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Sample records for form titanium silicide

  1. On Silicides in High Temperature Titanium Alloys

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    C. Ramachandra

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available High temperature titanium alloys like IMI 685 contain small amounts of silicon (~ 0.25 wt. per cent to improve creep resistance. Different types of silicides, namely Ti5Si3 (TiZr5Si3(S1 and (TiZr6 Si3 (S2, have been observed to precipitate in various silicon-bearing titanium alloys depending upon their composition and heat treatment. The precipitation of silicides, their orientation relationship with the matrix in different alloys, and the beneficial influence of thermo-mechanical treatment on the distribution of silicides have been pointed out. The effect of silicides on mechanical properties and fracture of the commercial alloy IMI 685 is also indicated.

  2. Titanium-based silicide quantum dot superlattices for thermoelectrics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelli, Guillaume; Stein, Sergio Silveira; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Faucherand, Pascal; Montès, Laurent; Dilhaire, Stefan; Pernot, Gilles

    2015-07-10

    Ti-based silicide quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) are grown by reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition. They are made of titanium-based silicide nanodots scattered in an n-doped SiGe matrix. This is the first time that such nanostructured materials have been grown in both monocrystalline and polycrystalline QDSLs. We studied their crystallographic structures and chemical properties, as well as the size and the density of the quantum dots. The thermoelectric properties of the QDSLs are measured and compared to equivalent SiGe thin films to evaluate the influence of the nanodots. Our studies revealed an increase in their thermoelectric properties-specifically, up to a trifold increase in the power factor, with a decrease in the thermal conductivity-making them very good candidates for further thermoelectric applications in cooling or energy-harvesting fields.

  3. X-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy of titanium silicide formation in patterned microstructures

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    Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Stoughton, WI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Titanium silicide has the lowest resistivity of all the refractory metal silicides and has good thermal stability as well as excellent compatibility with Al metallization. It is used as an intermediate buffer layer between W vias and the Si substrate to provide good electrical contact in ULSI technology, whose submicron patterned features form the basis of the integrated circuits of today and tomorrow, in the self aligned silicide (salicide) formation process. TiSi{sub 2} exists in two phases: a metastable C49 base-centered orthorhombic phase with specific resistivity of 60-90 {mu}{Omega}-cm that is formed at a lower temperature (formation anneal) and the stable 12-15 {mu}{Omega}-cm resistivity face-centered orthorhombic C54 phase into which C49 is transformed with a higher temperature (conversion anneal) step. C54 is clearly the target for low resistivity VLSI interconnects. However, it has been observed that when dimensions shrink below 1/mic (or when the Ti thickness drops below several hundred angstroms), the transformation of C49 into C54 is inhibited and agglomeration often occurs in fine lines at high temperatures. This results in a rise in resistivity due to incomplete transformation to C54 and because of discontinuities in the interconnect line resulting from agglomeration. Spectromicroscopy is an appropriate tool to study the evolution of the TiSi2 formation process because of its high resolution chemical imaging ability which can detect bonding changes even in the absence of changes in the relative amounts of species and because of the capability of studying thick {open_quotes}as is{close_quotes} industrial samples.

  4. Influence of the initial nitrogen content in titanium films on the nitridation and silicidation processes

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    Jimenez, C.; Perez-Casero, R.; Martinez-Duart, J.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada; Perez-Rigueiro, J. [Dpto. Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, L.; Fernandez, M. [Instituto Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-08-15

    The rapid thermal annealing of Ti films on silicon in a nitrogen atmosphere seems to be a very promising method to obtain the Si/TiSi{sub 2}/TiN structure. We have tried to increase the final nitrogen content (i.e. TiN thickness) by incorporating nitrogen during the deposition of the initial Ti films. The influence of the nitrogen present in the titanium film on the silicidation process has been studied by comparison with the silicidation of pure titanium. The evolution of the nitrogen content with thermal treatment conditions has been established by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The nitrogen initially incorporated in the Ti film plays a passive role during the nitridation process, since its initial presence does not strongly influence the further incorporation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The final nitrogen content of the N-doped samples is the addition of the nitrogen incorporated from the atmosphere during the thermal treatment in pure titanium samples and the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. The silicidation process has been studied using complementary techniques. The sheet resistances, Rutherford backscattering spectra and grazing X-ray diffraction (GXRD) diagrams have allowed us to establish the evolution of the reaction. Silicidation is not affected by the nitrogen incorporated during deposition. No differences have been found due to the presence of nitrogen. Nevertheless, changes in the surface morphology were found by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Ti(N{sub 2}) samples are characterized by lower root mean square (rms) surface roughness values and different features. (orig.) 14 refs.

  5. Orientation relationship between alpha-prime titanium and silicide S2 in alloy Ti-6Al-5Zr-0. 5Mo-0. 25Si

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    Ramachandra, C.; Singh, V.

    1985-03-01

    Orientation relationships between the silicide S2 and the matrix of alpha-prime platelets are established for the titanium alloy 685 (Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si), a near-alpha alloy designed for the high-temperature components of jet engines. A stereogram showing the parallel planes of alpha-prime and S2 is presented for the alloy in the water-quenched and aged condition. A table is also presented which lists the parallel planes of the matrix and the silicide along with the misfit parameters. The results obtained are compared with the orientation relationships reported in the literature. 14 references.

  6. Current assisted superplastic forming of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assisted superplastic forming combines electric heating technology and superplastic forming technology, and can overcome some shortcomings of traditional superplastic forming effectively, such as slow heating rate, large energy loss, low production efficiency, etc. Since formability of titanium alloy at room temperature is poor, current assisted superplastic forming is suitable for titanium alloy. This paper mainly introduces the application of current assisted superplastic forming in the field of titanium alloy, including forming technology of double-hemisphere structure and bellows.

  7. Electrophoretic deposition of magnesium silicates on titanium implants: Ion migration and silicide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Mohajer, M. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yaghoubi, A., E-mail: yaghoubi@siswa.um.edu.my [Center for High Impact Research, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Ramesh, S., E-mail: ramesh79@um.edu.my [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Bushroa, A.R.; Chin, K.M.C.; Tin, C.C. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chiu, W.S. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2014-07-01

    Magnesium silicates (Mg{sub x}SiO{sub y}) and in particular forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) owing to their low thermal expansion mismatch with metals are promising materials for bioactive coating of implants. Here, we report the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of forsterite onto titanium substrates using different precursors. Unlike bulk samples which achieve full stoichiometry only beyond 1400 °C, non-stoichiometric magnesium silicate rapidly decomposes into magnesium oxide nanowires during sintering. Elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction suggest that oxygen diffusion followed by ion exchange near the substrate leads to formation of an interfacial Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} layer. Pre-annealed forsterite powder on the other hand shows a comparatively lower diffusion rate. Overall, magnesium silicate coatings do not exhibit thermally induced microcracks upon sintering as opposed to calcium phosphate bioceramics which are currently in use.

  8. Modification of Structure and Properties of Titanium Surfaces During Formation of Silicides and Borides Initiated by High-Energy Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Klopotov, A. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Volokitin, O. G.

    2013-12-01

    An analysis of binary (Ti-Si, Ti-В, Si-B) and ternary (Ti-Si-B) phase states is made, their diagrams are presented, and a possibility for formation of a large number of metastable compounds is revealed. The latter are found to form as a result of application of non-equilibrium conditions in the course of material treatment with concentrated high-energy flows. Using an x-ray diffraction analysis and electron-diffraction microscopy, the phase composition of the surface layer of technical-grade titanium (VT1-0) treated by concentrated energy flows (irradiation with plasma from electrical wire explosion and high-intensity pulsed electron beam) is investigated.

  9. Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ghosh

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available New and advanced fabrication methods for titanium components are emerging today to replace age-old fabrication processes and reduce component cost. Superplastic forming and diffusion bonding are two such advanced fabrication technologies which when applied individually or in combination can provide significant cost and weight benefits and a rather broad manufacturing technology base. This paper briefly reviews the state of understanding of the science and technology of super plastic forming of titanium alloys, and their diffusion bonding capability. Emphasis has been placed on the metallurgy of superplastic flow in two phase titanium alloys, the microstructural and external factors which influence this behaviour.

  10. Free Form Low Cost Fabrication Using Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-29

    Metals", 2006 Edition, Annex F "Supplementary Information on Titanium" "* Terry T. Wohlers , Wohlers Report 2005 "Rapid Prototyping, Tooling...Manufacturing State of the Industry Annual Worldwide Progress Report ", 2005, Wohlers Associates "* R.M. German, "Sintering Theory and Practice", 1996, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Page 52 ...Metals, Inc., of Nashua, NH. Further descriptions of these powders can be found in subsequent sections of this report The following table contains

  11. Simultaneous aluminizing and chromizing of steels to form (Fe,Cr){sub 3}Al coatings and Ge-doped silicide coatings of Cr-Zr base alloys

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    Zheng, M.; He, Y.R.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    A halide-activated cementation pack involving elemental Al and Cr powders has been used to achieve surface compositions of approximately Fe{sub 3}Al plus several percent Cr for low alloy steels (T11, T2 and T22) and medium carbon steel (1045 steel). A two-step treatment at 925 C and 1150 C yields the codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium to form dense and uniform ferrite coatings of about 400 {micro}m thickness, while preventing the formation of a blocking chromium carbide at the substrate surfaces. Upon cyclic oxidation in air at 700 C, the coated steel exhibits a negligible 0.085 mg/cm{sup 2} weight gain for 1900 one-hour cycles. Virtually no attack was observed on coated steels tested at ABB in simulated boiler atmospheres at 500 C for 500 hours. But coatings with a surface composition of only 8 wt% Al and 6 wt% Cr suffered some sulfidation attack in simulated boiler atmospheres at temperatures higher than 500 C for 1000 hours. Two developmental Cr-Zr based Laves phase alloys (CN129-2 and CN117(Z)) were silicide/germanide coated. The cross-sections of the Ge-doped silicide coatings closely mimicked the microstructure of the substrate alloys. Cyclic oxidation in air at 1100 C showed that the Ge-doped silicide coating greatly improved the oxidation resistance of the Cr-Zr based alloys.

  12. Superplastic forming gas pressure of titanium alloy bellows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 张凯锋; 陈军; 阮雪榆

    2004-01-01

    The complex superplastic forming (SPF) technology applying gas pressure and compressive axial load is an advanced forming method for titanium alloy bellows, whose forming process consists of the three main forming phases namely bulging, clamping and calibrating phase. The influence of forming gas pressure in various phases on the forming process was analyzed and the models of forming gas pressure for bellows were derived according to the thin shell theory and the plasticity deformation theory. Using the model values, taking a two-convolution DN250 Ti6Al-4V titanium alloy bellows as an example, a series of superplastic forming tests were performed to evaluate the influence of the variation of forming gas pressure on the forming process. According to the experimental results these models were corrected to make the forming gas pressures prediction more accurate.

  13. Monitoring silicide formation via in situ resistance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Erik J.; Wolters, Rob A.M.; Rajasekharan, Bijoy; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Silicide formation as a result of the reaction of metals with silicon is a widely studied topic in semiconductor industry since silicides form an essential part of modern day Integrated Circuits (ICs). In most situations the fundamental kinetics of silicide formation are analyzed using elaborate tec

  14. Improved photocatalytic degradation of textile dye using titanium dioxide nanotubes formed over titanium wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Archana; Smith, York R; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan

    2009-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes formed by anodization over titanium wires show a significant improvement in photocatalytic activity compared to the nanotubes formed over foils. This is evident when the fractional conversion of a textile dye, methyl orange, increased from 19% over a foil to 40% over wires in the presence of nanotubes of identical dimensions illuminated over the same geometrical area. Higher degradation rates with Pt-TiO2 nanotubes over foils are matched by the Pt-free TiO2 nanotubes over the wires. The higher photocatalytic activity over the anodized wires can be attributed to the efficient capture of reflected and refracted light by the radially outward oriented TiO2 nanotubes formed over the circumference of the titanium wire. The formation of TiO2 nanotubes over wires can be considered as an effective alternate to improve photodegradation rates by avoiding expensive additives.

  15. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  16. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  17. Metrology Of Silicide Contacts For Future CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollner, Stefan; Gregory, Richard B.; Kottke, M. L.; Vartanian, Victor; Wang, Xiang-Dong; Theodore, David; Fejes, P. L.; Conner, J. R.; Raymond, Mark; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Denning, Dean; Bolton, Scott; Chang, Kyuhwan; Noble, Ross; Jahanbani, Mohamad; Rossow, Marc; Goedeke, Darren; Filipiak, Stan; Garcia, Ricardo; Jawarani, Dharmesh; Taylor, Bill; Nguyen, Bich-Yen; Crabtree, P. E.; Thean, Aaron

    2007-09-01

    Silicide materials (NiSi, CoSi2, TiSi2, etc) are used to form low-resistance contacts between the back-end (W plugs and Cu interconnects) and front-end portions (silicon source, drain, and gate regions) of integrated CMOS circuits. At the 65 nm node, a transition from CoSi2 to NiSi was necessary because of the unique capability of NiSi to form narrow silicide nanowires on active (monocrystalline) and gate (polycrystalline) lines. Like its predecessors TiSi2 and CoSi2, NiSi is a mid-gap silicide, i.e., the Fermi level of the NiSi metal is pinned half-way between the conduction and valence band edges in silicon. This leads to a Schottky barrier between the silicide and silicon source-drain regions, which creates undesirable parasitic resistances. For future CMOS generations, band-edge silicides, such as PtSi for contacts to p-type or rare earth silicides for contacts to n-type Si will be needed. This paper reviews metrology and characterization techniques for NiSi process control for development and manufacturing, with special emphasis on x-ray reflectance and x-ray fluorescence. We also report measurement methods useful for development of a PtSi PMOS module.

  18. Microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Wang, Han; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Tang, Wen-Shu; Li, Da; Ma, Song; Geng, Dianyu; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zhidong

    2012-05-01

    The microwave absorption properties of Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules prepared by an arc discharge method have been studied. The composition and the microstructure of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules were determined by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope observations. Silicides, in the forms of SiOx and SiC, mainly exist in the shells of the nanocapsules and result in a large amount of defects at the `core/shell' interfaces as well as in the shells. The complex permittivity and microwave absorption properties of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules are improved by the doped silicides. Compared with those of Ni/C nanocapsules, the positions of maximum absorption peaks of the Ni/(C, silicides) nanocapsules exhibit large red shifts. An electric dipole model is proposed to explain this red shift phenomenon.

  19. Chemical rate model for the surface pyrolysis of tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium to form titanium nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprac, Anthony J.; Iacoponi, John A.; Littau, Karl A.

    1998-09-01

    A chemical kinetic rate model for the deposition of titanium nitride films from the surface reaction of tetrakis(dimethyl-amido)titanium (TDMAT) was developed. Without ammonia addition, TDMAT forms a titanium nitride film by pyrolyzing on the hot substrate surface. Experimental data from the applied materials 5000 deposition tool was modeled using a CSTR formulation. With the parameters of the surface reaction model regressed to fit portions of the experimental results, reasonably accurate model predictions over the entire domain of experimental data were obtained.

  20. Raman scattering from rapid thermally annealed tungsten silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Dasgupta, Samhita; Jackson, Howard E.; Boyd, Joseph T.

    1987-01-01

    Raman scattering as a technique for studying the formation of tungsten silicide is presented. The tungsten silicide films have been formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin tungsten films sputter deposited on silicon substrates. The Raman data are interpreted by using data from resistivity measurements, Auger and Rutherford backscattering measurements, and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Synthesis and controllable wettability of micro- and nanostructured titanium phosphate thin films formed on titanium plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Mitsunori; Inoue, Yuko; Sakamoto, Ayako; Torikai, Toshio; Watari, Takanori

    2014-05-28

    The hydrothermal treatment of a titanium plate in a mixed aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and aqueous phosphoric acid under different conditions results in the formation of various titanium phosphate thin films. The films have various crystal structures such as Ti2O3(H2PO4)2·2H2O, α-titanium phosphate (Ti(HPO4)2·H2O), π-titanium phosphate (Ti2O(PO4)2·H2O), or low-crystallinity titanium phosphate and different morphologies that have not been previously reported such as nanobelts, microflowers, nanosheets, nanorods, or nanoplates. The present study also suggests the mechanisms behind the formation of these thin films. The crystal structure and morphology of the titanium phosphate thin films depend strongly on the concentration of the aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution, the amount of phosphoric acid, and the reaction temperature. In particular, hydrogen peroxide plays an important role in the formation of the titanium phosphate thin films. Moreover, controllable wettability of the titanium phosphate thin films, including superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity, is reported. Superhydrophobic surfaces with controllable adhesion to water droplets are obtained on π-titanium phosphate nanorod thin films modified with alkylamine molecules. The adhesion force between a water droplet and the thin film depends on the alkyl chain length of the alkylamine and the duration of ultraviolet irradiation utilized for photocatalytic degradation.

  2. The growth and applications of silicides for nanoscale devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Chen; Chen, Yu; Huang, Yu

    2012-03-01

    Metal silicides have been used in silicon technology as contacts to achieve high device performance and desired device functions. The growth and applications of silicide materials have recently attracted increasing interest for nanoscale device applications. Nanoscale silicide materials have been demonstrated with various synthetic approaches. Solid state reaction wherein high quality silicides form through diffusion of metal atoms into silicon nano-templates and the subsequent phase transformation caught significant attention for the fabrication of nanoscale Si devices. Very interestingly, studies on the diffusion and phase transformation processes at the nanoscale have indicated possible deviations from the bulk and the thin film system. Here we present a review of fabrication, growth kinetics, electronic properties and device applications of nanoscale silicides formed through solid state reaction.

  3. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  4. Effect of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Temperature is one of the key parameters for BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece manufactured by vacuum hot bulge forming. A two-dimensional nonlinear thermo-mechanical coupled FE model was established. Numerical simulation of vacuum hot bulge forming process of titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece was carried out using FE analysis software MSC Marc. The effects of temperature on vacuum hot bulge forming of BT20 titanium alloy cylindrical workpiece were analyzed by numerical simulation.The simulated results show that the Y-direction displacement and the equivalent plastic strain of the workpiece increase with increasing bulge temperature. The residual stress decreases with increasing bulge temperature. The optimal temperature range of BT20 titanium alloy during vacuum hot bulge forming is 750-850 ℃. The corresponding experiments were carried out. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental results.

  5. Multifunctional porous titanium oxide coating with apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity on a titanium substrate formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akatsu, T; Yamada, Y; Hoshikawa, Y; Onoki, T; Shinoda, Y; Wakai, F

    2013-12-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was used to make a multifunctional porous titanium oxide (TiO2) coating on a titanium substrate. The key finding of this study is that a highly crystalline TiO2 coating can be made by performing the PEO in an ammonium acetate (CH3COONH4) solution; the PEO coating was formed by alternating between rapid heating by spark discharges and quenching in the solution. The high crystallinity of the TiO2 led to the surface having multiple functions, including apatite forming ability and photocatalytic activity. Hydroxyapatite formed on the PEO coating when it was soaked in simulated body fluid. The good apatite forming ability can be attributed to the high density of hydroxyl groups on the anatase and rutile phases in the coating. The degradation of methylene blue under ultraviolet radiation indicated that the coating had high photocatalytic activity.

  6. Technological aspects regarding machining the titanium alloys by means of incremental forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bologa Octavian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are materials with reduced formability, due to their low plasticity. However, today there are high demands regarding their use in the automotive industry and in bio-medical industry, for prosthetic devices. This paper presents some technological aspects regarding the machinability of titanium alloys by means of incremental forming. The research presented in this paper aimed to demonstrate that the parts made from these materials could be machined at room temperature, in certain technological conditions.

  7. Comparing the electrical characteristics and reliabilities of BJTs and MOSFETs between Pt and Ti contact silicide processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiping; Shang, Ling

    1999-08-01

    The sub-threshold characteristics and the reliability of BJTs, using platinum contact silicide (PtSi) or titanium contact silicide (TiSi2), are compared and analyzed. During processing, it is observed that the TiSi2 process produces higher interface state density (Dit) than the PtSi process. The increase in Dit not only leads to a higher base current in the BJTs, but also leads to a lower transconductance for the MOS transistors. The data also show that the impact on NPN and nMOS is more severe than the impact of PNP and pMOS, respectively. This can be explained by the non-symmetric interface state distribution, the re- activation of boron, and/or by substrate trap centers. The amount of interface states produced depends not only on the thickness of the titanium film deposited, but also on the temperature and duration of the titanium silicide process. The electrical data indicates that after all the Back-End- Of-The-Line processing steps, which includes a forming gas anneal, Dit is still higher on wafers with the TiSi2 transistor's base current increases at different rates between the two processes, but eventually levels off to the same final value. However, the PNP transistor's base current increases at approximately the same rate, but eventually levels off at different final values. These indicate that the TiSi2 process may have modified the silicon and oxygen dangling bond structure during its high temperature process in addition to removing the hydrogen from the passivated interface states.

  8. Clean forming of stainless steel and titanium products by lubricious oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Irma; Wadman, Boel; Thoors, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Big social benefits can be attained through increased use of stainless steel or titanium in new sheet metal applications. Unfortunately, forming of these materials is often a challenging and costly operation, that can lead to environmental and health problems when solving the technical limitations...... to industrial forming processes. Preliminary evaluations show a beneficial influence of two oxides types, on stainless steel and on titanium. More work is needed to test the lubricating effect in other forming operations and to analyse the sustainability aspects for products manufactured with this alternative...

  9. 40 CFR 471.60 - Applicability; description of the titanium forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the titanium forming subcategory. 471.60 Section 471.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS...

  10. Solution synthesis of metal silicide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnaney, Joshua M; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-02-01

    Transition-metal silicides are part of an important family of intermetallic compounds, but the high-temperature reactions that are generally required to synthesize them preclude the formation of colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we show that palladium, copper, and nickel nanoparticles react with monophenylsilane in trioctylamine and squalane at 375 °C to form colloidal Pd(2)Si, Cu(3)Si, and Ni(2)Si nanoparticles, respectively. These metal silicide nanoparticles were screened as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, and Pd(2)Si and Ni(2)Si were identified as active catalysts that require overpotentials of -192 and -243 mV, respectively, to produce cathodic current densities of -10 mA cm(-2).

  11. Numerical simulation and its application of rheological forming of titanium alloy vane disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Min; LUO Ying-she; PENG Xiang-hua; QIN Yin-hui

    2006-01-01

    The hot rheological forming method was proposed to form the second titanium alloy vane disk. The hot rheological forming process of the TC11 titanium vane disk under a certain temperature and different strain rates was investigated by using the bulk forming software of DEFORM 3D. A series of results including temperature field,equivalent strain distribution,load-stroke curve and rheology procedure were obtained by this finite element method. The rheological forming characteristics were well realized and the forming parameters were determined. The results and analysis show that with decreasing strain rate,the metal flow more equably and the filling of the vane shape is also better. Moreover,the mechanical properties and microstructures of the products produced by this new technique are improved evidently compared with that produced by traditional method.

  12. Three Dimensional FEM Simulation of Titanium Hollow Blade Forming Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao Bing, [No Value; Li Zhiqiang, [No Value; Hou Hongliang, [No Value; Liao Jinhua, [No Value; Bai Bingzhe, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of high by-pass turbofan engines into both commercial and military aircraft industries, the fabrication of large size fan blade through superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) has become a pivotal technique of turbine fan engine. There are three key steps to form a holl

  13. Silicide precipitation strengthened TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Okabe, M. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Isobe, S. [Special Steel Research Laboratory, Daido Steel Co. Ltd., 2-30 Daido-cho, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457 (Japan); Sayashi, M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Nissan Research Center, Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., 1 Natushima-cho, Yokosuka 237 (Japan)

    1995-02-28

    Precipitation of a titanium silicide Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} was found to be beneficial to improvement of the creep resistance of a fully lamellar Ti-48Al-1.5Cr cast alloy without the sacrifice of tensile properties. The addition of 0.26-0.65 mol% Si generates fine precipitates less than 200 nm in size during aging at 900 C for 5 h. The precipitates are effective obstacles to dislocation motion and raise the stress exponents of power law creep significantly. The specific creep strength of Si-containing alloys is better than that of a conventional Ni-base cast superalloy Inconel 713C at 800 C for 10000 h. ((orig.))

  14. Antibacterial Properties of Titanate Nanofiber Thin Films Formed on a Titanium Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Yada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sodium titanate nanofiber thin film and a silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nanofiber thin film formed on the surface of a titanium plate exhibited strong antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is one of the major bacteria causing in-hospital infections. Exposure of the sodium titanate nanofiber thin film to ultraviolet rays generated a high antibacterial activity due to photocatalysis and the sodium titanate nanofiber thin film immediately after its synthesis possessed a high antibacterial activity even without exposure to ultraviolet rays. Elution of silver from the silver nanoparticle/silver titanate nanofiber thin film caused by the silver ion exchange reaction was considered to contribute substantially to the strong antibacterial activity. The titanate nanofiber thin films adhered firmly to titanium. Therefore, these titanate nanofiber thin film/titanium composites will be extremely useful as implant materials that have excellent antibacterial activities.

  15. Electronic properties of epitaxial erbium silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuillen, J. Y.; Tan, T. A. Nguyen; Lollman, D. B. B.; Guerfi, N.; Cinti, R.

    1991-07-01

    The electronic properties of erbium silicide thin films epitaxially grown on Si(111) have been investigated by X-ray and UV photoemission. The crystalline quality has been checked by low-energy electron diffraction. XPS indicates very weak charge transfer and metallic bonding in the silicide phase. The Si 2p core-level and the Auger transition Si KLL present double structures revealing two types of Si sites, the first one attributed to Si atoms in normal sites in the silicide and the second one to Si atoms in the vicinity of the vacancies and (or) the Si substrate portions seen through the holes of the film. The UPS valence band of about 4 eV width and formed of Er(6s5d)-Si(3s3p) hybridized states disperses weakly in the direction perpendicular to the surface and strongly in the surface plane. This valence band is compared to the ones already measured on YSi-1.7 and GdSi-1.7 and to the calculations made for YSi2

  16. Silicide Nanowires for Low-Resistance CMOS Transistor Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollner, Stefan

    2007-03-01

    Transition metal (TM) silicide nanowires are used as contacts for modern CMOS transistors. (Our smallest wires are ˜20 nm thick and ˜50 nm wide.) While much research on thick TM silicides was conducted long ago, materials perform differently at the nanoscale. For example, the usual phase transformation sequences (e.g., Ni, Ni2Si, NiSi, NiSi2) for the reaction of thick metal films on Si no longer apply to nanostructures, because the surface and interface energies compete with the bulk energy of a given crystal structure. Therefore, a NiSi film will agglomerate into hemispherical droplets of NiSi by annealing before it reaches the lowest-energy (NiSi2) crystalline structure. These dynamics can be tuned by addition of impurities (such as Pt in Ni). The Si surface preparation is also a more important factor for nanowires than for silicidation of thick TM films. Ni nanowires formed on Si surfaces that were cleaned and amorphized by sputtering with Ar ions have a tendency to form NiSi2 pyramids (``spikes'') even at moderate temperatures (˜400^oC), while similar Ni films formed on atomically clean or hydrogen-terminated Si form uniform NiSi nanowires. Another issue affecting TM silicides is the barrier height between the silicide contact and the silicon transistor. For most TM silicides, the Fermi level of the silicide is aligned with the center of the Si band gap. Therefore, silicide contacts experience Schottky barrier heights of around 0.5 eV for both n-type and p-type Si. The resulting contact resistance becomes a significant term for the overall resistance of modern CMOS transistors. Lowering this contact resistance is an important goal in CMOS research. New materials are under investigation (for example PtSi, which has a barrier height of only 0.3 eV to p-type Si). This talk will describe recent results, with special emphasis on characterization techniques and electrical testing useful for the development of silicide nanowires for CMOS contacts. In collaboration

  17. Thinning Behavior Simulations in Superplastic Forming of Friction Stir Processed Titanium 6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul D.; Sanders, Daniel G.; Ramulu, M.; Grant, Glenn; Trapp, Tim; Comley, Peter

    2010-06-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the thinning behavior of titanium 6Al-4V alloy sheet during Superplastic Forming and to evaluate the feasibility of controlling thinning in areas of interest with Friction Stir Processing (FSP) of the material. The commercially available Finite Element Analysis software ABAQUS was used to execute these simulations. Material properties of the parent sheet and the Friction Stir Processed regions input into the models were determined experimentally by elevated temperature tensile testing. The results of these simulations were compared to experimental test results via Superplastically Forming representative aerospace parts and analytical computations for validation. It was found that numerical simulations can be used to predict the thin-out characteristics of superplastically formed titanium parts and the thin-out can be controlled in desired areas by FSP, locally, prior to forming.

  18. Forming Of Spherical Titanium Cups From Circular Blanks With Cutouts On The Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacki P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial demand for drawn parts made of high-strength sheet metal (including titanium alloys observed in the modern industry, particularly automotive and aviation, their application remains insignificant. This results from the fact that such sheet metal shows poor plasticity and its cold-forming is almost impossible. Low drawability makes it impossible to obtain even such simple shapes as spherical cups. The authors of this study developed circular sheet-metal blanks with cutouts on their perimeter. The blanks allow for cold forming of spherical cups from Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet metal using conventional rigid tools. The cutouts proposed in the study affect plastic strain distribution, which in turn leads to an increase in forming depth by about 30%. The numerical analysis, performed using the PamStamp 2G System software based on finite element method, was verified experimentally.

  19. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...... and medical implants, personal care products, and foods. Despite being considered to be highly biocompatible relative to other metals, Ti is released in the presence of biological fluids and tissue, especially under certain circumstances, which seem to be more likely with regard to dental implants. Although...... most of the studies reviewed have important limitations, Ti seems not to penetrate a competent skin barrier, either as pure Ti, alloy, or as Ti oxide NPs. However, there are some indications of Ti penetration through the oral mucosa. We conclude that patch testing with the available Ti preparations...

  20. Formation of Silicide Coating layer on U-Mo Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Min; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Kyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    High-density U-Mo alloys are regarded as promising candidates for advanced research reactor fuel as they have shown stable irradiation performance when compared to other uranium alloys and compounds. However, interaction layer formation between the U-Mo alloys and Al matrix degrades the irradiation performance of U-Mo Dispersion fuel. Therefore, the addition of Ti in U-Mo alloys, the addition of Si in a Al matrix, and silicide or nitride coating on the surface of U-Mo particles have been proposed to inhibit the interaction layer growth. In this study, U-Mo alloy powder was produced using a centrifugal atomization method. In addition, silicide coating layers were fabricated by several mixing process changes on the surface of the U-Mo particles. The coated powders were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). Decreased annealing duration did not affect the forming of silicide coating layers on the surface of U-7wt%Mo powders. The variation in the mixing ratio between U-7wt%Mo and Si powders had an effect on the quality of silicide coating on the U-7wt%Mo powders. The weight of Si powders should be smaller than that of U-7wt%Mo powders for better silicide coating when it comes to the mixing ratio.

  1. Mechanoactivation of chromium silicide formation in the SiC-Cr-Si system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of simultaneous grinding of the components of a SiC-Cr-Si mixture and further temperature treatment in the temperature range 1073-1793 K were studied by X-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. It was established that, during grinding of the mixture, chromium silicides form. A temperature treatment completes the process. Silicide formation proceeds within the framework of the diffusion of silicon into chromium. In the presence of SiO2 in the mixture, silicide formation occurs also as a result of the reduction of silica by silicon and silicon carbide. The sintering of synthesized composite SiC-chromium silicides powders at a high temperature under a high pressure (T = 2073 K, P = 5 GPa is accompanied by the destruction of cc-SiC particles, the cc/3 transition in silicon carbide and deformation distortions of the lattices of chromium silicides.

  2. Formation of cobalt silicide by ion beam mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ye; Burte, Edmund P.; Ryssel, Heiner

    1991-07-01

    The formation of cobalt silicides by arsenic ion implantation through a cobalt film which causes a mixing of the metal with the silicon substrate was investigated. Furthermore, cobalt suicides were formed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Sheet resistance and silicide phases of implanted Co/Si samples depend on the As dose. Ion beam mixing at doses higher than 5 × 10 15 cm -2 and RTA at temperatures T ⩾ 900° C result in almost equal values of Rs. RBS and XRD spectra of these samples illustrate the formation of a homogeneous CoSi 2 layer. Significant lateral growth of cobalt silicide beyond the edge of patterned SiO 2 was observed in samples which were only subjected to an RTA process ( T ⩾ 900 ° C), while this lateral suicide growth could be reduced efficiently by As implantation prior to RTA.

  3. Structural and mechanical characterization of detonation coatings formed by reaction products of titanium with components of the spraying atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianitsky, Vladimir Yu.; Dudina, Dina V.; Panin, Sergey V.; Vlasov, Ilya V.; Batraev, Igor S.; Bokhonov, Boris B.

    2016-11-01

    Structural characterization of detonation deposits formed by reaction products of titanium with the components of the spraying atmosphere showed that ceramic-based coatings of unique microstructures—consisting of alternating layers of different compositions—can be formed. For the first time, mechanical characteristics of the coatings formed by reaction-accompanied detonation spraying of titanium were evaluated. It was found that high-yield transformation of titanium into oxides and nitrides during spraying can result in the formation of coatings with high fracture resistance and interface fracture toughness. The hardness of the coatings measured along the cross-section of the specimens was higher than that on the surface of the coatings, which indicated mechanical anisotropy of the deposited material. In terms of mechanical properties, coatings formed by the reaction products appear to be more attractive than those specially treated to preserve metallic titanium.

  4. Effect of hot water and heat treatment on the apatite-forming ability of titania films formed on titanium metal via anodic oxidation in acetic acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinyu; Kim, Hyun-Min; Kawashita, Masakazu; Wang, Longbao; Xiong, Tianying; Kokubo, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used for orthopedic implants because of their good biocompatibility. We have previously shown that the crystalline titania layers formed on the surface of titanium metal via anodic oxidation can induce apatite formation in simulated body fluid, whereas amorphous titania layers do not possess apatite-forming ability. In this study, hot water and heat treatments were applied to transform the titania layers from an amorphous structure into a crystalline structure after titanium metal had been anodized in acetic acid solution. The apatite-forming ability of titania layers subjected to the above treatments in simulated body fluid was investigated. The XRD and SEM results indicated hot water and/or heat treatment could greatly transform the crystal structure of titania layers from an amorphous structure into anatase, or a mixture of anatase and rutile. The abundance of Ti-OH groups formed by hot water treatment could contribute to apatite formation on the surface of titanium metals, and subsequent heat treatment would enhance the bond strength between the apatite layers and the titanium substrates. Thus, bioactive titanium metals could be prepared via anodic oxidation and subsequent hot water and heat treatment that would be suitable for applications under load-bearing conditions.

  5. Role of Ti3Al/silicides on tensile properties of Timetal 834 at various temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Sai Srinadh; Nidhi Singh; V Singh

    2007-12-01

    Extremely fine coherent precipitates of ordered Ti3Al and relatively coarse incoherent precipitates of 2 silicide exist together in the near -titanium alloy, Timetal 834, in the dual phase matrix of primary and transformed . In order to assess the role of these precipitates, three heat treatments viz. WQ, WQ–A and WQ–OA, were given to have no precipitates, Ti3Al and silicide and only silicide precipitates in the respective conditions. Tensile properties in the above three heat treated conditions were determined at room temperature, 673 K and 873 K. It was observed that largely Ti3Al precipitates were responsible for increase in the yield strength and decrease in ductility in this alloy.

  6. Studying properties of carbonaceous reducers and process of forming primary titanium slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When smelting a rich titanium slag the most suitable are low-ash reducers, and the studies revealed the suitability for this purpose of special coke and coal. An important property of a reducer is its specific resistance. Therefore there were carried out studies for measuring electric resistance of briquettes consisting of ilmenite concentrate and different carbonaceous reducers. It is recommended to jointly smelt the briquetted and powdered burden (the amount of the powdered burden varies form 20 tо 50 %, this leads to the increase of technical-economic indicators of the process.

  7. High strength microstructural forms developed in titanium alloys by rapid heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M. [Institute of Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2001-09-01

    It is shown that rapid heat treatment of alpha+beta and beta titanium alloys, which includes rapid heating of alloys with initial equiaxed microstructure into single-phase beta field is able to produce microstructural forms in which high strength can be well balanced with other mechanical properties. Main advantage of rapid heating approach comes from the possibility to extend the level of ''useful'' strength. Desirably high strength is provided by intragranular morphology and microchemistry while beta-grain refinement permits a reliability of such high strength conditions. (orig.)

  8. Cell spreading on titanium dioxide film formed and modified with aerosol beam and femtosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinonaga, Togo, E-mail: togo@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsukamoto, Masahiro [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko; Yamashita, Kimihiro; Hanawa, Takao [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Xie, Guoqiang [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Karahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Abe, Nobuyuki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is widely used in biomaterials because of its excellent anti-corrosion properties and high strength. However, Ti has no biological function, so its bioactivity must be improved. Coating a titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) film on a Ti plate surface has been shown to improve the biocompatibility of Ti plates. If periodic nanostructures were formed on the film surface, the direction of cell spreading might be controlled by the direction of the grooves. Controlling cell spreading on biomaterials would contribute to the creation of advanced biomaterials. In this paper, a TiO{sub 2} film was formed on a Ti plate with an aerosol beam composed of sub micron-sized TiO{sub 2} particles and helium gas. Periodic nanostructures, lying perpendicular to the laser electric field polarization vector, were formed on the film by scanning the femtosecond laser focusing spot. The period and height of the periodic nanostructures were about 230 nm and 150 nm, respectively. In a cell test, cell spreading was observed along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures; in contrast, cell spreading did not show a definite direction on TiO{sub 2} a film without periodic nanostructures. These results suggest that the direction of cell spreading on the film can be controlled by periodic nanostructure formation generated using a femtosecond laser.

