
Local independence in the Rasch model can be violated in two generic ways that are generally not distinguished clearly in the literature. In this paper we distinguish between a violation of unidimensionality, which we call trait dependence, and a specific violation of statistical independence, which we call response dependence, both of which violate local independence. Distinct algebraic formulations for trait and response dependence are developed as violations of the dichotomous Rasch model, data are simulated with varying degrees of dependence according to these formulations, and then analysed according to the Rasch model assuming no violations. Relative to the case of no violation it is shown that trait and response dependence result in opposite effects on the unit of scale as manifested in the range and standard deviation of the scale and the standard deviation of person locations. In the case of trait dependence the scale is reduced; in the case of response dependence it is increased. Again, relative to the case of no violation, the two violations also have opposite effects on the person separation index (analogous to Cronbach's alpha reliability index of traditional test theory in value and construction): it decreases for data with trait dependence; it increases for data with response dependence. A standard way of accounting for dependence is to combine the dependent items into a higher-order polytomous item. This typically results in a decreased person separation index index and Cronbach's alpha, compared with analysing items as discrete, independent items. This occurs irrespective of the kind of dependence in the data, and so further contributes to the two violations not being distinguished clearly. In an attempt to begin to distinguish between them statistically this paper articulates the opposite effects of these two violations in the dichotomous Rasch model.
Levy, Lawrence R; Yao, Weiguang; McGuire, George; Vollick, Dan N; Jette, Jennifer; Shanahan, Matthew J; Hay, James M; Neufeld, Richard W J
2012-10-01
Dynamical systems analysis is applied to a nonlinear model of stress and coping (Neufeld, 1999). The model is composed of 6 order parameters and 11 control parameters, and integrates core constructs of the topic domain, including variants of cognitive appraisal, differential stress susceptibility, stress activation, and coping propensity. In part owing to recent advances in Competitive Modes Theory (Yao, Yu & Essex, 2002), previously intractable but substantively significant dynamical properties of the 6-dimensional model are identified. They include stable and unstable fixed-point equilibria (higher-dimensional saddle-node bifurcation), oscillatory patterns attending fixed-point de-stabilization, and chaotic behaviors. Examination of the nature of system fixed-point de-stabilization, in relation to its control parameters, unveils mechanisms of re-stabilization, and dynamic stability control. All identified dynamics emerge naturally from a system whose construction guideposts are lodged in the addressed content domain. Dynamical complexities therefore may be intrinsic to the present content domain, possibly no less so than in other disciplines where the presence of such attributes has been established.
A Formal Approach to Modeling the Memory of a Living Organism
Guralnik, Dan
2010-01-01
We consider a living organism as an observer of the evolution of its environment recording sensory information about the state space X of the environment in real time. Sensory information is sampled and then processed on two levels. On the biological level, the organism serves as an evaluation mechanism of the subjective relevance of the incoming data to the observer: the observer assigns excitation values to events in X it could recognize using its sensory equipment. On the algorithmic level, sensory input is used for updating a database, the memory of the observer whose purpose is to serve as a geometric/combinatorial model of X, whose nodes are weighted by the excitation values produced by the evaluation mechanism. These values serve as a guidance system for deciding how the database should transform as observation data mounts. We define a searching problem for the proposed model and discuss the model's flexibility and its computational efficiency, as well as the possibility of implementing it as a dynamic...
Baratin, Aristide
2011-01-01
Using the non-commutative metric formulation of group field theories (GFT), we define a model of 4-dimensional quantum gravity as a constrained BF theory, without Immirzi parameter, encoding the quantum simplicial geometry of any triangulation used to define its quantum amplitudes. This involves a generalization of the usual GFT framework, where the usual field variables, associated to the four triangles of a tetrahedron, are supplemented by an S^3 vector playing the role of the normal to the tetrahedron. This leads naturally to projected spin network states. We give both a simplicial path integral and a spin foam formulation of the Feynman amplitudes, which correspond to a variant of the Barrett-Crane amplitudes. We then re-examin the arguments against the Barrett-Crane model(s), in light of our construction. We argue that it can still be considered a plausible quantization of 4d gravity, and that further work is needed to either confirm or refute its validity.
2011-08-01
Modes and Effects Analysis ( FMEA ) and it ensures that only the most robust designs are promoted to the final step. 3. Next, we use a set of system...performed on the most promising candidate designs. 7. Information obtained from functional verification, performance verification, FMEA , and...modes, much like the FMEA process that is often performed at the end of the design cycle. Using FFA, a multitude of failure scenarios can be quickly
Huffman, L. T.; Lynds, S. E.; Rack, F. R.
2012-12-01
Through a NOAA Environmental Literacy grant, ANDRILL (ANtarctic geological DRILLing) created a unique opportunity for both formal and informal educators to engage their classrooms/audiences in understanding the complexities of climate change. The program, entitled C2S2: Climate Change Student Summits, included excellent geographical coverage through an exceptional two-workshop professional development series for teachers in each of nine different regions representing the U.S. National Climate Assessment regions defined by the U.S. Global Change Research Program. The program also included a creative, investigative science research and presentation experience for teams of students in each region, culminating in the Climate Change Student Summit, an on-site capstone event including a videoconference connecting all sites. The success of this program is based on combining multiple aspects, such as providing professional development for educators and encouraging the active involvement of research scientists, both in the professional development workshops and in the Student Summit. Another key factor is the close working relationships between informal and formal education entities, including the involvement of informal science learning facilities and informal science education leaders. The program includes the creation and use of cutting-edge curriculum materials available in the ELF, (Environmental Literacy Framework with a focus on climate change) and hands-on resources for teachers and students that provide an earth systems approach to climate change education, which have been successfully used in grades 5-12 as well as at numerous science museums. The C2S2 project has completed four years of activities with demonstrated positive impacts on both students and teachers. This presentation will share the lessons learned about implementing this climate change science education program and suggest that it is a successful model that can be used to scale up this project from
Goldstino and sgoldstino in microscopic models and the constrained superfields formalism
Antoniadis, I; Ghilencea, D M
2012-01-01
We examine the exact relation between the superconformal symmetry breaking chiral superfield (X) and the goldstino superfield in microscopic models of an arbitrary Kahler potential (K) and in the presence of matter fields. We investigate the decoupling of the massive sgoldstino and scalar matter fields and the offshell/onshell-SUSY expressions of their superfields in terms of the fermions composites. For general K of two superfields, we study the properties of the superfield X after integrating out these scalar fields, to show that in the infrared it satisfies (offshell) the condition $X^3=0$ and $X^2\
Extension of Standard Model in Multi-spinor Field Formalism - Visible and Dark Sectors
Sogami, Ikuo S.
With multi-spinor fields which behave as triple-tensor products of the Dirac spinors, the Standard Model is extended so as to embrace three families of ordinary quarks and leptons in the visible sector and an additional family of exotic quarks and leptons in the dark sector of our Universe. Apart from the gauge and Higgs fields of the Standard Model symmetry G, new gauge and Higgs fields of a symmetry isomorphic to G are postulated to exist in the dark sector. It is the bi-quadratic interaction between visible and dark Higgs fields that opens a main portal to the dark sector. Breakdowns of the visible and dark electroweak symmetries result in the Higgs boson with mass 125 GeV and a new boson which can be related to the diphoton excess around 750 GeV. Subsequent to a common inationary phase and a reheating period, the visible and dark sectors follow weakly-interacting paths of thermal histories. We propose scenarios for dark matter in which no dark nuclear reaction takes place. A candidate for the main component of the dark matter is a stable dark hadron with spin 3/2, and the upper limit of its mass is estimated to be 15.1 GeV/c2.
Battino, Rubin
1983-01-01
Describes the design, construction, and use of oversize lecture-demonstration atomic/molecular models. These models appeal to both concrete and formal operational students. Also describes construction and use of an "spdf" sandwich board and an experiment using attribute blocks. (JN)
Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus
2016-01-01
Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…
Çil, Emine; Maccario, Nihal; Yanmaz, Durmus
2016-01-01
Background: Museums are useful educational resources in science teaching. Teaching strategies which promote hands-on activities, student-centred learning, and rich social interaction must be designed and implemented throughout the museum visit for effective science learning. Purpose: This study aimed to design and implement innovative teaching…
The Transformation between Formal and Visual Software Model%软件形式化与可视化软件模型的转换
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周彦晖; 张为群
2003-01-01
It is an important issue in Software Engineering that combined the formal development method with the vi-sual development method. This study is about the transform method and rules between the UML model and theRAISE model. At last try to put this technology and the common software develop process together.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
2011-01-01
This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers and ...... in society, educational sector and technology....... and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning...
New procedure for departure formalities
HR & GS Departments
2011-01-01
As part of the process of simplifying procedures and rationalising administrative processes, the HR and GS Departments have introduced new personalised departure formalities on EDH. These new formalities have applied to students leaving CERN since last year and from 17 October 2011 this procedure will be extended to the following categories of CERN personnel: Staff members, Fellows and Associates. It is planned to extend this electronic procedure to the users in due course. What purpose do departure formalities serve? The departure formalities are designed to ensure that members of the personnel contact all the relevant services in order to return any necessary items (equipment, cards, keys, dosimeter, electronic equipment, books, etc.) and are aware of all the benefits to which they are entitled on termination of their contract. The new departure formalities on EDH have the advantage of tailoring the list of services that each member of the personnel must visit to suit his individual contractual and p...