  9. Microstructure evolution model based on deformation mechanism of titanium alloy in hot forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-li; LI Miao-quan

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in hot forming will affect the mechanical properties of the formed product.However, the microstructure is sensitive to the process variables in deformation process of metals and alloys. A microstructure evolution model of a titanium alloy in hot forming, which included dislocation density rate and primary α phase grain size, was presented according to the deformation mechanism and driving forces, in which the effect of the dislocation density rate on the grain growth was studied firstly. Applying the model to the high temperature deformation process of a TC6 alloy with deformation temperature of 1 133 - 1 223 K, strain rate of 0.01 -50 s-1 and height reduction of 30%, 40% and 50%, the material constants in the present model were calculated by the genetic algorithm(GA) based objective optimization techniques. The calculated results of a TC6 alloy are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  10. Optical properties of beta-iron silicide, ruthenium silicide and osmium silicide: Semiconducting transition metal silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Anthony Glen

    2001-09-01

    Various optical techniques were used to study the semiconducting transition metal silicides of β- FeSi2, Ru2Si3, and OsSi2. The Raman spectra of ion beam synthesized (IBS) β-FeSi 2 were shown to provide evidence of a net tensile stress in these IBS materials. Possible origins of the observed stress were suggested and a simple model was proposed in order to calculate a value of the observed stress. A correlation between the tensile stress, the nature of the band gap, and the resulting light emitting properties of IBS β-FeSi2 was suggested. The photoreflectance (PR) spectra of IBS β- FeSi2 reveals a direct gap at 0.815 eV and were shown to agree with the band gap value obtained by photoluminescence (PL) once the adjustments for the temperature difference and trap related recombination effects were made. This provides very convincing evidence for intrinsic light emission from IBS β- FeSi2. Furthermore, a model was developed that helps to clarify the variety of inconsistent results obtained by optical absorption measurements. When the results of PL and PR were inserted into this model, a good agreement was obtained with our measured optical absorption results. We also obtained PR spectra of β-FeSi 2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. These spectra reveal the multiple direct transitions near the fundamental absorption edge of β-FeSi 2 that were predicted by theory. We suggest an order of these critical point transitions following the trends reported in the theoretical investigations. Doping these β-FeSi2 thin films with small amounts of chromium was shown to have a measurable effect on the interband optical spectra. We also report on the effects of alloying β- FeSi2 with cobalt. A decrease in the critical point transitions nearest the fundamental absorption edge was observed as the cobalt concentration increased. Finally, Raman spectroscopy was used to study the vibrational properties of β-FeSi2. The measured Raman spectra agreed very well with the

  11. Composition analysis of oxide films formed on titanium surface under pulsed laser action by method of chemical thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, E. I.; Andreeva, Ya M.; Karlagina, Yu Yu; Kolobov, Yu R.; Manokhin, S. S.; Odintsova, G. V.; Slobodov, A. A.; Veiko, V. P.

    2017-04-01

    A pulsed fiber laser with a wavelength of 1.06 µm was used to treat a commercial pure titanium surface in the air at intensities below the ablation threshold to provide oxide formation. Laser oxidation results are predicted by the chemical thermodynamic method and confirmed by experimental techniques (x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy). For the first time, the chemical thermodynamic method was used for determining the qualitative and quantitative phase-chemical composition of the compounds formed by a pulsed laser heating of commercial titanium in the air, and its applicability is proven. The simulation shows that multilayered composite film appears on a surface, the lower layers of which consist of Ti2O3 and TiO oxides with the addition of titanium nitride; and the thin upper layer consists of transparent titanium dioxide. Also, the chemical composition of films remains unchanged within a temperature range of 881-2000 K.

  12. A set of microstructure-based constitutive equations in hot forming of a titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Li; Miaoquan Li

    2006-01-01

    A physical model of microstructure evolution including dislocation density rate and grain growth rate was established based on the deformation mechanism for the hot forming of a class of two-phase titanium alloys. Further, a set of mechanism-based constitutive equations were proposed, in which the microstructure variables such as grain size and dislocation density were taken as internal state variables for characterizing the current material state. In the set of constitutive equations, the contributions of different mechanisms and individual phase to the deformation behavior were analyzed. The present equations have been applied to describe a correlation of the flow stress with the microstructure evolution of the TC6 alloy in hot forming.

  13. Study of nickel silicide formation by physical vapor deposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancharatnam, Shanti

    Metal silicides are used as contacts to the highly n-doped emitter in photovoltaic devices. Thin films of nickel silicide (NiSi) are of particular interest for Si-based solar cells, as they form at lower temperature and consume less silicon. However, interfacial oxide limits the reduction in sheet resistance. Hence, different diffusion barriers were investigated with regard to optimizing the conductivity and thermal stability. The formation of NiSi, and if it can be doped to have good contact with the n-side of a p-n junction were studied. Reduction of the interfacial oxide by the interfacial Ti layer to allow the formation of NiSi was observed. Silicon was treated in dilute hydrofluoric acid for removing the surface oxide layer. Ni and a Ti diffusion barrier were deposited on Si by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods - electron beam evaporation and sputtering. The annealing temperature and time were varied to observe the stability of the deposited film. The films were then etched to observe the retention of the silicide. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Sheet resistance was measured using the four-point probe technique. Annealing temperatures from 300°C showed films began to agglomerate indicating some diffusion between Ni and Si in the Ti layer, also supported by the compositional analysis in the Auger spectra. Films obtained by evaporation and sputtering were of high quality in terms of coverage over substrate area and uniformity. Thicknesses of Ni and Ti were optimized to 20 nm and 10 nm respectively. Resistivity was low at these thicknesses, and reduced by about half post annealing at 300°C for 8 hours. Thus a low resistivity contact was obtained at optimized thicknesses of the metal layers. It was also shown that some silicide formation occurs at temperatures starting from 300°C and can thus be used to make good silicide contacts.

  14. Comparison of nickel silicide and aluminium ohmic contact metallizations for low-temperature quantum transport measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polley Craig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We examine nickel silicide as a viable ohmic contact metallization for low-temperature, low-magnetic-field transport measurements of atomic-scale devices in silicon. In particular, we compare a nickel silicide metallization with aluminium, a common ohmic contact for silicon devices. Nickel silicide can be formed at the low temperatures (<400°C required for maintaining atomic precision placement in donor-based devices, and it avoids the complications found with aluminium contacts which become superconducting at cryogenic measurement temperatures. Importantly, we show that the use of nickel silicide as an ohmic contact at low temperatures does not affect the thermal equilibration of carriers nor contribute to hysteresis in a magnetic field.

  15. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, O.; Fedorov, A.; Usachov, D.; Yashina, L. V.; Generalov, A. V.; Borygina, K.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Grüneis, A.; Vyalikh, D. V.

    2013-07-01

    The unique properties of graphene have raised high expectations regarding its application in carbon-based nanoscale devices that could complement or replace traditional silicon technology. This gave rise to the vast amount of researches on how to fabricate high-quality graphene and graphene nanocomposites that is currently going on. Here we show that graphene can be successfully integrated with the established metal-silicide technology. Starting from thin monocrystalline films of nickel, cobalt and iron, we were able to form metal silicides of high quality with a variety of stoichiometries under a Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene layer. These graphene-capped silicides are reliably protected against oxidation and can cover a wide range of electronic materials/device applications. Most importantly, the coupling between the graphene layer and the silicides is rather weak and the properties of quasi-freestanding graphene are widely preserved.

  16. Comparison of Oxidative Stresses Mediated by Different Crystalline Forms and Surface Modification of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Samy El-Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs are manufactured worldwide for use in a wide range of applications. There are two common crystalline forms of TiO2 anatase and rutile with different physical and chemical characteristics. We previously demonstrated that an increased DNA damage response is mediated by anatase crystalline form compared to rutile. In the present study, we conjugated TiO2 NPs with polyethylene glycol (PEG in order to reduce the genotoxicity and we evaluated some oxidative stress parameters to obtain information on the cellular mechanisms of DNA damage that operate in response to TiO2 NPs different crystalline forms exposure in hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2. Our results indicated a significant increase in oxidative stress mediated by the anatase form of TiO2 NPs compared to rutile form. On the other hand, PEG modified TiO2 NPs showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress as compared to TiO2 NPs. These data suggested that the genotoxic potential of TiO2 NPs varies with crystalline form and surface modification.

  17. Bioactive titanate layers formed on titanium and its alloys by simple chemical and heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    To reveal general principles for obtaining bone-bonding bioactive metallic titanium, Ti metal was heat-treated after exposure to a solution with different pH. The material formed an apatite layer at its surface in simulated body fluid when heat-treated after exposure to a strong acid or alkali solution, because it formed a positively charged titanium oxide and negatively charged sodium titanate film on its surface, respectively. Such treated these Ti metals tightly bonded to living bone. Porous Ti metal heat-treated after exposure to an acidic solution exhibited not only osteoconductive, but also osteoinductive behavior. Porous Ti metal exposed to an alkaline solution also exhibits osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity, if it was subsequently subjected to acid and heat treatments. These acid and heat treatments were not effective for most Ti-based alloys. However, even those alloys exhibited apatite formation when they were subjected to acid and heat treatment after a NaOH treatment, since the alloying elements were removed from the surface by the latter. The NaOH and heat treatments were also not effective for Ti-Zr-Nb-Ta alloys. These alloys displayed apatite formation when subjected to CaCl2 treatment after NaOH treatment, forming Ca-deficient calcium titanate at their surfaces after subsequent heat and hot water treatments. The bioactive Ti metal subjected to NaOH and heat treatments has been clinically used as an artificial hip joint material in Japan since 2007. A porous Ti metal subjected to NaOH, HCl and heat treatments has successfully undergone clinical trials as a spinal fusion device.

  18. Synthesis of Co-silicides and fabrication of microwavepower device using MEVVA source implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 钱卫东; 刘要东; 张旭

    2002-01-01

    Co synthesis silicides with good properties were prepared using MEVVA ion implantation with flux of 25-125 mA/cm2 to does of 5×1017/cm2. The structure of the silicides was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis shows that if the ion dose is greater than 2×1017/cm2, a continuous silicide layer will be formed. The sheet resistance of Co silicide decreases with an increase in ion flux and ion dose. The formation of silicides with CoSi and CoSi2 are identified by XRD analysis. After annealing, the sheet resistance decreases further. A continuous silicide layer with a width of 90-133 nm is formed. The optimal implantation condition is that the ion flux and dose are 50 mA/cm2 and 5×1017/cm2, respectively. The optimal annealing temperature and time are 900℃ and 10 s, respectively. The ohmic contact for power microwave transistors is fabricated using Co ion implantation technique for the first time. The emitter contact resistance and noise of the transistors decrease markedly; the microwave property has been improved obviously.

  19. Unified constitutive modelling for two-phase lamellar titanium alloys at hot forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a set of mechanism based unified viscoplastic constitutive equations have been established for two-phase titanium alloys with initial lamellar microstructure, which models the softening mechanisms of the alloys in hot forming conditions. The dislocation density, rotation and globularization of lamellar α-phase and their effects on flow behaviour can also be modelled. The values of material constants in the equation set have been calibrated, according to stress-strain curves and globularization fractions of lamellar α-phase obtained from compression tests at a range of temperatures and strain rates, using a genetic algorithm (GA based optimisation method. Based on the determined constitutive equations, flow stress and globularization evolution of Ti-17 and TA15 alloys at different temperatures and strain rates were predicted. Good agreements between the experimental and computed results were obtained.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF LASER SHOCK FORMING OF TA2 TITANIUM SHEET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Wang; Z.Q. Yao; J. Hu; Q.L. Deng

    2006-01-01

    Laser shock forming (LSF) was a new technique realized by applying an impulsive pressure generated by laser-induced shock wave on the surface of metal sheet. LSF of metal sheet was investigated with experiments and numerical simulation. The basic theories were introduced; the surface quality and deformation of the processed titanium sample (TA2) were examined; ABAQUS was used to sinulate LSF and the central displacement of the shocked region was measured and compared with the simulation. Overlapped LSF treatment was experimentally carried out to produce groove and simulation. The results showed that the surface quality and the microstructure with single laser pulse had no remarkable change, and ablation was observed on the surface of the sample with overlapped pulses. The deformation observed in the numerical simulation agreeed with that observed in the experimental measurement quite well.

  1. Biomedical Titanium alloy prostheses manufacturing by means of Superplastic and Incremental Forming processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccininni Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work collects some results of the three-years Research Program “BioForming“, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR and aimed to investigate the possibility of using flexible sheet forming processes, i.e. Super Plastic Forming (SPF and Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF, for the manufacturing of patient-oriented titanium prostheses. The prosthetic implants used as case studies were from the skull; in particular, two different Ti alloys and geometries were considered: one to be produced in Ti-Gr23 by SPF and one to be produced in Ti-Gr2 by SPIF. Numerical simulations implementing material behaviours evaluated by characterization tests were conducted in order to design both the manufacturing processes. Subsequently, experimental tests were carried out implementing numerical results in terms of: (i gas pressure profile able to determine a constant (and optimal strain rate during the SPF process; (ii tool path able to avoid rupture during the SPIF process. Post forming characteristics of the prostheses in terms of thickness distributions were measured and compared to data from simulations for validation purposes. A good correlation between numerical and experimental thickness distributions has been obtained; in addition, the possibility of successfully adopting both the SPF and the SPIF processes for the manufacturing of prostheses has been demonstrated.

  2. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  3. Silicides for VLSI applications

    CERN Document Server

    Murarka, Shyam P

    1983-01-01

    Most of the subject matter of this book has previously been available only in the form of research papers and review articles. I have not attempted to refer to all the published papers. The reader may find it advantageous to refer to the references listed.

  4. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  5. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1998-11-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries.

  6. In vivo genotoxicity assessment of titanium, zirconium and aluminium nanoparticles, and their microparticulated forms, in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Eşref; Turna, Fatma; Vales, Gerard; Kaya, Bülent; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2013-11-01

    As in vivo system, we propose Drosophila melanogaster as a useful model for study the genotoxic risks associated with nanoparticle exposure. In this study we have carried out a genotoxic evaluation of titanium dioxide (TiO2), zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles and their microparticulated forms in D. melanogaster by using the wing somatic mutation and recombination assay. This assay is based on the principle that loss of heterozygosis and the corresponding expression of the suitable recessive markers, multiple wing hairs and flare-3, can lead to the formation of mutant clones in treated larvae, which are expressed as mutant spots on the wings of adult flies. Third instar larvae were feed with TiO2, ZrO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles, and their microparticulated forms, at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10mM. Although a certain level of aggregation/agglomeration was observed in solution, it must be noted than the constant digging activity of larvae ensures that treated medium pass constantly through the digestive tract ensuring exposure. The results showed that no significant increases in the frequency of all spots (e.g. small single, large single, twin, total mwh and total spots) were observed, indicating that these nanoparticles were not able to induce genotoxic activity in the wing spot assay of D. melanogaster. Negative data were also obtained with the microparticulated forms. This indicates that the nanoparticulated form of the selected nanomaterials does not modify the potential genotoxicity of their microparticulated versions. These in vivo results contribute to increase the genotoxicity database on the TiO2, ZrO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles.

  7. FORMATION OF MANGANESE SILICIDE THIN FILMS BY SOLID PHASE REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Q. Xie; W.W. Wang; N. Jiang; D.Y. He

    2002-01-01

    Manganese silicide MnSi2-x thin films have been prepared on n-type silicon substratesthrough solid phase reaction. The heterostructures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction,Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared transmittance spec-troscopy and the four-point probe technique. The results show that two manganese sili-cides have been formed sequentially via the reaction of thin layer Mn with Si substrateat different irradiation annealing stages, i.e., MnSi at 450℃ and MnSi1.73 at 550℃.MnSi1.73 phase exhibits preferred growth after irradiation with infrared. In situ four-point probe measurements of sheet resistance during infrared irradiation annealingshow that nucleation of MnSi and phase transformation of MnSi to MnSi1. 73 occur at410℃ and 530℃, respectively; the MnSi phase shows metallic behavior, while MnSi1.73exhibits semiconducting behavior. Characteristic phonon bands of MnSi2-x silicides,which can be used for phase identification along with conventional XRD techniques,have been observed by FTIR spectroscopy.

  8. ANALYSIS OF RUBBER FORMING PROCESS OF FIRE BARRIER FROM TITANIUM CP2 ALLOY FOR AW 139 HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Krakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents conditions of forming products from titanium sheets by means of rubber stamping method. After introducing the issues connected with these elements manufacturing for aviation industry, considering standards and legal regulations, technological problems occurring during forming deep stiffening ribs. The results in the characteristic curvatures and distortion in the final products were generated in the process heterogeneous internal stress state. The Authors aimed at explaining and presenting of solutions limiting occurrence of chosen shape faults, which disqualify these products application in aviation industry. The proposed solutions significantly reduced the incidence of these unfavorable phenomena. The modified method of rubber stamping of firewall from titanium alloy CP-2 sheet was successfully implemented in manufacturing conditions of PZL Swidnik.

  9. Room temperature gas-solid reaction of titanium on glass surfaces forming a very low resistivity layer

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Solís; Neville Clark; Daniel Azofeifa; E. Avendano

    2016-01-01

    Titanium films were deposited on quartz, glass, polyamide and PET substrates in a high vacuum system at room temperature and their electrical resistance monitored in vacuo as a function of thickness. These measurements indicate that a low electrical resistance layer is formed in a gas-solid reaction during the condensation of the initial layers of Ti on glass and quartz substrates. Layers begin to show relative low electrical resistance at around 21 nm for glass and 9nm for quartz. Samples de...

  10. Electrochemical and semiconducting properties of thin passive film formed on titanium in chloride medium at various pH conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munirathinam, Balakrishnan, E-mail: blkrish88@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Enginneering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Narayanan, R. [School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Chennai (India); Neelakantan, Lakshman, E-mail: nlakshman@iitm.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Enginneering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India)

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of titanium has been investigated in chloride electrolyte of different pH values (2.1, 5.2 and 7.4). Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed wide passive behavior irrespective of change in pH. Passive films were grown by applying different passive potentials (0.2 to 0.6 V (vs SCE)) by recording chronoamperometric curves for duration of 8 h. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed higher impedance values for the oxide layer grown in neutral pH condition and for oxides formed at higher formation potentials. Emphasis is made mainly on the properties of titanium oxide estimated by Mott-Schottky analysis, which shows that passive film formed, is of n-type semiconducting film and the donor concentration is in the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. The calculated diffusivity of point defects is in the range of (0.5 to 2.5) × 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}s{sup −1} and tends to decrease with increase in electrolyte pH. Surface morphology of the passive films was examined using scanning electron microscope and surface roughness was characterized using confocal microscope. Ex- situ ellipsometry measurements were performed to analyze the optical constants of the oxide layer and to determine the oxide thickness. The thickness is in the range of 3.5 to 5.8 nm and comparable to the calculated values. - Highlights: • Thin passive film was grown potentiostatically on titanium at various pH conditions • Passive films formed on titanium are of n-type semiconducting nature. • Diffusivity of point defects decreases with increase in pH.

  11. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G.; Chathuranga Senarathna, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Premachandra, T.N. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Ranasinghe, C.S.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Postgraduate Institute of Science, University of Peradeniya, 20400 Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Bandara, I.M.C.C.D. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia); Singh, Sanjleena [Central Analytical Research Facility, Institute of Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane 4001, QLD (Australia)

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO{sub 2} thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value. - Highlights: • Colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods are prepared by a novel method. • Surfaces of titanium metal plates are modified by self-forming TiO{sub 2} thin-films. • Prostheses are prepared by coating hydroxyapatite on surface modified Ti metal. • Bioactivity and noncytotoxicity are increased with surface modifications.

  12. Anisotropic thermal expansion of Ni, Pd and Pt germanides and silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, F. A.; Knaepen, W.; Moens, F.; Brondeel, L.; Leenaers, A.; Van den Berghe, S.; Detavernier, C.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon or germanium-based transistors are nowadays used in direct contact with silicide or germanide crystalline alloys for semiconductor device applications. Since these compounds are formed at elevated temperatures, accurate knowledge of the thermal expansion of both substrate and the contact is important to address temperature depending effects such as thermal stress. Here we report the linear coefficients of thermal expansion of Ni-, Pd- and Pt-based mono-germanides, mono-silicides and di-metal-silicides as determined by powder-based x-ray diffraction between 300 and 1225 K. The investigated mono-metallic compounds, all sharing the MnP crystal structure, as well as Pd2Si and Pt2Si exhibit anisotropic expansion. By consequence, this anisotropic behaviour should be taken into account for evaluating the crystal unit’s cell at elevated temperatures.

  13. Reversibility of silicidation of Ta filaments in HWCVD of thin film silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, C.H.M.; Li, H. B. T.; Verlaan, V.; Oliphant, C.J.; Bakker, R.; Houweling, Z.S.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2009-01-01

    If tantalum filaments are used for the hot wire chemical vapour deposition (HWCVD) of thin film silicon, various types of tantalum silicides are formed, depending on the filament temperature. Under deposition conditions employed for device quality amorphous and microcrystalline silicon (Twire ≈ 1750

  14. Microstructure and properties of laser-borided composite layers formed on commercially pure titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Dziarski, P.; Piasecki, A.; Miklaszewski, A.

    2014-03-01

    Laser-boriding was proposed in order to produce composite boride layers on commercially pure titanium. Three zones were observed in the microstructure: laser-borided re-melted zone (TiB, TiB2 and Tiα'-phase), heat affected zone (Tiα'-phase) and the substrate without heat treatment (Tiα-phase). The stick-like titanium borides occurred in the re-melted zone. In some areas, the tubular nature of titanium borides was visible. Among the sticks of titanium borides the needles of Tiα'-phase appeared. The high overlapping of multiple laser tracks (86%) caused the formation of uniform laser-alloyed layer in respect of the thickness. The microcracks and pores were not detected in the laser-borided composite layer. The high hardness of the re-melted zone (1250-1650 HV) was obtained. The hardness gradually decreased up to 250-300 HV in heat affected zone and up to about 200 HV in the substrate. In case of higher laser beam power used (1.95 kW), the re-melted zone was thicker and more homogeneous in respect of the microstructure and hardness. The craters obtained at the surface after the Rockwell C indentation test evidently revealed ideal cohesion of the laser-borided layer (HF1 standard). The significant increase in wear resistance of laser-borided composite layers was observed in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The lower mass wear intensity factors were obtained for laser-alloyed layers. The measurements of relative mass loss were also used in order to evaluate wear behavior of the investigated materials. The tests of laser-borided layers showed the catastrophic wear of the counter-specimens. The separated particles of counter-sample caused the accelerated wear of the laser-alloyed specimen. The longer duration of the tests, carried out without the change in a counter-specimen, caused the adhesion of counter-sample particles on the laser-borided specimen. The increased contact surface was the reason for the higher temperature and created the favourable

  15. Room temperature gas-solid reaction of titanium on glass surfaces forming a very low resistivity layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Solís

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Titanium films were deposited on quartz, glass, polyamide and PET substrates in a high vacuum system at room temperature and their electrical resistance monitored in vacuo as a function of thickness. These measurements indicate that a low electrical resistance layer is formed in a gas-solid reaction during the condensation of the initial layers of Ti on glass and quartz substrates. Layers begin to show relative low electrical resistance at around 21 nm for glass and 9nm for quartz. Samples deposited on polyamide and PET do not show this low resistance feature.

  16. Raman study of Ni and Ni silicide contacts on 4H- and 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichon, Stanislav, E-mail: cichons@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Machac, Petr; Barda, Bohumil [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Machovic, Vladimir [Central Laboratories, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Slepicka, Petr [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-30

    Ni{sub 2}Si, NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} contacts were prepared on n-type 4H- and 6H-SiC(0001) by deposition of Ni and Si multilayers in the respective stoichiometry after high-temperature annealing, as well as pure Ni contacts. After annealing, the individual contacts were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and electrical property measurements. Contact structures were then etched-off and subsequently observed by means of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). Ni reacted with SiC, forming Ni{sub 2}Si and carbon. At Ni{sub x}Si{sub y}/SiC contact structures the respective silicides were already formed at low annealing temperatures, when only Schottky behavior of the structures was observed. The intended silicides, once formed, did not change any further with increasing annealing temperature. All contact structures provided good ohmic behavior after being annealed at 960 Degree-Sign C. By means of combined AFM and Raman analysis of the etched-off contacts we found that the silicide contact structures very probably did not react with SiC which is in accordance with the thermodynamic assumptions. After annealing the silicide contact structures at such temperature, when Schottky behavior changed to ohmic, a certain form of interaction between the SiC substrate and the silicide contact structures must have occurred. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni and Ni silicides as electrical contacts on N-type SiC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contacts examined by electrical measurements and Raman spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ohmic behavior of contacts was reached after annealing at high temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni silicides showed to be non-reactive with SiC.

  17. Water splitting and electricity with semiconducting silicides in sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bioanorganische Chemie, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); H2 Solar GmbH, Loerrach (Germany); Kerpen, Klaus; Kuklya, Andriy; Wuestkamp, Marc-Andre [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water is described using mainly the semiconductor titanium disilicide as catalyst and halogen light which closely mimics solar radiation. The reactions are carried out under non-aerobic conditions, i.e., under nitrogen. High efficiencies are reached at 1.1-1.2 bar pressure. In the first phase of these reactions the catalytically active centers are built up. During this phase of reaction the kinetics of the water splitting process is growing in and leads to a linear dependence in the further course of the reactions which consists of >96% water splitting to yield hydrogen and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio. Hydrogen is partially and reversibly stored physically, depending on temperature. Oxygen behaves differently since it is stored entirely under the applied reaction conditions (50-80 C and light) and can be liberated from storage upon heating the slurries in the dark. This allows convenient separation of hydrogen and oxygen. The stability of titanium disilicide has been positively tested over several months. This material is abundant and inexpensive besides that it absorbs most of the solar radiation. Further, XRD and XPS studies show that titanium disilicide is 80% crystalline and the oxide formation is limited to a few molecular layers in depth. By using labeled water it was shown that labeled dioxygen appears in the gas phase of such reactions, this showing definitively that hydrogen evolution occuring here stems from photochemical splitting of water. Further, water splitting is part of a project which involves photoelectrochemistry and in which the silicides are used as light-receiving electrode and transition metal-coated anodes serve to split water. (orig.)

  18. Self-organized growth and magnetic properties of epitaxial silicide nanoislands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, J. K.; Levy, R.; Camus, Y.; Dascalu, M.; Cesura, F.; Chalasani, R.; Kohn, A.; Markovich, G.; Goldfarb, I.

    2017-01-01

    Self-organized transition-metal (Ni and Fe) and rare-earth (Er) silicide nanostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) and Si(0 0 1) surfaces under low coverage conditions, in a "solid phase" and "reactive deposition" epitaxial regimes. Island evolution was continuously monitored in-situ, using real-time scanning tunneling microscopy and surface electron diffraction. After anneal of a Ni/Si(1 1 1) surface at 700 °C, we observed small hemispherical Ni-silicide nanoislands ∼10 nm in diameter decorating surface steps in a self-ordered fashion and pinning them. Fe-silicide nanoislands formed after a 550 °C anneal of a Fe-covered surface, were also self-ordered along the surface step-bunches, however were significantly larger (∼70 × 10 nm) and exhibited well-developed three-dimensional polyhedral shapes. Ni-silicide islands were sparsely distributed, separated by about ∼100 nm from one another, on average, whereas Fe-silicide islands were more densely packed, with only ∼50 nm mean separation distance. In spite of the above differences between both types of island in size, shape, and number density, the self-ordering in both cases was close to ideal, with practically no islands nucleated on terraces. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry showed considerable superparamagnetism, in particular in Fe-silicide islands with ∼1.9 μB/Fe atom, indicating stronger ferromagnetic coupling of individual magnetic moments, contrary to Ni-silicide islands with the calculated moments of only ∼ 0.5μB /Ni atom. To elucidate the effects of the island size, shape, and lateral ordering on the measured magnetic response, we have controllably changed the island morphology by varying deposition methods and conditions and even using differently oriented Si substrates. We have also begun experimenting with rare-earth silicide islands. In the forthcoming experiments we intend to compare the magnetic response of these variously built and composed islands and correlate

  19. Crystal Dynamics of Forming ɛ-Martensite with Habit Planes {443}α in Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchenko, M. P.; Chashchina, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    Formation of crystals with habit planes {443}α in titanium with BCC-HCP (α - ɛ) reorganization is considered within the limits of the dynamic theory of martensitic transformations. It is shown that the start of fast wave crystal growth is possible in elastic fields of rectangular dislocation loops with basic segments along the α directions and the α Burgers vectors. The relative change of the volume δ is considered negative. For wide loops, the habit planes {443}α (like {334}α) can be associated with invariant planes. For narrow loops, selection in favor of the crystals having habit planes {443}α is due to the fulfillment of the condition δ < 0.

  20. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the U.S. processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive U.S. processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Schuller International Inc. targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. Current experimental emphasis is on the development and characterization of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and MoSi{sub 2}-SiC composites, the plasma spraying of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, and the joining of MoSi{sub 2} materials to metals.

  1. Advanced materials for aerospace and biomedical applications: New glasses for hermetic titanium seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R.; Crowder, S.V. [and others

    1996-11-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys have an outstanding strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance and so are materials of choice for a variety of aerospace and biomedical applications. Such applications are limited by the lack of a viable hermetic glass sealing technology. Conventional silicate sealing glasses are readily reduced by titanium to form interfacial silicides that are incompatible with a robust glass/metal seal. Borate-based glasses undergo a similar thermochemistry and are reduced to a titanium boride. The kinetics of this reactions, however, are apparently slower and so a deleterious interface does not form. Chemically durable lanthanoborate glasses were examined as candidate sealing compositions. The compositions, properties, and structures of several alkaline earth, alumina, and titania lanthanoborate glass forming systems were evaluated and this information was used as the basis for a designed experiment to optimize compositions for Ti-sealing. A number of viable compositions were identified and sealing procedures established. Finally, glass formation, properties, and structure of biocompatible Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}- and TiO{sub 2}-doped calcium phosphate systems were also evaluated.

  2. Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Titanium Carbosilicide and Electrically Conductive Composite Coatings on its Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulpekov, A. M.; Lepakova, O. K.; Golobokov, N. N.; Dyukarev, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium carbosilicide is obtained by the method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with titanium and ferrosilicon (with silicon content of 80 mass %) used as initial products. Addition of TiSi2 to the endproduct with the subsequent heat treatment allows the content of titanium silicide to be increased. The materials based on titanium carbosilicide provide electroconductivity of polymer composite coatings at temperatures exceeding 350°C.

  3. An Electron-Microscopy Analysis of the Gradient Structure Formed in Titanium During Deposition of a Hard Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu. F.; Shugurov, V. V.; Krysina, O. V.; Petrikova, E. A.; Ivanova, O. V.; Tolkachev, O. S.

    2017-09-01

    A titanium nitride coating 0.5 μm in thickness is deposited on specimens of VT1-0 technical-grade titanium using a vacuum-arc, plasma-assisted process. The formation of a multilayer, multiphase highly defective structure is observed, whose thickness reaches up to 40 μm. Surface and transition layers are determined from the morphological characteristics. It is shown that the surface layer (300-350 nm thick), where the major phase is TiN, possesses polycrystalline structure (crystallite size is 20-50 nm). The transition layer, whose major phase is Ti2N, is divided into two sublayers. The sublayer immediately adjacent to the surface layer has columnar structure (transverse cross section of the columns is 50-80 nm). The sublayer bordering the bulk of the specimen is formed by quasi-equiaxed crystallites (150-280 nm). The main reason for formation of the multilayer, multiphase structure is thought to be the multistage character of material modification under conditions of common vacuum.

  4. Thermal Stability Study from Room Temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) in Magnesium Silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanaki, Eleni-Chrysanthi; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides; Vourlias, George; Chrissafis, Konstantinos; Kitis, George; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M.; Polymeris, George S.

    2016-10-01

    Doped magnesium silicide has been identified as a promising and environmentally friendly advanced thermoelectric material in the temperature range between 500 K and 800 K (227 °C and 527 °C). Besides the plethora of magnesium silicide thermoelectric advantages, it is well known for its high sensitivity to oxidation. Oxidation is one of the primary instability mechanisms of degradation of high-temperature Mg2Si thermoelectric devices, as in the presence of O2, Mg2Si decomposes to form MgO and Si. In this work, commercial magnesium silicide in bulk form was used for thermal stability study from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C). Various techniques such as DTA-TG, PXRD, and FTIR have been applied. Moreover, the application of thermoluminescence (TL) as an effective and alternative probe for the study of oxidation and decomposition has been exploited. The latter provides qualitative but very helpful hints toward oxidation studies. The low-detection threshold of thermoluminescence, in conjunction with the chemical composition of the oxidation byproducts, consisting of MgO, Mg2SiO4, and SiO2, constitute two powerful motivations for further investigating its viable use as proxy for instability/decomposition studies of magnesium silicide. The partial oxidation reaction has been adopted due to the experimental fact that magnesium silicide is monitored throughout the heating temperature range of the present study. Finally, the role of silicon dioxide to the decomposition procedure, being in amorphous state and gradually crystallizing, has been highlighted for the first time in the literature. Mg2Si oxidation takes place in two steps, including a mild oxidation process with temperature threshold of 573 K (300 °C) and an abrupt one after 773 K (500 °C). Implications on the optimum operational temperature range for practical thermoelectric (TE) applications have also been briefly discussed.

  5. Preparation of bone-implants by coating hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on self-formed titanium dioxide thin-layers on titanium metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W P S L; Mantilaka, M M M G P G; Chathuranga Senarathna, K G; Herath, H M T U; Premachandra, T N; Ranasinghe, C S K; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rajapakse, R M G; Edirisinghe, Mohan; Mahalingam, S; Bandara, I M C C D; Singh, Sanjleena

    2016-06-01

    Preparation of hydroxyapatite coated custom-made metallic bone-implants is very important for the replacement of injured bones of the body. Furthermore, these bone-implants are more stable under the corrosive environment of the body and biocompatible than bone-implants made up of pure metals and metal alloys. Herein, we describe a novel, simple and low-cost technique to prepare biocompatible hydroxyapatite coated titanium metal (TiM) implants through growth of self-formed TiO2 thin-layer (SFTL) on TiM via a heat treatment process. SFTL acts as a surface binder of HA nanoparticles in order to produce HA coated implants. Colloidal HA nanorods prepared by a novel surfactant-assisted synthesis method, have been coated on SFTL via atomized spray pyrolysis (ASP) technique. The corrosion behavior of the bare and surface-modified TiM (SMTiM) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) medium is also studied. The highest corrosion rate is found to be for the bare TiM plate, but the corrosion rate has been reduced with the heat-treatment of TiM due to the formation of SFTL. The lowest corrosion rate is recorded for the implant prepared by heat treatment of TiM at 700 °C. The HA-coating further assists in the passivation of the TiM in the SBF medium. Both SMTiM and HA coated SMTiM are noncytotoxic against osteoblast-like (HOS) cells and are in high-bioactivity. The overall production process of bone-implant described in this paper is in high economic value.

  6. High Quality Factor Platinum Silicide Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Szypryt, P; Ulbricht, G; Bumble, B; Meeker, S R; Bockstiegel, C; Walter, A B

    2016-01-01

    We report on the development of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) using platinum silicide as the sensor material. MKIDs are an emerging superconducting detector technology, capable of measuring the arrival times of single photons to better than two microseconds and their energies to around ten percent. Previously, MKIDs have been fabricated using either sub-stoichiometric titanium nitride or aluminum, but TiN suffers from spatial inhomogeneities in the superconducting critical temperature and Al has a low kinetic inductance fraction, causing low detector sensitivity. To address these issues, we have instead fabricated PtSi microresonators with superconducting critical temperatures of 944$\\pm$12~mK and high internal quality factors ($Q_i \\gtrsim 10^6$). These devices show typical quasiparticle lifetimes of $\\tau_{qp} \\approx 30$--$40~\\mu$s and spectral resolution, $R = \\lambda / \\Delta \\lambda$, of 8 at 406.6~nm. We compare PtSi MKIDs to those fabricated with TiN and detail the substantial advanta...

  7. Destruction of oral biofilms formed in situ on machined titanium (Ti) surfaces by cold atmospheric plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idlibi, Ahmad Nour; Al-Marrawi, Fuad; Hannig, Matthias; Lehmann, Antje; Rueppell, Andre; Schindler, Axel; Jentsch, Holger; Rupf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The decontamination of implant surfaces represents the basic procedure in the management of peri-implant diseases, but it is still a challenge. The study aimed to evaluate the degradation of oral biofilms grown in situ on machined titanium (Ti) discs by cold atmospheric plasma (CAP). ~200 Ti discs were exposed to the oral cavities of five healthy human volunteers for 72 h. The resulting biofilms were divided randomly between the following treatments: CAP (which varied in mean power, treatment duration, and/or the gas mixture), and untreated and treated controls (diode laser, air-abrasion, chlorhexidine). The viability, quantity, and morphology of the biofilms were determined by live/dead staining, inoculation onto blood agar, quantification of the total protein content, and scanning electron microscopy. Exposure to CAP significantly reduced the viability and quantity of biofilms compared with the positive control treatments. The efficacy of treatment with CAP correlated with the treatment duration and plasma power. No single method achieved complete biofilm removal; however, CAP may provide an effective support to established decontamination techniques for treatment of peri-implant diseases.

  8. Development of fine-grain size titanium 6Al–4V alloy sheet material for low temperature superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tuoyang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yonliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Sanders, Daniel G. [Boeing Research and Technology, Seattle, WA (United States); Liu, Bin; Zhang, Weidong; Zhou, Canxu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Fine-grained titanium 6Al–4V alloy, which typically has a grain size of about 1–2 μm, can be made to superplastic form at around 800 °C with special processing. The normal temperature for superplastic forming (SPF) with conventional titanium 6Al–4V sheet material is 900 °C. The lower temperature performance is of interest to the Boeing Company because it can be exploited to achieve significant cost savings in processing by reducing the high-temperature oxidation of the SPF dies, improving the heater rod life for the hot presses, increasing operator safety and replacing the chemical milling operation to remove alpha case contamination with a less intensive nitric hydrofluoric acid etchant (pickle). In this report, room temperature tensile tests and elevated temperature constant strain rate tensile tests of fine-grained Ti–6Al–4V sheets provided by the Baoti Company of Xi'an, China, were conducted according to the test method standards of ASTM-E8 and ASTM-E2448. The relationships among the processing parameters, microstructure and superplastic behavior have been analyzed. The results show that two of the samples produced met the Boeing minimum requirements for low-temperature superplasticity. The successful material was heat-treated at 800 °C subsequent to hot rolling above the beta transus temperature, T{sub β}-(150–250 °C). It was found that the sheet metal microstructure has a significant influence on superplastic formability of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Specifically, fine grains, a narrow grain size distribution, low grain aspect ratio and moderate β phase volume fraction can contribute to higher superplastic elongations.

  9. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O' Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Cumpson, Peter [School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-21

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  10. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bsat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM, can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M and immersion times (6, 24 h of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  11. Laser rapid forming of low cost hydride-dehydride titanium alloy powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; ZHANG Feng-ying; LIN Xin; TAN Hua; HUANG Wei-dong

    2006-01-01

    Low cost hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64) alloy powder was employed to investigate the metallurgical quality and mechanical properties of laser formed samples. With appropriate control of the laser forming processing parameters and the loose density of HDH powder, two kinds of defect, i.e. porosity and ill-bonding, can be avoided. Rare earth Nd powder was added to HDH Ti-64 powder to purify laser formed alloy. The results show that with a few additive of Nd, the microstructure of laser formed alloy changes from Widmanst-tten morphology to a basket weave microstructure. Accordingly an appropriate addition of Nd is effective to improve both the strength and ductility of laser formed HDH Ti-64 alloy. The values of tensile test meet the wrought specification with the content of Nd ranging from 0.1%-0.2%(mass fraction).

  12. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Kubicki, Milan; Dähne, Mario [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Reiß, Paul; Niermann, Tore; Lehmann, Michael [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schubert, Markus Andreas [IHP–Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain due to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires.

  13. Cathodic arc sputtering of functional titanium oxide thin films, demonstrating resistive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvets, Petr; Maksimova, Ksenia; Demin, Maxim; Dikaya, Olga; Goikhman, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The formation of thin films of the different stable and metastable titanium oxide phases is demonstrated by cathode arc sputtering of a titanium target in an oxygen atmosphere. We also show that sputtering of titanium in vacuum yields the formation of titanium silicides on the silicon substrate. The crystal structure of the produced samples was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. We conclude that cathode arc sputtering is a flexible method suitable for producing the functional films for electronic applications. The functionality is verified by the memory effect demonstration, based on the resistive switching in the titanium oxide thin film structure.

  14. Cathodic arc sputtering of functional titanium oxide thin films, demonstrating resistive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Petr, E-mail: pshvets@innopark.kantiana.ru; Maksimova, Ksenia; Demin, Maxim; Dikaya, Olga; Goikhman, Alexander

    2017-05-15

    The formation of thin films of the different stable and metastable titanium oxide phases is demonstrated by cathode arc sputtering of a titanium target in an oxygen atmosphere. We also show that sputtering of titanium in vacuum yields the formation of titanium silicides on the silicon substrate. The crystal structure of the produced samples was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. We conclude that cathode arc sputtering is a flexible method suitable for producing the functional films for electronic applications. The functionality is verified by the memory effect demonstration, based on the resistive switching in the titanium oxide thin film structure.

  15. Thermal Stability of Magnesium Silicide/Nickel Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boor, J.; Droste, D.; Schneider, C.; Janek, J.; Mueller, E.

    2016-10-01

    Magnesium silicide-based materials are a very promising class of thermoelectric materials with excellent potential for thermoelectric waste heat recovery. For the successful application of magnesium silicide-based thermoelectric generators, the development of long-term stable contacts with low contact resistance is as important as material optimization. We have therefore studied the suitability of Ni as a contact material for magnesium silicide. Co-sintering of magnesium silicide and Ni leads to the formation of a stable reaction layer with low electrical resistance. In this paper we show that the contacts retain their low electrical contact resistance after annealing at temperatures up to 823 K for up to 168 h. By employing scanning electron microscope analysis and time-of-flight (ToF)-secondary ion mass spectrometry, we can further show that elemental diffusion is occurring to a very limited extent. This indicates long-term stability under practical operation conditions for magnesium silicide/nickel contacts.

  16. Breket titanium (Titanium bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a considerable discussion in the literature about corrosion and sensitivity to the nickel present in stainless steel brackets. Titanium has been heralded as a material totally compatible in the oral environment and superior in structural integrity compared to stainless steel. Many current applications in dentistry and medicine have made titanium an obvious choice for a possible substitute material. Titanium based brackets have shown excellent corrosion resistance and possessed good biocompatibility. Evaluation of titanium brackets for orthodontic therapy showed that titanium brackets were comparable to stainless steel brackets in passive and active configuration. Study about metallographic structure, hardness, bond strength to enamel substrate, etc. showed that titanium brackets exhibited a potential for clinical application. It was concluded that titanium brackets were suitable substitute for stainless steel brackets.

  17. High Pressure Pneumatic Forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V Titanium Tubes in a Square Cross-Sectional Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF, which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time consumption. HPPF experiments were performed on Ti-3Al-2.5V titanium alloy tubes using a square cross-sectional die with a small corner radius. The effects of forming of pressure and temperature on the corner filling were investigated and the thickness distributions after the HPPF processes at various pressure levels are discussed. At the same time, the stress state, strain and strain rate distribution during the HPPF process were numerically analyzed by the finite element method. Microstructure evolution of the formed tubes was also analyzed by using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD. Because of different stress states, the strain and strain rate are very different at different areas of the tube during the corner filling process, and consequently the microstructure of the formed component is affected to some degree. The results verified that HPPF is a potential technology to form titanium tubular components with complicated geometrical features with high efficiency.

  18. A Novel Investigation of the Formation of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes on Thermally Formed Oxide of Ti-6Al-4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arman; Hamlekhan, Azhang; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Takoudis, Christos

    2015-10-01

    Traditionally, titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes (TNTs) are anodized on Ti-6Al-4V alloy (Ti-V) surfaces with native TiO2 (amorphous TiO2); subsequent heat treatment of anodized surfaces has been observed to enhance cellular response. As-is bulk Ti-V, however, is often subjected to heat treatment, such as thermal oxidation (TO), to improve its mechanical properties. Thermal oxidation treatment of Ti-V at temperatures greater than 200°C and 400°C initiates the formation of anatase and rutile TiO2, respectively, which can affect TNT formation. This study aims at understanding the TNT formation mechanism on Ti-V surfaces with TO-formed TiO2 compared with that on as-is Ti-V surfaces with native oxide. Thermal oxidation-formed TiO2 can affect TNT formation and surface wettability because TO-formed TiO2 is expected to be part of the TNT structure. Surface characterization was carried out with field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, and white light interferometry. The TNTs were formed on control and 300°C and 600°C TO-treated Ti-V samples, and significant differences in TNT lengths and surface morphology were observed. No difference in elemental composition was found. Thermal oxidation and TO/anodization treatments produced hydrophilic surfaces, while hydrophobic behavior was observed over time (aging) for all samples. Reduced hydrophobic behavior was observed for TO/anodized samples when compared with control, control/anodized, and TO-treated samples. A method for improved surface wettability and TNT morphology is therefore discussed for possible applications in effective osseointegration of dental and orthopedic implants.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of higher manganese silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chih; Venkataraman, Vijay Shankar; Kee, Hae-Young

    2015-03-01

    Higher manganese silicides (HMS) are promising thermoelectric materials that may be broadly deployable because of the abundance of the constituent elements and their non-toxic nature. We study the thermoelectric properties of HMS using density functional theory calculations and tight-binding models to fit these calculations. We estimate charge carrier density and mobility, and compare with experimental data. Theoretically obtained thermal and electrical conductivities, and the Seebeck coefficients are presented. Possible scattering mechanisms and relations to figure of merit are also discussed. NSERC CREATE - HEATER Program.

  20. Joule-assisted silicidation for short-channel silicon nanowire devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Massimo; Spathis, Panayotis; Katsaros, Georgios; Gentile, Pascal; Sanquer, Marc; De Franceschi, Silvano

    2011-09-27

    We report on a technique enabling electrical control of the contact silicidation process in silicon nanowire devices. Undoped silicon nanowires were contacted by pairs of nickel electrodes, and each contact was selectively silicided by means of the Joule effect. By a real-time monitoring of the nanowire electrical resistance during the contact silicidation process we were able to fabricate nickel-silicide/silicon/nickel-silicide devices with controlled silicon channel length down to 8 nm.

  1. Enhanced apatite-forming ability and cytocompatibility of porous and nanostructured TiO2/CaSiO3 coating on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongjie; Qiao, Yuqin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2013-01-01

    To improve the bioactivity and cytocompatibility of biomedical titanium dioxide coating, many efforts have been made to modify its surface composition and topography. Meanwhile, CaSiO(3) was commonly investigated as coating material on titanium implants for fast fixation and firm implant-bone attachment due to its demonstrated bioactivity and osteointegration. In this work, gradient TiO(2)/CaSiO(3) coating on titanium was prepared by a two-step procedure, in which porous and nanostructured TiO(2) coating on titanium was prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation in advance, and then needle and flake-like CaSiO(3) nanocrystals were deposited on the TiO(2) coating surface by electron beam evaporation. In view of the potential clinical applications, apatite-forming ability of the TiO(2)/CaSiO(3) coating was evaluated by simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion tests, and MG63 cells were cultured on the surface of the coating to investigate its cytocompatibility. The results show that deposition of CaSiO(3) significantly enhanced the apatite-forming ability of nanostructured TiO(2) coating in SBF. Meanwhile, the MG63 cells on TiO(2)/CaSiO(3) coating show higher proliferation rate and vitality than that on TiO(2) coating. In conclusion, the porous and nanostructured TiO(2)/CaSiO(3) coating on titanium substrate with good apatite-forming ability and cytocompatibility is a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering and implant coating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical characteristics of an epitaxial Fe3Si/Si(111) iron silicide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, I. A.; Popov, Z. I.; Varnakov, S. N.; Molokeev, M. S.; Fedorov, A. S.; Yakovlev, I. A.; Fedorov, D. A.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2014-07-01

    The dispersion of the relative permittivity ɛ of a 27-nm-thick epitaxial Fe3Si iron silicide film has been measured within the E = 1.16-4.96 eV energy range using the spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. The experimental data are compared to the relative permittivity calculated in the framework of the density functional theory using the GGA-PBE approximation. For Fe3Si, the electronic structure and the electronic density of states (DOS) are calculated. The analysis of the frequencies corresponding to the transitions between the DOS peaks demonstrates qualitative agreement with the measured absorption peaks. The analysis of the single wavelength laser ellipsometry data obtained in the course of the film growth demonstrates that a continuous layer of Fe3Si iron silicide film is formed if the film thickness achieves 5 nm.

  3. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.; Dotsenko, , S. A.; Goroshko, D. L.; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Chusovitin, E. A.; Chernev, I. M.

    2016-12-01

    By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS) with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  4. Room temperature gas-solid reaction of titanium on glass surfaces forming a very low resistivity layer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solís, Hugo; Clark, Neville; Azofeifa, Daniel; Avendano, E

    2016-01-01

    Titanium films were deposited on quartz, glass, polyamide and PET substrates in a high vacuum system at room temperature and their electrical resistance monitored in vacuo as a function of thickness...

  5. In situ micro-Raman analysis and X-ray diffraction of nickel silicide thin films on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, M; Sriram, S; Perova, T S; Ermakov, V; Thorogood, G J; Short, K T; Holland, A S

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the in situ analysis of nickel silicide (NiSi) thin films formed by thermal processing of nickel thin films deposited on silicon substrates. The in situ techniques employed for this study include micro-Raman spectroscopy (microRS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD); in both cases the variations for temperatures up to 350 degrees C has been studied. Nickel silicide thin films formed by vacuum annealing of nickel on silicon were used as a reference for these measurements. In situ analysis was carried out on nickel thin films on silicon, while the samples were heated from room temperature to 350 degrees C. Data was gathered at regular temperature intervals and other specific points of interest (such as 250 degrees C, where the reaction between nickel and silicon to form Ni(2)Si is expected). The transformations from the metallic state, through the intermediate reaction states, until the desired metal-silicon reaction product is attained, are discussed. The evolution of nickel silicide from the nickel film can be observed from both the microRS and XRD in situ studies. Variations in the evolution of silicide from metal for different silicon substrates are discussed, and these include (100) n-type, (100) p-type, and (110) p-type silicon substrates.

  6. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuryev, V. A., E-mail: vyuryev@kapella.gpi.ru; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P. [A. M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Senkov, V. M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskiy Avenue, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Nalivaiko, O. Y. [JSC “Integral” – “Integral” Holding Management Company, 121A, Kazintsa I. P. Street, Minsk 220108 (Belarus); Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-05-28

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about −2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  7. Pt silicide/poly-Si Schottky diodes as temperature sensors for bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryev, V. A.; Chizh, K. V.; Chapnin, V. A.; Mironov, S. A.; Dubkov, V. P.; Uvarov, O. V.; Kalinushkin, V. P.; Senkov, V. M.; Nalivaiko, O. Y.; Novikau, A. G.; Gaiduk, P. I.

    2015-05-01

    Platinum silicide Schottky diodes formed on films of polycrystalline Si doped by phosphorus are demonstrated to be efficient and manufacturable CMOS-compatible temperature sensors for microbolometer detectors of radiation. Thin-film platinum silicide/poly-Si diodes have been produced by a CMOS-compatible process on artificial Si3N4/SiO2/Si(001) substrates simulating the bolometer cells. Layer structure and phase composition of the original Pt/poly-Si films and the Pt silicide/poly-Si films synthesized by a low-temperature process have been studied by means of the scanning transmission electron microscopy; they have also been explored by means of the two-wavelength X-ray structural phase analysis and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Temperature coefficient of voltage for the forward current of a single diode is shown to reach the value of about -2%/ °C in the temperature interval from 25 to 50 °C.

  8. Intercalation synthesis of graphene-capped iron silicide atop Ni(111): Evolution of electronic structure and ferromagnetic ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenyuk, G. S.; Vilkov, O. Yu.; Rybkin, A. G.; Gomoyunova, M. V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Usachov, D. Yu.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.; Pronin, I. I.

    2017-01-01

    A new method for synthesis of graphene-protected iron silicides has been tested, which consists in formation of graphene on Ni(111) followed by two-step intercalation of the system with Fe and Si. Characterization of the samples was performed in situ by low-energy electron diffraction, angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, core-level photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation and magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Fe 3p electrons. It is shown, that at 400 °C the intercalation of graphene/Ni(111) with iron occurs in a range up to 14 ML. The graphene layer strongly interacts with the topmost Fe atoms and stabilizes the fcc structure of the film. The in-plane ferromagnetic ordering of the film has a threshold nature and arises after the intercalation of 5 ML Fe due to the thickness-driven spin reorientation transition. Subsequent intercalation of graphene/Fe/Ni(111) with Si leads to the formation of the inhomogeneous system consisted of intercalated and nonintercalated areas. The intercalated islands coalesce at 2 ML Si when a Fe-Si solid solution covered with the Fe3Si surface silicide is formed. The Fe3Si silicide is ferromagnetic and has an ordered (√3 × √3)R30° structure. The graphene layer is weakly electronically coupled to the silicide phase keeping its remarkable properties ready for use.

  9. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Chen [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ho, Wen-Fu, E-mail: fujii@nuk.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  10. Thermal transport across metal silicide-silicon interfaces: An experimental comparison between epitaxial and nonepitaxial interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ning; Feser, Joseph P.; Sadasivam, Sridhar; Fisher, Timothy S.; Wang, Tianshi; Ni, Chaoying; Janotti, Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Silicides are used extensively in nano- and microdevices due to their low electrical resistivity, low contact resistance to silicon, and their process compatibility. In this work, the thermal interface conductance of TiSi2, CoSi2, NiSi, and PtSi are studied using time-domain thermoreflectance. Exploiting the fact that most silicides formed on Si(111) substrates grow epitaxially, while most silicides on Si(100) do not, we study the effect of epitaxy, and show that for a wide variety of interfaces there is no dependence of interface conductance on the detailed structure of the interface. In particular, there is no difference in the thermal interface conductance between epitaxial and nonepitaxial silicide/silicon interfaces, nor between epitaxial interfaces with different interface orientations. While these silicide-based interfaces yield the highest reported interface conductances of any known interface with silicon, none of the interfaces studied are found to operate close to the phonon radiation limit, indicating that phonon transmission coefficients are nonunity in all cases and yet remain insensitive to interfacial structure. In the case of CoSi2, a comparison is made with detailed computational models using (1) full-dispersion diffuse mismatch modeling (DMM) including the effect of near-interfacial strain, and (2) an atomistic Green' function (AGF) approach that integrates near-interface changes in the interatomic force constants obtained through density functional perturbation theory. Above 100 K, the AGF approach significantly underpredicts interface conductance suggesting that energy transport does not occur purely by coherent transmission of phonons, even for epitaxial interfaces. The full-dispersion DMM closely predicts the experimentally observed interface conductances for CoSi2, NiSi, and TiSi2 interfaces, while it remains an open question whether inelastic scattering, cross-interfacial electron-phonon coupling, or other mechanisms could also account for

  11. Zn/Ag micro-galvanic couples formed on titanium and osseointegration effects in the presence of S. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guodong; Qin, Hui; Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhao, Yaochao; Peng, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2015-10-01

    Titanium implants possessing simultaneous osseointegration and antibacterial ability are desirable. In this work, three types of Zn/Ag micro-galvanic couples are fabricated on titanium by plasma immersion ion implantation to investigate the osseointegration and antibacterial effects as well as the involved mechanisms. The in vitro findings disclose enhanced proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and gene expressions of the rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), as well as good antibacterial ability on all three micro-galvanic couples. Excellent antimicrobial ability is also observed in vivo and the micro-CT and histological results reveal notable osseointegration in vivo despite the presence of bacteria. The Zn/Ag micro-galvanic couple formed on Zn/Ag dual-ion co-implanted titanium shows the best osseointegration as well as good antibacterial properties in vivo obtained from a rabbit tibia model. The difference among the three Zn/Ag micro-galvanic couples can be ascribed to the contact between the Ag NPs and Zn film, which affects the corrosion process. Our results indicate that the biological behavior can be controlled by the corrosion process of the Zn/Ag micro-galvanic couples.

  12. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-11-10

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti {gamma} point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi{sub 2}-monolayer and the Dy{sub 3}Si{sub 5}-multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi{sub 2}/Si(111) and Er{sub 3}Si{sub 5}/Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the (vector)k {sub parallel} space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti {gamma} point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas

  13. Evaluation of Transmission Line Model Structures for Silicide-to-Silicon Specific Contact Resistance Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavitski, Natalie; Dal, van Mark J.H.; Lauwers, Anne; Vrancken, Christa; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Wolters, Rob A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In order to measure silicide-to-silicon specific contact resistance ρc, transmission line model (TLM) structures were proposed as attractive candidates for embedding in CMOS processes. We optimized TLM structures for nickel silicide and platinum silicide and evaluated them for various doping levels

  14. Silicide/Silicon Hetero-Junction Structure for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Dongsuk; Kim, Soojung; Choi, Wonchul; Kim, Junsoo; Zyung, Taehyoung; Jang, Moongyu

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated silicide/silicon hetero-junction structured thermoelectric device by CMOS process for the reduction of thermal conductivity with the scatterings of phonons at silicide/silicon interfaces. Electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficients, power factors, and temperature differences are evaluated using the steady state analysis method. Platinum silicide/silicon multilayered structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient and power factor characteristics, which was considered for p-leg element. Also, erbium silicide/silicon structure showed an enhanced Seebeck coefficient, which was considered for an n-leg element. Silicide/silicon multilayered structure is promising for thermoelectric applications by reducing thermal conductivity with an enhanced Seebeck coefficient. However, because of the high thermal conductivity of the silicon packing during thermal gradient is not a problem any temperature difference. Therefore, requires more testing and analysis in order to overcome this problem. Thermoelectric generators are devices that based on the Seebeck effect, convert temperature differences into electrical energy. Although thermoelectric phenomena have been used for heating and cooling applications quite extensively, it is only in recent years that interest has increased in energy generation.

  15. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  16. Submicron Features in Higher Manganese Silicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatir Sadia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The world energy crisis had increased the demand for alternative energy sources and as such is one of the topics at the forefront of research. One way for reducing energy consumption is by thermoelectricity. Thermoelectric effects enable direct conversion of thermal into electrical energy. Higher manganese silicide (HMS, MnSi1.75 is one of the promising materials for applications in the field of thermoelectricity. The abundance and low cost of the elements, combined with good thermoelectric properties and high mechanical and chemical stability at high temperatures, make it very attractive for thermoelectric applications. Recent studies have shown that Si-rich HMS has improved thermoelectric properties. The most interesting of which is the unusual reduction in thermal conductivity. In the current research, transmission (TEM and scanning (SEM electron microscopy as well as X-ray diffraction methods were applied for investigation of the govern mechanisms resulting in very low thermal conductivity values of an Si-rich HMS composition, following arc melting and hot-pressing procedures. In this paper, it is shown that there is a presence of sub-micron dislocations walls, stacking faults, and silicon and HMS precipitates inside each other apparent in the matrix, following a high temperature (0.9 Tm hot pressing for an hour. These are not just responsible for the low thermal conductivity values observed but also indicate the ability to create complicate nano-structures that will last during the production process and possibly during the application.

  17. 钛板材单点渐进成形工艺数值模拟分析%Numerical Simulation of Single Point Incremental Forming for Titanium Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖超; 李敬勇

    2013-01-01

    Single point incremental forming technology can significantly shorten production cycles of the new product. The metal parts of processing small quantities, multi-species and complicated sheet have a certain advantage. The single point incremental forming process with die for titanium plate was numerically simulated by applying the finite element analysis software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The influencs of different plate thickness on forming properties of titanium sheet were analyzed, which can lay a foundation for posterior research.%单点渐进成形技术可以明显地缩短新产品的生产周期,对于加工小批量、多品种、形状复杂的薄板成形件有着一定的优势.运用有限元分析软件ANSYS/LS-DYNA对钛板材的有模单点渐进成形过程进行了数值模拟,分析了不同板厚的钛板材对成形性能的影响,为后续实验研究奠定基础.

  18. Si-Ge Nano-Structured with Tungsten Silicide Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Traditional silicon germanium high temperature thermoelectrics have potential for improvements in figure of merit via nano-structuring with a silicide phase. A second phase of nano-sized silicides can theoretically reduce the lattice component of thermal conductivity without significantly reducing the electrical conductivity. However, experimentally achieving such improvements in line with the theory is complicated by factors such as control of silicide size during sintering, dopant segregation, matrix homogeneity, and sintering kinetics. Samples are prepared using powder metallurgy techniques; including mechanochemical alloying via ball milling and spark plasma sintering for densification. In addition to microstructural development, thermal stability of thermoelectric transport properties are reported, as well as couple and device level characterization.

  19. Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, A.W. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ismail, R.; Chua, K.H. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akbar, S.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pingguan-Murphy, B., E-mail: bpingguan@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • In situ titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanowire surface structures were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V substrate using thermal oxidation. • Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression of primary human osteoblasts were examined on the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces. • TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces showed enhanced osteogenic potential as compared to the planar surface. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO{sub 2} nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO{sub 2} nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

  20. Mo SILICIDE SYNTHISIS BY DUAL ION BEAM DEPOSITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.H. Zhang; Z.Z. Yi; X.Y. Wu; S.J. Zhang; Y.G. Wu; X. Zhang; H.X. Zhang; A.D. Liu; X.J. Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Mo silicides MosSi3 with high quality were prepared using ion beam deposition equip-ment with two Filter Metal Vacuum Arc Deposition (FMEVAD). When the numberof alternant deposition times was 198, total thickness of the coating is 40nm. Thecoatings with droplet free can be readily obtained, so the surface is smooth. TEMobservation shows that Mo and Si alternant deposition coating is conpact structure.The fine Mo silicide grains densely distributed in the coating. The coating adherenceon silicon is excellent.

  1. Osteogenic potential of in situ TiO2 nanowire surfaces formed by thermal oxidation of titanium alloy substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A. W.; Ismail, R.; Chua, K. H.; Ahmad, R.; Akbar, S. A.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire surface structures were fabricated in situ by a thermal oxidation process, and their ability to enhance the osteogenic potential of primary osteoblasts was investigated. Human osteoblasts were isolated from nasal bone and cultured on a TiO2 nanowires coated substrate to assess its in vitro cellular interaction. Bare featureless Ti-6Al-4V substrate was used as a control surface. Initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell mineralization, and osteogenic related gene expression were examined on the TiO2 nanowire surfaces as compared to the control surfaces after 2 weeks of culturing. Cell adhesion and cell proliferation were assayed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Alamar Blue reduction assay, respectively. The nanowire surfaces promoted better cell adhesion and spreading than the control surface, as well as leading to higher cell proliferation. Our results showed that osteoblasts grown onto the TiO2 nanowire surfaces displayed significantly higher production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), extracellular (ECM) mineralization and genes expression of runt-related transcription factor (Runx2), bone sialoprotein (BSP), ostoepontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) compared to the control surfaces. This suggests the potential use of such surface modification on Ti-6Al-4V substrates as a promising means to improve the osteointegration of titanium based implants.

  2. Spin, Charge, and Bonding in Transition Metal Mono Silicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, D. van der; Damascelli, A.; Schulte, K.; Menovsky, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Published in: Physica B 244 (1998) 138-147 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We review some of the relevant physical properties of the transition metal mono-silicides with the FeSi structure (CrSi, MnSi, FeSi, CoSi, NiSi, etc) and explore the relation between their structural

  3. Neutronic design of the RSG-GAS silicide core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembiring, T.M.; Kuntoro, I.; Hastowo, H. [Center for Development of Research Reactor Technology National Nuclear Energy Agency BATAN, PUSPIPTEK Serpong Tangerang, 15310 (Indonesia)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of core conversion program of the RSG-GAS multipurpose reactor is to convert the fuel from oxide, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al to silicide, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al. The aim of the program is to gain longer operation cycle by having, which is technically possible for silicide fuel, a higher density. Upon constraints of the existing reactor system and utilization, an optimal fuel density in amount of 3.55 g U/cc was found. This paper describes the neutronic parameter design of the silicide equilibrium core and the design of its transition cores as well. From reactivity control point of view, a modification of control rod system is also discussed. All calculations are carried out by means of diffusion codes, Batan-EQUIL-2D, Batan-2DIFF and -3DIFF. The silicide core shows that longer operation cycle of 32 full power days can be achieved without decreasing the safety criteria and utilization capabilities. (author)

  4. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  5. Texture in thin film silicides and germanides: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, B.; De Keyser, K.; Lavoie, C.; Detavernier, C.

    2016-09-01

    Silicides and germanides are compounds consisting of a metal and silicon or germanium. In the microelectronics industry, silicides are the material of choice for contacting silicon based devices (over the years, CoSi2, C54-TiSi2, and NiSi have been adopted), while germanides are considered as a top candidate for contacting future germanium based electronics. Since also strain engineering through the use of Si1-xGex in the source/drain/gate regions of MOSFET devices is an important technique for improving device characteristics in modern Si-based microelectronics industry, a profound understanding of the formation of silicide/germanide contacts to silicon and germanium is of utmost importance. The crystallographic texture of these films, which is defined as the statistical distribution of the orientation of the grains in the film, has been the subject of scientific studies since the 1970s. Different types of texture like epitaxy, axiotaxy, fiber, or combinations thereof have been observed in such films. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that film texture can have a profound influence on the formation and stability of silicide/germanide contacts, as it controls the type and orientation of grain boundaries (affecting diffusion and agglomeration) and the interface energy (affecting nucleation during the solid-state reaction). Furthermore, the texture also has an impact on the electrical characteristics of the contact, as the orientation and size of individual grains influences functional properties such as contact resistance and sheet resistance and will induce local variations in strain and Schottky barrier height. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the scientific work that has been published in the field of texture studies on thin film silicide/germanide contacts.

  6. Pack cementation Cr-Al coating of steels and Ge-doped silicide coating of Cr-Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Y.R.; Zheng, M.H.; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Carbon steels or low-alloy steels used in utility boilers, heat exchangers, petrochemical plants and coal gasification systems are subjected to high temperature corrosion attack such as oxidation, sulfidation and hot corrosion. The pack cementation coating process has proven to be an economical and effective method to enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition of steels. With the aid of a computer program, STEPSOL, pack cementation conditions to produce a ferrite Cr-Al diffusion coating on carbon-containing steels by using elemental Cr and Al powders have been calculated and experimentally verified. The cyclic oxidation kinetics for the Cr-Al coated steels are presented. Chromium silicide can maintain high oxidation resistance up to 1100{degrees}C by forming a SiO{sub 2} protective scale. Previous studies at Ohio State University have shown that the cyclic oxidation resistance of MOSi{sub 2} and TiSi{sub 2} can be further improved by Ge addition introduced during coating growth. The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating in a single processing step for the ORNL-developed Cr-Nb advanced intermetallic alloy. The oxidation behavior of the silicide-coated Cr-Nb alloy was excellent: weight gain of about 1 mg/cm{sup 2} upon oxidation at 1100{degrees}C in air for 100 hours.

  7. Preparation, characterization and mechanical properties of microarc oxidation coating formed on titanium in Al(OH)3 colloidal solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Yao, B.; Long, B. Y.; Tian, H. W.; Wang, B.

    2012-04-01

    A ceramic coating with thickness of 20-70 μm was grown on titanium plate in Al(OH)3 colloidal solution by microarc oxidation (MAO) in constant current mode. It is found that the as-grown coating consists of rutile TiO2 phase together with a thin layer of Ai2TiO5 phase near the surface of the coating. After removing the Ai2TiO5 layer by polishing, a single phase of rutile TiO2 coating is achieved, which is different from results reported previously, where the coating is usually composed of two phases of rutile and anatase TiO2. It is suggested that the formation of the coating with single phase of rutile TiO2 is related to the existence of Al(OH)3 in the solution. The growth rate of the coating increases with increasing current density in the range of 17-23 A/dm2, but it increases little in the range of 23-30 A/dm2. The rutile TiO2 coating looks compactness and solidity in the coating grown in the density range of 17-23 A/dm2 but looseness and insubstantiality in the range of 23-30 A/dm2. The hardness and elastic modulus of the rutile TiO2 decreases with the density increasing. The mechanism of formation of the coating is discussed in the present work.

  8. Electrical characterization of strained and unstrained silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, S; Zhao, Q T; Feste, S F; Knoll, L; Trellenkamp, S; Ghyselen, B; Mantl, S

    2010-03-12

    We present electrical characterization of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) contacts formed on strained and unstrained silicon nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by top-down processing of initially As(+) implanted and activated strained and unstrained silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The resistivity of doped Si NWs and the contact resistivity of the NiSi to Si NW contacts are studied as functions of the As(+) ion implantation dose and the cross-sectional area of the wires. Strained silicon NWs show lower resistivity for all doping concentrations due to their enhanced electron mobility compared to the unstrained case. An increase in resistivity with decreasing cross section of the NWs was observed for all implantation doses. This is ascribed to the occurrence of dopant deactivation. Comparing the silicidation of uniaxially tensile strained and unstrained Si NWs shows no difference in silicidation speed and in contact resistivity between NiSi/Si NW. Contact resistivities as low as 1.2 x 10(-8) Omega cm(-2) were obtained for NiSi contacts to both strained and unstrained Si NWs. Compared to planar contacts, the NiSi/Si NW contact resistivity is two orders of magnitude lower.

  9. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-12-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta-silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo-octa-hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti-prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re-Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re-Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å.

  10. Titanium Carbide: Nanotechnology, Properties, Application

    OpenAIRE

    Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Garbuzova, A. K.; Valuev, Denis Viktorovich

    2015-01-01

    The paper develops scientific and technological bases for fabrication of titanium carbide which is a nanocomponent of composite materials. The authors determine optimum technology specifications and the main titanium carbide properties: fineness of titaniferous raw materials, carbide-forming agent quantity, set temperature of plasma flow, tempering temperature, titanium carbide yield, productivity, specific surface, size and shape of particles. The paper includes equations to describe how the...

  11. Role of the crystalline form of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Rutile, and not anatase, induces toxic effects in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uboldi, Chiara; Urbán, Patricia; Gilliland, Douglas; Bajak, Edyta; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Ponti, Jessica; Rossi, François

    2016-03-01

    The wide use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in industrial applications requires the investigation of their effects on human health. In this context, we investigated the effects of nanosized and bulk titania in two different crystalline forms (anatase and rutile) in vitro. By colony forming efficiency assay, a dose-dependent reduction of the clonogenic activity of Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was detected in the presence of rutile, but not in the case of anatase NPs. Similarly, the cell transformation assay and the micronucleus test showed that rutile TiO2 NPs were able to induce type-III foci formation in Balb/3T3 cells and appeared to be slightly genotoxic, whereas anatase TiO2 NPs did not induce any significant neoplastic or genotoxic effect. Additionally, we investigated the interaction of TiO2 NPs with Balb/3T3 cells and quantified the in vitro uptake of titania using mass spectrometry. Results showed that the internalization was independent of the crystalline form of TiO2 NPs but size-dependent, as nano-titania were taken up more than their respective bulk materials. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the cytotoxic, neoplastic and genotoxic effects triggered in Balb/3T3 cells by TiO2 NPs depend on the crystalline form of the nanomaterial, whereas the internalization is regulated by the particle size.

  12. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ; the high affinity of titanium for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen; and physical and chemical properties of the different titanium oxide species when reducing titanium from Ti4+ to metallic titanium....

  13. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  14. Low cost titanium--myth or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Paul C.; Hartman, Alan D.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium, and titanium cost has prevented its use in non-aerospace applications including the automotive and heavy vehicle industries.

  15. Titanium Carbide: Nanotechnology, Properties, Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Garbuzova, A. K.; Valuev, D. V.

    2015-09-01

    The paper develops scientific and technological bases for fabrication of titanium carbide which is a nanocomponent of composite materials. The authors determine optimum technology specifications and the main titanium carbide properties: fineness of titaniferous raw materials, carbide-forming agent quantity, set temperature of plasma flow, tempering temperature, titanium carbide yield, productivity, specific surface, size and shape of particles. The paper includes equations to describe how the major specifications of the fabrication technique influence the content of titanium carbide and free carbon in the end product.

  16. Infrared and Raman characterization of beta iron silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefki, K.; Muret, P.; Bustarret, E.; Boutarek, N.; Madar, R.; Chevrier, J.; Derrien, J.; Brunel, M.

    1991-12-01

    Samples of beta-iron silicide were prepared by three different methods : solid phase reaction on silicon (111), on a monocrystaline FeSi substrate, and from the melt. These samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction and investigated by Infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The infrared and Raman lines are compared with theoretical predictions given by the factor group analysis of the silicide primitive cell, which yields the number and the symmetry of the different modes. We relate the red shift of the Infrared and Raman lines on samples with smaller lattice parameters to the presence of Iron vacancies in films deposited on silicon, in agreement with the sign of the thermoelectric power.