Performance evaluation of enterprise architecture with a formal fuzzy model (FPN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashkan Marahel
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Preparing enterprise architecture is complicated procedure, which uses framework as structure regularity and style as the behavior director for controlling complexity. As in architecture behavior, precedence over structure, for better diagnosis of a behavior than other behaviors, there is a need to evaluate the architecture performance. Enterprise architecture cannot be organized without the benefit of the logical structure. Framework provides a logical structure for classifying architectural output. Among the common architectural framework, the C4ISR is one of the most appropriate frameworks because of the methodology of its production and the level of aggregation capability and minor revisions. C4ISR framework, in three views and by using some documents called product, describes the architecture. In this paper, for developing the systems, there are always uncertainties in information systems and we may use new version of UML called FUZZY-UML, which includes structure and behavior of the system. The proposed model of this paper also uses Fuzzy Petri nets to analyze the developed system.
Results of Formal Evaluation of a Data and Modeling Driven Hydrology Learning Module
Ruddell, B. L.; Sanchez, C. A.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.
2014-12-01
New hydrologists should not only develop a well-defined knowledgebase of basic hydrological concepts, but also synthesize this factual learning with more authentic 'real-world' knowledge gained from the interpretation and analysis of data from hydrological models (Merwade and Ruddell, 2012, Wagener et al., 2007). However, hydrological instruction is often implemented using a traditional teacher-centered approach (e.g., lectures) (Wagener, 2007). The emergence of rich and dynamic computer simulation techniques which allow students the opportunity for more authentic application of knowledge (Merwade & Ruddell, 2012). This study evaluates the efficacy of using such data-driven simulations to increase the understanding of the field of hydrology in the lower-division undergraduate geoscience classroom. In this study, 88 students at a local community college who were enrolled in an Introductory Earth Science class were evaluated on their learning performance in a unit on applying the Rational Method to estimate hydrographs and flooding for urban areas. Students were either presented with a data and visualization rich computer module (n=52), or with paper and pencil calculation activities (n=36). All conceptual material presented in lecture was consistent across these two conditions. Students were evaluated for not only changes in their knowledge and application of the concepts within the unit (e.g., effects of urbanization and impervious cover, discharge rates), but also for their broad "T-shaped" profile of professional knowledge and skills. While results showed significant (peffects of urbanization and impervious cover on flooding, (2) applying consistent vocabulary appropriately within context, and (3) explaining the roles and responsibilities of hydrologists and flood managers.
Race, M. S.; Lafayette Library; Learning Center Foundation (Lllcf)
2011-12-01
In these times of budget cuts, tight school schedules, and limited opportunities for student field trips and teacher professional development, it is especially difficult to expose elementary and middle school students to the latest STEM information-particularly in the space sciences. Using our library as a facilitator and catalyst, we built a volunteer-based, multi-faceted, curriculum-linked program for students and teachers in local middle schools (Grade 8) and showcased new astronomical and planetary science information using mainly NASA resources and volunteer effort. The project began with the idea of bringing free NASA photo exhibits (FETTU) to the Lafayette and Antioch Libraries for public display. Subsequently, the effort expanded by adding layers of activities that brought space and science information to teachers, students and the pubic at 5 libraries and schools in the 2 cities, one of which serves a diverse, underserved community. Overall, the effort (supported by a pilot grant from the Bechtel Foundation) included school and library based teacher workshops with resource materials; travelling space museum visits with hands-on activities (Chabot-to-Go); separate powerpoint presentations for students and adults at the library; and concurrent ancillary space-related themes for young children's programs at the library. This pilot project, based largely on the use of free government resources and online materials, demonstrated that volunteer-based, standards-linked STEM efforts can enhance curriculum at the middle school, with libraries serving a special role. Using this model, we subsequently also obtained a small NASA-Space Grant award to bring star parties and hand-on science activities to three libraries this Fall, linking with numerous Grade 5 teachers and students in two additional underserved areas of our county. It's not necessary to reinvent the wheel, you just collect the pieces and build on what you already have.
Bailey, Donald B; Nelson, Lauren; Hebbeler, Kathy; Spiker, Donna
2007-10-01
The purpose of this work was to examine factors related to perceived impact of early intervention on children with disabilities and their families. A nationally representative sample of approximately 2100 parents completed a 40-minute telephone interview near their child's third birthday. Structural equation modeling examined the relationships between 3 support variables (quality of child services, quality of family services, and family/community support) and 2 outcomes at 36 months (impact on child and impact on family) and determined whether these relationships were mediated by 2 perceptual variables (optimism and confidence in parenting) or moderated by 5 demographic variables (poverty, maternal education, ethnicity, age of initial Individual Family Service Plan, and health at 36 months). Perceived impact of early intervention on both child and family were significantly related to each other. The quality of child services was related to impact on the child but not on the family. The quality of family services was related to both child and family impact. Informal support was not related to perceived impact on children or families but was strongly related to confidence in parenting and optimism. Neither optimism nor confidence in parenting mediated the relationships between services or supports and perceived impact. Minority families and families of children with poor health reported lower quality of services, but these characteristics did not moderate the relationships between services and perceived impact on the child. However, both poverty status and minority status were associated with perceptions of impact on the family. Findings reinforce the role of high-quality services in maximizing perceived impact. They also highlight the important role of informal support in promoting optimism and confidence in parenting. Poverty status, minority status, and poor health of the child are salient factors in predicting lower perceived quality of and benefit from services.
Molecular modelling and drug design.
Meyer, E F; Swanson, S M; Williams, J A
2000-03-01
Drug design is a creative act of the same magnitude as composing, sculpting, or writing. The results can touch the lives of millions, but the creator is rarely one scientist and the rewards are distributed differently in the arts than in the sciences. The mechanisms of creativity are the same, i.e., incremental (plodding from darkness to dawn) or sudden (the "Eureka" effect) realization, but both are poorly understood. Creativity remains a human characteristic, but it is directly related to the tools available, especially computer software and hardware. While modelling software continues to mature, very little new has evolved in terms of hardware. Here, we discuss the history of molecular modelling and describe two novel modelling tools, a haptic device and a program, SCULPT, to generate solid molecular models at atomic resolution.
Nikièma, Norbert
2011-12-01
This paper documents the new trend towards a first-language-first multilingual model in formal education in three former French colonies of West Africa, namely Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. It compares the sociolinguistic situations, the conditions of the development of multilingual education and the achievements of mother-tongue-medium education in all three countries. The evidence is that, contrary to common discourse in francophonie, a strong first-language-first model in formal education is the best guarantee of a good mastery of French and, more generally, of quality education in francophone countries.
Formal verification of SDG diagnosability via symbolic model checking%基于符号模型检测的SDG模型可诊断性验证
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宁宁; 张骏; 高向阳; 薛静
2011-01-01
由于定量信息和非线性因果关系的丢失,符号有向图(signed directed graph,SDG)模型的可诊断性需要进一步地进行校核与验证.为此,提出了基于符号模型检测的SDG模型可诊断性形式化验证方法.首先定义了SDG模型的有限状态变迁系统形式化描述,建立了符号模型验证器(symbolic model verifier,SMV)模型;其次利用SDG的深层知识,构造了可诊断性函数,设定了可诊断性上下文,给出了可诊断性定义.然后,构造了SDG耦合孪生SMV模型,定义了可诊断性的计算树时态逻辑公式,提出了验证算法SDGD-CSMV.最后,通过一个实例验证了可诊断性的判定和算法的有效性.%Because of quantitative and nonlinear causal information, diagosability of the signed directed graph(SDG) model needs to be further verified and validated. A formal verification approach to diagnosability via symbolic model checking is proposed. A formal characterization of SDG, as a finite state transition system,is transformed firstly, and a symbolic model verifier (SMV) module is modeled. In the framework of the finite state transition system, a diagnosis function is established, and then the diagnosable definition of a diagnosis condition is defined using the idea of diagnosis context. By means of NuSMV, a coupled SMV module is constructed, and then the SDGD_CSMV algorithm is designed with the computation temporal logic (CTL) definition of diagnosable property. Finally, the practical applicability within a simple water tank SDG model is demonstrated, which proves the validation of the diagnosable definition and SDGD_CSMV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moskvin, A. S., E-mail: alexander.moskvin@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
We discuss the most prominent and intensively studied S = 1 pseudospin formalism for the extended bosonic Hubbard model (EBHM) with the on-site Hilbert space truncated to the three lowest occupation states n = 0, 1, 2. The EBHM Hamiltonian is a paradigmatic model for the highly topical field of ultracold gases in optical lattices. The generalized non-Heisenberg effective pseudospin Hamiltonian does provide a deep link with a boson system and a physically clear description of “the myriad of phases,” from uniform Mott insulating phases and density waves to two types of superfluids and supersolids. We argue that the 2D pseudospin system is prone to a topological phase separation and focus on several types of unconventional skyrmion-like topological structures in 2D boson systems, which have not been analyzed until now. The structures are characterized by a complicated interplay of insulating and two superfluid phases with a single- boson and two-boson condensation, respectively.