  17. Controlling nickel silicide phase formation by Si implantation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, M.; Turcotte-Tremblay, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Gaudet, S.; Coia, C. [Departement de Genie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Roorda, S. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Desjardins, P. [Departement de Genie Physique, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal (Canada); Lavoie, C. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (United States); Schiettekatte, F. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal (Canada)], E-mail: francois.schiettekatte@umontreal.ca

    2009-05-01

    In the context of fabrication process of contacts in CMOS integrated circuits, we studied the effect of implantation-induced damage on the Ni silicide phase formation sequence. The device layers of Silicon-on-insulator samples were implanted with 30 or 60 keV Si ions at several fluences up to amorphization. Next, 10 or 30 nm Ni layers were deposited. The monitoring of annealing treatments was achieved with time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and pole figure XRD were also used to characterize some intermediate phase formations. We show the existence of an implantation threshold (1 ions/nm{sup 2}) from where the silicidation behaviour changes significantly, the formation temperature of the disilicide namely shifting abruptly from 800 to 450 deg. C. It is also found that the monosilicide formation onset temperature for the thinner Ni deposits increases linearly by about 30 deg. C with the amount of damage.

  18. Oxidation behavior of molybdenum silicides and their composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Deevi, S. C.

    2000-04-03

    A key materials issue associated with the future of high-temperature structural silicides is the resistance of these materials to oxidation at low temperatures. Oxidation tests were conducted on Mo-based silicides over a wide temperature range to evaluate the effects of alloy composition and temperature on the protective scaling characteristics and testing regime for the materials. The study included Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} alloys that contained several concentrations of B. In addition, oxidation characteristics of MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites that contained 20--80 vol.% Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were evaluated at 500--1,400 C.

  19. Preparation of Magnesium Silicide from Recycled Materials for Energy Storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Bumba, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Recycling technologies help to save energy, materials and environment. This is the main reason of their popularity. The recovery of semiconductors and metals depends on recycling treatment. A new multi-step technology, which enables to obtain pure silicon and hydrogen from waste materials,is reported in this study. The only by-product is magnesium phosphate, which is a desired fertilizer. Magnesium silicide was successfully prepared from milled silicon photovoltaic (PV) panels and mill...

  20. A study of nickel silicide in a conventional furnace for Ni/Cu contact monocrystalline-silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seon Kyu; Lee, Soo Hong

    2013-01-01

    High-conductivity contacts in place of screen-printed contacts are in demand for commercial solar cells. Also, simplifying the process steps is required for commercial solar cells. In addition, very expensive metals are necessary improved efficiency without using scarce. In this research, we replaced screen-printed contacts with Ni/Cu contacts in passivated emitter solar cells. A layer of nickel was used as the seed and the adhesion layer. The main contact was formed by plating with copper. Firing conditions in a conventional furnace were varied so as to form nickel silicide. The best cell showed a solar cell efficiency of 18.76%.

  1. Pulmonary toxicity induced by three forms of titanium dioxide nanoparticles via intra-tracheal instillation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Liu; Lihong Yin; Yuepu Pu; Geyu Liang; Juan Zhang; Yaoyao Su; Zhiping Xiao; Bing Ye

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are in wide commercial use worldwide.To evaluate if acute pulmonary toxicity can be induced by nano-TiO2 particles,rats were intra-tracheally instilled with 0.5,5,or 50 mg/kg of 5,21,and 50 nm TiO2 primary particles.Toxic effects were determined with the coefficients of lung tissues to body weight,histopathology,biochemical parameters of blood,activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH),alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in tissues,and the phagocytotic ability of alveolar macrophages (AMs).All the indicators were observed in sacrificed rats one week post-exposure.There was a significant difference of coefficients of pulmonary tissues between the high-dose group and the low- or moderate-dose groups with an exposure of 5 nm TiO2.At the same time,5 nm TiO2 primary particles increased the activity of LDH and ALP when exposure dose was >5 mg/kg.A significant difference in LDH and ALP activity was observed between the 50 mg/kg group and 0.5 or 5 mg/kg group with exposure of 5 nm TiO2.Lung tissues showed increased ALP activity only if treated with 5 and 50 mg/kg of 21 nm TiO2 particles.There was no significant difference in LDH and ALP activity in the 50 nm TiO2 group and control group.Histopathologic examination of lung tissues indicated that the pulmonary response to exposure to TiO2 particles in rats manifested as dosedependent inflammatory lesions,which mainly consisted of infiltration of inflammatory cells and interstitial thickening.Analysis of uptake of neutral red dye showed that 50 nm TiO2 particles significantly increased phagocytotic ability of AMs compared with controls (P < 0.05),whereas exposure with 5 nm TiO2 reduced the phagocytotic ability of AMs when the exposure dose was 50 mg/kg.These results suggest that particle size and exposure dose may have important roles in pulmonary toxicity.The toxic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in lung tissue exhibited a dose-response relationship.After exposure with Ti

  2. Symposium of "Shaping and Forming of High Strength Steel,Titanium, and Light Metals" at 2010 MS&T Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Enhancing the performance of materials under extreme conditions and promoting energy-efficient materials for manufacturing processes are two critical issues for the materials community. In many cases, the shaping and forming characteristics of these alloys establishes the suitability of a new material for a particular application. This is especially true in several key industries, such as oil and gas, automobile, and aerospace.

  3. Crystalline structures and misfit strain inside Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on Si(001) substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Wu, Yueqin; Song, Junqiang; Li, Juan; Huang, Han; Zou, Jin; Cai, Qun

    2011-06-17

    The morphology and crystalline structure of Er silicide nanocrystals self-assembled on the Si(001) substrate were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the nanowires and nanorods formed at 630 °C has dominant hexagonal AlB(2)-type structure, while inside the nanoislands self-organized at 800 °C the tetragonal ThSi(2)-type structure is prevalent. The lattice analysis via cross-sectional high-resolution TEM demonstrated that internal misfit strain plays an important role in controlling the growth of nanocrystals. With the relaxation of strain, the nanoislands could evolve from a pyramid-like shape into a truncated-hut-like shape.

  4. Strain-promoted growth of Mn silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kazushi; Liu, Hongjun; Owen, James H. G.; Renner, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    We have discovered a method to promote the growth of Mn silicide nanowires on the Si(001) at 450° C. Deposition of sub-monolayer quantities of Mn onto a Si(001) surface with a high density of Bi nanolines results in the formation of nanowires, 5-10 nm wide, and up to 600 nm long. These nanowires are never formed if the same growth procedure is followed in the absence of the Bi nanolines. The Haiku core of the Bi nanoline is known to induce short-range stress in the surrounding silicon surface, straining neighbouring dimers, and repelling step edges. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this effect, including the effect of the Bi nanolines on the surface stress tensor and alteration of the available diffusion channels on the surface. This research was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, the Iketani Science and Technology Foundation.

  5. Dependence of ion-induced Pd-silicide formation on nuclear energy deposition density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horino, Yuji; Matsunami, Noriaki; Itoh, Noriaki

    1986-05-01

    Pd/sub 2/Si formation at the Pd-Si interface induced by irradiation with ions having a wide range of nuclear energy of deposition density has been investigated. It is found that the thickness of the silicide layer formed by irradiation is proportional to the ion fluence for irradiation with ions having low energy-deposition densities, while it is proportional to the square root of the fluence for irradiation with ions having energy-deposition densities. The results indicate that Pd/sub 2/Si formation is reaction limited when the energy-deposition density at the interface is low and is diffusion limited when it is high. The results are compared with the phenomenological theory developed by Horino et al. and it is shown that such a dependence of the limiting processes on the energy depositon density is induced when the diffusion is thermally activated while the reaction at the interface is radiation-enhanced.

  6. Fuel management strategy for the new equilibrium silicide core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Liem Peng; Arbie, Bakri; Sembiring, T.M. [National Atomic Energy Agency (Batan), Center for Multipurpose Reactor, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1997-07-01

    The design procedure and fuel management strategy were proposed for converting the oxide core of RSG GAS (MPR-30) to the new equilibrium silicide core using higher uranium loading. The obtained silicide core gave significant extension of the core cycle length and thus increasing the reactor availability and utilisation. (author)

  7. Fuel management strategy for the new equilibrium silicide core design of RSG GAS (MPR-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong Liem Peng; Arbie, Bakri; Sembiring, T.M. [National Atomic Energy Agency (Batan), Center for Multipurpose Reactor, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    1997-07-01

    The design procedure and fuel management strategy were proposed for converting the oxide core of RSG GAS (MPR-30) to the new equilibrium silicide core using higher uranium loading. The obtained silicide core gave significant extension of the core cycle length and thus increasing the reactor availability and utilisation. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  8. Long-term biocompatibility and osseointegration of electron beam melted, free-form-fabricated solid and porous titanium alloy: experimental studies in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, A; Snis, A; Emanuelsson, L; Browne, M; Thomsen, P

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-term osseointegration and biocompatibility of electron beam melted (EBM) free-form-fabricated (FFF titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) implants. Porous and solid machined cylindrical and disk-shaped implants were prepared by EBM and implanted bilaterally in the femur and subcutaneously in the dorsum of the sheep. After 26 weeks, the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved. The tissue response was examined qualitatively and quantitatively using histology and light microscopic (LM) morphometry. Selected bone implants specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and micro-computed tomography (mCT). The results showed that both porous and solid implants were osseointegrated and high bone-implant contact was observed throughout the porous implant. In the soft tissue, the porous implants showed thinner fibrous encapsulation while no signs of intolerance were observed for either implant type. Taken together, the present experimental results show that FFF Ti6Al4V with and without porous structures demonstrate excellent long-term soft tissue biocompatibility and a high degree of osseointegration. The present findings extend earlier, short-term experimental observations in bone and suggest that EBM, FFF Ti6Al4V implants possess valuable properties in bone and soft tissue applications.

  9. Behavior of silicon in nitric media. Application to uranium silicides fuels reprocessing; Comportement du silicium en milieu nitrique. Application au retraitement des combustibles siliciures d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheroux, L

    2001-07-01

    Uranium silicides are used in some research reactors. Reprocessing them is a solution for their cycle end. A list of reprocessing scenarios has been set the most realistic being a nitric dissolution close to the classic spent fuel reprocessing. This uranium silicide fuel contains a lot of silicon and few things are known about polymerization of silicic acid in concentrated nitric acid. The study of this polymerization allows to point out the main parameters: acidity, temperature, silicon concentration. The presence of aluminum seems to speed up heavily the polymerization. It has been impossible to find an analytical technique smart and fast enough to characterize the first steps of silicic acid polymerization. However the action of silicic species on emulsions stabilization formed by mixing them with an organic phase containing TBP has been studied, Silicon slows down the phase separation by means of oligomeric species forming complex with TBP. The existence of these intermediate species is short and heating can avoid any stabilization. When non irradiated uranium silicide fuel is attacked by a nitric solution, aluminum and uranium are quickly dissolved whereas silicon mainly stands in solid state. That builds a gangue of hydrated silica around the uranium silicide particulates without preventing uranium dissolution. A small part of silicon passes into the solution and polymerize towards the highly poly-condensed forms, just 2% of initial silicon is still in molecular form at the end of the dissolution. A thermal treatment of the fuel element, by forming inter-metallic phases U-Al-Si, allows the whole silicon to pass into the solution and next to precipitate. The behavior of silicon in spent fuels should be between these two situations. (author)

  10. Researching forming property of titanium powder in selective laser melting%钛粉SLM成型特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党新安; 张晓博; 杨立军; 段亮亮

    2014-01-01

    Forming characteristics of Ti powder in selective laser melting (SLM ) progress is studied in this paper .In this study ,we determine the optimum laser power ,scan speed by single track experiments ,determine the scanning pitch and scanning strategy through single layer experiment .Finally through experiments to determine the block forming thick powder shop .Results show that the best parameter range are:laser power 80 ~ 100 W ;scanning speed :20~60 mm/s;scanning mode:jump-shift direction ;scanning pitch :0 .09~0 .12 mm ;powder thickness :0 .05~0 .1 mm .%实验研究Ti粉在选择性激光熔化(SLM )工艺成型过程中的成形特性.通过单道实验确定最佳激光功率、扫描速度,单层实验确定扫描间距、扫描策略,最后通过块体成形实验确定铺粉层厚.实验得到的最佳工艺参数范围为,激光功率:80~100 W ;扫描速度:20~60 m m/s ;扫描方式:跳转变向;扫描间距:0.09~0.12mm ;铺粉层厚:0.05~0.1mm .

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis and spark plasma sintering of the cerium silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanko, Gordon A.; Jaques, Brian; Bateman, Allyssa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Butt, Darryl P., E-mail: darrylbutt@boisestate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Ce{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, CeSi, CeSi{sub 2−x} and CeSi{sub 2} were mechanochemically synthesized. • Temperature and pressure were monitored to investigate reaction progress. • All syntheses proceeded through a MSR event followed by rapid solid-state diffusion. • Milling time before MSR correlates well with effective heat of formation. • Some synthesized material was densified by spark plasma sintering. - Abstract: The cerium silicides, Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Ce{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, CeSi, CeSi{sub 2−y}, and CeSi{sub 2−x}, have been prepared from the elements by mechanochemical processing in a planetary ball mill. Preparation of the cerium silicide Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 4} was unsuccessfully attempted and potential reasons for this are discussed. Temperature and pressure of the milling vial were monitored in situ to gain insight into the mechanochemical reaction kinetics, which include a mechanically-induced self-propagating reaction (MSR). Some prepared powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering to high density. Starting materials, as-milled powders, and consolidated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results obtained help elucidate key questions in mechanochemical processing of intermetallics, showing first phase formation similar to thin films, MSR ignition times that are composition- and milling speed-dependent, and sensitivity of stable compound formation on the impact pressure. The results demonstrate mechanochemical synthesis as a viable technique for rare earth silicides.

  12. Effect of plasma surface functionalization on preosteoblast cells spreading and adhesion on a biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer formed on a titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Sung Woon; Ko, Yeong Mu; Kim, Byung Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    This study examined the plasma surface modification of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) formed on a titanium (Ti) surface as well as its influence on the behavior of preosteoblast cells. Ti substrates pre-treated with a plasma-polymerized thin film rich in carboxyl groups were subjected to a biomimetic process in a simulated body fluid solution to synthesize the HAp. The HAp layer grown on Ti substrate was then coated with two types of plasma polymerized acrylic acid and allyl amine thin film. The different types of Ti substrates were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. HAp with a Ca/P ratio from 1.25 to 1.38 was obtained on the Ti substrate and hydrophilic carboxyl (-COOH) and amine (-NH{sub 2}) functional groups were introduced to its surface. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface of the HAp coatings and the morphology of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results showed that the -COOH-modified HAp surfaces promoted the cell spreading synergistically by changing the surface morphology and chemical state.-NH{sub 2} modified HAp had the lowest cell spreading and proliferation compared to HAp and -COOH-modified HAp. These results correspond to fluorescein analysis, which showed many more cell spreading of COOH/HAp/Ti surface compared to HAp and NH{sub 2} modified HAp. A MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The results showed that the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells increased in the order of COOH/HAp/Ti > HAp/Ti > NH{sub 2}/Ti > Ti, corresponding to the effect of cell spreading for 6 days. The change in morphology and the chemical surface properties of the biomaterial via plasma polymerization can affect the behavior of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  13. Work function characterization of solution-processed cobalt silicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihab Ullah, Syed; Robinson, Matt; Hoey, Justin; Sky Driver, M.; Caruso, A. N.; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2012-06-01

    Cobalt silicide thin films were prepared by spin-coating liquid cyclohexasilane-based inks onto silicon substrates followed by a thermal treatment. The work function of the solution-processed Co-Si was determined by both capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as well as by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Variable frequency C-V of MOS structures with silicon oxide layers of variable thickness showed that solution-processed metal silicide films exhibit a work function of 4.36 eV with one Co-Si film on Si giving a UPS-derived work function of 4.80 eV. Similar work function measurements were collected for vapor-deposited MOS capacitors where Al thin films were prepared according to standard class 100 cleanroom handling techniques. In both instances, the work function values established by the electrical measurements were lower than those measured by UPS and this difference appears to be a consequence of parasitic series resistance.

  14. Atomic size effects studied by transport in single silicide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, I.; Edler, F.; Pfnür, H.; Appelfeller, S.; Dähne, M.; Holtgrewe, K.; Sanna, S.; Schmidt, W. G.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin metallic silicide nanowires with extremely high aspect ratios can be easily grown, e.g., by deposition of rare earth elements on semiconducting surfaces. These wires play a pivotal role in fundamental research and open intriguing perspectives for CMOS applications. However, the electronic properties of these one-dimensional systems are extremely sensitive to atomic-sized defects, which easily alter the transport characteristics. In this study, we characterized comprehensively TbSi2 wires grown on Si(100) and correlated details of the atomic structure with their electrical resistivities. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as all transport experiments were performed in situ using a four-tip STM system. The measurements are complemented by local spectroscopy and density functional theory revealing that the silicide wires are electronically decoupled from the Si template. On the basis of a quasiclassical transport model, the size effect found for the resistivity is quantitatively explained in terms of bulk and surface transport channels considering details of atomic-scale roughness. Regarding future applications the full wealth of these robust nanostructures will emerge only if wires with truly atomically sharp interfaces can be reliably grown.

  15. Characteristics of a nickel thin film and formation of nickel silicide by using remote plasma atomic layer deposition with Ni( i Pr-DAD)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Jang, Woochool; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Yuh, Junhan; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the characteristics of nickel thin film deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) on p-type Si substrate and formation of nickel silicide using rapid thermal annealing were determined. Bis(1,4-di-isopropyl-1,3-diazabutadienyl)nickel, Ni(iPr-DAD)2, was used as a Ni precursor and ammonia plasma was used as a reactant. This was the first attempt to deposit Ni thin film using Ni(iPr-DAD)2 as a precursor for the ALD process. The RPALD Ni film was deposited with a growth rate of around 2.2{\\AA}/cycle at 250 {\\deg}C and showed significant low resistivity of 33 {\\mu}{\\Omega}cm with a total impurity concentration of around 10 at. %.The impurities of the thin film, carbon and nitrogen, were existent by the forms of C-C and C-N in a bonding state. The impurities removal tendency was investigated by comparing of experimental conditions, namely process temperature and pressure. Nitrogen impurity was removed by thermal desorption during each ALD cycle and carbon impurity was reduced by the optimizing of the process pressure which is directly related with a mean free path of NH3 plasma. After Ni deposition, nickel silicide was formed by RTA in a vacuum ambient for 1 minute. A nickel silicide layer from ALD Ni and PVD Ni was compared at the annealing temperature from 500 to 900 {\\deg}C. NiSi from ALD Ni showed better thermal stability due to the contribution of small amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the asdeposited Ni thin film. Degradation of the silicide layer was effectively suppressed with a use of ALD Ni.

  16. Silicidation in Pd/Si thin film junction-Defect evolution and silicon surface segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)], E-mail: amar@igcar.gov.in; Venugopal Rao, G.; Rajaraman, R.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sastry, V.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2007-09-25

    Depth resolved positron annihilation studies on Pd/Si thin film system have been carried out to investigate silicide phase formation and vacancy defect production induced by thermal annealing. The evolution of defect sensitive S-parameter clearly indicates the presence of divacancy defects across the interface, due to enhanced Si diffusion beyond 870 K consequent to silicide formation. Corroborative glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) have elucidated the aspects related to silicide phase formation and Si surface segregation.

  17. Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Whittaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although originally discovered in the 18th century [1], the titanium industry did not experience any significant advancement until the middle of the 20th century through the development of the gas turbine engine [2]. Since then, the aerospace sector has dominated worldwide titanium use with applications in both engines and airframe structures [3]. The highly desirable combination of properties, which include excellent corrosion resistance, favourable strength to weight ratios, and an impressive resistance to fatigue, has led to an extensive range of applications [4], with only high extraction and processing costs still restricting further implementation. [...

  18. Evaluation of anomalies during nickel and titanium silicide formation using the effective heat of formation mode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, R

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available and M.G. Lagally, 1. Appl. Phys., 64 (1988) 4957. 21 G.W. Rubloff, R.M. Tromp and E.J. van Loenen, Appl. Phys. Len., 48 (1986) 1600. 22 R.J. Nemanich, R.T. Fulks, B.L. Stafford and H.A. Vander Plas, J. k?ac. Sci...

  19. Interfacial oxidations of pure titanium and titanium alloys with investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, S; Watanabe, T; Mizutani, N; Fukui, H; Hasegawa, J; Nakamura, H

    2000-12-01

    External oxides of a commercially pure titanium (cpTi), Ti6Al4V alloy, and an experimental beta-type titanium alloy (Ti 53.4 wt%, Nb 29 wt%, Ta 13 wt%, and Zr 4.6 wt%) were characterized after heating to 600, 900, 1150, and 1400 degrees C in contact with three types of investments (alumina cement, magnesia cement, and phosphate-bonded) in air. XRD studies demonstrated that MgO, Li2TiO3 and/or Li2Ti3O7 were formed through reactions with the metal and the constituents in the magnesia cement-investment after heating to 900, 1150, and 1400 degrees C. Except for these conditions, TiO2 (rutile) was only formed on cpTi. For titanium alloys, the other components apart from Ti also formed simple and complex oxides such as Al2O3 and Al2TiO5 on Ti6Al4V, and Zr0.25Ti0.75Nb2O7 on the beta-type titanium alloy. However, no oxides containing V or Ta were formed. These results suggest that the constituents of titanium alloys reacted with the investment oxides and atmospheric oxygen to form external oxides due to the free energy of oxide formation and the concentration of each element on the metal surface.

  20. Status of the atomized uranium silicide fuel development at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, K.H.; Park, H.D.; Kuk, I.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    While developing KMRR fuel fabrication technology an atomizing technique has been applied in order to eliminate the difficulties relating to the tough property of U{sub 3}Si and to take advantage of the rapid solidification effect of atomization. The comparison between the conventionally comminuted powder dispersion fuel and the atomized powder dispersion fuel has been made. As the result, the processes, uranium silicide powdering and heat treatment for U{sub 3}Si transformation, become simplified. The workability, the thermal conductivity and the thermal compatibility of fuel meat have been investigated and found to be improved due to the spherical shape of atomized powder. In this presentation the overall developments of atomized U{sub 3}Si dispersion fuel and the planned activities for applying the atomizing technique to the real fuel fabrication are described.

  1. Mechanical, elastic and thermodynamic properties of crystalline lithium silicides

    CERN Document Server

    Schwalbe, Sebastian; Trepte, Kai; Biedermann, Franziska; Mertens, Florian; Kortus, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigate crystalline thermodynamic stable lithium silicides phases (LixSiy) with density functional theory (DFT) and a force-field method based on modified embedded atoms (MEAM) and compare our results with experimental data. This work presents a fast and accurate framework to calculate thermodynamic properties of crystal structures with large unit cells with MEAM based on molecular dynamics (MD). Mechanical properties like the bulk modulus and the elastic constants are evaluated in addition to thermodynamic properties including the phonon density of states, the vibrational free energy and the isochoric/isobaric specific heat capacity for Li, Li12Si7, Li7Si3, Li13Si4, Li15Si4, Li21Si5, Li17Si4, Li22Si5 and Si. For a selected phase (Li13Si4) we study the effect of a temperature dependent phonon density of states and its effect on the isobaric heat capacity.

  2. Synthesis and design of silicide intermetallic materials. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; Castro, R.G.; Butt, D.P.; Park, Y.; Vaidya, R.U.; Hollis, K.J.; Kung, H.H.

    1999-03-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop structural silicide-based materials with optimum combinations of elevated temperature strength/creep resistance, low temperature fracture toughness, and high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance for applications of importance to the US processing industry. A further objective is to develop silicide-based prototype industrial components. The ultimate aim of the program is to work with industry to transfer the structural silicide materials technology to the private sector in order to promote international competitiveness in the area of advanced high temperature materials and important applications in major energy-intensive US processing industries. The program presently has a number of developing industrial connections, including a CRADA with Johns Manville Corporation targeted at the area of MoSi{sub 2}-based high temperature materials and components for fiberglass melting and processing applications. The authors are also developing an interaction with the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) to develop silicides for high temperature radiant gas burner applications, for the glass and other industries. With Combustion Technology Inc., they are developing silicide-based periscope sight tubes for the direct observation of glass melts. With Accutru International Corporation, they are developing silicide-based protective sheaths for self-verifying temperature sensors which may be used in glass furnaces and other industrial applications. The progress made on the program in this period is summarized.

  3. On the size-dependent magnetism and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushkov, G. I.; Tuchin, A. V.; Popov, S. V.; Bityutskaya, L. A., E-mail: me144@phys.vsu.ru [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Theoretical investigations of the electronic structure, synthesis, and all-optical magnetization switching of transition-metal silicide nanostructures are reported. The magnetic moment of the nanostructures is studied as a function of the silicide cluster size and configuration. The experimentally demonstrated magnetization switching of nanostructured nickel silicide by circularly polarized light makes it possible to create high-speed storage devices with high density data recording.

  4. Increased chondrocyte adhesion on nanotubular anodized titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin; Yao, Chang; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells) functions (including adhesion, synthesis of intracellular collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and deposition of calcium-containing minerals) on titanium anodized to possess nanometer features compared with their unanodized counterparts. Such titanium materials were anodized to possess novel nanotubes also capable of drug delivery. Since titanium has not only experienced wide spread commercial use in orthopedic but also in cartilage applications, the objective of the present in vitro study was for the first time to investigate chondrocyte (cartilage synthesizing cells) functions on titanium anodized to possess nanotubes. For this purpose, titanium was anodized in dilute hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 20 min. Results showed increased chondrocyte adhesion on anodized titanium with nanotube structures compared with unanodized titanium. Importantly, the present study also provided evidence why. Since material characterization studies revealed significantly greater nanometer roughness and similar chemistry as well as crystallinity between nanotubular anodized and unanodized titanium, the results of the present study highlight the importance of the nanometer roughness provided by anodized nanotubes on titanium for enhancing chondrocyte adhesion. In this manner, the results of the present in vitro study indicated that anodization might be a promising quick and inexpensive method to modify the surface of titanium-based implants to induce better chondrocyte adhesion for cartilage applications.

  5. Formation of the Thermoelectric Candidate Chromium Silicide by Use of a Pack-Cementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostopoulos, D.; Chaliampalias, D.; Tarani, E.; Theodorakakos, A.; Giannoulatou, V.; Polymeris, G. S.; Pavlidou, E.; Chrissafis, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Vourlias, G.

    2014-10-01

    Transition-metal silicides are reported to be good candidates for thermoelectric applications because of their thermal and structural stability, high electrical conductivity, and generation of thermoelectric power at elevated temperatures. Chromium disilicide (CrSi2) is a narrow-gap semiconductor and a potential p-type thermoelectric material up to 973 K with a band gap of 0.30 eV. In this work, CrSi2 was formed from Si wafers by use of a two-step, pack-cementation, chemical diffusion method. Several deposition conditions were used to investigate the effect of temperature and donor concentration on the structure of the final products. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis were performed for phase identification, and thermal stability was evaluated by means of thermogravimetric measurements. The results showed that after the first step, chromizing, the structure of the products was a mixture of several Cr-Si phases, depending on the donor (Cr) concentration during the deposition process. After the second step, siliconizing, the pure CrSi2 phase was formed as a result of Si enrichment of the initial Cr-Si phases. It was also revealed that this compound has thermoelectric properties similar to those reported elsewhere. Moreover, it was found to have exceptional chemical stability even at temperatures up to 1273 K.

  6. Magnesium silicide nanoparticles as a deoxygenation agent for cancer starvation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Ni, Dalong; Liu, Yanyan; Yao, Heliang; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2017-05-01

    A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated. The nanoparticles are prepared by a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis strategy. In the acidic tumour microenvironment, the Mg2Si releases silane, which efficiently reacts with both tissue-dissolved and haemoglobin-bound oxygen to form silicon oxide (SiO2) aggregates. This in situ formation of SiO2 blocks the tumour blood capillaries and prevents tumours from receiving new supplies of oxygen and nutrients.

  7. Cell response of anodized nanotubes on titanium and titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagar, Sepideh; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher C; Ivanova, Elena P; Wen, Cuie

    2013-09-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy implants that have been demonstrated to be more biocompatible than other metallic implant materials, such as Co-Cr alloys and stainless steels, must also be accepted by bone cells, bonding with and growing on them to prevent loosening. Highly ordered nanoporous arrays of titanium dioxide that form on titanium surface by anodic oxidation are receiving increasing research interest due to their effectiveness in promoting osseointegration. The response of bone cells to implant materials depends on the topography, physicochemistry, mechanics, and electronics of the implant surface and this influences cell behavior, such as adhesion, proliferation, shape, migration, survival, and differentiation; for example the existing anions on the surface of a titanium implant make it negative and this affects the interaction with negative fibronectin (FN). Although optimal nanosize of reproducible titania nanotubes has not been reported due to different protocols used in studies, cell response was more sensitive to titania nanotubes with nanometer diameter and interspace. By annealing, amorphous TiO2 nanotubes change to a crystalline form and become more hydrophilic, resulting in an encouraging effect on cell behavior. The crystalline size and thickness of the bone-like apatite that forms on the titania nanotubes after implantation are also affected by the diameter and shape. This review describes how changes in nanotube morphologies, such as the tube diameter, the thickness of the nanotube layer, and the crystalline structure, influence the response of cells.

  8. Environmental protection to 922K (1200 F) for titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M. T.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of potential coating systems for protection of titanium alloys from hot-salt stress-corrosion up to temperatures of 755 K (900 F) and from oxidation embrittlement up to temperature of 922 K (1200 F). Diffusion type coatings containing Si, Al, Cr, Ni or Fe as single coating elements or in various combinations were evaluated for oxidation protection, hot-salt stress-corrosion (HSSC) resistance, effects on tensile properties, fatigue properties, erosion resistance and ballistic impact resistance on an alpha and beta phase titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo). All of the coatings investigated demonstrated excellent oxidation protectiveness, but none of the coatings provided protection from hot-salt stress-corrosion. Experimental results indicated that both the aluminide and silicide types of coatings actually decreased the HSSC resistance of the substrate alloy. The types of coatings which have typically been used for oxidation protection of refractory metals and nickel base superalloys are not suitable for titanium alloys because they increase the susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion, and that entirely new coating concepts must be developed for titanium alloy protection in advanced turbine engines.

  9. Processing and application properties of silicon-doped titanium aluminides; Formgebungs- und Anwendungseigenschaften silizidhaltiger TiAl-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanta, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2001-07-01

    Submicrocrystalline intermetallic/ceramic composites based on the system Ti-Al-Si are prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent powder consolidation. Finely dispersed silicides prevent coarsening of the {gamma}-TiAl matrix during hot-forming. Therefore, the deformation temperatures can be reduced by about 200 C compared to conventional titanium aluminides. After a subsequent coarsening heat treatment, creep properties comparable to those of conventional TiAl based alloys (1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} at 700 C) are achieved. This study demonstrates that microstructure design allows for favorable processing properties without compromises regarding the desired application properties. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung des technischen Anwendungspotenzials submikrokristalliner Werkstoffe werden silizidhaltige {gamma}-TiAl-Basislegierungen durch Hochenergiemahlen und heissisostatisches Pressen hergestellt. Bei der industriellen Formgebung ermoeglicht die durch Silizide stabilisierte feine Mikrostruktur eine deutliche Temperaturabsenkung von 200 C im Vergleich zu den fuer Titanaluminide ueblichen Prozesstemperaturen. Nach einer anschliessend durchgefuehrten Gefuegeumwandlung werden Kriechgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die mit 1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} bei 700 C im Bereich der Werte schmelzmetallurgisch hergestellter TiAl-Legierungen liegen. Eine gezielte Mikrostrukturgestaltung ermoeglicht somit eine deutliche Verbesserung der Umformeigenschaften unter Beibehaltung der guenstigen Eigenschaften fuer Hochtemperaturanwendungen. (orig.)

  10. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliia Fedyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium pentasilicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubooctahedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square antiprisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5 Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6 Å.

  11. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions, and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  12. Attempt to produce silicide fuel elements in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)); Suripto, A. (Nuclear Fuel Element Centre, BATAN Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia))

    1991-01-01

    After the successful experiment to produce U[sub 3]Si[sub 2] powder and U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel plates using depleted U and Si of semiconductor quality, silicide fuel was synthesized using <20% enriched U metal and silicon chips employing production train of UAl[sub x]-Al available at the Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) at Serpong, Indonesia. Two full-size U[sub 3]Si[sub 2]-Al fuel elements, having similar specifications to the ones of U[sub 3]O[sub 8]-Al for the RSG-GAS (formerly known as MPR-30), have been produced at the FEPI. All quality controls required have been imposed to the feeds, intermediate, as well as final products throughout the production processes of the two fuel elements. The current results show that these fuel elements are qualified from fabrication point of view, therefore it is expected that they will be permitted to be tested in the RSG-GAS, sometime by the end of 1989, for normal ([proportional to]50%) and above normal burn-up. (orig.)

  13. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  14. Simulated Fission Gas Behavior in Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harp, Jason [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-15

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. However, existing experimental post-irradiation examination (PIE) data are limited to the research reactor conditions, which involve lower fuel temperature compared to LWR conditions. This lack of appropriate experimental data significantly affects the development of fuel performance codes that can precisely predict the microstructure evolution and property degradation at LWR conditions and therefore evaluate the qualification of U3Si2 as an AFT for LWRs. Considering the high cost, long timescale, and restrictive access of the in-pile irradiation experiments, this study aims to utilize ion irradiation to simulate the inpile behavior of the U3Si2 fuel. Both in situ TEM ion irradiation and ex situ high-energy ATLAS ion irradiation experiments were employed to simulate different types of microstructure modifications in U3Si2. Multiple PIE techniques were used or will be used to quantitatively analyze the microstructure evolution induced by ion irradiation so as to provide valuable reference for the development of fuel performance code prior to the availability of the in-pile irradiation data.

  15. New Manganese Silicide Mineral Phase in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Jones, J. H.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.; Kloeck, W.; Zolensky, M. E.; Messenger, S.

    2008-01-01

    Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup was identified as a source of an Earth-crossing dust stream with low Earth-encounter velocities, with peak anticipated fluxes during April in 2003 and 2004 [1]. In response to this prediction, NASA performed dedicated stratospheric dust collections using high altitude aircraft to target potential interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) from this comet stream in April 2003. Several IDPs from this collection have shown unusually low noble gas abundances [2] consistent with the predicted short space exposure ages of Grigg-Skjellerup dust particles [1]. High abundances of large D enrichments [3] and presolar grains [4] in IDPs from this collection are also consistent with an origin from the comet Grigg-Skjellerup. Here we report a new mineral from one of the cluster IDPs of the "Grigg-Skjellerup" collection, L2055. Our report focuses on an unusual manganese-iron-chromium silicide phase that, to our knowledge, has not been observed previously in nature. This unique phase may also shed light on the genesis of the enigmatic low-Fe,Mn-enriched (LIME) olivine that has been previously reported in IDPs and meteorites [5].

  16. Silicidation in Ni/Si thin film system investigated by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Amarendra, G. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: amar@igcar.gov.in; Kalavathi, S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Gopalan, Padma [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kamruddin, M. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sastry, V.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sundar, C.S. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2007-02-15

    Silicide formation induced by thermal annealing in Ni/Si thin film system has been investigated using glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Silicide formation takes place at 870 K with Ni{sub 2}Si, NiSi and NiSi{sub 2} phases co-existing with Ni. Complete conversion of intermediate silicide phases to the final NiSi{sub 2} phase takes place at 1170 K. Atomic force microscopy measurements have revealed the coalescence of pillar-like structures to ridge-like structures upon silicidation. A comparison of the experimental results in terms of the evolution of various silicide phases is presented.

  17. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ; the high affinity of titanium for carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen; and physical and chemical properties of the different titanium oxide species when reducing titanium from Ti4+ to metallic titanium....

  18. Use of silicide fuel in the Ford Nuclear Reactor - to lengthen fuel element lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burn, R.R.; Lee, J.C. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Phoenix Memorial Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Based on economic considerations, it has been proposed to increase the lifetime of LEU fuel elements in the Ford Nuclear Reactor by raising the {sup 235}U plate loading from 9.3 grams in aluminide (UAl{sub x}) fuel to 12.5 grams in silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel. For a representative core configuration, preliminary neutronic depletion and steady state thermal hydraulic calculations have been performed to investigate core characteristics during the transition from an all-aluminide to an all-silicide core. This paper discusses motivations for this fuel element upgrade, results from the calculations, and conclusions.

  19. Carbon mediated reduction of silicon dioxide and growth of copper silicide particles in uniform width channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzocchero, Filippo; Bøggild, Peter; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    channels, which are aligned with the intersections of the (100) surface of the wafer and the {110} planes on an oxidized silicon wafer, as well as endotaxial copper silicide nanoparticles within the wafer bulk. We apply energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, in combination with scanning and transmission......We show that surface arc-discharge deposited carbon plays a critical intermediary role in the breakdown of thermally grown oxide diffusion barriers of 90 nm on a silicon wafer at 1035°C in an Ar/H2 atmosphere, resulting in the formation of epitaxial copper silicide particles in ≈ 10 μm wide...

  20. Optically probing the detection mechanism in a molybdenum silicide superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Caloz, Misael; Timoney, Nuala; Weiss, Markus; Gariglio, Stefano; Warburton, Richard J; Schönenberger, Christian; Renema, Jelmer; Zbinden, Hugo; Bussieres, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the detection mechanism in a meandered molybdenum silicide (MoSi) superconducting nanowire single-photon detector by characterising the detection probability as a function of bias current in the wavelength range of 750 to 2050 nm. Contrary to some previous observations on niobium nitride (NbN) or tungsten silicide (WSi) detectors, we find that the energy-current relation is nonlinear in this range. Furthermore, thanks to the presence of a saturated detection efficiency over the whole range of wavelengths, we precisely quantify the shape of the curves. This allows a detailed study of their features, which are indicative of both Fano fluctuations and position-dependent effects.