Rooting opinions in the minds: a cognitive model and a formal account of opinions and their dynamics
Giardini, Francesca; Conte, Rosaria
2011-01-01
The study of opinions, their formation and change, is one of the defining topics addressed by social psychology, but in recent years other disciplines, like computer science and complexity, have tried to deal with this issue. Despite the flourishing of different models and theories in both fields, several key questions still remain unanswered. The understanding of how opinions change and the way they are affected by social influence are challenging issues requiring a thorough analysis of opinion per se but also of the way in which they travel between agents' minds and are modulated by these exchanges. To account for the two-faceted nature of opinions, which are mental entities undergoing complex social processes, we outline a preliminary model in which a cognitive theory of opinions is put forward and it is paired with a formal description of them and of their spreading among minds. Furthermore, investigating social influence also implies the necessity to account for the way in which people change their minds...
Formal Verification of UML Profil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar
2011-01-01
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...... and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification, specification......, refinement, and incorporate into the development process. Our motivation of research is to make an easy structural view and suggest formal technique/ method which can be best applied or used for the UML based development system. We investigate the tools and methods, which broadly used for the formal...
Formalizing the concept phase of product development
Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.
2015-01-01
We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing Sw
Clive Brasier
2017-01-01
It is now generally accepted that the four evolutionary lineages of Phytophthora ramorum (informally designated NA1, NA2, EU1, and EU2) are relatively anciently divergent populations, recently introduced into Europe and North America from different, unknown geographic locations; that recombinants between them are genetically unstable and probably...
Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification
Ray, Sandip
2010-01-01
This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue
Modeling Tool Advances Rotorcraft Design
2007-01-01
Continuum Dynamics Inc. (CDI), founded in 1979, specializes in advanced engineering services, including fluid dynamic modeling and analysis for aeronautics research. The company has completed a number of SBIR research projects with NASA, including early rotorcraft work done through Langley Research Center, but more recently, out of Ames Research Center. NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants on helicopter wake modeling resulted in the Comprehensive Hierarchical Aeromechanics Rotorcraft Model (CHARM), a tool for studying helicopter and tiltrotor unsteady free wake modeling, including distributed and integrated loads, and performance prediction. Application of the software code in a blade redesign program for Carson Helicopters, of Perkasie, Pennsylvania, increased the payload and cruise speeds of its S-61 helicopter. Follow-on development resulted in a $24 million revenue increase for Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, of Stratford, Connecticut, as part of the company's rotor design efforts. Now under continuous development for more than 25 years, CHARM models the complete aerodynamics and dynamics of rotorcraft in general flight conditions. CHARM has been used to model a broad spectrum of rotorcraft attributes, including performance, blade loading, blade-vortex interaction noise, air flow fields, and hub loads. The highly accurate software is currently in use by all major rotorcraft manufacturers, NASA, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.
ATAM-based Architecture Evaluation Using LOTOS Formal Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Usman Ashraf
2017-03-01
Full Text Available System Architecture evaluation and formal specification are the significant processes and practical endeavors in all domains. Many methods and formal descriptive techniques have been proposed to make a comprehensive analysis and formal representation of a system architecture. This paper consists of two main parts, in first we evaluated system performance, quality attribute in Remote Temperature Sensor clients-Server architecture by implementing an ATAM model, which provides a comprehensive support for evaluation of architecture designs by considering design quality attributes and how they can be represented in the architecture. In the second part, we computed the selected system architecture in ISO standards formal description technique LOTOS with which a system can be specified by the temporal relation between interactions and behavior of the system. Our proposed approach improves on factors such as ambiguity, inconsistency and incompleteness in current system architecture.
Djurfeldt, Mikael
2012-07-01
The connection-set algebra (CSA) is a novel and general formalism for the description of connectivity in neuronal network models, from small-scale to large-scale structure. The algebra provides operators to form more complex sets of connections from simpler ones and also provides parameterization of such sets. CSA is expressive enough to describe a wide range of connection patterns, including multiple types of random and/or geometrically dependent connectivity, and can serve as a concise notation for network structure in scientific writing. CSA implementations allow for scalable and efficient representation of connectivity in parallel neuronal network simulators and could even allow for avoiding explicit representation of connections in computer memory. The expressiveness of CSA makes prototyping of network structure easy. A C+ + version of the algebra has been implemented and used in a large-scale neuronal network simulation (Djurfeldt et al., IBM J Res Dev 52(1/2):31-42, 2008b) and an implementation in Python has been publicly released.
Talebian-Ashkezari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar
2016-01-01
We study the evolution of the "non-perturbative" metric perturbations in a Bianchi background in the long-wavelength limit. By applying the gradient expansion to the equations of motion we exhibit a generalized "Separate Universe" approach to the cosmological perturbation theory. Having found this consistent separate universe picture, we introduce the "{\\delta}M formalism" for calculating the evolution of the tensor perturbations in anisotropic inflation models in almost similar way as the so-called {\\delta}N formula for the super-horizon dynamics of the curvature perturbations. Likewise its ancestor, {\\delta}N formalism, this new method can substantially reduce the amount of calculations related to the evolution of the tensor modes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Various extensions of UML have been developed to meet thechallenges of designin g modern software systems, such as agent-based electronic commerce applications . Recent advances in model checking technology have led it to be introduced into the development of approaches and tools to check the correctness of electronic c ommerce protocols. This paper focuses on the research of a method that connects an extension of AUML to model checker-SPIN/Promela for the specification and v e rification of agent interaction protocols (AIP) in electronic commerce. The meth od presented here allows us to combine the benefits of visual specification with the power of some static analysis and model checking. Some algorithms and rules are developed to permit all visual modeling constructs translated mechanically into some Promela models of AIP, as supported by the model checker -SPIN. Moreo v er, a process is illustrated to guide the specification and verification of AIP. The method is demonstrated thoroughly using the e-commerce protocol -NetBill as an example.
The Bell-LaPadula Formal Model for Secure Computer Systems%安全计算机系统的Bell-LaPadula形式化模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王贵林; 卿斯汉; 倪惜珍; 冯登国
2001-01-01
In this paper,the Bell-LaPadula formal model for secure computer systems is introduced,and the key theoretical results are proved. In addition, we also point out that the sufficient and necessary condition,given by reference[11], for secure information system is wrong. Exploiting a new concept,the correct sufficient and necessary condition is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butto, C.; Fudym, O.; Joly, J.L.; Platel, V.; Zely, D. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France); Franchisseur, R.; Grandpeix, J.Y.; Lahellec, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France)
1993-12-31
This text presents the interest of TEF (Transfer Evolution Formalism) method in three cases: thermocapillar pumping, Peltier effect thermoelements and electrophoresis cell , that illustrate on the one hand, the easiness of modelizing coupled phenomena thanks to TEF, and on the other hand, the use of coupling analysis in order to understand the running of a device. (TEC). figs., refs.
Formalization and Validation of Safety-Critical Requirements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Cimatti
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The validation of requirements is a fundamental step in the development process of safety-critical systems. In safety critical applications such as aerospace, avionics and railways, the use of formal methods is of paramount importance both for requirements and for design validation. Nevertheless, while for the verification of the design, many formal techniques have been conceived and applied, the research on formal methods for requirements validation is not yet mature. The main obstacles are that, on the one hand, the correctness of requirements is not formally defined; on the other hand that the formalization and the validation of the requirements usually demands a strong involvement of domain experts. We report on a methodology and a series of techniques that we developed for the formalization and validation of high-level requirements for safety-critical applications. The main ingredients are a very expressive formal language and automatic satisfiability procedures. The language combines first-order, temporal, and hybrid logic. The satisfiability procedures are based on model checking and satisfiability modulo theory. We applied this technology within an industrial project to the validation of railways requirements.
Formal correctness, safety, dependability, and performance analysis of a satellite
Esteve, M.-A.; Katoen, J.P.; Nguyen, V.Y.; Postma, B.; Yushstein, Y.
2012-01-01
This paper reports on the usage of a broad palette of formal modeling and analysis techniques on a regular industrial-size design of an ultra-modern satellite platform. These efforts were carried out in parallel with the conventional software development of the satellite platform. The model itself i
Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe
2013-01-01
During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.
Degueldre, C.; Arima, T.; Lee, Y. W.