  1. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  2. Radiation Re-solution Calculation in Uranium-Silicide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Andersson, Anders David Ragnar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The release of fission gas from nuclear fuels is of primary concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants. Although the production of fission gas atoms can be easily calculated from the fission rate in the fuel and the average yield of fission gas, the actual diffusion, behavior, and ultimate escape of fission gas from nuclear fuel depends on many other variables. As fission gas diffuses through the fuel grain, it tends to collect into intra-granular bubbles, as portrayed in Figure 1.1. These bubbles continue to grow due to absorption of single gas atoms. Simultaneously, passing fission fragments can cause collisions in the bubble that result in gas atoms being knocked back into the grain. This so called “re-solution” event results in a transient equilibrium of single gas atoms within the grain. As single gas atoms progress through the grain, they will eventually collect along grain boundaries, creating inter-granular bubbles. As the inter-granular bubbles grow over time, they will interconnect with other grain-face bubbles until a pathway is created to the outside of the fuel surface, at which point the highly pressurized inter-granular bubbles will expel their contents into the fuel plenum. This last process is the primary cause of fission gas release. From the simple description above, it is clear there are several parameters that ultimately affect fission gas release, including the diffusivity of single gas atoms, the absorption and knockout rate of single gas atoms in intra-granular bubbles, and the growth and interlinkage of intergranular bubbles. Of these, the knockout, or re-solution rate has an particularly important role in determining the transient concentration of single gas atoms in the grain. The re-solution rate will be explored in the following sections with regards to uranium-silicide fuels in order to support future models of fission gas bubble behavior.

  3. Titanium and titanium alloys fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    This handbook is an excellent reference for materials scientists and engineers needing to gain more knowledge about these engineering materials. Following introductory chapters on the fundamental materials properties of titanium, readers will find comprehensive descriptions of the development, processing and properties of modern titanium alloys. There then follows detailed discussion of the applications of titanium and its alloys in aerospace, medicine, energy and automotive technology.

  4. 'Real-world' precision, bias, and between-laboratory variation for surface area measurement of a titanium dioxide nanomaterial in powder form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Vincent A., E-mail: vince.hackley@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Materials Measurement Science Division (United States); Stefaniak, Aleksandr B., E-mail: AStefaniak@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Accurate characterization of nanomaterial properties is a critical component of any nanotoxicology testing strategy. Data that describes the performance of various laboratories in measuring the characteristics of the same nanomaterial are scarce. We conducted an inter-laboratory study to evaluate 'real-world' precision and bias of specific surface area measurements using a powered material containing sub-30 nm primary crystallites. Each participant was provided a sample of NIST Standard Reference Material 1898 (Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterial) and a sample preparation and analysis protocol. Based on results from 19 laboratories, overall performance was good. Estimates of precision ranged from 0.10 to 3.96 % and measurement bias was generally within {+-}5 % of the certified surface area value of the material. Between-laboratory variability accounted for 91 % of the total variance and is likely explained by gravimetric errors. Reliable determination of intrinsic nanomaterial properties such as surface area will permit development of protocols for toxicity testing, verification of laboratory proficiency, and consistency in interpretation of toxicity study data.

  5. Theoretical investigation of silicide Schottky barrier detector integrated in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiyang; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2011-08-15

    An ultracompact integrated silicide Schottky barrier detector (SBD) is designed and theoretically investigated to electrically detect the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagating along horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. An ultrathin silicide layer inserted between the silicon core and the insulator, which can be fabricated precisely using the well-developed self-aligned silicide process, absorbs the SPP power effectively if a suitable silicide is chosen. Moreover, the Schottky barrier height in the silicide-silicon-silicide configuration can be tuned substantially by the external voltage through the Schottky effect owing to the very narrow silicon core. For a TaSi(2) detector with optimized dimensions, numerical simulation predicts responsivity of ~0.07 A/W, speed of ~60 GHz, dark current of ~66 nA at room temperature, and minimum detectable power of ~-29 dBm. The design also suggests that the device's size can be reduced and the overall performances will be further improved if a silicide with smaller permittivity is used.

  6. Real-time monitoring of the silicidation process of tungsten filaments at high temperature used as catalysers for silane decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nos, O., E-mail: oriol.nos@gmail.com; Frigeri, P.A.; Bertomeu, J.

    2014-01-15

    The scope of this work is the systematic study of the silicidation process affecting tungsten filaments at high temperature (1900 °C) used for silane decomposition in the hot-wire chemical vapour deposition technique (HWCVD). The correlation between the electrical resistance evolution of the filaments, R{sub fil}(t), and the different stages of the their silicidation process is exposed. Said stages correspond to: the rapid formation of two WSi{sub 2} fronts at the cold ends of the filaments and their further propagation towards the middle of the filaments; and, regarding the hot central portion of the filaments: an initial stage of silicon dissolution into the tungsten bulk, with a random duration for as-manufactured filaments, followed by the inhomogeneous nucleation of W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (which is later replaced by WSi{sub 2}) and its further growth towards the filaments core. An electrical model is used to obtain real-time information about the current status of the filaments silicidation process by simply monitoring their R{sub fil}(t) evolution during the HWCVD process. It is shown that implementing an annealing pre-treatment to the filaments leads to a clearly repetitive trend in the monitored R{sub fil}(t) signatures. The influence of hydrogen dilution of silane on the filaments silicidation process is also discussed. - Highlights: • The silicidation process of tungsten filaments at 1900 °C has been elucidated. • The silicidation process is correlated with the electrical resistance evolution. • Hydrogen dilution of silane delays the precipitation of silicides. • A thermal treatment of the filaments makes the silicidation process repeatable. • Raman spectroscopy and EDX analysis allow the tungsten silicides identification.

  7. Chinese titanium industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The effects of the financial crisis on the titanium industry are visible: investment plans for titanium smelting and processing have basically come to a halt in 2009, and projects under construction were also delayed. However, the

  8. High pressure studies on uranium and thorium silicide compounds: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagoubi, S.; Heathman, S.; Svane, A.

    2013-01-01

    The actinide silicides ThSi, USi and USi2 have been studied under high pressure using both theory and experiment. High pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments were performed on polycrystalline samples in diamond anvil cells at room temperature and for pressures up to 54, 52 and 26 GPa...

  9. Titanium dioxide nanotube films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Ioan, E-mail: roman@metav-cd.ro [S.C. METAV-Research and Development S.R.L., Bucharest, 31C. A. Rosetti, 020011 (Romania); Trusca, Roxana Doina; Soare, Maria-Laura [S.C. METAV-Research and Development S.R.L., Bucharest, 31C. A. Rosetti, 020011 (Romania); Fratila, Corneliu [Research and Development National Institute for Nonferrous and Rare Metals, Pantelimon, 102 Biruintei, 077145 (Romania); Krasicka-Cydzik, Elzbieta [University of Zielona Gora, Department of Biomedical Engineering Division, 9 Licealna, 65-417 (Poland); Stan, Miruna-Silvia; Dinischiotu, Anca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 36-46 Mihail Kogalniceanu, 050107 (Romania)

    2014-04-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by anodization on different substrates (titanium, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb alloys) in ethylene glycol and glycerol. The influence of the applied potential and processing time on the nanotube diameter and length is analyzed. The as-formed nanotube layers are amorphous but they become crystalline when subjected to subsequent thermal treatment in air at 550 °C; TNT layers grown on titanium and Ti6Al4V alloy substrates consist of anatase and rutile, while those grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy consist only of anatase. The nanotube layers grown on Ti6Al7Nb alloy are less homogeneous, with supplementary islands of smaller diameter nanotubes, spread across the surface. Better adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts was found for the nanotubes grown on all three substrates by comparison to an unprocessed titanium plate. The sensitivity towards bovine alkaline phosphatase was investigated mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in relation to the crystallinity, the diameter and the nature of the anodization electrolyte of the TNT/Ti samples. The measuring capacity of the annealed nanotubes of 50 nm diameter grown in glycerol was demonstrated and the corresponding calibration curve was built for the concentration range of 0.005–0.1 mg/mL. - Highlights: • Titania nanotubes (TNTs) on Ti, Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb substrates were prepared. • Quantitative dependences of anodization conditions on TNT features were established. • Morphology and electrochemical tests revealed inhomogeneity of TNT/Ti6Al7Nb films. • Particular characteristics of TNT films induce electrochemical sensitivity to ALP. • Annealed TNT/Ti impedimetric sensitivity towards ALP was demonstrated and quantified.

  10. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  11. Titanium Carbide-Graphite Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-08

    titanium carbide , titanium carbide with free graphite, titanium carbide /vanadium carbide alloy with free graphite, and titanium carbide with...from melts. The test pins were drawn across hot pressed titanium carbide wear plates with 5 newtons of normal force. The lowest friction coefficient at...22 C was 0.12 obtained with pure titanium carbide . The lowest friction coefficient at 900 C was 0.19 obtained with titanium carbide with boron and

  12. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  13. Solid metal induced embrittlement of titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerfeldt, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Titanium alloys were for a time believed to be highly resistant to environmentally assisted cracking because of their ability to form a protective oxide film on the surface. Their resistance can still be considered to be high, but when cracking resistance was originally defined to ensure reliable functionality of fracture-critical components, certain conditions that promote cracking were discovered. One of the environmental assisted cracking processes relevant to titanium alloys is solid meta...

  14. Impact of silicide layer on single photon avalanche diodes in a 130 nm CMOS process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zeng; Palubiak, Darek; Zheng, Xiaoqing; Deen, M. Jamal; Peng, Hao

    2016-09-01

    Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) is an attractive solid-state optical detector that offers ultra-high photon sensitivity (down to the single photon level), high speed (sub-nanosecond dead time) and good timing performance (less than 100 ps). In this work, the impact of the silicide layer on SPAD’s characteristics, including the breakdown voltage, dark count rate (DCR), after-pulsing probability and photon detection efficiency (PDE) is investigated. For this purpose, two sets of SPAD structures in a standard 130 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process are designed, fabricated, measured and compared. A factor of 4.5 (minimum) in DCR reduction, and 5 in PDE improvements are observed when the silicide layer is removed from the SPAD structure. However, the after-pulsing probability of the SPAD without silicide layer is two times higher than its counterpart with silicide. The reasons for these changes will be discussed.

  15. Removing biofilms from microstructured titanium ex vivo: a novel approach using atmospheric plasma technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rupf, Stefan; Idlibi, Ahmad Nour; Marrawi, Fuad Al; Hannig, Matthias; Schubert, Andreas; von Mueller, Lutz; Spitzer, Wolfgang; Holtmann, Henrik; Lehmann, Antje; Rueppell, Andre; Schindler, Axel

    2011-01-01

    .... This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra): 1.96 µm...

  16. Nanodispersed boriding of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Kostyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the operational reliability of machines is becoming increasingly important due to the increased mechanical, thermal and other loads on the details. There are many surface hardening methods for machines parts which breakdown begins with surface corruption. The most promising methods are chemo-thermal treatment. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the impact of boriding on the structure and properties of titanium alloy. Materials and Methods: The material of this study is VT3-1 titanium alloy. The boriding were conducted using nanodispersed powder blend based on boric substances. Results: It is established that boriding of paste compounds allows obtaining the surface hardness within 30...29 GPa and with declining to 27...26 GPa in layer to the transition zone (with total thickness up to 110 μm owing to changes of the layer phase composition where Ti2B, TiB, TiB2 titanium borides are formed. The increasing of chemical-thermal treatment time from 15 minutes to 2 hours leads to thickening of the borated layer (30...110 µm and transition zone (30...190 µm. Conclusions: Due to usage of nanodispersed boric powder, the boriding duration is decreasing in 2...3 times. This allows saving time and electric energy. The developed optimal mode of boriding the VT3-1 titanium alloy allows obtaining the required operational characteristics and to combine the saturation of the surface layer with atomic boron and hardening.

  17. Grafting modification on the surface of titanium dioxide by polystyrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Shouci Lu; Jianfeng Chen; Lei Shao; CheeKing Tan

    2003-01-01

    Based on the technology of titanium dioxide grafting modification with polystyrene (PS), the modification mechanisms are studied and the polystyrene-grafting states on the surface of titanium dioxide have been set up. Under the synergistic actions of mechanical force, chemistry and heat, macromolecular free radicals of PS are created, at the same time, the O-O bonds of titanium dioxide are broken and the oxide free radicals produced, and the numbers of oxygen atom are increased and crystal lattice defects rich electrons are formed on the surface of titanium dioxide. The radical polymerization is the main reaction between PS and titanium dioxide and C-O bonds form in the process of modification. Multi-sites chemical adsorption also exists besides grafting between PS and titanium dioxide.

  18. Advanced titanium processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Alan D.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Schrems, Karol K.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Argetsinger, Edward R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Paige, Jack I.; Turner, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    The Albany Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy has been investigating a means to form useful wrought products by direct and continuous casting of titanium bars using cold-wall induction melting rather than current batch practices such as vacuum arc remelting. Continuous ingots produced by cold-wall induction melting, utilizing a bottomless water-cooled copper crucible, without slag (CaF2) additions had minor defects in the surface such as ''hot tears''. Slag additions as low as 0.5 weight percent were used to improve the surface finish. Therefore, a slag melted experimental Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot was compared to a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy ingot in the areas of physical, chemical, mechanical, and corrosion attributes to address the question, ''Are any detrimental effects caused by slag addition''?

  19. Fabrication of titanium oxide nanotube arrays by anodic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Xiaohui; Chen, Renzheng; Li, Longtu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of titanium oxide nanotube arrays on titanium substrates was investigated in HF electrolytes. Under optimized electrolyte and oxidation conditions, well-ordered nanotubes of titania were fabricated. Topologies of the anodized titanium change remarkably along with the changing of applied voltages, electrolyte concentration and oxidation time. Electrochemical determination and scanning electron microscope indicate the nanotubes are formed due to the competition of titania formation and dissolution under the assistance of electric field. A possible growth mechanism has also been presented.

  20. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    .... Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium...

  1. Study of the phase composition of silicide coatings, based on layered Nb-Mo structures, obtained by vacuum-arc deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovan, A. A.; Betsofen, S. Ya; Lenkovets, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    A multilayer composite ∼1000 μm in thickness, formed by niobium and molybdenum layers (number of layers n = 230), is obtained by vacuum-arc deposition with subsequent siliconization of the surface layers at a temperature of 1200 °C. Layer-by-layer phase analysis is performed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that in the surface layers ∼130 μm in thickness, single-phase silicides (Nb x Mo1- x )Si2 are formed with the hexagonal C40 structure (Strukturbericht designations). Alternating layers of solid solutions based on niobium and molybdenum with a body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice are observed within the composite. The formation of solid solutions caused by heating of the coating leads to convergence of the values of the linear thermal expansion coefficient and Young's modulus at the interface between the layers.

  2. Si-rich W silicide films composed of W-atom-encapsulated Si clusters deposited using gas-phase reactions of WF6 with SiH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoya; Uchida, Noriyuki; Kanayama, Toshihiko

    2016-02-28

    We formed Si-rich W silicide films composed of Sin clusters, each of which encapsulates a W atom (WSi(n) clusters with 8 composed of WSi(n) clusters with a uniform n, which was determined by the gas temperature. The formed films were amorphous semiconductors with an optical gap of ∼0.8-1.5 eV and an electrical mobility gap of ∼0.05-0.12 eV, both of which increased as n increased from 8 to 12. We attribute this dependence to the reduction of randomness in the Si network as n increased, which decreased the densities of band tail states and localized states.

  3. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  4. Photocatalytic activities of tin(IV) oxide surface-modified titanium(IV) dioxide show a strong sensitivity to the TiO 2 crystal form

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Qiliang; Fujishima, Musashi; Nolan, Michael; Iwaszuk, Anna; Tada, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of rutile TiO2 with extremely small SnO2 clusters gives rise to a great increase in its UV light activity for degradation of model organic water pollutants, while the effect is much smaller for anatase TiO2. This crystal form sensitivity is rationalized in terms of the difference in the electronic modification of TiO2 through the interfacial Sn−O−Ti bonds. The increase in the density of states near the conduction band minimum of rutile by hybridization with the SnO2 clust...

  5. Low-Temperature Wet Conformal Nickel Silicide Deposition for Transistor Technology through an Organometallic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Han; Margossian, Tigran; De Marchi, Michele; Thammasack, Maxime; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Zheng, Li-Qing; Shih, Chih-Jen; Zenobi, Renato; De Micheli, Giovanni; Baudouin, David; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Copéret, Christophe

    2017-02-08

    The race for performance of integrated circuits is nowadays facing a downscale limitation. To overpass this nanoscale limit, modern transistors with complex geometries have flourished, allowing higher performance and energy efficiency. Accompanying this breakthrough, challenges toward high-performance devices have emerged on each significant step, such as the inhomogeneous coverage issue and thermal-induced short circuit issue of metal silicide formation. In this respect, we developed a two-step organometallic approach for nickel silicide formation under near-ambient temperature. Transmission electron and atomic force microscopy show the formation of a homogeneous and conformal layer of NiSix on pristine silicon surface. Post-treatment decreases the carbon content to a level similar to what is found for the original wafer (∼6%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also reveals an increasing ratio of Si content in the layer after annealing, which is shown to be NiSi2 according to X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation on a Si nanoparticle model. I-V characteristic fitting reveals that this NiSi2 layer exhibits a competitive Schottky barrier height of 0.41 eV and series resistance of 8.5 Ω, thus opening an alternative low-temperature route for metal silicide formation on advanced devices.

  6. 钛合金表面氟化物-磷酸盐转化膜的制备及性能研究%Preparation and Properties of Fluoride-Phosphate Conversion Coating Formed on Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶君; 杜楠; 王力强; 尹茂生; 周国华; 王帅星

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究一种钛合金化学转化工艺,增强钛合金表面防护能力及其与涂层的结合能力。方法通过单因素实验确定TC1钛合金氟化物-磷酸盐转化工艺,采用SEM,EDS,XRD分析膜层的微观形貌及成分,同时测试转化膜的有关性能。结果在Na3 PO440 g/L,NaF 15 g/L,酸度调节剂A 25 mL/L,pH控制在4.4~4.6之间,温度30益条件下,可在TC1钛合金表面获得均匀一致的灰色转化膜。转化膜由许多细小的球状晶粒组成,主要相成分为Na3 TiOF5及Na2 TiF6。转化膜的摩擦系数仅为0.3~0.5,明显低于TC1基体。转化膜与TB06-9底漆的干性附着力为0级,浸泡48 h后的湿态附着力仍可达1级,远远好于TC1基体。结论氟化物-磷酸盐转化膜可以降低TC1钛合金的摩擦系数,提高其与有机涂层的附着力。%ABSTRACT:Objective A chemical conversion technique was researched to enhance the protective ability of titanium alloy surface and the adhesion between titanium alloy and organic coating. Methods The preparation technique of fluoride-phosphate conversion coating formed on TC1 alloy was determined by the single-factor experiments. The microstructure and composition of conversion coating were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. Besides, the related properties of the conversion coating were researched. Results A uniform, coherent and gray conversion coating could be obtained on the surface of TC1 alloy when Na3 PO4 , NaF, Acidity Regu-lator A, pH and temperature were 40 g/L, 15 g/L, 25 mL/L, 4. 4~4. 6 and 30 ℃, respectively. The microstructure of the coa-ting showed many small spherical grains. The main phase components were Na3 TiOF5 and Na2 TiF6 . The friction coefficient of the fluoride-phosphate conversion coating was only 0. 3~0. 5, which was significantly lower than that of TC1 alloy. The dry adhesion level between conversion coating and TB06-9 organic coating was 0, and the wet adhesion level after 48 h immersion could still reach 1, both were far

  7. High-temperature thermochemistry of transition metal borides, silicides and related compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemppa, Ole J.

    2000-10-01

    Earlier this year in collaboration with Dr. Susan V. Meschel we prepared a major review paper which gives a comprehensive summary of what our laboratory has accomplished with support from DOE. This paper is No.43 in the List of Publications provided. It was presented to TMS at its National Meeting in Nashville, TN last March. A copy of the manuscript of this paper was recently mailed to DOE. It has been submitted for publication in Journal of Alloys and Compounds. This review paper summarizes our observed trends in the enthalpies of formation of TR-X and RE-X compounds (where X is a IIIB or IVB element) in their dependence of the atomic number of the transition metal (TR) and the lanthanide metal (RE). In this paper our measured enthalpies of formation for each alloy family are compared for the 3d, 4d and 5d transition metal elements. We also compare our experimental results with predicted values based on Miedema's semi-empirical model. Data are presented for the carbides, silicides, germanides and stannides in Group IVB, and for the borides and aluminides in Group IIIB. During the past year (1999-2000) we have extended our work to compounds of the 3d, 4d and 5d elements with gallium (see papers No.40, No.41, and No.45 in the List of Publications). Fig. 1 (taken from No.45) presents a systematic picture of our experimental values for the most exothermic gallide compounds formed with the transition elements. This figure is characteristic of the other systematic pictures which we have found for the two other IIIB elements which we have studied and for the four IVB elements. These figures are all presented in Ref. No.43. This paper also illustrates how the enthalpy of formation of compounds of the IIIB and IVB elements with the lanthanide elements (with the exception of Pm, Eu and Yb) depend on the atomic number of RE. Finally our results for the RE-X compounds are compared with the predictions of Gschneidner (K.A. Gschneidner, Jr., J. Less Common Metals 17, 1

  8. Recent Advances in the Hot Working of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DANG Xiao-ling

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, recent advances in titanium alloy processing are reviewed. The casting, superplastic forming, friction stir welding and thermohydrogen processing of titanium alloys are developed. The great cost saving results from using casting comparing with the conventional machining for rings. The superplastic forming of titanium alloys is a feasible manufacturing technology for civil and military aircraft. The friction stir welding leds to the production of fully-formed, high quality friction stirwelds. In thermohydrogen processing, the high diffusivity of hydrogen in titanium is firstly used to add hydrogen to titanium alloys by controlled diffusion from a hydrogen environment , after thermohydrogen processing, to remove it by a controlled vacuum anneal so as to improve processing and mechanical properties.

  9. Porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film formed by electrochemical technique to improve the biocompatibility of titanium alloy in physiological environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, L.; Dănăilă, E.; Ponthiaux, P.

    2017-02-01

    Porous Ti and Ti alloys have received increasing research interest for bone tissue engineering, especially for dental and orthopaedic implants because they provide cell ingrowths and vascularization, improving of adhesion and osseointegration. The tribocorrosion process is encountered in orthopaedic and dentistry applications, since it is known that the implants are often exposed to simultaneous chemical/electrochemical and mechanical stresses. The purpose of this study was to carry out a systematic investigation of the tribo-electrochemical performance of porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film formed by anodization of Ti-10Zr alloy surface in an artificial saliva solution and to compare the resulted performance with that of the untreated Ti-10Zr alloy surface in order to be applied for biomedical use. The in situ electrochemical technique used for investigation of tribo-electrochemical degradation was the open circuit potential (OCP) measurement performed before, during and after sliding tests. The results presented herein show that controlled anodic oxidation method can significantly improve the tribocorrosion and friction performances of Ti-10Zr alloy surface intended for biomedical applications.

  10. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J.

    1991-02-13

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

  11. Self-aligned silicide process technology for sub-0.25-μm geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ted R.; Kolar, Dave; Jahanbani, Mohamed; Frisa, Larry E.; Nagabushnam, Rajan; Chuang, Harry; Tsui, Paul; Cope, Jeff; Pulvirent, Larry; Bolton, Scott

    1998-09-01

    This work compares the extendibility of titanium with pre- deposition amorphizing implant (PAI) and cobalt salicides to sub-0.25 micrometer technologies. Cobalt salicide has low sheet resistance and a tighter distribution of sheet resistances than titanium salicide with PAI for narrow linewidths. The reaction of cobalt with silicon is not affected by dopants in the silicon as the reaction of titanium is. Less cobalt need be deposited than titanium for a given sheet resistance target. Cobalt salicide requires fewer process steps than titanium salicide with PAI. Cobalt salicide has lower diodes for shallow junctions, requires a smaller thermal budget, and provides a lower contact resistances than titanium salicide. Thus, cobalt salicide process technology has better process control, is more compatible with sub-0.25 micrometer devices, and more compatible with interlayer connections than titanium salicide with PAI.

  12. Calibration of Thermal Desorption System (TDS) Response to Hydrogen for Analysis of Titanium Subhydride and Titanium Hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bernice E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The equipment and method for and results of calibration of the Sandia/CA TDS system for hydrogen quantification is presented. This technique for calibration can be used to quantify the hydrogen content titanium subhydride, titanium hydride, and any other hydrogen-containing material that desorbs its hydrogen in the form of molecular hydrogen below 1450°C.

  13. Synthesis of bio-active titanium oxide coatings stimulated by electron-beam plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilieva Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of the electron-beam plasma (EBP for production of bioactive titanium oxide coatings were experimentally studied. The coatings were synthesized in EBP of oxygen on the surface of plane titanium substrates. A number of analytical techniques were used to characterize morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the synthesized titanium oxide. The analysis showed the titanium oxide (IV in the rutile form to predominate in the coatings composition.

  14. Individual prefabricated titanium implants and titanium mesh in skull base reconstructive surgery. A report of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, J; Ridder, G J; Spetzger, U; Teszler, C B; Fradis, M; Maier, W

    2004-05-01

    Titanium implants can be shaped by traditional hand forming, press shaping, modular construction by welding, construction on full-size models shaped from CT coordinates and, most recently, by computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) that consist in the direct prefabrication of individual implants by milling them out of a solid block of titanium. The aim of our study was to present a set of preliminary cases of an ongoing program of reconstructive procedures of the skull base using titanium implants. The subjects underwent ablative procedures of the skull base with reconstruction either by titanium mesh or individual prefabricated CAD/CAM implants. Six patients have been operated on successfully since 2000: two received prefabricated CAD/CAM titanium plates and four others underwent reconstruction with titanium mesh. The stability of CAD/CAM plates is superior to that of mesh, thus it is more useful in reconstructing large lesions of the frontal skull base and the temporal and occipital bones. Titanium mesh was successfully used for defects smaller than 100 cm(2) or where selected viscerocranial defects are complicated in design and less reproducible by CAD/CAM. The intraoperative design, shaping and adjustment characteristic of titanium mesh can be dispensed with when CAD/CAM implants are used. The 3-D data set used in the CAD/CAM process also operates in the navigated simulation and planning of the ablation contours, the latter being of great assistance in establishing the optimal future defect. As a disadvantage, CAD/CAM technology is more expensive than titanium mesh, and the process is time-consuming as it is carried out in advance of surgery.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by titanium screws and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoki, Maki; Nishigawa, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Youji; Ohe, Go; Matsuka, Yoshizo

    2016-07-01

    Titanium has been considered to be a non-allergenic material. However, several studies have reported cases of metal allergy caused by titanium-containing materials. We describe a 69-year-old male for whom significant pathologic findings around dental implants had never been observed. He exhibited allergic symptoms (eczema) after orthopedic surgery. The titanium screws used in the orthopedic surgery that he underwent were removed 1 year later, but the eczema remained. After removal of dental implants, the eczema disappeared completely. Titanium is used not only for medical applications such as plastic surgery and/or dental implants, but also for paints, white pigments, photocatalysts, and various types of everyday goods. Most of the usage of titanium is in the form of titanium dioxide. This rapid expansion of titanium-containing products has increased percutaneous and permucosal exposure of titanium to the population. In general, allergic risk of titanium material is smaller than that of other metal materials. However, we suggest that pre-implant patients should be asked about a history of hypersensitivity reactions to metals, and patch testing should be recommended to patients who have experienced such reactions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Asymmetric carbon-carbon bond forming reactions catalyzed by chiral titanium complexes. Efficient synthesis of optically active secondary alcohols; Kiraru na chitan shokubai ni yoru fuseitanso-tanso ketsugo keisei. Kogaku kassei dainikyu arukoru no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-02-01

    For asymmetric metal complex catalysts with high catalytic activity and ability for recognizing asymmetry, it is most important to choose center metals and design asymmetric organic ligands. When the authors began to study on the title reactions, combination of titanium alkoxides as center metals and chiral Schiff bases as organic ligands was unknown, although two moieties had been used independently for asymmetric reactions with excellent results. Asymmetric silylcyanation of aldehydes and enantio-selective addition of diketone to aldehydes are introduced, that have been achieved by authors using titanium complexes of the above combination. In the silylcyanation, reactivity is remarkably improved, compared with a single catalyst of titanium isopropoxide. Cyanohydrin of R from was obtained preferentially with salicyladehyde, particularly having 3-tert butyl group, in an asymmetric yield of 85 % ee. In the latter addition reaction, 5-hydroxy-3-ketoesters were obtained from benzaldehyde in an asymmetric yield as high as 91 % ee. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Combustion synthesis of molybdenum silicides and borosilicides for ultrahigh-temperature structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Shafiul

    Molybdenum silicides and borosilicides are promising structural materials for gas-turbine power plants. A major challenge, however, is to simultaneously achieve high oxidation resistance and acceptable mechanical properties at high temperatures. For example, molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2) has excellent oxidation resistance and poor mechanical properties, while Mo-rich silicides such as Mo5Si3 (called T 1) have much better mechanical properties but poor oxidation resistance. One approach is based on the fabrication of MoSi2-T 1 composites that combine high oxidation resistance of MoSi2 and good mechanical properties of T1. Another approach involves the addition of boron to Mo-rich silicides for improving their oxidation resistance through the formation of a borosilicate surface layer. In particular, Mo 5SiB2 (called T2) phase is considered as an attractive material. In the thesis, MoSi2-T1 composites and materials based on T2 phase are obtained by mechanically activated SHS. Use of SHS compaction (quasi-isostatic pressing) significantly improves oxidation resistance of the obtained MoSi2-T1 composites. Combustion of Mo-Si-B mixtures for the formation of T2 phase becomes possible if the composition is designed for the addition of more exothermic reactions leading to the formation of molybdenum boride. These mixtures exhibit spin combustion, the characteristics of which are in good agreement with the spin combustion theory. Oxidation resistance of the obtained Mo-Si-B materials is independent on the concentration of Mo phase in the products so that the materials with a higher Mo content are preferable because of better mechanical properties. Also, T2 phase has been obtained by the chemical oven combustion synthesis technique.

  18. Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Formation of Silicides and the Surface Morphologies of PtSi Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the formation of the PtSi phase, distribution of silicides and the surface morphologies of silicides films is investigated by XPS, AFM. It is shown that the phase sequences of the films change from Pt-Pt2Si-PtSi-Si to Pt+Pt2Si+PtSi-PtSi-Si or Pt+Pt2Si+PtSi-PtSi-Si with an increase of annealing temperature and the reason for the formation of mixed layers is discussed.

  19. Synthesis of metallic silicide fullerenes and the characteristics thereof by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Direct current arc discharge is used for the study on the synthesis of metallo-fullerenes (MFs) to discover whether there exist metallic silicide fullerenes and silicon fullerenes. The resultant components are isolated by the multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed with the Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Results show that there exist fullerenes such as SiC69, YSi2C64, YSi2C78, Y3Si2C78 as well as Y2Si2C90 which are structurally similar to (Y2C2)@C82.

  20. On the structural and electronic properties of Ir-silicide nanowires on Si(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Can Oguz, Ismail; ćakır, Deniz; Hossain, Sehtab; Mohottige, Rasika; Gulseren, Oguz; Oncel, Nuri

    2016-09-01

    Iridium (Ir) modified Silicon (Si) (001) surface is studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy/Spectroscopy (STM/STS) and Density Functional Theory (DFT). A model for Ir-silicide nanowires based on STM images and ab-initio calculations is proposed. According to our model, the Ir adatom is on the top of the substrate dimer row and directly binds to the dimer atoms. I-V curves measured at 77 K shows that the nanowires are metallic. DFT calculations confirm strong metallic nature of the nanowires.

  1. Synthesis of metallic silicide fullerenes and the characteristics thereof by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YiChi; GUO Liang; ZHU LiQun

    2007-01-01

    Direct current arc discharge is used for the study on the synthesis of metallofullerenes (MFs) to discover whether there exist metallic silicide fullerenes and silicon fullerenes. The resultant components are isolated by the multistage high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed with the Time-of-Flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. Results show that there exist fullerenes such as SiC69, YSi2C64, YSi2C78, Y3Si2C78 as well as Y2Si2C90 which are structurally similar to (Y2C2)@C82.

  2. Superconductivity at 3.7 K in Ternary Silicide Li2IrSi3

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Daigorou; Kawakami, Rui; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Dinnebier, Robert E; Yaresko, Alexander; Takagi, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of superconductivity at Tc = 3.7 K in the new ternary lithium silicide Li2IrSi3. The crystal structure of Li2IrSi3 consists of IrSi6 antiprisms connected by Si triangles, giving rise to a three dimensional framework of covalent Si-Si and Si-Ir bonds. Electronic specific-heat in superconducting phase suggests that Li2IrSi3 is a BCS weak-coupling superconductor.

  3. Current enhancement in crystalline silicon photovoltaic by low-cost nickel silicide back contact

    KAUST Repository

    Bahabry, R. R.

    2016-11-30

    We report short circuit current (Jsc) enhancement in crystalline silicon (C-Si) photovoltaic (PV) using low-cost Ohmic contact engineering by integration of Nickel mono-silicide (NiSi) for back contact metallization as an alternative to the status quo of using expensive screen printed silver (Ag). We show 2.6 mA/cm2 enhancement in the short circuit current (Jsc) and 1.2 % increment in the efficiency by improving the current collection due to the low specific contact resistance of the NiSi on the heavily Boron (B) doped Silicon (Si) interface.

  4. Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA); Woolman, Joseph N. (Davis, CA); Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-09-02

    Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

  5. Magnetization reversal of ultrathin Fe film grown on Si(111) using iron silicide template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Wei; Zhan Qing-Feng; Wang De-Yong; Chen Li-Jun; Sun Young; Cheng Zhao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Ultrathin Fe films were epitaxially grown on Si(111) by using an ultrathin iron silicide film with p(2 × 2) surface reconstruction as a template. The surface structure and magnetic properties were investigated in situ by low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), and surface magneto-optical effect (SMOKE). Polar SMOKE hysteresis loops demonstrate that the Fe ultrathin films with thickness t< 6 ML (monolayers) exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The characters of M-H loops with the external magnetic field at difference angles and the angular dependence of coercivity suggest that the domain-wall pinning plays a dominant role in the magnetization reversal process.

  6. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F

    2008-09-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates.

  7. Hybrid Calcium Phosphate Coatings for Titanium Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharapudchenko, E.; Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Tverdokhlebov, S.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid multilayer coatings were obtained on titanium substrates by the combination of two methods: the micro-arc oxidation in phosphoric acid solution with the addition of calcium compounds to high supersaturated state and RF magnetron sputtering of the target made of synthetic hydroxyapatite. 16 different groups of coatings were formed on titanium substrates and in vitro studies were conducted in accordance with ISO 23317 in the solution simulating body fluid. The studies using SEM, XRD of the coatings of the samples before and after exposure to SBF were performed. The features of morphology, chemical and phase composition of the studied coatings are shown.

  8. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  9. Titanium allergy: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium has gained immense popularity and has successfully established itself as the material of choice for dental implants. In both medical and dental fields, titanium and its alloys have demonstrated success as biomedical devices. Owing to its high resistance to corrosion in a physiological environment and the excellent biocompatibility that gives it a passive, stable oxide film, titanium is considered the material of choice for intraosseous use. There are certain studies which show titanium as an allergen but the resources to diagnose titanium sensivity are very limited. Attention is needed towards the development of new and precise method for early diagnosis of titanium allergy and also to find out the alternative biomaterial which can be used in place of titanium. A review of available articles from the Medline and PubMed database was done to find literature available regarding titanium allergy, its diagnosis and new alternative material for titanium.

  10. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-01

    Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels' colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  11. Potentiodynamic behaviour of mechanically polished titanium electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, O.R.; DePauli, C.P.; Giordano, M.C.

    1984-08-01

    The behaviour of titanium electrodes mechanically polished and/or anodically polarized at low positive potential in solutions at constant ionic strength between pH 0.3 and 11.0 is reported. The oxide electroformation potential on a mechanically polished electrode shows a complex dependence on the bulk solution pH. This dependence is similar to that obtained through acid-base titration with titanium as the indicating electrode. The formation of hydroxo-complexes on the spontaneously formed titanium oxide offers a possible explanation for the oxide electroformation potential dependence on pH. Anodic and cathodic wide current peaks are obtained between the potential of the hydrogen evolution and that of the massive oxide electroformation; the corresponding redox system becomes evident at pH 4.0 from the first potentiodynamic cycle. An interpretation of these processes involving the participation of non stoichiometric oxides and hydrogen ions is attempted.

  12. Titanium carbide nanocrystals in circumstellar environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helden, G; Tielens, A G; van Heijnsbergen, D; Duncan, M A; Hony, S; Waters, L B; Meijer, G

    2000-04-14

    Meteorites contain micrometer-sized graphite grains with embedded titanium carbide grains. Although isotopic analysis identifies asymptotic giant branch stars as the birth sites of these grains, there is no direct observational identification of these grains in astronomical sources. We report that infrared wavelength spectra of gas-phase titanium carbide nanocrystals derived in the laboratory show a prominent feature at a wavelength of 20.1 micrometers, which compares well to a similar feature in observed spectra of postasymptotic giant branch stars. It is concluded that titanium carbide forms during a short (approximately 100 years) phase of catastrophic mass loss (>0.001 solar masses per year) in dying, low-mass stars.

  13. Formation and composition of titanium oxinitride nanocrystals synthesized via nitridizing titanium oxide for nonvolatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Wei; Chang, Chun-Yen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Tu, Chun-Hao; Wang, Pai-Syuan [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chao-Cheng [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hui-Chun; Gan, Der-Shin; Ho, New-Jin [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ching [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Electronic Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Formation and composition analyses of titanium oxinitride nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated via treating a magnetron co-sputtered thin film of titanium and silicon dioxide with a rapid thermal annealing in nitrogen ambient were demonstrated for nonvolatile memory applications. Phase separation characteristics with different annealing conditions were examined by transmission electron microscopy and chemical bonding characteristics were confirmed by X-ray photon emission spectra. It was observed that a blanket layer composed mainly of titanium oxide was still present as annealing temperature was increased to 700 deg. C, associated with the thermodynamically stable phase of titanium oxide. Furthermore, a higher thermal treatment of 900 deg. C induced formation of a well-separated NC structure and caused simultaneously partial nitridation of the titanium oxide, thereby forming titanium oxinitride NCs. A significant capacitance-voltage hysteresis in threshold voltage shift at 1 V was easily achieved under a small sweeping voltage range of + 2 V/-2 V, and a memory window retention of 2.2 V was obtained after 10{sup 7} s by extrapolation under a 1 s initial-program/erase condition of + 5 V/-5 V, respectively.

  14. Superconductivity in layered binary silicides: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Livas, José A.; Debord, Régis; Botti, Silvana; San Miguel, Alfonso; Pailhès, Stéphane; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2011-11-01

    A class of metal disilicides (of the form XSi2, where X is a divalent metal) crystallizes in the EuGe2 structure, formed by hexagonal corrugated silicon planes intercalated with metal atoms. These compounds are superconducting like other layered superconductors, such as MgB2. Moreover, their properties can be easily tuned either by external pressure or by negative chemical pressure (i.e., by changing the metal), which makes disilicides an ideal testbed to study superconductivity in layered systems. In view of this, we present an extensive density functional theory study of the electronic and phonon band structures as well as the electron-phonon interaction of metal disilicides. Our results explain the variation of the superconducting transition temperature with pressure and the species of the intercalating atom, and allow us to predict superconductivity for compounds not yet synthesized belonging to this family.

  15. Increasing the active surface of titanium islands on graphene by nitrogen sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Mashoff, T; Miseikis, V; Coletti, C; Piazza, V; Beltram, F; Heun, S

    2014-01-01

    Titanium-island formation on graphene as a function of defect density is investigated. When depositing titanium on pristine graphene, titanium atoms cluster and form islands with an average diameter of about 10nm and an average height of a few atomic layers. We show that if defects are introduced in the graphene by ion bombardment, the mobility of the deposited titanium atoms is reduced and the average diameter of the islands decreases to 5nm with monoatomic height. This results in an optimized coverage for hydrogen storage applications since the actual titanium surface available per unit graphene area is significantly increased.

  16. Thermal stability of tungsten-titanium diffusion barriers for silver metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, S.K. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States); Theodore, N.D. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States); Wireless and Packaging Systems Laboratory, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona (United States); Alford, T.L. [School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States)], E-mail: alford@asu.edu

    2008-09-01

    Tungsten-titanium thin films have been extensively applied as barrier layers for aluminum and copper metallization. The present work investigated the feasibility of tungsten-titanium barrier layers for silver metallization. Reactive sputtered W-Ti was deposited on a Si wafer followed by an Ag thin film on top. The resulting samples were annealed in vacuum at temperatures up to 700 deg. C. These were then characterized using X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and four point probe analysis. The analyses showed that the samples were stable up to 600 deg. C. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed that above 600 deg. C, agglomeration of silver film started. Si started moving into the tungsten-titanium film above 600 deg. C. Movement of Si resulted in local Si voiding as indicated by transmission electron microscopy. At Si/W-Ti interface, silicide formation occurred. Silver agglomerated completely at 700 deg. C. These results showed that W-Ti was an effective barrier layer for silver metallization for process temperatures below 600 deg. C.

  17. Reaction path and crystallograpy of cobalt silicide formation on silicon(001) by reaction deposition epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chong Wee

    CaF2-structure CoSi2 layers were formed on Si(001) by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) and compared with CoSi2 layers obtained by conventional solid phase growth (SPG). In the case of RDE, CoSi 2 formation occurred during Co deposition at elevated temperature while for SPG, Co was deposited at 25°C and silicidation took place during subsequent annealing. My results demonstrate that RDE CoSi2 layers are epitaxial with a cube-on-cube relationship, 001CoSi2 ‖001Si and 100CoSi2 ‖100 Si . In contrast, SPG films are polycrystalline with a mixed 111/002/022/112 orientation. I attribute the striking difference to rapid Co diffusion during RDE for which the high Co/Si reactivity gives rise to a flux-limited reaction resulting in the direct formation of the disilicide phase. Initial formation of CoSi2(001) follows the Volmer-Weber mode with two families of island shapes: inverse pyramids and platelets. The rectangular-based pyramidal islands extend along orthogonal directions, bounded by four {111} CoSi2/Si interfaces, and grow with a cube-on-cube orientation with respect to Si(001). Platelet-shaped islands are bounded across their long directions by {111} twin planes and their narrow directions by 511CoSi2 ‖111Si interfaces. The top and bottom surfaces are {22¯1}, with 22¯1 CoSi2‖001 Si , and {1¯1¯1}, with 1¯1¯ 1CoSi2‖ 11¯1Si , respectively. The early stages of film growth (tCo ≤ 13 A) are dominated by the twinned platelets due to a combination of higher nucleation rates and rapid elongation along preferred directions. However, at tCo ≥ 13 A, island coalescence becomes significant as orthogonal platelets intersect and block elongation along fast growth directions. Further island growth becomes dominated by the untwinned islands. I show that high-flux low-energy Ar+ ion irradiation during RDE growth dramatically increases the area fraction of untwinned regions from 0.17 in films grown under standard magnetically balanced conditions in which the ratio

  18. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  19. Magnesium and Manganese Silicides For Efficient And Low Cost Thermo-Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Rosemeier, Cory A. [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Mayers, David [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Singh, Jogender [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-12-02

    Thermoelectric Power Generation (TEPG) is the most efficient and commercially deployable power generation technology for harvesting wasted heat from such things as automobile exhausts, industrial furnaces, and incinerators, and converting it into usable electrical power. We investigated the materials magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) and manganese silicide (MnSi) for TEG. MgSi2 and MnSi are environmentally friendly, have constituent elements that are abundant in the earth's crust, non-toxic, lighter and cheaper. In Phase I, we successfully produced Mg2Si and MnSi material with good TE properties. We developed a novel technique to synthesize Mg2Si with good crystalline quality, which is normally very difficult due to high Mg vapor pressure and its corrosive nature. We produced n-type Mg2Si and p-type MnSi nanocomposite pellets using FAST. Measurements of resistivity and voltage under a temperature gradient indicated a Seebeck coefficient of roughly 120 V/K on average per leg, which is quite respectable. Results indicated however, that issues related to bonding resulted in high resistivity contacts. Determining a bonding process and bonding material that can provide ohmic contact from room temperature to the operating temperature is an essential part of successful device fabrication. Work continues in the development of a process for reproducibly obtaining low resistance electrical contacts.

  20. Preliminary investigations on the use of uranium silicide targets for fission Mo-99 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cols, H.; Cristini, P.; Marques, R.

    1997-08-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentine Republic owns and operates an installation for production of molybdenum-99 from fission products since 1985, and, since 1991, covers the whole national demand of this nuclide, carrying out a program of weekly productions, achieving an average activity of 13 terabecquerel per week. At present they are finishing an enlargement of the production plant that will allow an increase in the volume of production to about one hundred of terabecquerel. Irradiation targets are uranium/aluminium alloy with 90% enriched uranium with aluminium cladding. In view of international trends held at present for replacing high enrichment uranium (HEU) for enrichment values lower than 20 % (LEU), since 1990 the authors are in contact with the RERTR program, beginning with tests to adapt their separation process to new irradiation target conditions. Uranium silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) was chosen as the testing material, because it has an uranium mass per volume unit, so that it allows to reduce enrichment to a value of 20%. CNEA has the technology for manufacturing miniplates of uranium silicide for their purposes. In this way, equivalent amounts of Molybdenum-99 could be obtained with no substantial changes in target parameters and irradiation conditions established for the current process with Al/U alloy. This paper shows results achieved on the use of this new target.

  1. Effect of annealing on magnetic properties and silicide formation at Co/Si interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivani Agarwal; V Ganesan; A K Tyagi; I P Jain

    2006-11-01

    The interaction of Co (30 nm) thin films on Si (100) substrate in UHV using solid state mixing technique has been studied. Cobalt was deposited on silicon substrate using electron beam evaporation at a vacuum of 4 × 10-8 Torr having a deposition rate of about 0.1 Å/s. Reactivity at Co/Si interface is important for the understanding of silicide formation in thin film system. In the present paper, cobalt silicide films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) in terms of the surface and interface morphologies and depth profile, respectively. The roughness of the samples was found to increase up to temperature, 300°C and then decreased with further rise in temperature, which was due to the formation of crystalline CoSi2 phase. The effect of mixing on magnetic properties such as coercivity, remanence etc at interface has been studied using magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) techniques at different temperatures. The value of coercivity of pristine sample and 300°C annealed sample was found to be 66 Oe and 40 Oe, respectively, while at high temperature i.e. 748°C, the hysteresis disappears which indicates the formation of CoSi2 compound.

  2. Design of transition cores of RSG GAS (MPR-30) with higher loading silicide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, Peng Hong, E-mail: liemph@nais.ne.j [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2010-06-15

    A procedure of designing transition cores to achieve the equilibrium silicide core of RSG GAS with higher fuel loading of 300 g U/fuel element (FE) (meat density of 3.55 g U/cm{sup 3}) has been proposed. In the proposed procedure, the EOC excess reactivity of each transition core is minimized in order to satisfy the safety design limit of one-stuck-rod sub-criticality margin while keeping the maximum of radial power peaking factor below the allowable value. Under the design procedure, the initial fuel loadings are increased gradually in two steps, i.e. from 250 to 275 g U/FE followed by 275-300 g U/FE. The analysis results show that all transition cores can satisfy all design requirements and safety limits. We concluded that the obtained transition core design should be adopted into the future core conversion program of RSG GAS. The targeted silicide core can be achieved practically in at least 24 transition cores.

  3. Absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon thin films via plasmonic resonances in nickel silicide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Shen, Xiao; Pantelides, Sokrates; Sachan, Ritesh; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dyck, Ondrej; Fu, Shaofang; Kalnayaraman, Ramki; Rack, Phillip; Duscher, Gerd

    2013-03-01

    Silicon is a near ideal material for photovoltaics due to its low cost, abundance, and well documented optical properties. The sole detriment of Si in photovoltaics is poor absorption in the infrared. Nanoparticle surface plasmon resonances are predicted to increase absorption by scattering to angles greater than the critical angle for total internal reflection (16° for a Si/air interface), trapping the light in the film. Experiments confirm that nickel silicide nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silicon increases absorption significantly in the infrared. However, it remains to be seen if electron-hole pair generation is increased in the solar cell, or whether the light is absorbed by the nanoparticles themselves. The nature of the absorption is explored by a study of the surface plasmon resonances through electron energy loss spectrometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments, as well as first principles density functional theory calculations. Initial experimental results do not show strong plasmon resonances on the nanoparticle surfaces. Calculations of the optical properties of the nickel silicide particles in amorphous silicon are performed to understand why this resonance is suppressed. Work supported by NSF EPS 1004083 (TN-SCORE).

  4. "Nanoparticle-in-alloy" approach to efficient thermoelectrics: silicides in SiGe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, N; Hauser, D; Kobayashi, N P; Plissonnier, M; Shakouri, A

    2009-02-01

    We present a "nanoparticle-in-alloy" material approach with silicide and germanide fillers leading to a potential 5-fold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of SiGe alloys at room temperature and 2.5 times increase at 900 K. Strong reductions in computed thermal conductivity are obtained for 17 different types of silicide nanoparticles. We predict the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size that minimizes the nanocomposite's thermal conductivity. This thermal conductivity reduction is much stronger and strikingly less sensitive to nanoparticle size for an alloy matrix than for a single crystal one. At the same time, nanoparticles do not negatively affect the electronic conduction properties of the alloy. The proposed material can be monolithically integrated into Si technology, enabling an unprecedented potential for micro refrigeration on a chip. High figure-of-merit at high temperatures (ZT approximately 1.7 at 900 K) opens up new opportunities for thermoelectric power generation and waste heat recovery at large scale.

  5. Uranium silicide pellet fabrication by powder metallurgy for accident tolerant fuel evaluation and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Jason M.; Lessing, Paul A.; Hoggan, Rita E.

    2015-11-01

    In collaboration with industry, Idaho National Laboratory is investigating uranium silicide for use in future light water reactor fuels as a more accident resistant alternative to uranium oxide base fuels. Specifically this project was focused on producing uranium silicide (U3Si2) pellets by conventional powder metallurgy with a density greater than 94% of the theoretical density. This work has produced a process to consistently produce pellets with the desired density through careful optimization of the process. Milling of the U3Si2 has been optimized and high phase purity U3Si2 has been successfully produced. Results are presented from sintering studies and microstructural examinations that illustrate the need for a finely ground reproducible particle size distribution in the source powder. The optimized process was used to produce pellets for the Accident Tolerant Fuel-1 irradiation experiment. The average density of these pellets was 11.54 ± 0.06 g/cm3. Additional characterization of the pellets by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction has also been performed. Pellets produced in this work have been encapsulated for irradiation, and irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor is expected soon.

  6. Organometallic halide perovskite/barium di-silicide thin-film double-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-04-01

    Barium di-silicide (BaSi2) is an abundant and inexpensive semiconductor with appealing opto-electrical properties. In this work we show that a 2-μm thick BaSi2-based thin-film solar cell can exhibit an implied photo-current density equal to 41.1 mA/cm2, which is higher than that of a state-of-the-art wafer-based c-Si hetero-junction solar cell. This performance makes BaSi2 an attractive absorber for high-performing thin-film and multi-junction solar cells. In particular, to assess the potential of barium di-silicide, we propose a thin-film double-junction solar cell based on organometallic halide perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) as top absorber and BaSi2 as bottom absorber. The resulting modelled ultra-thin double-junction CH3NH3PbI3 / BaSi2 (< 2 μm) exhibits an implied total photo-current density equal to 38.65 mA/cm2 (19.84 mA/cm2 top cell, 18.81 mA/cm2 bottom cell) and conversion efficiencies up to 28%.

  7. Structure of the welding zone between titanium and orthorhombic titanium aluminide for explosion welding: II. Local melting zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    The structure and chemical composition of the local melting zones that form during explosion welding of orthorhombic titanium aluminide with commercial-purity titanium near a wavy interface between them are studied. The Rayleigh number is estimated to propose a possible mechanism for the formation of a concentric structure in these zones. Titanium aluminide fragments are detected near the zone boundaries. It is assumed that the fragmentation in the transition zone is caused by the division of a material into loosely coupled microvolumes under the action of a strong external action in a time comparable with the explosion time. Outside the transition zone, fragmentation occurs via a traditional way beginning from dislocation accumulation. Both processes occur in titanium aluminide and only one process (banded structure formation) takes place in titanium.

  8. Characterization Of The Graded Microstructure In Powder Sintered Porous Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak J.-J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed sintering process produce porosity and functional graded microstructure in the sinterd titanium powders. Titanium powders with different micro sizes were sintered at the proposed temperature region at 1200 and 1300°C for 2h. The apatite-forming on the graded microstructure is observed by immersion test in Hanks balanced salt soluion at 37°C. Sintering condition of titanium powders is estimated by thermogravitmetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA. The synthersied surface structures and apatite-forming ability were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM observation and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis. As results, these graded microstructure of sintered porous titanium powders reveals apatite-forming ability as osseointegration by calcification in Hanks balanced salt soluion(HBSS at 37°C.

  9. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  10. Improvement of power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic-assisted UHF rectifiers by non-silicide technique applied to photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Non-silicide PV cell structures were successfully applied to the photovoltaic (PV)-assisted UHF rectifier, which is one example realization of the “synergistic ambient energy harvesting” concept. Silicide blocking of PV cell area was experimentally verified to be effective for increasing photo-generated bias voltage, which resulted in the improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier by enhanced VTH compensation effect. Increase in both transparency of light and quantum efficiency of PV cells obtained by eliminating silicide layer affects the PCE improvement almost equally. 25.8% of PCE was achieved under the conditions of an RF input power of -20 dBm, a frequency of 920 MHz, an output load of 47 kΩ, and a typical indoor light irradiance level of 1 W/m2. In addition, when the non-silicide PV cell technique was applied to the voltage-boosted PV-cell structures, 32.1% peak PCE was achieved at 10 W/m2.

  11. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm2, and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p+-n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  12. Improvement of the thermal stability of nickel silicide using a ruthenium interlayer deposited via remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Inhye [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea and System LSI Manufacturing Operation Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, Gyeonggi-do 17113 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Kim, Hyunjung; Shin, Changhee [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seokyoon; Lee, Kunyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea and Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the effects of a thin Ru interlayer on the thermal and morphological stability of NiSi have been investigated. Ru and Ni thin films were deposited sequentially to form a Ni/Ru/Si bilayered structure, without breaking the vacuum, by remote plasma atomic layer deposition (RPALD) on a p-type Si wafer. After annealing at various temperatures, the thermal stabilities of the Ni/Ru/Si and Ni/Si structures were investigated by various analysis techniques. The results showed that the sheet resistance of the Ni/Ru/Si sample was consistently lower compared to the Ni/Si sample over the entire temperature range. Although both samples exhibited the formation of NiSi{sub 2} phases at an annealing temperature of 800 °C, as seen with glancing angle x-ray diffraction, the peaks of the Ni/Ru/Si sample were observed to have much weaker intensities than those obtained for the Ni/Si sample. Moreover, the NiSi film with a Ru interlayer exhibited a better interface and improved surface morphologies compared to the NiSi film without a Ru interlayer. These results show that the phase transformation of NiSi to NiSi{sub 2} was retarded and that the smooth NiSi/Si interface was retained due to the activation energy increment for NiSi{sub 2} nucleation that is caused by adding a Ru interlayer. Hence, it can be said that the Ru interlayer deposited by RPALD can be used to control the phase transformation and physical properties of nickel silicide phases.

  13. /SiC Composite to Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, X.; Jiménez, C.; Mergia, K.; Yialouris, P.; Messoloras, S.; Liedtke, V.; Wilhelmi, C.; Barcena, J.

    2014-08-01

    In view of aerospace applications, an innovative structure for joining a Ti alloy to carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide has been developed. This is based on the perforation of the CMC material, and this procedure results in six-fold increase of the shear strength of the joint compared to the unprocessed CMC. The joint is manufactured using the active brazing technique and TiCuAg as filler metal. Sound joints without defects are produced and excellent wetting of both the composite ceramic and the metal is observed. The mechanical shear tests show that failure occurs always within the ceramic material and not at the joint. At the CMC/filler, Ti from the filler metal interacts with the SiC matrix to form carbides and silicides. In the middle of the filler region depletion of Ti and formation of Ag and Cu rich regions are observed. At the filler/Ti alloy interface, a layered structure of the filler and Ti alloy metallic elements is formed. For the perforation to have a significant effect on the improvement of the shear strength of the joint appropriate geometry is required.

  14. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  15. Microstructural characterisation of near- α titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4Sn-4Zr-0.70Nb-0.50Mo-0.40Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, C.; Singh, A. K.; Sarma, G. M. K.

    1993-06-01

    Microstructural stability in the near-α titanium alloy (alloy 834) containing Ti-6Al-4Sn-4Zr-0.70Nb-0.50Mo-0.40Si (in weight percent), in the β and (α + β) solution-treated and quenched conditions, has been investigated. The β transus for this alloy is approximately 1333 K. Solution treatment in the β phase field at 1353 K followed by quenching in water at room temperature resulted in the formation of α' martensite platelets with high dislocation density and stacking faults. Thin films of β are found to be sandwiched between interface phases, which, in turn, are sandwiched at the interplatelet boundaries of lath martensite. The interface phase is a subject of much controversy in the literature. Solution treatment at 1303 K in the (α + β) phase field followed by quenching in water at room temperature resulted in the near-equiaxed primary α and transformed β. Both the β and (α + β) solution-treated specimens were aged in the temperature range of 873 to 973 K. While aging the —treated specimen at 973 K, (α + β)-treated specimen, even at a lower temperature of 873 K for 24 hours, caused precipitation of suicides predominantly at the interplatelet boundaries of martensite laths. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed them to be hexagonal suicide S2 with a = 0.702 nm and c = 0.368 nm. The above difference in the precipitation could be attributed to the partitioning of a higher amount of β - stabilizing elements as well as silicide-forming elements to the transformed β in the (α + β) solution-treated condition. However, ordering of the α' phase was observed under all of the aging conditions studied. The ordered domains were due to the longer aging times, which cause local increases in the level of the α-stabilizing elements.

  16. UV photofunctionalization promotes nano-biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saita M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Makiko Saita,1 Takayuki Ikeda,1,2 Masahiro Yamada,1,3 Katsuhiko Kimoto,4 Masaichi Chang-Il Lee,5 Takahiro Ogawa1 1Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Complete Denture Prosthodontics, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan; 3Division of Molecular and Regenerative Prosthodontics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan; 4Department of Prosthodontics and Oral Rehabilitation, 5Yokosuka-Shonan Disaster Health Emergency Research Center and ESR Laboratories, Kanagawa Dental University Graduate School of Dentistry, Yokosuka, Japan Background: Although biomimetic apatite coating is a promising way to provide titanium with osteoconductivity, the efficiency and quality of deposition is often poor. Most titanium implants have microscale surface morphology, and an addition of nanoscale features while preserving the micromorphology may provide further biological benefit. Here, we examined the effect of ultraviolet (UV light treatment of titanium, or photofunctionalization, on the efficacy of biomimetic apatite deposition on titanium and its biological capability.Methods and results: Micro-roughed titanium disks were prepared by acid-etching with sulfuric acid. Micro-roughened disks with or without photofunctionalization (20-minute exposure to UV light were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF for 1 or 5 days. Photofunctionalized titanium disks were superhydrophilic and did not form surface air bubbles when immersed in SBF, whereas non-photofunctionalized disks were hydrophobic and largely covered with air bubbles during immersion. An apatite-related signal was observed by X-ray diffraction on photofunctionalized titanium after 1 day of SBF immersion, which was equivalent to the one observed after 5 days of immersion of control titanium. Scanning electron microscopy revealed nodular apatite deposition

  17. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation.

  18. Bioactive titanium metal surfaces with antimicrobial properties prepared by anodic oxidation treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ChongXia; YANG BangCheng; ZHANG XingDong

    2009-01-01

    In order to endow titanium metals with bioactivity and antimicrobial properties,titanium plates were subjected to anodic oxidation treatment in NaCI solutions in this study.The treated titanium metals could induce apatite formation in the fast calcification solution,and osteoblasts on the treated titanium surfaces proliferated well as those on the untreated titanium metal surfaces.The treated metals could inhibit S.aureus growth in the microbial culture experiments.It was assumed that Ti-OH groups and Ti-CI groups formed on the treated titanium surface were responsible for the bioactivity and antimicrobial properties of the metals.The anodic oxidation treatment was an effective way to prepare bioactive titanium surfaces with antimicrobial properties.

  19. Multilayered titanium-steel composite produced by explosive welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyutina, Yu. N.; Skorohod, K. A.; Shevtsova, K. E.; Chesnokova, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Multilayered titanium-steel composite consisting of alternating high-strength and ductile metallic materials were produced by explosive welding. Different types of weld joints formed in the composite were recognized by methods of microstructural analysis. Wave-shaped and flat geometry of welds are typical of steel and titanium layers, respectively. Structural features such as lack of penetration, shear bands, recrystallized metals and martensitic structure were detected in the vortex and weld-adjacent zones of impacted materials. The impact strength of the layered composite was 65% higher as compared to that of VT23 titanium alloy. A favorable role of interlayers in the multilayered composite has been confirmed by toughness tests.

  20. Ternary silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and quaternary derivatives RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x} (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) - structure, chemical bonding, and solid state NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosswinkel, Daniel; Benndorf, Christopher; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. of Physics; Matar, Samir F. [Bordeaux Univ., CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, Pessac (France)

    2016-11-01

    The silicides ScIr{sub 4}Si{sub 2} and RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2} (RE = Sc, Y, Tb-Lu) and silicide stannides RERh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}(RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The new compounds crystallize with the orthorhombic YRh{sub 4}Ge{sub 2} type structure, space group Pnma. They were characterized by X-ray powder patterns and several structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. The main structural motifs of this series of silicides are tricapped trigonal prisms formed by the transition metal and rare earth atoms. One of the two crystallographically independent silicon sites allows for formation of solid solutions with tin, exemplarily studied for ErRh{sub 4}Si{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}. Electronic structure calculations reveal strong covalent Rh-Si bonding as the main stability factor. Multinuclear ({sup 29}Si, {sup 45}Sc, and {sup 89}Y) magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of the structure representatives with diamagnetic rare-earth elements (Sc, Y, Lu) are found to be consistent with the crystallographic data and specifically confirm the selective substitution of Sn in the Si2 sites in the quaternary compounds YRh{sub 4}SiSn and LuRh{sub 4}SiSn.

  1. Understanding and Improving High-Temperature Structural Properties of Metal-Silicide Intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce S. Kang

    2005-10-10

    The objective of this project was to understand and improve high-temperature structural properties of metal-silicide intermetallic alloys. Through research collaboration between the research team at West Virginia University (WVU) and Dr. J.H. Schneibel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molybdenum silicide alloys were developed at ORNL and evaluated at WVU through atomistic modeling analyses, thermo-mechanical tests, and metallurgical studies. In this study, molybdenum-based alloys were ductilized by dispersing MgAl2O4 or MgO spinel particles. The addition of spinel particles is hypothesized to getter impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen from the alloy matrix with the result of ductility improvement. The introduction of fine dispersions has also been postulated to improve ductility by acting as a dislocation source or reducing dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries. The spinel particles, on the other hand, can also act as local notches or crack initiation sites, which is detrimental to the alloy mechanical properties. Optimization of material processing condition is important to develop the desirable molybdenum alloys with sufficient room-temperature ductility. Atomistic analyses were conducted to further understand the mechanism of ductility improvement of the molybdenum alloys and the results showed that trace amount of residual oxygen may be responsible for the brittle behavior of the as-cast Mo alloys. For the alloys studied, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at different loading rates, and at room and elevated temperatures. Thermal cycling effect on the mechanical properties was also studied. Tensile tests for specimens subjected to either ten or twenty thermal cycles were conducted. For each test, a follow-up detailed fractography and microstructural analysis were carried out. The test results were correlated to the size, density, distribution of the spinel particles and processing time. Thermal expansion tests were carried out using thermo

  2. Synthesis of titanium carbide by induction plasma reactive spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xian-Liang(蒋显亮); M.Boulos

    2004-01-01

    A novel method capable of sufficient mixing of titanium powder and methane of carbon source was developed in the synthesis of titanium carbide by induction plasma reactive spray. X-ray diffraction analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test were used to characterize the spray-formed deposit.The experimental results show that both primary carburization of the titanium particles inside the plasma flame and secondary carburization of the growing deposit on high temperature substrate contribute to the forming of titanium carbide. The transitional phase of TiC1-x has the same crystal structure as TiC, but has a slightly low lattice constant. The deposit consists of fine grain structure and large grain structure. The fine grain structure, harder than large grain structure, shows grain boundary fracture.

  3. Accelerations of {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation and sintering of iron silicide by addition of Pd; Pd tenka ni yoru keikatetsu no {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} hentai to shoketsu no sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takeda, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1996-12-15

    FeSi2 ({beta} phase) semiconducting iron silicide, which is expected to be widely used as a thermoelectric material in high temperature environment, is formed below 1259K by the peritectoid reaction of FeSi ({epsilon}) and Fe2Si5 ({alpha}) two metallic phases. Because the transformation of {epsilon} + {alpha} {yields} {beta} caused by this peritectoid reaction occurs considerably slowly, the iron silicide material which is produced by sintering of the powder at temperatures above 1259K has to be isothermally heat-treated for at least 180ks at about 1120K after the sintering so that the transformation occurs completely. We have found that the transformation was drastically accelerated by the addition of a small amount of Pd in the same way as Cu; the isothermal heat-treatment time necessary for the completion of the transformation was reduced to about 1/60. The sintering time needed for the almost full densification of the powder by pressure DCL sintering (DCL; direct current loading) was also reduced. A hypothesis for the mechanisms was proposed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  5. Comparative study of metallic silicide-germanide orthorhombic MnP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connétable, Damien; Thomas, Olivier

    2013-09-04

    We present a comparative study of the structural, energetic, electronic and elastic properties of MX type MnP systems (where X=Si or Ge, and M=Pt, Pd or Ni) using first-principles calculations. The optimized ground state properties of these systems are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. A detailed comparative study of the elastic properties of polycrystalline structures is also presented. We analyze the relationship between the composition and the properties of the systems. Finally, we present the properties of NiSi1-xGex alloys. We show that these properties depend linearly on the Ge content of the alloy. This work has important consequences for semiconductor devices in which silicides, germanides and alloys thereof are used as contact materials.

  6. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of cobalt silicide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftel, S.J.; Coulthard, I.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.K.; Zinke-Allmang, M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Cobalt silicide thin films, prepared on Si(100) wafers, have been studied by X-ray absorption near edge structures (XANES) at the Si K-, L{sub 2,3}- and Co K-edges utilizing both total electron (TEY) and fluorescence yield (FLY) detection as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Co K-edge. Samples made using DC sputter deposition on clean Si surfaces and MBE were studied along with a bulk CoSi{sub 2} sample. XANES and EXAFS provide information about the electronic structure and morphology of the films. It was found that the films studied have essentially the same structure as bulk CoSi{sub 2}. Both the spectroscopy and materials characterization aspects of XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structures) are discussed.

  7. Chemical vapour deposition of tungsten and tungsten silicide layers for applications in novel silicon technology

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F X

    2002-01-01

    This work was a detailed investigation into the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) of tungsten and tungsten silicide for potential applications in integrated circuit (IC) and other microelectronic devices. These materials may find novel applications in contact schemes for transistors in advanced ICs, buried high conductivity layers in novel Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology and in power electronic devices. The CVD techniques developed may also be used for metal coating of recessed or enclosed features which may occur in novel electronic or electromechanical devices. CVD of tungsten was investigated using the silicon reduction reaction of WF sub 6. W layers with an optimum self-limiting thickness of 100 nm and resistivity 20 mu OMEGA centre dot cm were produced self-aligned to silicon. A hydrogen passivation technique was developed as part of the wafer pre-clean schedule and proved essential in achieving optimum layer thickness. Layers produced by this approach are ideal for intimate contact to shallow junct...

  8. Titanium oxide nanocoating on a titanium thin film deposited on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsedi, L., E-mail: kotsedi@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nuru, Z.Y. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Eaton, S.M. [Physics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cummings, F.R. [University of the Western Cape, Electron Microscopy Unit, Physics Department, Bellville 7535, Cape Town (South Africa); Turco, S. Lo; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Milano, Italy Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ramponi, R. [Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN)-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2016-03-31

    Thin films of titanium were deposited on a glass substrate using electron beam evaporator. Femtosecond laser pulses were focused on the surface of the films, and the samples were scanned while mounted on the motorized computer-controlled motion stage to produce an areal modification of the films. X-ray diffraction of the laser-patterned samples showed evidence of the formation of a γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} with a monoclinic phase. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry simulation showed that there is an increase in the oxygen concentration as the average laser fluence is increased. Time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry analysis showed an even distribution of the titanium and oxygen ions on the sample and also ionized molecules of the oxides of titanium were observed. The formation of the oxide of titanium was further supported using the UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy, which showed that for 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} fluence, the laser-exposed film showed the electron transfer band and the d–d transition peak of titanium was observed at lower wavelengths. - Highlights: • γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} formed using femtosecond laser. • Fluence and oxygen relation were studied. • Nanoflakes of γ-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} were observed under HRSEM.

  9. Discovery of Brownleeite: a New Manganese Silicide Mineral in an Interplanetary Dust Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, Scott; Jones, John H.; Palma, Russell L.; Pepin, Robert O.; Klock, Wolfgang; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tatsuoka, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    The Earth accretes approximately 40,000 tons of cosmic dust annually, originating mainly from the disintegration of comets and collisions among asteroids. This cosmic dust, also known as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), is a subject of intense interest since it is made of the original building blocks of our Solar System. Although the specific parent bodies of IDPs are unknown, the anhydrous chondritic-porous IDPs (CP-IDPs) subset has been potentially linked to a cometary source. The CP-IDPs are extremely primitive materials based on their unequilibrated mineralogy, C-rich chemistry, and anomalous isotopic signatures. In particular, some CP-IDPs escaped the thermal, aqueous and impact shock processing that has modified or destroyed the original mineralogy of meteorites. Thus, the CP-IDPs represent some of the most primitive solar system materials available for laboratory study. Most CP-IDPs are comprised of minerals that are common on Earth. However, in the course of an examination of one of the CP-IDPs, we encountered three sub-micrometer sized grains of manganese silicide (MnSi), a phase that has heretofore not been found in nature. In the seminar, we would like to focus on IDP studies and this manganese silicide phase that has been approved as the first new mineral identified from a comet by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA) in 2008. The mineral is named in honour of Donald E. Brownlee, an American astronomer and a founder of the field of cosmic dust research who is the principal investigator of the NASA Stardust Mission that collected dust samples from Comet 81P/Wild-2 and returned them to Earth. Much of our current view and understanding of the early solar system would not exist without the pioneering work of professor Don Brownlee in the study of IDPs.

  10. The modulation of Schott ky barrier height of NiSi/n-Si Schottky diodes by silicide as diffusion source technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Xia; Fan Chun-Hui; Huang Ru; Guo Yue; Xu Cong; Zhang Xing; Wang Yang-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the Schottky barrier height modulation of NiSi/n-si is experimentally investigated by adopting a novel silicide-as-diffusion-source technique. which avoids the damage to the NiSi/Si interface induced from the conventional dopant segregation method. In addition, the impact of post-BF_2 implantation after silicidation on the surface morphology of Ni silicides is also illustrated. The thermal stability of Ni silicides can be improved by sihcideas-diffusion-source technique. Besides, the electron Schottky barrier height is successfully modulated by 0.11 eV at a boron dose of 10~(15) cm~(-2) in comparison with the non. implanted samples. The change of barrier height is not attributed to the phase change of silicide films but due to the boron pile-up at the interface of NiSi and Si substrate which causes the upward bending of conducting band. The results demonstrate the feasibility of novel silicide-as-diffusion-source technique for the fabrication of Schottky source/drain Si MOS devices.

  11. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth. - Highlights: • Titanium hydride was found not to be involved in immobilization of doxycycline. • Doxycycline coating was strongly bound to a modified surface oxide layer. • Effect of coatings tested using a dynamic bacteria assay based on bioluminescence. • Topmost layer of adsorbed doxycycline was shown to have strong antibacterial effect.

  12. Study on Crystallization of Titanium Silicalite (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Min; Zhu Bin; Shu Xingtian; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the rules on preparation of titanium silicalite (TS-1) the 1H→13C CP/MAS NMR spectrometers were applied to track the function of template TPAOH in the process of crystal lization of titanium silicalite.The research results revealed that at the initial stage of crystallization the TPA+ ions acting as the template could predominantly absorb the polymers of negatively charged silicatitania sol and the interactions between silica sol and titania sol could gradually lead to the formation of tiny crystal nuclei that could slowly grow up to form molecular sieves.Upon investigating the course of crystallization of titanium silicalite the 1H→13C CP/MAS NMR spectrometers were applied to effectively enhance the resolution of 29Si signals in the titanium silicalite.Study results have shown that during the formation of tiny crystal nuclei upon interaction between titania sol and silica sol the influence of titania sol on the silica sol was insignificant.However,when tiny crystal nuclei broke out into molecular sieves the titania sol could enter the zeolite framework that could apparently impose an enhanced effect on the silica sol.