2003-06-01
An inert matrix fuel material based on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia: Er xY yPu zZr 1- x- y- zO 2-( x + y)/2 ( x+ y=0.15, z: [0.05-0.15]) was proposed for burning excess plutonium in light water reactors. The studied inert matrix fuel is made of cubic stabilized zirconia. The limited number of experimental thermal conductivity data justifies this formal and intensive study. Approaches derived from Klemens theory were revisited and the derived conductivity model applied for zirconia, accounting the effects of phononic scattering centers. The hyperbolic thermal conductivity trend with temperature known for pure zirconia, is reduced by isotopes, impurities, dopants and oxygen vacancies, which act as scattering centers and contribute to conductivity reduction to a flat plot with temperature for stabilized zirconia. It is experimentally observed that the thermal conductivity derived from laser flash measurements for Er xY yM zZr 1- x- y- zO 2-( x + y)/2 (with M=Ce or Pu, z=0 or ˜0.1 and x+ y=0.15) is rather constant as a function of temperature in the range 300-1000 K. The thermal conductivity was observed to depend on the concentration of dopants such as YO 1.5 and/or ErO 1.5, CeO 2 (analogous of PuO 2) or PuO 2. The bulk material conductivity of Er 0.05Y 0.10Pu 0.10Zr 0.75O 1.925 is about 2 W m -1 K -1. In this study, the thermal conductivity data of both monoclinic and stabilized cubic zirconia based IMF are tested with the model approach in order to understand the experimental data in a semi-quantitative way.
Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne
2014-05-01
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....
Biomembrane Frontiers Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life
Faller, Roland; Risbud, Subhash H; Jue, Thomas
2009-01-01
HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume II: Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life Editors: Roland Faller, PhD, Thomas Jue, PhD, Marjorie L. Longo, PhD, and Subhash H. Risbud, PhD In Biomembrane Frontiers: Nanostructures, Models, and the Design of Life, prominent researchers have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Perspectives: Complexes in Liquids, 1900–2008 Mol...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lutsenko Y. V.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In this article, in accordance with the methodology of the Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASCanalysis, we examine the implementation of the 1st and 2nd stages of ASC-analysis: cognitive structuring and formalization of the subject area. At the stage of cognitive structurization of subject area, researchers decide what to consider as the object of modeling, the factors affecting it and the results of their actions. In accordance with the results of the cognitive structurization, we prepare the initial database for the study (training sample or case-based reasoning. At the stage of formalization of the subject area, the base of the original data is being normalized, i.e., we develop classification and description: the scale and graduations and with their use the base of the source data is being encoded. The result is a database of events (eventological database and the training sample. The stage of cognitive structuring and preparation of the source data is not formalized and the formalization of the subject area is fully automated and performed directly with the use of the universal cognitive analytical system named "Eidos", which is a software Toolkit for ASC-analysis. Stages of cognitive structurization and formalization of the subject area of ASC-analysis are the first steps of data conversion into information and into knowledge. Subsequent steps: the synthesis and verification of system-cognitive model, the decision of problems of identification, forecasting and decision making, as well as studies of the modeled object by studying its model will be considered in future articles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik
2012-01-01
and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty...... evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison...... on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to attain residual stationarity for both the output error method and the SDE method transformation of the observations were...
Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus
2016-01-01
The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...
Quinto, A G
2016-01-01
We studied the Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) mechanism in a supersymmetric Chern-Simons theory in $\\left(2+1\\right)$ dimensions coupled to $N$ matter superfields in the superfield formalism. For this purpose, we developed a mechanism to calculate the effective superpotencial $K_{\\mathrm{eff}}\\left(\\sigma_{\\mathrm{cl}},\\alpha\\right)$, where $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{cl}}$ is a background superfield, and $\\alpha$ a gauge-fixing parameter that is introduced in the quantization process. The possible dependence of the effective potential on the gauge parameter have been studied in the context of quantum field theory. We developed the formalism of the Nielsen identities in the superfield language, which is the appropriate formalism to study DSB when the effective potential is gauge dependent. We also discuss how to calculate the effective superpotential via the Renormalization Group Equation (RGE) from the knowledge of the renormalization group functions of the theory, i.e., $\\beta$ functions and anomalous dimensions $\\...
Formal Verification of UML Profil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhutto, Arifa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar
2011-01-01
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is based on the Model Driven Development (MDD) approach which capturing the system functionality using the platform-independent model (PMI) and appropriate domain-specific languages. In UML base system notations, structural view is model by the class, components...... and object diagrams and behavioral view model by the activity, use case, state, and sequence diagram. However, UML does not provide the formal syntax, therefore its semantics is not formally definable, so for assure of correctness, we need to incorporate semantic reasoning through verification, specification...
Use of models in conceptual design
Bonnema, G. Maarten; Houten, van Fred J.A.M.
2006-01-01
This article investigates the use of product models by conceptual designers. After a short introduction, abstraction applied in conceptual design is described. A model that places conceptual design in a three-dimensional space is used. Applications of conceptual design from the literature are used t
Use of models in conceptual design
Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.
2006-01-01
This article investigates the use of product models by conceptual designers. After a short introduction, abstraction applied in conceptual design is described. A model that places conceptual design in a three-dimensional space is used. Applications of conceptual design from the literature are used t
On the Importance and Application of Formal Beauty in Graphic Design%谈形式美在平面设计中的重要性及其运用
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
丁静楠
2012-01-01
It discussed the role of formal beauty in graphic design, and the use of methods of formal beauty in graphic design, namely the unity of opposites, contrast, harmony, balance, reveals the importance of formal beauty in graphic design. Thereby it put forward a formal beauty in graphic design must accomplish the beauty of form and content of beauty of harmony and unity, the formal beauty to be able to fully displayed the artistic charm of graphic works.%通过论述形式美在平面设计中的作用，以及形式美在平面设计中的运用方法，即对立统一、对比、和谐、均衡等方法，揭示了形式美在平面设计中的重要性。从而也提出了形式美在平面设计中的运用，必须做到形式美与内容美的和谐统一，这样的形式美才能够充分展现出平面作品中的艺术魅力。
Designing Experiments for Nonlinear Models - An Introduction
Johnson, Rachel T.; Montgomery, Douglas C.
2009-01-01
The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/qre.1063 We illustrate the construction of Bayesian D-optimal designs for nonlinear models and compare the relative efficiency of standard designs with these designs for several models and prior distributions on the parameters. Through a relative efficiency analysis, we show that standard designs can perform well in situations where the nonlinear model is intrinsically linear. However, if the model is non...
Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo
2014-12-01
Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.
Brown, Eleanor J.
2015-01-01
This paper presents comparative case studies of non-formal development education by non-profit organisations in two European countries. The study aimed to explore the extent to which such activities provide opportunities for transformative learning. The research was qualitative and began with interviews with educators across 14 organisations in…
A Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Model for AUV Synthetic Conceptual Design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
BU Guang-zhi; ZHANG Yu-wen
2006-01-01
Autonomous undersea vehicle (AUV) is a typical complex engineering system. This paper studies the disciplines and coupled variables in AUV design with multidisciplinary design optimization (M DO) methods. The framework of AUV synthetic conceptual design is described first, and then a model with collaborative optimization is studied. At last,an example is given to verify the validity and efficiency of MDO in AUV synthetic conceptual design.
From Safety Analysis to Formal Specification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kirsten Mark; Ravn, Anders P.; Stavridou, Victoria
1998-01-01
Software for safety critical systems must deal with the hazards identified bysafety analysis. This paper investigates, how the results of onesafety analysis technique, fault trees, are interpreted as software safetyrequirements to be used in the program design process. We propose thatfault tree...... analysis and program development use the samesystem model. This model is formalized in areal-time, interval logic, based on a conventional dynamic systems modelwith state evolving over time. Fault trees are interpreted astemporal formulas, and it is shown how such formulas can be usedfor deriving safety...
Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2012-11-01
SummaryWhile there seems to be consensus that hydrological model outputs should be accompanied with an uncertainty estimate the appropriate method for uncertainty estimation is not agreed upon and a debate is ongoing between advocators of formal statistical methods who consider errors as stochastic and GLUE advocators who consider errors as epistemic, arguing that the basis of formal statistical approaches that requires the residuals to be stationary and conform to a statistical distribution is unrealistic. In this paper we take a formal frequentist approach to parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation of the modelled output, and we attach particular importance to inspecting the residuals of the model outputs and improving the model uncertainty description. We also introduce the probabilistic performance measures sharpness, reliability and interval skill score for model comparison and for checking the reliability of the confidence bounds. Using point rainfall and evaporation data as input and flow measurements from a sewer system for model conditioning, a state space model is formulated that accounts for three different flow contributions: wastewater from households, and fast rainfall-runoff from paved areas and slow rainfall-dependent infiltration-inflow from unknown sources. We consider two different approaches to evaluate the model output uncertainty, the output error method that lumps all uncertainty into the observation noise term, and a method based on Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) that separates input and model structure uncertainty from observation uncertainty and allows updating of model states in real-time. The results show that the optimal simulation (off-line) model is based on the output error method whereas the optimal prediction (on-line) model is based on the SDE method and the skill scoring criterion proved that significant predictive improvements of the output can be gained from updating the states continuously. In an effort to
Pragmatics for formal semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Danvy, Olivier
2011-01-01
This tech talk describes how to write and how to inter-derive formal semantics for sequential programming languages. The progress reported here is (1) concrete guidelines to write each formal semantics to alleviate their proof obligations, and (2) simple calculational tools to obtain a formal...
Modelling and Analyses of Embedded Systems Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brekling, Aske Wiid
We present the MoVES languages: a language with which embedded systems can be specified at a stage in the development process where an application is identified and should be mapped to an execution platform (potentially multi- core). We give a formal model for MoVES that captures and gives......-based verification is a promising approach for assisting developers of embedded systems. We provide examples of system verifications that, in size and complexity, point in the direction of industrially-interesting systems....
A Formal Classification of Internet Banking Attacks and Vulnerabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laerte Peotta
2011-02-01
Full Text Available A formal classification of attacks and vulnerabilities that affect current internet banking systems is presented along with two attacks which demonstrate the insecurity of such systems. Based ona thoroughanalysis of current security models, we propose a guidelines for designing secure internet banking systems which are not affected by the presented attacks and vulnerabilities.
Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview
Harrison, John
2010-01-01
Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination
Radiant recuperator modelling and design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knežević Suzana D.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Recuperators are frequently used in glass production and metallurgical processes to preheat combustion air by heat exchange with high temperature flue gases. Mass and energy balances of a 15 m high, concurrent radiant recuperator used in a glass fiber production process are given. The balances are used: for validation of a cell modeling method that predicts the performance of different recuperator designs, and for finding a simple solution to improve the existing recuperator. Three possible solutions are analyzed: to use the existing recuperator as a countercurrent one, to add an extra cylinder over the existing construction, and to make a system that consists of a central pipe and two concentric annular ducts. In the latter, two air streams flow in opposite directions, whereas air in the inner annular passage flows concurrently or countercurrently to flue gases. Compared with the concurrent recuperator, the countercurrent has only one drawback: the interface temperature is higher at the bottom. The advantages are: lower interface temperature at the top where the material is under maximal load, higher efficiency, and smaller pressure drop. Both concurrent and countercurrent double pipe-in-pipe systems are only slightly more efficient than pure concurrent and countercurrent recuperators, respectively. Their advantages are smaller interface temperatures whereas the disadvantages are their costs and pressure drops. To implement these solutions, the average velocities should be: for flue gas around 5 m/s, for air in the first passage less than 2 m/s, and for air in the second passage more than 25 m/s. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. EE 33027
基于Object-Z的UML对象模型的形式化%The Formalization of Object Model in UML Based on Object-Z
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨卫东; 蔡希尧
2000-01-01
UML is the main visual Object-oriented modeling language currently, which is used widely and supported by most CASE tools. Comparing with traditional Object-oriented methods, LML describes its semantics and syntax more rigouly by using metamodel and Object Constrain Language. But some important concepts in UML are not specified clearly. This paper presents a formal specification for object model of UML, mainly includes the concepts of class, association, association class, aggregation, and inheritance, etc, so that the analyse, verification, refine, and consistent cheking can be applied to object model.
Optimal design for nonlinear response models
Fedorov, Valerii V
2013-01-01
Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors' many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss ada
Formalization Modeling on VV&A Process for Warfare Simulation by UML%基于UML的作战仿真VV＆A过程形式化建模
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
唐见兵; 查亚兵
2013-01-01
可信性是作战仿真的生命线,对作战仿真的全生命周期进行校核、验证与确认(Verification,Validation and Accreditation,VV&A)是确保其可信性的重要途径.建立合适的VV&A过程形式化模型是开展作战仿真VV&A过程研究的前提和基础.基于统一建模语言(Unified Modeling Language,UML)分别从用例、静态结构、动态行为及交互等方面对VV&A过程进行形式化建模,建立了作战仿真VV＆A过程的用例、类图、活动图及顺序图模型,并给出相应的形式化定义.实践表明:作战仿真VV&A过程形式化建模可以使VV&A的描述规范化、标准化及形式化,便于不同领域人员的相互沟通与交流,以及VV＆A工程化应用,促进了VV&A工作顺利开展.%The credibility is the lifeline of warfare simulation. To execute verification, validation and accreditation (VV&A) is an important approach to insure the credibility of warfare simulation system through out the life circle. It is the precondition and foundation to make the right formal model of VV&A process for warfare simulation. In this paper,the formal models of VV&A process is carried out,in which the details of use case,static construction,dynamic activities and interactions are modeled based on UML, and their formalization definitions are put forward. The practice shows that the formalization modeling on VV&A process for warfare simulation by UML can make it standardization, regularization and formalization,which can help the researchers in different domains to communicate with each other. The research of VV&A can be used in engineering,which help the job of VV&A is developed expediently.
Formal, Model-oriented Software Development Methods - From VDM to ProCoS & from RAISE to LaCoS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørner, Dines; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Havelund, K.
1991-01-01
the technical/scientific essence of the VDM and RAISE methods, and explain the ProCos and LaCoS project structures. The paper will first outline five central roles of software developers: problem domain specialists, programmers, software engineers, resident computation scientists and managers. We will briefly......The first author has been invited to reminisce over almost 20 years of his research into and application of formal methods in software development. The paper deals with model-oriented methods. The title of this paper mentions two methods: VDM (Vienna Development Method) and RAISE (Rigorous Approach...... illustrate examples of specifications in VDM and RAISE. The aim of the paper is to record that formal methods in software development are now well-developed and broadly accepted in Europe....
Telecommunications network modelling, planning and design
Evans, Sharon
2003-01-01
Telecommunication Network Modelling, Planning and Design addresses sophisticated modelling techniques from the perspective of the communications industry and covers some of the major issues facing telecommunications network engineers and managers today. Topics covered include network planning for transmission systems, modelling of SDH transport network structures and telecommunications network design and performance modelling, as well as network costs and ROI modelling and QoS in 3G networks.
Multiagent Modeling and Simulation in Human-Robot Mission Operations Work System Design
Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Sims, Michael H.; Shafto, Michael (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper describes a collaborative multiagent modeling and simulation approach for designing work systems. The Brahms environment is used to model mission operations for a semi-autonomous robot mission to the Moon at the work practice level. It shows the impact of human-decision making on the activities and energy consumption of a robot. A collaborative work systems design methodology is described that allows informal models, created with users and stakeholders, to be used as input to the development of formal computational models.
Worldline Formalism and Noncommutative Theories
Franchino-Viñas, Sebastián A
2015-01-01
The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the implementation of the Worldline Formalism in the frame of Noncommutative Quantum Field Theories. The result is a master formula for the 1-loop effective action that is applied to a number of scalar models -- among them the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model. As a byproduct we find an expression for the small propertime expansion of general nonlocal operators' Heat Kernel. As an introduction, basic notions of spectral functions, Quantum Field Theories --path integrals and renormalization by means of spectral functions-- and the Worldline Formalism for commutative theories are given.
Advanced Powertrain Design Using Model-Based Design
2014-01-01
The use of alternative fuels and advanced powertrain technologies has been increasing over the past few years as vehicle emissions and fuel economy have become prominent in both manufacturer needs and consumer demands. With more hybrids emerging from all automotive manufacturers, the use of computer modeling has quickly taken a lead in the testing of these innovative powertrain designs. Although on-vehicle testing remains an important part of the design process, modeling and simulation is pro...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Estrin, G.; Fenchel, R.S.; Razouk, R.R.; Vernon, M.K.
1986-02-01
An environment to support designers in the modeling, analysis and simulation of concurrent systems is described. It is shown how a fully nested structure model supports multilevel design and focuses attention on the interfaces between the modules which serve to encapsulate behavior. Using simple examples the paper indicates how a formal graph model can be used to model behavior in three domains: control flow, data flow, and interpretation. The effectiveness of the explicity environment model in SARA is discussed and the capability to analyze correctness and evaluate performance of a system model are demonstrated. A description of the integral help designed into SARA shows how the designer can be offered consistent use of any new tool introduced to support the design process.
Formalization of P Systems by Maude
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Rewriting logic is a unified model of concurrency, which provides a formal common framework of wellknown models of concurrent systems. A new formal method of the specification and execution of P systems using rewriting logic was proposed. The powerful tool Maude 2.0 is used to implement this specification. In order to present the general ideas in a concrete case study, a simple and classical example from the literature is adopted to present how to formally specify and execute a P system.
Formalization of Matrix Theory in HOL4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiping Shi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Matrix theory plays an important role in modeling linear systems in engineering and science. To model and analyze the intricate behavior of complex systems, it is imperative to formalize matrix theory in a metalogic setting. This paper presents the higher-order logic (HOL formalization of the vector space and matrix theory in the HOL4 theorem proving system. Formalized theories include formal definitions of real vectors and matrices, algebraic properties, and determinants, which are verified in HOL4. Two case studies, modeling and verifying composite two-port networks and state transfer equations, are presented to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our work.
Optimal crossover designs for the proportional model
Zheng, Wei
2013-01-01
In crossover design experiments, the proportional model, where the carryover effects are proportional to their direct treatment effects, has draw attentions in recent years. We discover that the universally optimal design under the traditional model is E-optimal design under the proportional model. Moreover, we establish equivalence theorems of Kiefer-Wolfowitz's type for four popular optimality criteria, namely A, D, E and T (trace).
Improving Learner Outcomes in Lifelong Education: Formal Pedagogies in Non-Formal Learning Contexts?