  13. Preparation of bioactive titania films on titanium metal via anodic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X; Kim, H-M; Kawashita, M; Wang, L; Xiong, T; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

    2009-01-01

    To research the crystal structure and surface morphology of anodic films on titanium metal in different electrolytes under various electrochemical conditions and investigate the effect of the crystal structure of the oxide films on apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Titanium oxide films were prepared using an anodic oxidation method on the surface of titanium metal in four different electrolytes: sulfuric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid and sodium sulfate solutions with different voltages for 1 min at room temperature. Anodic films that consisted of rutile and/or anatase phases with porous structures were formed on titanium metal after anodizing in H(2)SO(4) and Na(2)SO(4) electrolytes, while amorphous titania films were produced after anodizing in CH(3)COOH and H(3)PO(4) electrolytes. Titanium metal with the anatase and/or rutile crystal structure films showed excellent apatite-forming ability and produced a compact apatite layer covering all the surface of titanium after soaking in SBF for 7d, but titanium metal with amorphous titania layers was not able to induce apatite formation. The resultant apatite layer formed on titanium metal in SBF could enhance the bonding strength between living tissue and the implant. Anodic oxidation is believed to be an effective method for preparing bioactive titanium metal as an artificial bone substitute even under load-bearing conditions.

  14. Caracterisation of Titanium Nitride Layers Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Popescu, Mihaela; Uţu, Dragoş

    2011-01-01

    Forming and cutting tools are subjected to the intense wear solicitations. Usually, they are either subject to superficial heat treatments or are covered with various materials with high mechanical properties. In recent years, thermal spraying is used increasingly in engineering area because of the large range of materials that can be used for the coatings. Titanium nitride is a ceramic material with high hardness which is used to cover the cutting tools increasing their lifetime. The paper presents the results obtained after deposition of titanium nitride layers by reactive plasma spraying (RPS). As deposition material was used titanium powder and as substratum was used titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy) images of the deposited layers and the X ray diffraction of the coatings are presented. Demonstration program with layers deposited with thickness between 68,5 and 81,4 μm has been achieved and presented.

  15. Study on Crystallization of Titanium Silicalite Zeolite (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Min; Zhu Bin; Shu Xingtian; Wang Xieqing

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the rules on formation of zeolite during crystallization of titanium silicalite zeolite (TS-1) the X-ray diffractometry and Foulier transform infra-red spectrometry were applied to track the process of crystallization of titanium silicalite zeolite. The research results revealed that at the initial stage of crystallization the interactions between silica gel and titania gel in the polymer blend could gradually lead to the formation of tiny crystal nuclei with complicated structure that could slowly grow up to form molecular sieves. Quite different from the conventional zeolites that use the acid sites as the catalytically active centers, the oxidative reactivity of the titanium silicalite zeolite was not proportional to its crystallinity and is associated with the oxidative centers of titanium contained in the zeolite.

  16. Blank Design and Rapid Stamping Forming Process of Titanium Sheet Metal for Mandibular Prosthesis with the Three-dimensional Flexible Surface Structure%钛板下颌假体的柔性化三维曲面展开与快速冲压成形工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连芩; 李涤尘; 乔莎; 刘亚雄; 贺健康; 王玲; 靳忠民

    2013-01-01

    The precise casting machining cycle is too long to develop customized titanium mandibular prosthesis; thus, a rapid stamping forming technique using a sheet titanium metal to form a flexible three-dimensional structure of mandibular prosthesis was developed in this study. The process design of the mandibular prosthesis to repair the chin defects with the large curvature change was to be designed and optimized through the finite element analysis of the feeding structure and the processing deformation of the titanium sheet metal. The additive manufacturing technology was applied to manufacture a set of stamping dies using the resin shells and the metal sand and resin composite filling. The mandibular prostheses by stamping forming process had the well quality of the surface and and the structure deformation with about 0.5 mm average offset, which proved that the sheet metal stamping forming process promised a new low cost and high efficient method to manufacture mandibular prosthesis with complex structure. An entire route of the sheet stamping forming process presented in this study is significant to the customized mandibular prosthesis application.%针对现有定制化钛合金下颌假体的精铸加工周期长的问题,提出了一种快速冲压成形具有柔性化三维结构的钛板下颌假体的方法。以曲率变化大的颏部缺损为对象,结合有限元分析确定钛板下料的最佳初始结构和冲压加工过程的变形条件,研究该类下颌假体的冲压成形工艺性结构设计和分析方法。基于增材制造及其快速模具的树脂壳体/金属树脂填料冲压模具具有高效、低成本的特点;所完成的三维下颌假体表面质量良好,结构尺寸平均偏移量为0.5 mm,证明柔性化结构的下颌假体可采用效率更高、成本更低的钣金冲压加工方法。提出了完整的冲压加工工艺路线,对下颌修复的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  17. Evaluation of powder metallurgical processing routes for multi-component niobium silicide-based high-temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemueller, Hans Christoph Maximilian

    2016-03-22

    Niobium silicide-based composites are potential candidates to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine applications. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility and differences in ensuing properties of various powder metallurgical processing techniques that are capable of manufacturing net-shape turbine components. Two routes for powder production, mechanical alloying and gas atomization were combined with compaction via hot isostatic pressing and powder injection molding.

  18. High-temperature Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gogia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of high-temperature titanium alloys has contributed significantly to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero gas turbines. This paper presents anoverview on the development of high-temperature titanium alloys used in aero engines and potential futuristic materials based on titanium aluminides and composites. The role of alloychemistry, processing, and microstructure, in determining the mechanical properties of titanium alloys is discussed. While phase equilibria and microstructural stability consideration haverestricted the use of conventional titanium alloys up to about 600 "C, alloys based on TiPl (or,, E,AINb (0, TiAl (y, and titaniumltitanium aluminides-based composites offer a possibility ofquantum jump in the temperature capability of titanium alloys.

  19. Hydrolytically stable titanium-45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Fonslet, Jesper; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Titanium-45, a candidate PET isotope, is under-employed largely because of the challenging aqueous chemistry of Ti(IV). The propensity for hydrolysis of Ti(IV) compounds makes radio-labeling difficult and excludes 45Ti from use in bio-conjugate chemistry. This is unfortunate because...... metal-based chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. The aim of our work has been to produce the radioactive analogue of one of these Ti(IV)-salan compounds, Ti-salan-dipic [2], which has hydro-lytic stability on the order of weeks. Not only will this allow us to shed some light on the still un......-known mechanism of antiproliferative action of titanium-based chemotherapeutics, but it will also make progress toward bioconjugate 45Ti PET tracers. In the current abstract, we present some of the methods we are using to separate 45Ti from irradiated Sc, and subsequent labeling conditions. Material and Methods...

  20. Thin manganese films on Si(111)-(7 x 7): electronic structure and strain in silicide formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Tallarida, M; Hansmann, M; Starke, U; Horn, K [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2004-04-07

    The electronic and structural properties of thin epitaxial Mn films on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and their silicide reaction are studied by means of low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). The deposition of Mn at room temperature initially results in the growth of islands. The metal-silicon reaction already occurs at this temperature, which is further enhanced by annealing up to 400 deg. C, leading to the formation of manganese silicide and turning islands into nearly closed films at higher coverage. A pseudo-(1 x 1) phase develops for Mn films of up to 1 monolayer (ML) thickness. For films of higher thicknesses of up to 5 ML, a ( {radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 deg. phase is observed. STM images show that then the silicide film is almost closed and exhibits a strain relief network reflecting an incommensurate interface structure. PES reveals that the (1 x 1) phase is semiconducting while the ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 deg. phase is metallic. For both phases, Si 2p core level photoemission data indicate that the surface is probably terminated by Si atoms.

  1. Thin manganese films on Si(111)-(7 × 7): electronic structure and strain in silicide formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Tallarida, M.; Hansmann, M.; Starke, U.; Horn, K.

    2004-04-01

    The electronic and structural properties of thin epitaxial Mn films on Si(111)-(7 × 7) and their silicide reaction are studied by means of low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). The deposition of Mn at room temperature initially results in the growth of islands. The metal-silicon reaction already occurs at this temperature, which is further enhanced by annealing up to 400°C, leading to the formation of manganese silicide and turning islands into nearly closed films at higher coverage. A pseudo-(1 × 1) phase develops for Mn films of up to 1 monolayer (ML) thickness. For films of higher thicknesses of up to 5 ML, a ( \\sqrt{3}\\times\\sqrt{3} )R30° phase is observed. STM images show that then the silicide film is almost closed and exhibits a strain relief network reflecting an incommensurate interface structure. PES reveals that the (1 × 1) phase is semiconducting while the ( \\sqrt{3}\\times\\sqrt{3} )R30° phase is metallic. For both phases, Si 2p core level photoemission data indicate that the surface is probably terminated by Si atoms.

  2. Electrical and optical properties of sub-10 nm nickel silicide films for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Ravipati, Srikanth; Yarali, Milad; Shervin, Shahab; Wang, Weijie; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent films of ultra-thin p-type nickel silicide films have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of nickel on silicon substrates followed by rapid thermal annealing in an inert environment in the temperature range 400-600 °C. The films are uniform throughout the wafer with thicknesses in the range of 3-6 nm. The electrical and optical properties are presented for nickel silicide films with varying thickness. The Drude-Lorentz model and Fresnel equations were used to calculate the dielectric properties, sheet resistance, absorption and transmission of the films. These ultrathin nickel silicide films have excellent optoelectronic properties for p-type contacts with optical transparencies up to 80% and sheet resistance as low as ~0.15 µΩ cm. Furthermore, it was shown that the use of a simple anti-reflection (AR) coating can recover most of the reflected light approaching the values of a standard Si solar cell with the same AR coating. Overall, the combination of ultra-low thickness, high transmittance, low sheet resistance and ability to recover the reflected light by utilizing standard AR coating makes them ideal for utilization in silicon based photovoltaic technologies as a p-type transparent conductor.

  3. On the interdiffusion in multilayered silicide coatings for the vanadium-based alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaia, N.; Portebois, L.; Mathieu, S.; David, N.; Vilasi, M.

    2017-02-01

    To provide protection against corrosion at high temperatures, silicide diffusion coatings were developed for the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, which can be used as the fuel cladding in next-generation sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. The multilayered coatings were prepared by halide-activated pack cementation using MgF2 as the transport agent and pure silicon (high activity) as the master alloy. Coated pure vanadium and coated V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were studied and compared as substrates. In both cases, the growth of the silicide layers (V3Si, V5Si3, V6Si5 and VSi2) was controlled exclusively by solid-state diffusion, and the growth kinetics followed a parabolic law. Wagner's analysis was adopted to calculate the integrated diffusion coefficients for all silicides. The estimated values of the integrated diffusion coefficients range from approximately 10-9 to 10-13 cm2 s-1. Then, a diffusion-based numerical approach was used to evaluate the growth and consumption of the layers when the coated substrates were exposed at critical temperatures. The estimated lifetimes of the upper VSi2 layer were 400 h and 280 h for pure vanadium and the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, respectively. The result from the numeric simulation was in good agreement with the layer thicknesses measured after aging the coated samples at 1150 °C under vacuum.

  4. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat [Center of Excellence on Environmental Research and Innovation, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Sirivisoot, Sirinrath [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Termsuksawad, Preecha, E-mail: preecha.ter@kmutt.ac.th [Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, ThungKhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We found that different anodization time of titanium significantly effects on nanotube length which further impacts adhesion strength of hydroxyapatite coating layers. • Adhesion strength of Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes is better than that of HA coated on titanium plate. • Hydroxyapatite coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes showed higher cell density and better spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells (bone-forming cells) than that coated on titanium plate surface. - Abstract: Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH{sub 4}F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH{sub 4}F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (−4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that

  5. The effect of different titanium nitride coatings on the adhesion of Candida albicans to titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; An, Yanxin; Liang, Haifeng; Tong, Yu; Guo, Tianwen; Ma, Chufan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was an in vitro evaluation of the effects of different titanium nitride (TiNx) coatings on Candida albicans (C. albicans) adhesion to titanium and to correlate these findings to differences in specific surface characteristics (surface topography, roughness, chemical component, and surface free energy). TiNx coatings were prepared by physical vapour deposition (PVD), a plasma nitriding process or a dual nitriding process. Surface properties were analysed by the optical stereoscopic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, roughmeter, and drop shape methods. Quantity comparisons of C. albicans on the four surfaces were assessed by cell count and XTT reduction assays. Types of adhesive C. albicans were explored by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscope. The nitrided modifications were found to influence the surface properties and fungal susceptivity of flat titanium. Compared to flat titanium, fewer adhered C. albicans in yeast form were observed on the TiN-coated surface, whereas the plasma nitrided surface did not show any reduced potential to adhere C. albicans in hyphal or yeast form. The dual nitrided coating showed anti-fungal characteristics, although a small quantity of hyphae were identified. Our findings indicate that the Ti2N phase is prone to C. albicans hyphae, while the TiN phase inhibits their adhesion. Different TiNx phases could influence the characteristics of C. albicans adhesion. TiN coating by PVD could be a potential modification to inhibit C. albicans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium Nitride Cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-07-01

    C ermets 7 Effect of Amount of Metal on Strength of TiN-Ni-Cr....26 Cerme ts S Effect of Amount of Metal on Strength of TiN-Co-Cr....27 Cermets 9...Figures 7 and 8. Titanium Nitride-Nickel-Chromium Cerme ts From Figure 7, it can be seen that 2900OF was the better firing temperature. The 20% metal

  7. Electrochemical anodizing treatment to enhance localized corrosion resistance of pure titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, Davide; Brenna, Andrea; Bolzoni, Fabio M; Diamanti, Maria V; Pedeferri, Mariapia; Ormellese, Marco

    2017-01-26

    Titanium has outstanding corrosion resistance due to the thin protective oxide layer that is formed on its surface. Nevertheless, in harsh and severe environments, pure titanium may suffer localized corrosion. In those conditions, costly titanium alloys containing palladium, nickel and molybdenum are used. This purpose investigated how it is possible to control corrosion, at lower cost, by electrochemical surface treatment on pure titanium, increasing the thickness of the natural oxide layer. Anodic oxidation was performed on titanium by immersion in H2SO4 solution and applying voltages ranging from 10 to 80 V. Different anodic current densities were considered. Potentiodynamic tests in chloride- and fluoride-containing solutions were carried out on anodized titanium to determine the pitting potential. All tested anodizing treatments increased corrosion resistance of pure titanium, but never reached the performance of titanium alloys. The best corrosion behavior was obtained on titanium anodized at voltages lower than 40 V at 20 mA/cm2. Titanium samples anodized at low cell voltage were seen to give high corrosion resistance in chloride- and fluoride-containing solutions. Electrolyte bath and anodic current density have little effect on the corrosion behavior.

  8. 应用激光扫描法测量激光快速成形技术制作全口义齿钛基托的适合性研究%The fitness of laser rapid formed titanium denture base examined by laser scan method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江; 赵湘辉; 沈丽娟; 高勃

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the fitness of titanium complete denture base fabricated by laser rapid forming (LRF). Methods: Titanium denture base was designed and fabricated by LRF. After suitable treatment, the titanium base was fixed on the surface of the plaster cast. The fringe around the Ti base and the plaster cast was sealed by wax. Then dental flasking method was used and after the gypsum was solidified, the maxillary edentulous plaster east was removed. Another plaster cast which duplicated the surface of the Ti base was then made on the same plane in the flask. Both of the plaster casts were located in the same place of the LSH600 laser scan worktable and then the tissue surface of both casts was recorded as point clouds data. The data were automatically compared to calculate the discrepancies between those of titanium denture base and plaster east by applying reverse engineering software Surfacer 10.0. The situation of coincidence between 2 groups of data was distinguished by different color representing the distance between different regions.The traditional-made titanium denture base was set as the control. Results: By laser scan method and 3-dimentional computing, for LRF base plate, the maximum error was 0.646 mm and the average error was 0.334 mm. Whereas for the traditional one, the maximum error was 0. 352 mm and the average error was 0.135 mm. Conclusion: Comparing with the traditional method, the fitness of titanium denture base fabricated with LRF needs to be improved on the accuracy.%目的:评价新型激光快速成形方法制作全口义齿钛基托的适合性.方法:应用激光快速成形技术制作标准上半口无牙颌钛基托,将制作的基托置于无牙颌模型上,蜡封闭边缘后,装盒;待石膏凝固后,取出无牙颌模型,再次在型盒内灌制超硬石膏模型.待模型结固后,将两个模型分别置于LSH600三维激光扫描仪工作台上的同一位置并固定,利用三维激光扫描模型组织面,获得

  9. Manufacturing techniques for titanium aluminide based alloys and metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kunal B.

    -sized titanium aluminide powders were rapidly consolidated to form near-net shape titanium aluminide parts in form of small discs and tiles. The rapidly consolidated titanium aluminide parts were found to be fully dense. The microstructure morphology was found to vary with consolidation conditions. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly dependent on microstructure morphology and grain size. Due to rapid consolidation, grain growth during consolidation was limited, which in turn led to enhanced mechanical properties. The high temperature mechanical properties for the consolidated titanium aluminide samples were characterized and were found to retain good mechanical performance up to 700°C. Micron-sized titanium aluminide powders with slightly less Aluminum and small Nb, and Cr additions were rapidly consolidated into near-net shape parts. The consolidated parts were found to exhibit enhanced mechanical performance in terms of ductility and yield strength. The negative effect of Oxygen on the flexural strength at high temperatures was found to be reduced with the addition of Nb. In an effort to further reduce the grain size of the consolidated titanium aluminide samples, the as-received titanium aluminide powders were milled in an attrition mill. The average powder particle size of the powders was reduced by 60% after milling. The milled powders were then rapidly consolidated. The grain size of the consolidated parts was found to be in the sub-micrometer range. The mechanical properties were found to be significantly enhanced due to reduction of grain size in the sub-micrometer range. In order to develop a metal matrix composite based on titanium aluminide matrix reinforced with titanium boride, an experiment to study the effect of rapid consolidation on titanium diboride powders was conducted. Micron-sized titanium diboride powders were consolidated and were found to be 93% dense and exhibited minimal grain growth. The low density of the consolidated part was

  10. [Guided bone regeneration beneath titanium foils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Katharina; Schopper, Christian; Ewers, Rolf; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and histological bony healing process beneath titanium foils used for guided tissue regeneration as well as of the Frios Algipore graft which was applied with autologous bone. 66 sinus floor elevations were carried out and examined over a period of three years and eight months. A success rate of 64% was recorded with foil incorporation. Complications occurred in form of primary and secondary disturbances in the healing process caused by exposure of the foil. 12 of the 66 foils had to be removed early. In all but one case, the augmented bone material was macroscopically well integrated despite the loss of the foil. Primary stability of the inserted dental implants into the ossified augmented site after operations of the sinus maxillaris was reached in all cases with absence of post-operative complications, and in 94% when there was postoperative exposure of the membrane. Histologically, a thin layer of connective tissue poor in cells but rich in collagen fibers appeared underneath the titanium foil. This was followed by newly-formed bony tissue transforming into osseous lamella parallel to the membrane underneath the new periost. In 65 out of 66 cases a sufficient amount of stable bone was built up locally suggesting good bio-compatibility and barrier function. Further, the foil also provided mechanical rest and supporting function for the space underneath. However, the occurrence of healing complications in 36% of the cases showed a need to improve on the titanium foils.

  11. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Romins Brasca; Luciana Ines Vergara; Mario César Guillermo Passeggi; Julio Ferrón

    2007-01-01

    The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0) oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+) chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+).

  12. Plasmonic Titanium Nitride Nanostructures via Nitridation of Nanopatterned Titanium Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Kim, Jongbum

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures are obtained via nitridation of titanium dioxide. Nanoparticles acquired a cubic shape with sharper edges following the rock-salt crystalline structure of TiN. Lattice constant of the resulting TiN nanoparticles matched well with the tabulated data. Energ...

  13. Chemical changes of titanium and titanium dioxide under electron bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romins Brasca

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron induced effect on the first stages of the titanium (Ti0 oxidation and titanium dioxide (Ti4+ chemical reduction processes has been studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy. Using factor analysis we found that both processes are characterized by the appearance of an intermediate Ti oxidation state, Ti2O3 (Ti3+.

  14. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulations of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mei, Zhigang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel has higher thermal conductivity and higher uranium density, making it a promising candidate for the accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs). However, previous studies on the fuel performance of U3Si2, including both experimental and computational approaches, have been focusing on the irradiation conditions in research reactors, which usually involve low operation temperatures and high fuel burnups. Thus, it is important to examine the fuel performance of U3Si2 at typical LWR conditions so as to evaluate the feasibility of replacing conventional uranium dioxide fuel with this silicide fuel material. As in-reactor irradiation experiments involve significant time and financial cost, it is appropriate to utilize modeling tools to estimate the behavior of U3Si2 in LWRs based on all those available research reactor experimental references and state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculation capabilities at the early development stage. Hence, in this report, a comprehensive investigation of the fission gas swelling behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is introduced. The modeling efforts mentioned in this report was based on the rate theory (RT) model of fission gas bubble evolution that has been successfully applied for a variety of fuel materials at devious reactor conditions. Both existing experimental data and DFT-calculated results were used for the optimization of the parameters adopted by the RT model. Meanwhile, the fuel-cladding interaction was captured by the coupling of the RT model with simplified mechanical correlations. Therefore, the swelling behavior of U3Si2 fuel and its consequent interaction with cladding in LWRs was predicted by the rate theory modeling, providing valuable information for the development of U3Si2 fuel as an accident

  15. Biofunctionalization of titanium for dental implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Hanawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification is an important and predominant technique for obtaining biofunction in metals for biomedical use including dentistry. One surface modification technique is a process that changes the surface composition, structure, and morphology of a material, leaving the bulk mechanical properties intact. A tremendous number of surface modification techniques to improve the hard tissue compatibility of titanium have been developed. Hydroxyapatite layer, titanium oxide layer, and calcium titanate layer with various morphologies are deposited using electrochemical treatment including micro-arc oxidation. Also, surface modification layers without hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate are chemically formed that accelerate bone formation. Other approach is the immobilization of biofunctional molecules such as poly(ethylene glycol to the metal surface to control the adsorption of proteins and adhesion of cells, platelets, and bacteria. In the case of immobilization of biomolecules such as collagen and peptide, bone formation and soft tissue adhesion are improved.

  16. Nanoscale Bonding between Human Bone and Titanium Surfaces: Osseohybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, the chemical bonding between titanium and bone has been examined only through a few mechanical detachment tests. Therefore, in this study, a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium mini-implant was removed from a human patient after 2 months of placement in order to identify the chemical integration mechanism for nanoscale osseointegration of titanium implants. To prepare a transmission electron microscopy (TEM specimen, the natural state was preserved as much as possible by cryofixation and scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam (SEM-FIB milling without any chemical treatment. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning TEM (STEM/electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS were used to investigate the chemical composition and structure at the interface between the titanium and bone tissue. HRTEM and EDS data showed evidence of crystalline hydroxyapatite and intermixing of bone with the oxide layer of the implant. The STEM/EELS experiment provided particularly interesting results: carbon existed in polysaccharides, calcium and phosphorus existed as tricalcium phosphate (TCP, and titanium existed as oxidized titanium. In addition, the oxygen energy loss near edge structures (ELNESs showed a possibility of the presence of CaTiO3. These STEM/EELS results can be explained by structures either with or without a chemical reaction layer. The possible existence of the osseohybridization area and the form of the carbon suggest that reconsideration of the standard definition of osseointegration is necessary.

  17. Formation of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Coating on Titanium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgen Volodymyrovych PYLYPCHUK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA has long been used as a coating material in the implant industry for orthopedic implant applications. HA is the natural inorganic constituent of bone and teeth. By coating titanium (base material of implant engineering because of its lightness and durability with hydroxyapatite, we can provide higher biocompatibility of titanium implants, according to HA ability to form a direct biochemical bond with living tissues. This article reports a biomimetic approach for coating hydroxyapatite with titanium A method of modifying the surface of titanium by organic modifiers (for creating functional groups on the surface, followed by formation "self-assembled" layer of biomimetic hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF. FTIR and XPS confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium surface. Comparative study of the formation of HA on the surface of titanium plates modified by different functional groups: Ti(≡OH, Ti/(≡Si-OH and Ti/(≡COOH is conducted. It was found that the closest to natural stoichiometric hydroxyapatite Ca/P ratio was obtained on Ti/(≡COOH samples. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4974

  18. Effect of cathodic polarization on coating doxycycline on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Sebastian; Tiainen, Hanna; Haugen, Håvard J

    2016-06-01

    Cathodic polarization has been reported to enhance the ability of titanium based implant materials to interact with biomolecules by forming titanium hydride at the outermost surface layer. Although this hydride layer has recently been suggested to allow the immobilization of the broad spectrum antibiotic doxycycline on titanium surfaces, the involvement of hydride in binding the biomolecule onto titanium remains poorly understood. To gain better understanding of the influence this immobilization process has on titanium surfaces, mirror-polished commercially pure titanium surfaces were cathodically polarized in the presence of doxycycline and the modified surfaces were thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and angle-resolved X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrated that no hydride was created during the polarization process. Doxycycline was found to be attached to an oxide layer that was modified during the electrochemical process. A bacterial assay using bioluminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis Xen43 showed the ability of the coating to reduce bacterial colonization and planktonic bacterial growth.

  19. Modeling corrosion behavior of gas tungsten arc welded titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pitting corrosion characteristics of pulse TIG welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in marine environment were explained.Besides the rapid advance of titanium metallurgy, this is also due to the successful solution of problems associated with the development of titanium alloy welding. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc(GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The benefit of the process is utilized to obtain better quality titanium weldments. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix are used to optimize the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method(RSM). The results reveal that the titanium alloy can form a protective scale in marine environment and is resistant to pitting corrosion. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  20. Properties of titanium-alloyed DLC layers for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludek; Fojt, Jaroslav; Cvrcek, Ladislav; Brezina, Vitezslav

    2014-01-01

    DLC-type layers offer a good potential for application in medicine, due to their excellent tribological properties, chemical resistance, and bio-inert character. The presented study has verified the possibility of alloying DLC layers with titanium, with coatings containing three levels of titanium concentration prepared. Titanium was present on the surface mainly in the form of oxides. Its increasing concentration led to increased presence of titanium carbide as well. The behavior of the studied systems was stable during exposure in a physiological saline solution. Electrochemical impedance spectra practically did not change with time. Alloying, however, changed the electrochemical behavior of coated systems in a significant way: from inert surface mediating only exchange reactions of the environment in the case of unalloyed DLC layers to a response corresponding rather to a passive surface in the case of alloyed specimens. The effect of DLC layers alloying with titanium was tested by the interaction with a simulated body fluid, during which precipitation of a compound containing calcium and phosphorus--basic components of the bone apatite--occurred on all doped specimens, in contrast to pure DLC. The results of the specimens' surface colonization with cells test proved the positive effect of titanium in the case of specimens with a medium and highest content of this element.

  1. Silicides and Nitrides Formation in Ti Films Coated on Si and Exposed to (Ar-N2-H2 Expanding Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Jauberteau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical properties including the mechanical, optical and electrical properties of Ti nitrides and silicides are very attractive for many applications such as protective coatings, barriers of diffusion, interconnects and so on. The simultaneous formation of nitrides and silicides in Ti films improves their electrical properties. Ti films coated on Si wafers are heated at various temperatures and processed in expanding microwave (Ar-N2-H2 plasma for various treatment durations. The Ti-Si interface is the centre of Si diffusion into the Ti lattice and the formation of various Ti silicides, while the Ti surface is the centre of N diffusion into the Ti film and the formation of Ti nitrides. The growth of silicides and nitrides gives rise to two competing processes which are thermodynamically and kinetically controlled. The effect of thickness on the kinetics of the formation of silicides is identified. The metastable C49TiSi2 phase is the main precursor of the stable C54TiSi2 phase, which crystallizes at about 600 °C, while TiN crystallizes at about 800 °C.

  2. In situ formation of titanium carbide using titanium and carbon-nanotube powders by laser cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savalani, M.M., E-mail: mmfsmm@inet.polyu.edu.hk [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Ng, C.C.; Li, Q.H.; Man, H.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2012-01-15

    Titanium metal matrix composite coatings are considered to be important candidates for high wear resistance applications. In this study, TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite layers were fabricated by laser cladding with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% carbon-nanotube. The effects of the carbon-nanotube content on phase composition, microstructure, micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coating were studied. Microstructural observation using scanning electron microscopy showed that the coatings consisted of a matrix of alpha-titanium phases and the reinforcement phase of titanium carbide in the form of fine dendrites, indicating that titanium carbide was synthesized by the in situ reaction during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the micro-hardness and dry sliding wear resistance of the coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of carbon-nanotube in the starting precursor materials and were enhanced by increasing the carbon-nanotube content. Results indicated that the composite layers exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance.

  3. Influence of mechanical grinding on lithium insertion and extraction properties of iron silicide/silicon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Hiroyuki; Nouno, Kazuma; Takemoto, Yuya; Nakada, Kengo; Ishii, Akira; Sakaguchi, Hiroki

    2014-12-01

    We prepared composite electrodes of iron silicide/Si by using mechanical grinding for mixtures of ferrosilicon and Si followed by gas-deposition, and investigated their electrochemical properties as Li-ion battery anode. With increasing the mechanical grinding time, the phase transformation from FeSi to FeSi2 took place more significantly, and the composite electrode showed better cycle stabilities. There was no remarkable difference in mechanical properties and electronic conductivity between FeSi and FeSi2. On the other hand, the FeSi2 electrode exhibited about three times larger capacities in comparison with the FeSi electrode. In addition, a result of our first principle calculation indicates that Li-ion can diffuse more easily in FeSi2 lattice than in FeSi lattice. It is suggested that the better cyclability of the composite electrodes was attributed to the moderate reactivity of FeSi2 with Li and the smooth Li-ion diffusion in it.

  4. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsi, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  5. Status of core conversion with LEU silicide fuel in JRR-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Teruo; Ohnishi, Nobuaki; Shirai, Eiji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4) is a light water moderated and cooled, 93% enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used and swimming pool type reactor with thermal output of 3.5MW. Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been used for shielding experiments, radioisotope production, neutron activation analyses, training for reactor engineers and so on for about 30 years. Within the framework of the RERTR Program, the works for conversion to LEU fuel are now under way, and neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations emphasizing on safety and performance aspects are being carried out. The design and evaluation for the core conversion are based on the Guides for Safety Design and Evaluation of research and testing reactor facilities in Japan. These results show that the JRR-4 will be able to convert to use LEU fuel without any major design change of core and size of fuel element. LEU silicide fuel (19.75%) will be used and maximum neutron flux in irradiation hole would be slightly decreased from present neutron flux value of 7x10{sup 13}(n/cm{sup 2}/s). The conversion works are scheduled to complete in 1998, including with upgrade of the reactor building and utilization facilities.

  6. The whole-core LEU silicide fuel demonstration in the JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Akashi, Kazutomo; Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The JMTR was fully converted to LEU silicide (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) fuel with cadmium wires as burnable absorber in January, 1994. The reduced enrichment program for the JMTR was initiated in 1979, and the conversion to MEU (enrichment ; 45%) aluminide fuel was carried out in 1986 as the first step of the program. The final goal of the program was terminated by the present LEU conversion. This paper describes the results of core physics measurement through the conversion phase from MEU fuel core to LEU fuel core. Measured excess reactivities of the LEU fuel cores are mostly in good agreement with predicted values. Reactivity effect and burnup of cadmium wires, therefore, were proved to be well predicted. Control rod worth in the LEU fuel core is mostly less than that in the MEU fuel core. Shutdown margin was verified to be within the safety limit. There is no significant difference in temperature coefficient of reactivity between the MEU and LEU fuel cores. These results verified that the JMTR was successfully and safely converted to LEU fuel. Extension of the operating cycle period was achieved and reduction of spend fuel elements is expected by using the fuel with high uranium density.

  7. The ability of silicide coating to delay the catastrophic oxidation of vanadium under severe conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaia, N.; Mathieu, S.; Rouillard, F.; Vilasi, M.

    2015-02-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy is a potential cladding material for sodium-cooled fast-neutron reactors (SFRs). However, its affinity for oxygen and the subsequent embrittlement that oxygen induces causes a need for an oxygen diffusion barrier, which can be obtained by manufacturing a multi-layered silicide coating. The present work aims to evaluate the effects of thermal cycling (using a cyclic oxidation device) and tensile and compressive stresses (using the three-point flexure test) on the coated alloy system. Tests were performed in air up to 1100 °C, which is 200 °C higher than the accidental temperature for SFR applications. The results showed that the VSi2 coating was able to protect the vanadium substrate from oxidation for more than 400 1-h cycles between 1100 °C and room temperature. The severe bending applied to the coated alloy at 950 °C using a load of 75 MPa did not lead to specimen breakage. It can be suggested that the VSi2 coating has mechanical properties compatible with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy for SFR applications.

  8. Characteristics of high wear resistant Ni-base materials strengthened by precipitation hardening of wolfram silicide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Ide, Hisayuki; Ishiyama, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-12-31

    The practical application of Co-base Stellite and Ni base Inconel for reactor core components with high allowable stress levels is considered to be limited by the formation of radioactive cruds and the susceptibility to IASCC respectively. For this view-point, W-silicide strengthened Cr-W-Si Ni-base high wear resistant alloy so-called HWI alloy was newly developed as an alternative material. The chemical composition and the alloy making process were optimized by applying the electron beam purification process and the thermo-mechanical treatment. The mechanical strength higher than it of above commercial alloys was easily obtained by both solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening, because this alloy has the excellent cold and hot workabilities. The irradiation resistance and the corrosion resistance superior than these of above commercial alloys were verified by several laboratory tests of HWI heats. To maintain austenite phase stability at the practical temperature and to enrich oxide former alloying elements were clarified to be the most important means for this alloy development. (author)

  9. Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder-Metallurgy-Produced Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, T. R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Frederick, D. A.; Contescu, C. I.; Chen, W.; Lim, Y. C.; Peter, W. H.; Feng, Z.

    2013-05-01

    An investigation was undertaken using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas-forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap, where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal and minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders are critical for achieving equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

  10. A new route for the synthesis of titanium silicalite-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasile, Aurelia, E-mail: aurelia_vasile@yahoo.com [Laboratory of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, ' Al.I. Cuza' University of Iasi, B-dul Carol I, No. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Busuioc-Tomoiaga, Alina Maria [Laboratory of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, ' Al.I. Cuza' University of Iasi, B-dul Carol I, No. 11, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Catalysis Research Department, ChemPerformance SRL, Iasi 700337 (Romania)

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Well-prepared TS-1 was synthesized by an innovative procedure using inexpensive reagents such as fumed silica and TPABr as structure-directing agent. This is the first time when highly crystalline TS-1 is obtained in basic medium, using sodium hydroxide as HO{sup -} ion source required for the crystallization process. Hydrolysis of titanium source has been prevented by titanium complexation with acetylacetone before structuring gel. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TS-1 was obtained using cheap reagents as fumed silica and tetrapropylammonium bromide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First time NaOH was used as source of OH{sup -} ions required for crystallization process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrolysis Ti alkoxides was controlled by Ti complexation with 2,4-pentanedione. -- Abstract: A new and efficient route using inexpensive reagents such as fumed silica and tetrapropylammonium bromide is proposed for the synthesis of titanium silicalite-1. High crystalline titanium silicalite-1 was obtained in alkaline medium, using sodium hydroxide as HO{sup -} ion source required for the crystallization process. Hydrolysis of titanium source with formation of insoluble oxide species was prevented by titanium complexation with before structuring gel. The final solids were fully characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance, Raman and atomic absorption spectroscopies, as well as nitrogen sorption analysis. It was found that a molar ratio Ti:Si of about 0.04 in the initial reaction mixture is the upper limit to which well formed titanium silicalite-1 with channels free of crystalline or amorphous material can be obtained. Above this value, solids with MFI type structure containing both Ti isomorphously substituted in the network and extralattice anatase nanoparticles inside of channels is formed.

  11. Ag-doped titanium dioxide gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei Sheini, Navid; Rohani, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Titanium dioxide has been utilized for the fabrication of oxygen sensitive ceramic bodies. In this work, disk-shaped TiO2 pellets are fabricated by the sintering of the press- formed anatase powder at 1000°C. Two silver contacts are printed on one of the top base of each sample. Silver wire segments are connected to the printed electrodes. It is shown that the gradual diffusion of silver into titanium dioxide from the electrodes profoundly affects the resistive properties of the ceramic samples. SEM, XRD and EDAX analyses are carried out to determine the position of the silver diffused in the structure. At 35°C, before silver diffusion, the electrical resistance of the device decreases ten times in response to the presence of 3000 ppm ethanol contamination. Sensitivity (Rair/Rgas) to reducing gases is severely affected by the silver doping level in the titanium dioxide. The progress of silver diffusion continuously decreases the sensitivity till it become less than one. Further progress in silver diffusion brings the devices to the condition at which the resistance increases at the presents of reducing gases. In this condition, inverse sensitivities (Rgas/Rair) as large as 103 are demonstrated.

  12. Titanium in 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Ward W.

    1981-04-01

    Much attention is being focused on the availability and use of non-fuel minerals in the United States. Because of the rapid increase in demand since 1978, titanium has been one of the much-publicized metals in this group. Sponge producers are now expanding sponge manufacturing plants to meet this greater demand, and it now appears that there could be a surplus of sponge in 1981. A delay in airplane purchases caused by severe operating losses of the airlines could have a significant effect on mill product shipments in 1981. However, there is no reason to believe that titanium has reached maturity as a structural aerospace or industrial metal. While it is unreasonable to anticipate that demand will continue to grow at the same rate experienced between 1978 and 1980, new greenfield capacity will nevertheless be required in the early 1980s. Two basic issues must be resolved before such ventures become reality: 1) choice of process; and 2) method for financing, either public or private. Both will be the subject of study and debate in 1981.