Zepke, Nick; Leach, Linda
2006-01-01
This article explores how far research findings about successful pedagogies in formal post-school education might be used in non-formal learning contexts--settings where learning may not lead to formal qualifications. It does this by examining a learner outcomes model adapted from a synthesis of research into retention. The article first…
Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei
2005-01-01
We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Tetaz
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses two different alternatives to deal with the problem of multiple objectives in decision making. Even Swaps and Choice Based Conjoint are analyzed using an election between hypothetical jobs as a frame of decision. We show that not only Choice Based Conjoint Analysis can be used to value the different tradeoffs associated, but it can also be used to predict people choices even when they are not aware of the trades involved between objectives. Finally a tailored pilot survey is used to show the Choice Based Method in practice, allowing us to obtain important conclusions regarding people willingness to pay for several Labor Formality aspects.
Rogers, P D; Sirenko, A A
2011-01-01
Using 4x4 matrix formalism we analyzed electromagnetic wave propagation and Jones matrix components for reflectivity and transmittivity in bi-anisotropic materials. Analytic formulas for complex reflection and transmission coefficients for bi-anisotropic materials in both semi-infinite and thin-film configurations have been derived. The obtained results are applicable for analysis of the optical spectra of multiferroic crystals and metamaterials. The Adjusted Oscillator Strength Matching Condition (AOSM) for hybrid magnetic- and electric-dipole excitations in anisotropic multiferroics is derived for oblique angles of incidence. Mueller Matrices are used to simulate spectra of magneto-electric and chiral excitations and methods to distinguish them are discussed.
Barghouty, A. F.
2012-01-01
Accurate estimates of electron-capture cross sections at energies relevant to energetic neutral atom (ENA) modeling (approx few MeV per nucleon) and for multi-electron ions must rely on first-principles approaches and/or detailed quantum-mechanical simulation of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach offers a middle-ground, elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. We shall present a sample application and current progress in applying and extending Kuang's formalism to ENA modeling.
Students' Attitudes toward Formal Education, Non-Formal and Informal Learning
Plavšić, Marlena; Diković, Marina
2016-01-01
The purpose of the study was to contribute to the model of formal education, non-formal and informal learning (Coombs & Ahmed, 1974; European Commission, 2001) by exploring students’ attitudes towards these three types of education and learning. 553 students of educational sciences, humanities and economics filled in a scale of attitudes towards formal education, non-formal and informal learning. Data on their study year, knowledge about these three types of education/learning, monthly family...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D P Acharjya
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Emergences of computers and information technological revolution made tremendous changes in the real world and provides a different dimension for the intelligent data analysis. Well formed fact, the information at right time and at right place deploy a better knowledge. However, the challenge arises when larger volume of inconsistent data is given for decision making and knowledge extraction. To handle such imprecise data certain mathematical tools of greater importance has developed by researches in recent past namely fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set, rough Set, formal concept analysis and ordering rules. It is also observed that many information system contains numerical attribute values and therefore they are almost similar instead of exact similar. To handle such type of information system, in this paper we use two processes such as pre process and post process. In pre process we use rough set on intuitionistic fuzzy approximation space with ordering rules for finding the knowledge whereas in post process we use formal concept analysis to explore better knowledge and vital factors affecting decisions.
Educational software design: applying models of learning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Richards
1996-12-01
Full Text Available The model of learning adopted within this paper is the 'spreading ripples' (SR model proposed by Race (1994. This model was chosen for two important reasons. First, it makes use of accessible ideas and language, .and is therefore simple. Second, .Race suggests that the model can be used in the design, of educational and training programmes (and can thereby be applied to the design of computer-based learning materials.
Using Diversity Modeling for Instructional Design.
Pulsinelli, Alesha; Roubie, Cynthia
2001-01-01
The project DEVISE case study shows how diversity modeling can be used as a powerful design tool. Designers used performance-centered design techniques to create a virtual learning environment in which students with learning disabilities would be more fully supported with an interface that meets their needs. (AEF)
Quantized Feedback Control Software Synthesis from System Level Formal Specifications
Mari, Federico; Salvo, Ivano; Tronci, Enrico
2011-01-01
Many Embedded Systems are indeed Software Based Control Systems (SBCSs), that is control systems whose controller consists of control software running on a microcontroller device. This motivates investigation on Formal Model Based Design approaches for automatic synthesis of SBCS control software. We present an algorithm, along with a tool QKS implementing it, that from a formal model (as a Discrete Time Linear Hybrid System, DTLHS) of the controlled system (plant), implementation specifications (that is, number of bits in the Analog-to-Digital, AD, conversion) and System Level Formal Specifications (that is, safety and liveness requirements for the closed loop system) returns correct-by-construction control software that has a Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) linear in the number of AD bits and meets the given specifications. We show feasibility of our approach by presenting experimental results on using it to synthesize control software for a buck DC-DC converter, a widely used mixed-mode analog circuit.
Formalizing Evaluation in Music Information Retrieval
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sturm, Bob L.
2013-01-01
We develop a formalism to disambiguate the evaluation of music information retrieval systems. We define a ``system,'' what it means to ``analyze'' one, and make clear the aims, parts, design, execution, interpretation, and assumptions of its ``evaluation.'' We apply this formalism to discuss...... the MIREX automatic mood classification task....
On Fitting a Formal Method into Practice
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gmehlich, Rainer; Grau, Katrin; Hallerstede, Stefan
2011-01-01
. The interaction between the two proved to be crucial for the success of the case study. The heart of the problem was tracing informal requirements from Problem Frames descriptions to formal Event-B models. To a large degree, this issue dictated the approach that had to be used for formal modelling. A dedicated...
A survey of formal languages for contracts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvitved, Tom
2010-01-01
In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
A multi-world mechanism is developed for modeling evolutionary design process from conceptual design to detailed design. In this mechanism, the evolutionary design database is represented by a sequence of worlds corresponding to the design descriptions at different design stages. In each world, only the differences with its ancestor world are recorded. When the design descriptions in one world are changed, these changes are then propagated to its descendant worlds automatically. Case study is conducted to show the effectiveness of this evolutionary design database model.
The use of analytical models in human-computer interface design
Gugerty, Leo
1993-01-01
Recently, a large number of human-computer interface (HCI) researchers have investigated building analytical models of the user, which are often implemented as computer models. These models simulate the cognitive processes and task knowledge of the user in ways that allow a researcher or designer to estimate various aspects of an interface's usability, such as when user errors are likely to occur. This information can lead to design improvements. Analytical models can supplement design guidelines by providing designers rigorous ways of analyzing the information-processing requirements of specific tasks (i.e., task analysis). These models offer the potential of improving early designs and replacing some of the early phases of usability testing, thus reducing the cost of interface design. This paper describes some of the many analytical models that are currently being developed and evaluates the usefulness of analytical models for human-computer interface design. This paper will focus on computational, analytical models, such as the GOMS model, rather than less formal, verbal models, because the more exact predictions and task descriptions of computational models may be useful to designers. The paper also discusses some of the practical requirements for using analytical models in complex design organizations such as NASA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, C.H.
a higher confidence in the system behaviour. We have proposed a combination of formal methods and supplemental fault-detection techniques which we call the Complementary Run-Time Evaluation Model. The basic idea in this model is to use the means of verification given by formal methods, to prove......This thesis advocates a formal approach to run-time evaluation of real-time behaviour in distributed process sontrol systems, motivated by a growing interest in applying the increasingly popular formal methods in the application area of distributed process control systems. We propose to evaluate...... the various models underlaying every formal method by declaring the design assumptions as a number of features or constraints, stated in the formal specification of system requirements, to be evaluated at run-time. It is assumed that if these constraints are ful-filled at run-time then it is fair to have...
Design Oriented Structural Modeling for Airplane Conceptual Design Optimization
Livne, Eli
1999-01-01
The main goal for research conducted with the support of this grant was to develop design oriented structural optimization methods for the conceptual design of airplanes. Traditionally in conceptual design airframe weight is estimated based on statistical equations developed over years of fitting airplane weight data in data bases of similar existing air- planes. Utilization of such regression equations for the design of new airplanes can be justified only if the new air-planes use structural technology similar to the technology on the airplanes in those weight data bases. If any new structural technology is to be pursued or any new unconventional configurations designed the statistical weight equations cannot be used. In such cases any structural weight estimation must be based on rigorous "physics based" structural analysis and optimization of the airframes under consideration. Work under this grant progressed to explore airframe design-oriented structural optimization techniques along two lines of research: methods based on "fast" design oriented finite element technology and methods based on equivalent plate / equivalent shell models of airframes, in which the vehicle is modelled as an assembly of plate and shell components, each simulating a lifting surface or nacelle / fuselage pieces. Since response to changes in geometry are essential in conceptual design of airplanes, as well as the capability to optimize the shape itself, research supported by this grant sought to develop efficient techniques for parametrization of airplane shape and sensitivity analysis with respect to shape design variables. Towards the end of the grant period a prototype automated structural analysis code designed to work with the NASA Aircraft Synthesis conceptual design code ACS= was delivered to NASA Ames.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nežerenko Olga
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study is the identification of a formal macro-regional transport and logistics cluster and its development trends on a macro-regional level in 2007-2011 by means of the hierarchical cluster analysis. The central approach of the study is based on two concepts: 1 the concept of formal and informal macro-regions, and 2 the concept of clustering which is based on the similarities shared by the countries of a macro-region and tightly related to the concept of macro-region. The authors seek to answer the question whether the formation of a formal transport cluster could provide the BSR a stable competitive position in the global transportation and logistics market.
Product model structure for generalized optimal design
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
The framework of the generalized optimization product model with the core of network- and tree-hierarchical structure is advanced to improve the characteristics of the generalized optimal design. Based on the proposed node-repetition technique, a network-hierarchical structure is united with the tree-hierarchical structure to facilitate the modeling of serialization and combination products. The criteria for product decomposition are investigated. Seven tree nodes are defined for the construction of a general product model, and their modeling properties are studied in detail. The developed product modeling system is applied and examined successfully in the modeling practice of the generalized optimal design for a hydraulic excavator.
A Generic Design Model for Evolutionary Algorithms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Feng; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping
2003-01-01
A generic design model for evolutionary algo rithms is proposed in this paper. The model, which was described by UML in details, focuses on the key concepts and mechanisms in evolutionary algorithms. The model not only achieves separation of concerns and encapsulation of implementations by classification and abstraction of those concepts,it also has a flexible architecture due to the application of design patterns. As a result, the model is reusable, extendible,easy to understand, easy to use, and easy to test. A large number of experiments applying the model to solve many different problems adequately illustrate the generality and effectivity of the model.
Fasoli, Diego; Faugeras, Olivier; Panzeri, Stefano
2015-01-01
We introduce a new formalism for evaluating analytically the cross-correlation structure of a finite-size firing-rate network with recurrent connections. The analysis performs a first-order perturbative expansion of neural activity equations that include three different sources of randomness: the background noise of the membrane potentials, their initial conditions, and the distribution of the recurrent synaptic weights. This allows the analytical quantification of the relationship between anatomical and functional connectivity, i.e. of how the synaptic connections determine the statistical dependencies at any order among different neurons. The technique we develop is general, but for simplicity and clarity we demonstrate its efficacy by applying it to the case of synaptic connections described by regular graphs. The analytical equations so obtained reveal previously unknown behaviors of recurrent firing-rate networks, especially on how correlations are modified by the external input, by the finite size of the network, by the density of the anatomical connections and by correlation in sources of randomness. In particular, we show that a strong input can make the neurons almost independent, suggesting that functional connectivity does not depend only on the static anatomical connectivity, but also on the external inputs. Moreover we prove that in general it is not possible to find a mean-field description à la Sznitman of the network, if the anatomical connections are too sparse or our three sources of variability are correlated. To conclude, we show a very counterintuitive phenomenon, which we call stochastic synchronization, through which neurons become almost perfectly correlated even if the sources of randomness are independent. Due to its ability to quantify how activity of individual neurons and the correlation among them depends upon external inputs, the formalism introduced here can serve as a basis for exploring analytically the computational capability of
A general U-block model-based design procedure for nonlinear polynomial control systems
Zhu, Q. M.; Zhao, D. Y.; Zhang, Jianhua
2016-10-01
The proposition of U-model concept (in terms of 'providing concise and applicable solutions for complex problems') and a corresponding basic U-control design algorithm was originated in the first author's PhD thesis. The term of U-model appeared (not rigorously defined) for the first time in the first author's other journal paper, which established a framework for using linear polynomial control system design approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear polynomial approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). This paper represents the next milestone work - using linear state-space approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear state-space approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). The overall aim of the study is to establish a framework, defined as the U-block model, which provides a generic prototype for using linear state-space-based approaches to design the control systems with smooth nonlinear plants/processes described by polynomial models. For analysing the feasibility and effectiveness, sliding mode control design approach is selected as an exemplary case study. Numerical simulation studies provide a user-friendly step-by-step procedure for the readers/users with interest in their ad hoc applications. In formality, this is the first paper to present the U-model-oriented control system design in a formal way and to study the associated properties and theorems. The previous publications, in the main, have been algorithm-based studies and simulation demonstrations. In some sense, this paper can be treated as a landmark for the U-model-based research from intuitive/heuristic stage to rigour/formal/comprehensive studies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
du Gay, Paul; Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas
Over recent decades, institutions exhibiting high degrees of formality have come in for severe criticism. From the private to the public sector, and across a whole spectrum of actors spanning from practitioners to academics, formal organization is viewed with increasing doubt and skepticism. In a...
Optimal Control Design with Limited Model Information
Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H
2011-01-01
We introduce the family of limited model information control design methods, which construct controllers by accessing the plant's model in a constrained way, according to a given design graph. We investigate the achievable closed-loop performance of discrete-time linear time-invariant plants under a separable quadratic cost performance measure with structured static state-feedback controllers. We find the optimal control design strategy (in terms of the competitive ratio and domination metrics) when the control designer has access to the local model information and the global interconnection structure of the plant-to-be-controlled. At last, we study the trade-off between the amount of model information exploited by a control design method and the best closed-loop performance (in terms of the competitive ratio) of controllers it can produce.
Behavior and Design Intent Based Product Modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
László Horváth
2004-11-01
Full Text Available A knowledge based modeling of mechanical products is presented for industrial CAD/CAM systems. An active model is proposed that comprise knowledge from modeling procedures, generic part models and engineers. Present day models of mechanical systems do not contain data about the background of human decisions. This situation motivated the authors at their investigations on exchange design intent information between engineers. Their concept was extending of product models to be capable of description of design intent information. Several human-computer and human-human communication issues were considered. The complex communication problem has been divided into four sub-problems, namely communication of human intent source with the computer system, representation of human intent, exchange of intent data between modeling procedures and communication of the represented intent with humans. Paper discusses the scenario of intelligent modeling based engineering. Then key concepts for the application of computational intelligence in computer model based engineering systems are detailed including knowledge driven models as well as areas of their application. Next, behavior based models with intelligent content involving specifications and knowledge for the design processes are emphasized and an active part modeling is proposed and possibilities for its application are outlined. Finally, design intent supported intelligent modeling is discussed.
Lebenicnik, Maja; Pitt, Ian; Istenic Starcic, Andreja
2015-01-01
Learning resources that are used in the education of university students are often available online. The nature of new technologies causes an interweaving of formal and informal learning, with the result that a more active role is expected from students with regard to the use of ICT for their learning. The variety of online learning resources…
An approach of requirements tracing in formal refinement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael;
2010-01-01
results that we have obtained for tracing informal natural-language requirements into formal models across refinement levels. The approach uses the WRSPM reference model for requirements modeling, and Event-B for formal modeling and formal refinement. The combined use of WRSPM and Event-B is facilitated......Formal modeling of computing systems yields models that are intended to be correct with respect to the requirements that have been formalized. The complexity of typical computing systems can be addressed by formal refinement introducing all the necessary details piecemeal. We report on preliminary...... by the rudimentary refinement notion of WRSPM, which provides the foundation for tracing requirements to formal refinements. We assume that requirements are evolving, meaning that we have to cope with frequent changes of the requirements model and the formal model. Our approach is capable of dealing with frequent...
A Force Structure Design Model
1991-09-01
199) WRITE(20,*)’ MODEL FAR10 /ALL/’ WRITE(20, 159) 159 FORMAT(’*------------- LOOP--------------- WRITE(20,*) ’SOLVE FAR10 USING RMIP MINIMIZING...SOLVE FARIO USING RMIP MINIMIZING MAXDEV OPTION X:4:0:1 DISPLAY X.L OPTION FAR:4:O:1; DISPLAY FAR OPTION R:4:0:1 OPTION R1:4:Q:1 OPTION R2:4:0:1...LOOP ------------------------ 102 SOLVE FAR10 USING RMIP MINIMIZING MAXDEV 103 OPTION X:4:0:1 104 DISPLAY X.L 105 OPTION FAR
Conceptual Models Core to Good Design
Johnson, Jeff
2011-01-01
People make use of software applications in their activities, applying them as tools in carrying out tasks. That this use should be good for people--easy, effective, efficient, and enjoyable--is a principal goal of design. In this book, we present the notion of Conceptual Models, and argue that Conceptual Models are core to achieving good design. From years of helping companies create software applications, we have come to believe that building applications without Conceptual Models is just asking for designs that will be confusing and difficult to learn, remember, and use. We show how Concept
Ballester, Facundo; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Granero, Domingo; Haworth, Annette; Mourtada, Firas; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rivard, Mark J; Siebert, Frank-André; Sloboda, Ron S; Smith, Ryan L; Thomson, Rowan M; Verhaegen, Frank; Vijande, Javier; Ma, Yunzhi; Beaulieu, Luc
2015-06-01
In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) (192)Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. A hypothetical, generic HDR (192)Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic (192)Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra(®) Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS™ ]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201)(3) voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR (192)Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by different investigators. MC results were then
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ballester, Facundo, E-mail: Facundo.Ballester@uv.es [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa [Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 85, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm SE-171 76 (Sweden); Granero, Domingo [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, Valencia E-46014 (Spain); Haworth, Annette [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Mourtada, Firas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil and Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Zourari, Kyveli; Papagiannis, Panagiotis [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Athens, 75 MikrasAsias, Athens 115 27 (Greece); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States); Siebert, Frank-André [Clinic of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel 24105 (Germany); Sloboda, Ron S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3 (Canada); and others
2015-06-15
Purpose: In order to facilitate a smooth transition for brachytherapy dose calculations from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism to model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), treatment planning systems (TPSs) using a MBDCA require a set of well-defined test case plans characterized by Monte Carlo (MC) methods. This also permits direct dose comparison to TG-43 reference data. Such test case plans should be made available for use in the software commissioning process performed by clinical end users. To this end, a hypothetical, generic high-dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source and a virtual water phantom were designed, which can be imported into a TPS. Methods: A hypothetical, generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source was designed based on commercially available sources as well as a virtual, cubic water phantom that can be imported into any TPS in DICOM format. The dose distribution of the generic {sup 192}Ir source when placed at the center of the cubic phantom, and away from the center under altered scatter conditions, was evaluated using two commercial MBDCAs [Oncentra{sup ®} Brachy with advanced collapsed-cone engine (ACE) and BrachyVision ACUROS{sup TM}]. Dose comparisons were performed using state-of-the-art MC codes for radiation transport, including ALGEBRA, BrachyDose, GEANT4, MCNP5, MCNP6, and PENELOPE2008. The methodologies adhered to recommendations in the AAPM TG-229 report on high-energy brachytherapy source dosimetry. TG-43 dosimetry parameters, an along-away dose-rate table, and primary and scatter separated (PSS) data were obtained. The virtual water phantom of (201){sup 3} voxels (1 mm sides) was used to evaluate the calculated dose distributions. Two test case plans involving a single position of the generic HDR {sup 192}Ir source in this phantom were prepared: (i) source centered in the phantom and (ii) source displaced 7 cm laterally from the center. Datasets were independently produced by
Formalization of Function Matrix Theory in HOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiping Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Function matrices, in which elements are functions rather than numbers, are widely used in model analysis of dynamic systems such as control systems and robotics. In safety-critical applications, the dynamic systems are required to be analyzed formally and accurately to ensure their correctness and safeness. Higher-order logic (HOL theorem proving is a promise technique to match the requirement. This paper proposes a higher-order logic formalization of the function vector and the function matrix theories using the HOL theorem prover, including data types, operations, and their properties, and further presents formalization of the differential and integral of function vectors and function matrices. The formalization is implemented as a library in the HOL system. A case study, a formal analysis of differential of quadratic functions, is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed formalization.
Formal description of board games
Nowak, Stanislav
2011-01-01
The aim of thesis was to design a mathematical formalism that allows describing and exploring the properties of board games. The work benefits from the findings of automata theory and logic programming. First part of thesis deals with finite automata and their possible applications for the needs of board games. The result is an extension of finite-state automaton covering the specifics of board games called game automaton. Board games are a complex domain hight level tools should be used. Suc...
Formal specification level concepts, methods, and algorithms
Soeken, Mathias
2015-01-01
This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner. The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces. • Serves as a single-source reference to a new level of abstraction for embedded systems, known as the Formal Specification Level (FSL); • Provides a variety of use cases which can be adapted to readers’ specific design flows; • Includes a comprehensive illustration of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, along with examples of how to i...
Mechatronic Systems Design Methods, Models, Concepts
Janschek, Klaus
2012-01-01
In this textbook, fundamental methods for model-based design of mechatronic systems are presented in a systematic, comprehensive form. The method framework presented here comprises domain-neutral methods for modeling and performance analysis: multi-domain modeling (energy/port/signal-based), simulation (ODE/DAE/hybrid systems), robust control methods, stochastic dynamic analysis, and quantitative evaluation of designs using system budgets. The model framework is composed of analytical dynamic models for important physical and technical domains of realization of mechatronic functions, such as multibody dynamics, digital information processing and electromechanical transducers. Building on the modeling concept of a technology-independent generic mechatronic transducer, concrete formulations for electrostatic, piezoelectric, electromagnetic, and electrodynamic transducers are presented. More than 50 fully worked out design examples clearly illustrate these methods and concepts and enable independent study of th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Draper Brian
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The few studies that have attempted to estimate the future cost of caring for people with dementia in Australia are typically based on total prevalence and the cost per patient over the average duration of illness. However, costs associated with dementia care also vary according to the length of the disease, severity of symptoms and type of care provided. This study aimed to determine more accurately the future costs of dementia management by taking these factors into consideration. Methods The current study estimated the prevalence of dementia in Australia (2010-2040. Data from a variety of sources was recalculated to distribute this prevalence according to the location (home/institution, care requirements (informal/formal, and dementia severity. The cost of care was attributed to redistributed prevalences and used in prediction of future costs of dementia. Results Our computer modeling indicates that the ratio between the prevalence of people with mild/moderate/severe dementia will change over the three decades from 2010 to 2040 from 50/30/20 to 44/32/24. Taking into account the severity of symptoms, location of care and cost of care per hour, the current study estimates that the informal cost of care in 2010 is AU$3.2 billion and formal care at AU$5.0 billion per annum. By 2040 informal care is estimated to cost AU$11.6 billion and formal care $AU16.7 billion per annum. Interventions to slow disease progression will result in relative savings of 5% (AU$1.5 billion per annum and interventions to delay disease onset will result in relative savings of 14% (AU$4 billion of the cost per annum. With no intervention, the projected combined annual cost of formal and informal care for a person with dementia in 2040 will be around AU$38,000 (in 2010 dollars. An intervention to delay progression by 2 years will see this reduced to AU$35,000. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to account for more than total prevalence when
Necessity of Integral Formalism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陶勇
2011-01-01
To describe the physical reality, there are two ways of constructing the dynamical equation of field, differential formalism and integral formalism. The importance of this fact is firstly emphasized by Yang in case of gauge field [Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 （1974） 44fi], where the fact has given rise to a deeper understanding for Aharonov-Bohm phase and magnetic monopole [Phys. Rev. D 12 （1975） 3846]. In this paper we shall point out that such a fact also holds in general wave function of matter, it may give rise to a deeper understanding for Berry phase. Most importantly, we shall prove a point that, for general wave function of matter, in the adiabatic limit, there is an intrinsic difference between its integral formalism and differential formalism. It is neglect of this difference that leads to an inconsistency of quantum adiabatic theorem pointed out by Marzlin and Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 （2004） 160408]. It has been widely accepted that there is no physical difference of using differential operator or integral operator to construct the dynamical equation of field. Nevertheless, our study shows that the Schroedinger differential equation （i.e., differential formalism for wave function） shall lead to vanishing Berry phase and that the Schroedinger integral equation （i.e., integral formalism for wave function）, in the adiabatic limit, can satisfactorily give the Berry phase. Therefore, we reach a conclusion： There are two ways of describing physical reality, differential formalism and integral formalism; but the integral formalism is a unique way of complete description.
Micromechatronics modeling, analysis, and design with Matlab
Giurgiutiu, Victor
2009-01-01
Focusing on recent developments in engineering science, enabling hardware, advanced technologies, and software, Micromechatronics: Modeling, Analysis, and Design with MATLAB®, Second Edition provides clear, comprehensive coverage of mechatronic and electromechanical systems. It applies cornerstone fundamentals to the design of electromechanical systems, covers emerging software and hardware, introduces the rigorous theory, examines the design of high-performance systems, and helps develop problem-solving skills. Along with more streamlined material, this edition adds many new sections to exist
Dependencies in Formal Mathematics
Alama, Jesse; Urban, Josef
2011-01-01
Dependencies in formal mathematical texts, large coherent formal libraries and proof assistants are introduced as an emerging research topic, analyzed from foundational, semantic, computational, and pragmatic perspectives, and put to practical use in computer-assisted mathematics. Two different approaches to dependency computation are implemented over two major proof assistants with different type disciplines, and a large-scale experimental comparison is provided based on large Coq and Mizar formal libraries. Apart from theoretical discussions, importance of dependency analysis for advanced automation of computer-assisted reasoning, and for efficient proof analysis and theory refactoring in substantial mathematical domains are experimentally demonstrated.
A Model for Teaching Information Design
Pettersson, Rune
2011-01-01
The author presents his views on the teaching of information design. The starting point includes some general aspects of teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary structure and content of information design as well as the combined practical and theoretical components influence studies of the discipline. Experiences from working with a model for…
A Model for Teaching Information Design
Pettersson, Rune
2011-01-01
The author presents his views on the teaching of information design. The starting point includes some general aspects of teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary structure and content of information design as well as the combined practical and theoretical components influence studies of the discipline. Experiences from working with a model for…
Network Design Models for Container Shipping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reinhardt, Line Blander; Kallehauge, Brian; Nielsen, Anders Nørrelund
This paper presents a study of the network design problem in container shipping. The paper combines the network design and fleet assignment problem into a mixed integer linear programming model minimizing the overall cost. The major contributions of this paper is that the time of a vessel route...