  13. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of binary titanium alloys with beta-stabilizing elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Y; Nakajima, H; Okuno, O; Okabe, T

    2001-03-01

    Binary titanium alloys with the beta-stabilizing elements of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pd (up to 30%) and Ag (up to 45%) were examined through metallographic observation and X-ray diffractometry to determine whether beta phases that are advantageous for dental use could be retained. Corrosion behavior was also investigated electrochemically and discussed thermodynamically. Some cast alloys with Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Pd retained the beta phase, whereas those with Ag and Cu had no beta phase. In some alloys, an intermetallic compound formed, based on information from the phase diagram. The corrosion resistance deteriorated in the TiAg alloys because Ti2Ag and/or TiAg intermetallic compounds preferentially dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution. On the other hand, the remaining titanium alloys became easily passive and revealed good corrosion resistance similar to pure titanium since their matrices seemed to thermodynamically form titanium oxides as did pure titanium.

  14. Purification and utilization of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wonbaek; Yu, Hyosin; Chung, Inwha; Rhee, Kang In; Choi, Good Sun; Lee, Chulkyung; Youn, In Ju; Chung, Jinki; Suh, Chang Youl; Yang, Dong Hyo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Current domestic market appears not to be sufficient enough for the large scale investment for the expensive vacuum-melting equipment. Besides, related ingot-processing technologies like rolling, extrusion, and forging of titanium should be prepared in advance. In the mean time, the attempt to recycle expensive titanium scraps produced in our nation would be worthwhile in view of the reduction of import from foreign countries and of saving valuable secondary resources. The objectives for this research is to develop technology for the production of high purity titanium metals from sponges and scraps and to extend the developed technology to industrial applications. PREP(Plasma-Rotating-Electrode Process) and HDP(Hydride-Dehydride Process) were adopted to evaluate the possibility of using domestic titanium scraps in the production of pure titanium powders. Those scraps were titanium pipes of Grade 2 and various sputtering targets having a purity of 99.995%. The titanium powders produced by both methods were examined and compared with conventionally prepared ones. Their shape, size distribution, structure and above of all major impurities were determine to evaluate these process. The powders produced by PREP were of round shape having narrow size distribution at about 200 micron. Meanwhile, HDP powders were irregular shaped having a much wider size distribution. Both metallic and non-metallic impurities were lower in PREP powders due to the unavoidable contamination during crushing processes in HDP. Thus, PREP has advantages towards purity and uniformity while HDP toward finer sizes. Apparently, for the production of high purity titanium powders by HDP, special considerations should be made to prevent contamination during various steps in the process. In PREP powders, smaller particles contained more oxygen since they have larger surface/volume ratio. The tendency was also observed in the hardness measurement revealing the strengthening effect of oxygen in pure

  15. Physical properties of ternary silicide superconductors Li2XSi3 (X = Rh, Os): An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. A.; Zilani, M. A. K.; Parvin, F.; Hadi, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    An ab initio method, based on the plane wave pseudopotential and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), is performed to investigate the physical properties such as structural, elastic, electronic and bonding properties of newly synthesized Li2RhSi3 and predicted Li2OsSi3 ternary silicide superconductors for the first time. Both of these compounds are mechanically stable and are brittle in nature. They also have good machinability. Electronic band structures reveal that these compounds have metallic characteristics. They possess complex bonding nature (metallic, covalent and ionic). According to theoretical Vickers hardness, Li2RhSi3 is softer than Li2OsSi3.

  16. Antimicrobial titanium/silver PVD coatings on titanium

    OpenAIRE

    Thull Roger; Glückermann Susanne K; Ewald Andrea; Gbureck Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Biofilm formation and deep infection of endoprostheses is a recurrent complication in implant surgery. Post-operative infections may be overcome by adjusting antimicrobial properties of the implant surface prior to implantation. In this work we described the development of an antimicrobial titanium/silver hard coating via the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. Methods Coatings with a thickness of approximately 2 μm were deposited on titanium surfaces by simultaneous ...

  17. Oxidation behaviours of Nb–22Ti–15Si–2Al–2Hf–2V–(2, 14Cr alloys with Al and Y modified silicide coatings prepared by pack cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songming Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Al and Y modified silicide coatings on the Nb–15Si–22Ti–(2,14Cr–2Al–2Hf–2V alloys (where the alloy with 2 at% Cr or 14 at% Cr is hereafter referred to as 2Cr and 14Cr alloy, respectively was prepared by pack cementation. The microstructural evolution and the oxidation behaviours of the coating 2Cr and 14Cr samples at 1250 °C were studied. The 2Cr alloy consists of Nb solid solution (NbSS and α-Nb5Si3 silicide, while the Laves C15–Cr2Nb phase arised in the 14Cr alloy. The coating structure of the coating 2Cr sample contained the outer (Nb, XSi2+(Nb, X5Si3 layer, the middle (Nb, X5Si3 layer and the inner undeveloped intermetallic (Nb,Ti3(Al,X layer; the structure of the coating 14Cr sample consisted of the outer single (Nb, XSi2 layer, the middle (Nb, X5Si3 layer, the transition (Nb,Ti (Cr,Al layer and the inner (Cr, Al2(Nb,Ti layer. The coating 14Cr sample exhibited better oxidation resistance than the coating 2Cr sample. With an outer single (Nb, XSi2 layer, a compact oxide scale consisting of SiO2 and TiO2 formed on the coating 14Cr sample, which can efficiently prevent the substrate from oxidising. For the coating 2Cr sample with an outer (Nb, XSi2+(Nb, X5Si3 layer, the oxide scale of the SiO2, TiO2, Nb2O5 and CrNbO4 mixture generated, and the scale spalled out from the surface of the sample, resulting in disastrous failure.

  18. Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kado, T.; Hidaka, T. [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Aita, H. [Division of Occlusion and Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, K. [Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Furuichi, Y., E-mail: furuichi@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    immobilized on the titanium surface and improved the compatibility of the surface with HPDLCs. The Col-immobilized titanium surface could be used for forming ligament-like tissues around titanium dental implants.

  19. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions needs to be well understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  20. Rate Theory Modeling and Simulation of Silicide Fuel at LWR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Ye, Bei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hofman, Gerard [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Yacout, Abdellatif [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Gamble, Kyle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Fuel Modeling and Simulation; Mei, Zhi-Gang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-08-29

    As a promising candidate for the accident tolerant fuel (ATF) used in light water reactors (LWRs), the fuel performance of uranium silicide (U3Si2) at LWR conditions need to be well-understood. In this report, rate theory model was developed based on existing experimental data and density functional theory (DFT) calculations so as to predict the fission gas behavior in U3Si2 at LWR conditions. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 can be divided into three temperature regimes. During steady-state operation, the majority of the fission gas stays in intragranular bubbles, whereas the dominance of intergranular bubbles and fission gas release only occurs beyond 1000 K. The steady-state rate theory model was also used as reference to establish a gaseous swelling correlation of U3Si2 for the BISON code. Meanwhile, the overpressurized bubble model was also developed so that the fission gas behavior at LOCA can be simulated. LOCA simulation showed that intragranular bubbles are still dominant after a 70 second LOCA, resulting in a controllable gaseous swelling. The fission gas behavior of U3Si2 at LWR conditions is benign according to the rate theory prediction at both steady-state and LOCA conditions, which provides important references to the qualification of U3Si2 as a LWR fuel material with excellent fuel performance and enhanced accident tolerance.

  1. Hemocompatibility of titanium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, I; Baquey, C; Candelon, B; Monties, J R

    1992-10-01

    The left ventricular assist device is based on the principle of the Maillard-Wenkel rotative pump. The materials which make up the pump must present particular mechanical, tribological, thermal and chemical properties. Titanium nitride (TiN) because of its surface properties and graphite because of its bulk characteristics have been chosen. The present study evaluated the in vitro hemocompatibility of TiN coating deposited by the chemical vapor deposition process. Protein adsorption, platelet retention and hemolysis tests have been carried out. In spite of some disparities, the TiN behavior towards albumin and fibrinogen is interesting, compared with the one of a reference medical grade elastomer. The platelet retention test gives similar results as those achieved with the same elastomer. The hemolysis percentage is near to zero. TiN shows interesting characteristics, as far as mechanical and tribological problems are concerned, and presents very encouraging blood tolerability properties.

  2. Magnetic susceptibility of tetragonal titanium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F.E.; Pankey, T.; Grant, F.A.

    1960-01-01

    Careful measurements have been made of the magnetic susceptibility of the rutile and anatase crystalline forms of titanium dioxide. The magnetic susceptibility of a single crystal of high-purity rutile was found to be (0.067??0.0015)??10-6 emu per gram, and was temperature-independent from 55??to 372??K. Difficulty was encountered in obtaining a good value of the magnetic susceptibility of anatase because of impurities. However, a value of 0.02??10-6 emu per gram was obtained as a maximum value for anatase powder. A discussion is given for the different values obtained for anatase and rutile. ?? 1960 The American Physical Society.

  3. A new titanium-bearing calcium aluminosilicate phase. 2: Crystallography and crystal chemistry of grains formed in slowly cooled melts with bulk compositions of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David J.; Beckett, John R.; Paque, Julie M.; Stolper, Edward

    1994-01-01

    The crystallography and crystal chemistry of a new calcium- titanium-aluminosilicate mineral (UNK) observed in synthetic analogs to calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrites was studied by electron diffraction techniques. The unit cell is primitive hexagonal or trigonal, with a = 0.790 +/- 0.02 nm and c = 0.492 +/- 0.002 nm, similar to the lattice parameters of melilite and consistent with cell dimensions for crystals in a mixer furnace slag described by Barber and Agrell (1994). The phase frequently displays an epitactic relationship in which melilite acts as the host, with (0001)(sub UNK) parallel (001)(sub mel) and zone axis group 1 0 -1 0(sub UNK) parallel zone axis group 1 0 0(sub mel). If one of the two space groups determined by Barber and Agrell (1994) for their sample of UNK is applicable (P3m1 or P31m), then the structure is probably characterized by puckered sheets of octahedra and tetrahedra perpendicular to the c-axis with successive sheets coordinated by planar arrays of Ca. In this likely structure, each unit cell contains three Ca sites located in mirror planes, one octahedrally coordinated cation located along a three-fold axis and five tetrahedrally coordinated cations, three in mirrors and two along triads. The octahedron contains Ti but, because there are 1.3-1.9 cations of Ti/formula unit, some of the Ti must also be in tetrahedral coordination, an unusual but not unprecedented situation for a silicate. Tetrahedral sites in mirror planes would contain mostly Si, with lesser amounts of Al while those along the triads correspondingly contain mostly Al with subordinate Ti. The structural formula, therefore, can be expressed as Ca(sub 3)(sup VIII)(Ti,Al)(sup VI)(Al,Ti,Si)(sub 2)(sup IV)(Si,Al)(sub 3)(sup IV)O14 with Si + Ti = 4. Compositions of meteoritic and synthetic Ti-bearing samples of the phase can be described in terms of a binary solid solution between the end-members Ca3TiAl2Si3O14 and Ca3Ti(AlTi)(AlSi2)O14. A Ti

  4. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by titanium dioxide photocatalytic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanium dioxide in the anatase crystalline form was used as a photocatalyst to generate hydroxyl radicals in a flowthrough water reactor. Experiments were performed on pure cultures of Escherichia coli in dechlorinated tap water and a surface water sample to evaluate the disinfe...

  5. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    showed generally unchanged values for color, form, surface and fit. Regarding surfaces, one porcelain fracture was registered (3%). The patient responses were positive and no case of sensitivity was reported after 2 years, but in 3 cases food impaction was reported. The second study is a systematic review of published articles on bond strength between titanium and porcelain. The review made comparisons of bond strength using three-point bending tests between different porcelain bonds to different alloys and to titanium, between different brands of porcelain and titanium, with porcelain following various types of processing of the titanium surface, with different compositions of the porcelain and with different firing conditions. Generally it could be seen that with this type of test (three-point bending) the bond strength between porcelain and titanium was lower than with alloys. It was also seen that there are differences in bond strengths between different brands of porcelain, that processing the titanium surface and composition of the porcelain affected bond strength, and that firing conditions were also important. The third study was performed with the intention of examining the firing accuracy of different types of dental furnaces and to investigate how maintenance and quality control is performed at Swedish dental laboratories. Since titanium porcelain is fired at a temperature which is 200 degrees C below that used for most conventional alloys, there are specific demands on the furnaces used. The optimum firing temperature is judged to be 750 degrees C for porcelain veneering of titanium, according to published studies. In this study the real firing temperature at the holding period of 1 minute was recorded by a thermo-element connected to a digital temperature measurement apparatus. The accuracy of tested furnaces demonstrated a wide variation, and in almost all cases the real temperature was higher than the temperature indicated by the furnace display; in some

  6. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.P.; Edwards, G.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure when gas-tungsten arc welded. This microstructure is susceptible to hydrogen cracking when water vapor is present in the welding environment. Because fusion zone microstructural refinement can reduce the hydrogen cracking susceptibility, titanium was used to inoculate the weld pool in iron aluminide alloy FA-129. Although the fusion zone microstructure was significantly refined by this method, the fracture stress was found to decrease with titanium additions. This decrease is attributed to an increase in inclusions at the grain boundaries.

  7. Formation of titanium carbide coating with micro-porous structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Ge, Shirong; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2010-03-01

    Micro-porous titanium carbide coating was successfully synthesized in a vacuum gas carburizing furnace by using a sequential diffusion technology. The composition and structure of the as-synthesized TiC were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the XRD, XPS and GDMS analysis results indicate that carbon atoms effectively diffused into the titanium alloys and formed a uniform acicular TiC coating with micro-porous structure.

  8. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  9. Titanium in the geothermal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R. [TIMET UK Ltd., Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    Titanium resists seawater and brine at temperatures as high as 260{sup o}C, and is also resistant to corrosion by sulphur dioxide; hydrogen sulphide; and aqueous solutions of those gases. Titanium is fully resistant to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in the standard NACE test solution containing 3000 ppm dissolved H{sub 2}S, 5% NACl, and 0.5% acetic acid (pH 3.5). To avoid pitting at temperatures above 80{sup o}C, titanium alloys containing nickel, molybdenum, palladium or ruthenium are used. Examples of equipment fabricated in titanium in order to withstand the corrosive fluids present in some geothermal installations are plate heat exchangers and well casing. By careful selection of the grade of titanium, material thickness (with no corrosion allowance) and fabrication method, an economic fabrication with low maintenance costs and high availability can be achieved. A prime example of the application of titanium in the geothermal industry is the use of Grade 29 well casing in the Salton Sea, USA, which enables the exploitation of a geothermal resource containing highly corrosive brine. Advances in production technology are being applied to reduce the cost of the casing pipe. This technology may enable the use of sea water injection to augment weak or depleted aquifers, or to generate steam from Hot Dry Rocks. (author)

  10. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite/titania coatings on titanium improves osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Michiko; Aslani, Arash; Sambito, Marisa A; Kalkhoran, Nader M; Slamovich, Elliott B; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Bulk hydroxyapatite (HA) and titania have been used to improve the osseointegration of orthopedic implants. For this reason, composites of HA and titania have been receiving increased attention in orthopedics as novel coating materials. The objective of this in vitro study was to produce nanophase (i.e., materials with grain size less than 100 nm) HA/titania coatings on titanium. The adhesion of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) on the composite coatings were also assessed and compared with single-phase nanotitania and nano-HA titanium coatings. Nanocrystalline HA powders were synthesized through wet chemistry and hydrothermal treatments at 200 degrees C. Nanocrystalline titania powders obtained commercially were mixed with the nanocrystalline HA powders at various weight ratios. The mixed powders were then deposited on titanium utilizing a room-temperature coating process called IonTite. The results of the present study showed that such coatings maintained the chemistry and crystallite size of the original HA and titania powders. Moreover, osteoblasts adherent on single-phase nanotitania coatings were well-spread whereas they became more round and extended distinct filopodia on the composite and single-phase HA coatings. Interestingly, the number of osteoblasts adherent on the nanotitania/HA composite coatings at weight ratios of 2/1 and 1/2 were significantly greater compared with single-phase nanotitania coatings, currently-used plasma-sprayed HA coatings, and uncoated titanium. These findings suggest that nanotitania/HA coatings on titanium should be further studied for improved orthopedic applications.

  11. Preparation of calcium carbonate particles coated with titanium dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Lin; Ying-bo Dong; Le-yong Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new mineral composite material, calcium carbonate particles coated with titanium dioxide, was stud-ied. The mechanism of the preparation process was proposed. The new mineral composite material was made by the mechanochemi-eal method under the optimum condition that the mass ratio of calcium carbonate particles to titanium dioxide was 6.5:3.5. The mass ratios of two different types of titanium dioxide (anatase to rutile) and grinding media to grinded materials were 8:2 and 4:1 respec-tively, and the modified density was 60%. Under this condition, the new material was capable of forming after 120-min modification.The hiding power and oil absorption of this new material were 29.12 g/m~2 and 23.30%, respectively. The results show that the modi-fication is based on surface hydroxylation. After coating with titanium dioxide, the hiding power of calcium carbonate can be im-proved greatly. The new mineral composite materials can be used as the substitute for titanium dioxide.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Helium Behaviour in Titanium Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Tie-Ying; LONG Xing-Gui; WANG Jun; HOU Qing; WU Zhong-Cheng; PENG Shu-Ming; LUO Shun-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the behaviour of helium atoms in titanium at a temperature of 300 K.The nucleation and growth of helium bubble has been simulated up to 50 helium atoms.The approach to simulate the bubble growth is to add helium atoms one by one to the bubble and let the system evolve.The titanium cohesion is based on the tight binding scheme derived from the embedded atom method,and the helium-titanium interaction is characterized by fitted potential in the form of a Lennard-Jones function.The pressure in small helium bubbles is approximately calculated.The simulation results show that the pressure will decrease with the increasing bubble size,while increase with the increasing helium atoms.An analytic function about the quantitative relationship of the pressure with the bubble size and number of helium atoms is also fitted.

  13. Titanium Alloys and Processing for High Speed Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, William D.; Bird, R. Keith; Wallace, Terryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Commercially available titanium alloys as well as emerging titanium alloys with limited or no production experience are being considered for a variety of applications to high speed commercial aircraft structures. A number of government and industry programs are underway to improve the performance of promising alloys by chemistry and/or processing modifications and to identify appropriate alloys and processes for specific aircraft structural applications. This paper discusses some of the results on the effects of heat treatment, service temperatures from - 54 C to +177 C, and selected processing on the mechanical properties of several candidate beta and alpha-beta titanium alloys. Included are beta alloys Timetal 21S, LCB, Beta C, Beta CEZ, and Ti-10-2-3 and alpha-beta alloys Ti-62222, Ti-6242S, Timetal 550, Ti-62S, SP-700, and Corona-X. The emphasis is on properties of rolled sheet product form and on the superplastic properties and processing of the materials.

  14. Thin-film diffusion brazing of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A thin film diffusion brazing technique for joining titanium alloys by use of a Cu intermediate is described. The method has been characterized in terms of static and dynamic mechanical properties on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These include tensile, fracture toughness, stress corrosion, shear, corrosion fatigue, mechanical fatigue and acoustic fatigue. Most of the properties of titanium joints formed by thin film diffusion brazing are equal or exceed base metal properties. The advantages of thin film diffusion brazing over solid state diffusion bonding and brazing with conventional braze alloys are discussed. The producibility advantages of this process over others provide the potential for producing high efficiency joints in structural components of titanium alloys for the minimum cost.

  15. Introduction to powder metallurgy processes for titanium manufacturing; Introduccion al procesado pulvimetalurgico del titanio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, P. G.; Bolzoni, L.; Ruiz-Navas, E. M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    The development of new extraction processes to produce titanium in powder form leads Powder Metallurgy to an advantage position among the manufacturing processes for titanium. The cost reduction of base material, coupled with the economy of the powder metallurgy processes, give titanium industry the chance to diversify its products, which could lead to production volumes able to stabilise the price of the metal. This work reviews some of the Powder Metallurgy techniques for the manufacturing of titanium parts, and describes the two typical approaches for titanium manufacturing: Blending Elemental and Prealloyed Powders. Among others, conventional pressing and sintering are described, which are compared with cold and hot isostatic pressing techniques. Real and potential applications are described. (Author) 71 refs.

  16. Thermal Stability and Growth Behavior of Erbium Silicide Nanowires Self-Assembled on a Vicinal Si(001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Tao; SONG Jun-Qiang; LI Juan; CAI Qun

    2011-01-01

    Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(Ool) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 63(fC In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged. Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AIB2 phase to tetragonal ThSi'2 phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires. Additionally, a multiple deposition-annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.%@@ Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(001) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 630℃ In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged.Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AlB phase to tetragonal ThSi phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires.Additionally, a multiple deposition- annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.

  17. Effects of nitrogen annealing on surface structure, silicide formation and magnetic properties of ultrathin films of Co on Si(100)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ganesh K Rajan; Shivaraman Ramaswamy; C Gopalakrishnan; D John Thiruvadigal

    2012-02-01

    Effects of nitrogen annealing on structural and magnetic properties of Co/Si (100) up to 700°C has been studied in this paper. Ultrathin Co films having a constant thickness of 50 Å were grown on Si (100) substrates using electron-beam evaporation under very high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Subsequently, the samples were annealed at temperatures ranging from 100–700°C in a nitrogen environment at atmospheric pressure. Sample quality and surface morphology were examined using atomic force microscopy. Silicide formation and the resultant variation in crystallographic arrangement were studied using X-ray diffractometer. The magnetization measurements done using a vibrating sample magnetometer indicate a decrease in coercivity and retentivity values with increase in annealing temperature. Resistivity of the samples measured using a four-point probe set up shows a decrease in resistivity with increase in annealing temperature. Formation of various silicide phases at different annealing temperatures and the resultant variation in the magnetic susceptibility has been thoroughly studied and quantified in this work.

  18. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition: limits and opportunities of protecting the tungsten catalyzer from silicide with a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigeri, P.A. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Nos, O., E-mail: oriol_nos@ub.ed [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain); Ecotecnia (ALSTOM Group) (Spain); Bengoechea, S.; Frevert, C.; Asensi, J.M.; Bertomeu, J. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona-08028 (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HW-CVD) is one of the most promising techniques for depositing the intrinsic microcrystalline silicon layer for the production of micro-morph solar cells. However, the silicide formation at the colder ends of the tungsten wire drastically reduces the lifetime of the catalyzer, thus limiting its industrial exploitation. A simple but interesting strategy to decrease the silicide formation is to hide the electrical contacts of the catalyzer in a long narrow cavity which reduces the probability of the silane molecules to reach the colder ends of the wire. In this paper, the working mechanism of the cavity is elucidated. Measurements of the thickness profile of the silicon deposited in the internal walls of the cavity have been compared with those predicted using a simple diffusion model based on the assumption of Knudsen flow. A lifetime study of the protected and unprotected wires has been carried out. The different mechanisms which determine the deterioration of the catalyzer have been identified and discussed.

  19. Silicide induced surface defects in FePt nanoparticle fcc-to-fct thermally activated phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shu; Lee, Stephen L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); André, Pascal, E-mail: pjpandre@riken.jp [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); RIKEN, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, CNRS-Ewha International Research Center (CERC), Ewha W. University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) are relevant to a wide range of applications including high density information storage and magnetic resonance imaging to name but a few. Among the materials available to prepare MnPs, FePt is attracting growing attention. However, to harvest the strongest magnetic properties of FePt MnPs, a thermal annealing is often required to convert face-centered cubic as synthesized nPs into its tetragonal phase. Rarely addressed are the potential side effects of such treatments on the magnetic properties. In this study, we focus on the impact of silica shells often used in strategies aiming at overcoming MnP coalescence during the thermal annealing. While we show that this shell does prevent sintering, and that fcc-to-fct conversion does occur, we also reveal the formation of silicide, which can prevent the stronger magnetic properties of fct-FePt MnPs from being fully realised. This report therefore sheds lights on poorly investigated and understood interfacial phenomena occurring during the thermal annealing of MnPs and, by doing so, also highlights the benefits of developing new strategies to avoid silicide formation.

  20. Influence of layout parameters on snapback characteristic for a gate-grounded NMOS device in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yuxi; Li Jiao; Ran Feng; Cao Jialin; Yang Dianxiong

    2009-01-01

    r of the GGNMOS devices under high ESD current stress, and design area-efficient ESD protection circuits to sustain the required ESD level.Optimized layout rules for ESD protection in 0.13-μm silicide CMOS technology are also presented.

  1. The role of composition and microstructure in Ni-W silicide formation and low temperature epitaxial NiSi2 growth by premixing Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauwen, A.; Van Stiphout, K.; Demeulemeester, J.; De Schutter, B.; Devulder, W.; Comrie, C. M.; Detavernier, C.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on an extensive and detailed study of the silicide reaction of Ni-W alloys on Si(1 0 0). The solid phase reaction when studied over the full composition range reveals the substantial impact of composition and microstructure on the silicide reaction properties, such as the phase formation sequence and formation temperatures. It was found that the microstructure of the as-deposited film depends crucially on the alloy composition, being polycrystalline below 45 at.% W and amorphous above 45 at.% W. The microstructure affects the elemental mobility substantially, resulting in a drastic increase in the silicide reaction temperature in the case of an amorphous thin film. To further investigate the effect of elemental mobility, Si was premixed in the as-deposited alloy, thereby excluding the need for long-range diffusion. As a result, the silicide reaction temperatures were lowered. However, what was more striking was the observation of a bilayer structure for epitaxial NiSi2 in contact with the Si substrate and a W-rich layer residing at the outermost layer at a temperature of only 300 °C. The results stress the importance of the composition and crystalline nature of the as-deposited film, with these being decisive for the reaction sequence.

  2. Enhanced osteoblast functions on anodized titanium with nanotube-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chang; Slamovich, Elliott B; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells) adhesion on titanium and Ti-6Al-4V anodized to possess nanometer features compared with their unanodized counterparts. In this study, osteoblast long-term functions (specifically, synthesis of intracellular proteins, synthesis of intracellular collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and deposition of calcium-containing minerals) were determined on titanium anodized to possess either heterogeneous nanoparticles or ordered nanotubes. Titanium was anodized in dilute hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 20 min to possess nanotubes, while titanium was anodized at 10 V for 20 min to possess nanoparticles. Most importantly, results showed that calcium deposition significantly increased on anodized titanium with nanotube-like structures compared with unanodized titanium and anodized titanium with nanoparticulate structures after 21 days of osteoblast culture. In this manner, the results of the present in vitro study indicated that anodization might be a promising quick and inexpensive method to modify the surface of titanium-based implants to induce better bone cell functions important for orthopedic applications.

  3. Formation of titanium carbide layer by laser alloying with a light-transmitting resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takuto; Hagino, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    The weight reduction of mechanical components is becoming increasingly important, especially in the transportation industry, as fuel efficiency continues to improve. Titanium and titanium alloys are recognized for their outstanding potential as lightweight materials with high specific strength. Yet they also have poor tribological properties that preclude their use for sliding parts. Improved tribological properties of titanium would expand the application of titanium into different fields. Laser alloying is an effective process for improving surface properties such as wear resistance. The process has numerous advantages over conventional surface modification techniques. Many researchers have reported the usefulness of laser alloying as a technique to improve the wear resistance of titanium. The process has an important flaw, however, as defects such as cracks or voids tend to appear in the laser-alloyed zone. Our group performed a novel laser-alloying process using a light-transmitting resin as a source for the carbon element. We laser alloyed a surface layer of pure titanium pre-coated with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and investigated the microstructure and wear properties. A laser-alloyed zone was formed by a reaction between the molten titanium and thermal decomposition products of PMMA at the interface between the substrate and PMMA. The cracks could be eliminated from the laser-alloyed zone by optimizing the laser alloying conditions. The surface of the laser-alloyed zone was covered with a titanium carbide layer and exhibited a superior sliding property and wear resistance against WC-Co.

  4. Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1999-02-01

    The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

  5. Titanium nanostructures for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, M.; Mazare, A.; Gongadze, E.; Perutkova, Š.; Kralj-Iglič, V.; Milošev, I.; Schmuki, P.; Iglič, A.; Mozetič, M.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys exhibit a unique combination of strength and biocompatibility, which enables their use in medical applications and accounts for their extensive use as implant materials in the last 50 years. Currently, a large amount of research is being carried out in order to determine the optimal surface topography for use in bioapplications, and thus the emphasis is on nanotechnology for biomedical applications. It was recently shown that titanium implants with rough surface topography and free energy increase osteoblast adhesion, maturation and subsequent bone formation. Furthermore, the adhesion of different cell lines to the surface of titanium implants is influenced by the surface characteristics of titanium; namely topography, charge distribution and chemistry. The present review article focuses on the specific nanotopography of titanium, i.e. titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes, using a simple electrochemical anodisation method of the metallic substrate and other processes such as the hydrothermal or sol-gel template. One key advantage of using TiO2 nanotubes in cell interactions is based on the fact that TiO2 nanotube morphology is correlated with cell adhesion, spreading, growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which were shown to be maximally induced on smaller diameter nanotubes (15 nm), but hindered on larger diameter (100 nm) tubes, leading to cell death and apoptosis. Research has supported the significance of nanotopography (TiO2 nanotube diameter) in cell adhesion and cell growth, and suggests that the mechanics of focal adhesion formation are similar among different cell types. As such, the present review will focus on perhaps the most spectacular and surprising one-dimensional structures and their unique biomedical applications for increased osseointegration, protein interaction and antibacterial properties.

  6. Hydrogenation-induced microstructure changes in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laptev, R., E-mail: laptevrs@tpu.ru; Lider, A., E-mail: lider@tpu.ru; Bordulev, Yu., E-mail: bus@tpu.ru; Kudiiarov, V., E-mail: kudiyarov@tpu.ru; Garanin, G., E-mail: garaningv@tpu.ru

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hydrogen induced microstructure changes in Ti studied by PL and DB spectroscopies. • Vacancies and vacancy clusters formed at concentration from 1.31 to 2.27 at.%. • Cluster-hydrogen and vacancy-hydrogen complexes formed at concentration up to 32 at.%. - Abstract: Microstructure changes of commercially pure titanium in a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from 0.8 at.% to 32.0 at.% were studied by means of positron lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening spectroscopy. We have obtained new experimental data on the evolution of positron annihilation parameters τ{sub f}, τ{sub d} and their corresponding intensities I{sub f}, I{sub d,} as well as relative changes of parameters S/S{sub 0} and W/W{sub 0} depending on the hydrogen concentration in commercially pure titanium after gas-phase hydrogenation at 873 K. Results suggest that the hydrogenation of Ti samples up to concentrations of 1.31–2.27 at.% and subsequent cooling to a room temperature leads to the formation of vacancies and vacancy clusters. Further increase of the hydrogen concentration up to 32.0 at.% leads to the interaction of hydrogen with these defects and the formation of “cluster-hydrogen” and “vacancy-hydrogen” complexes.

  7. Effect of titanium nitride/titanium coatings on the stress corrosion of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Kuang; Liu, I.-Hua; Liu, Cheng; Chang, Chen-Jung; Kung, Kuan-Chen; Liu, Yen-Ting; Lee, Tzer-Min; Jou, Jin-Long

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop titanium nitride (TiN)/titanium (Ti) coating on orthodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires and to study the stress corrosion of specimens in vitro, simulating the intra-oral environment in as realistic a manner as possible. TiN/Ti coatings were formed on orthodontic NiTi wires by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The characteristics of untreated and TiN/Ti-coated NiTi wires were evaluated by measurement of corrosion potential (Ecorr), corrosion current densities (Icorr), breakdown potential (Eb), and surface morphology in artificial saliva with different pH and three-point bending conditions. From the potentiodynamic polarization and SEM results, the untreated NiTi wires showed localized corrosion compared with the uniform corrosion observed in the TiN/Ti-coated specimen under both unstressed and stressed conditions. The bending stress influenced the corrosion current density and breakdown potential of untreated specimens at both pH 2 and pH 5.3. Although the bending stress influenced the corrosion current of the TiN/Ti-coated specimens, stable and passive corrosion behavior of the stressed specimen was observed even at 2.0 V (Ag/AgCl). It should be noted that the surface properties of the NiTi alloy could determine clinical performance. For orthodontic application, the mechanical damage destroys the protective oxide film of NiTi; however, the self-repairing capacity of the passive film of NiTi alloys is inferior to Ti in chloride-containing solutions. In this study, the TiN coating was found able to provide protection against mechanical damage, while the Ti interlayer improved the corrosion properties in an aggressive environment.

  8. Bioaccumulation of ionic titanium and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in zebrafish eleutheroembryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Rainieri, Sandra; Cámara, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) for commercial applications has greatly increased over the last years and consequently the potential risk for human health. There is a growing awareness of the need to understand the behavior and influence these nanoparticles exert on the environment. Bioaccumulation serves as a good integrator to assess chemical exposure in aquatic systems and is dependent on factors, such as the exposure routes, diet and the aqueous medium. We analyzed the experimental bioaccumulation capability of ionic titanium and TiO(2) NPs by zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos through bioconcentration factors (BCFs), after 48 or 72 h of exposure. The stability of both chemical forms in an aquatic medium was fully characterized for further bioaccumulation studies. Several stabilizing agents (humic acids, soluble starch, polyethylene glycol, Na(4)P(2)O(7) and Na(2)HPO(4)) for anatase and rutile, the two allotrophs of TiO(2) NPs, were evaluated to check the evolution of the aggregation process. Around 60% of TiO(2) NPs remained disaggregated under simulated environmental conditions with the addition of 50 mg L(-1) of humic acids. However, the presence of eleutheroembryos in the exposure medium increased TiO(2) NPs aggregation in the experimental tests. The BCFs values obtained in all cases were titanium and TiO(2) NPs as non-bioaccumulative substances, under the REACH regulations.

  9. Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.

  10. Plasmonic titanium nitride nanostructures for perfect absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Li, Wen-Wei; Kinsey, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial based perfect absorber in the visible region, and investigate the performance of titanium nitride as an alternative plasmonic material. Numerical and experimental results reveal that titanium nitride performs better than gold as a plasmonic absorbing material...

  11. Electron Beam Welding to Join Gamma Titanium Aluminide Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas Joseph (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method is provided for welding two gamma titanium aluminide articles together. The method includes preheating the two articles to a welding temperature of from about 1700 F to about 2100 F, thereafter electron beam welding the two articles together at the welding temperature and in a welding vacuum to form a welded structure, and thereafter annealing the welded structure at an annealing temperature of from about 1800 F to about 2200 F, to form a joined structure.

  12. Lightweight Protective Coatings For Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Karl E.; Taylor, Patrick J.; Clark, Ronald K.

    1992-01-01

    Lightweight coating developed to protect titanium and titanium aluminide alloys and titanium-matrix composite materials from attack by environment when used at high temperatures. Applied by sol-gel methods, and thickness less than 5 micrometers. Reaction-barrier and self-healing diffusion-barrier layers combine to protect titanium alloy against chemical attack by oxygen and nitrogen at high temperatures with very promising results. Can be extended to protection of other environmentally sensitive materials.

  13. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  14. IMMUNOTOXICOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF TITANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lyapina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti is a non-essential metal element. TiO2 is used predominantly in the form of micro and nanoparticles in consumer products, including cosmetics and food. Because of its excellent biocompatibility, the trade-pure titan and its alloys are widely used as an alternative to certain metals in invasive medicine, surgery, dental medicine. Contemporary data concerning the sources of exposure to titanium, immune reactions to Ti alloys, current knowledge and perspectives of diagnosis of sensitization or allergic reactions to titanium are discussed. Conclusion: TiO2 is much more stable than pure Ti and alloys used in the implants, that should be taken into account when conducting research and analysing the results. The evidence of possible toxic effects is insufficient. It is difficult to assess the frequency of Ti allergy due to the uncertainty of diagnostic methods, but it is believed that it is very low. This is supported by the evidence that Ti and TiO2 (often as NP doesn’t penetrate through the healthy skin. Skin patch testing with currently available formulations of Ti and TiO2 has no significant value in clinical practice, and currently, it is assumed that there is no reliable method for diagnosis Ti allergy. The functional analysis of cytokine release and investigation of genetic characteristics could be useful for individual risk assessment in dental implantology. Such studies may also help to investigate separately early and late implant loss, as well as to develop new diagnostic tools.

  15. The Wear behavior of UHMWPE against Surface Modified CP-Titanium by Thermal Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Prayoga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thermal oxidation duration on hardness, roughness, and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces were investigated in this paper. The thermal oxidation treatment was done at 700 oC for 12-36 hours in an air atmosphere. The wear behavior of the UHMWPE sliding against treated thermal oxidation of the CP-titanium was tested by a pin-on-plate tribometer under lubrication of the solution of 75 % distilled water and 25 % bovine serum. The results showed that the layer of the oxide titanium was formed on the surface after being treated by the thermal oxidation for 12-36 hours. The oxide titanium layer was dominated by rutile form of TiO2, that offers an improvement of hardness and wettability of the CP-titanium surfaces. The average wear factor of the UHMWPE reduced significantly when the sliding against of the CP-titanium was modified by the thermal oxidation, and the lowest average wear factor was reached when the sliding against the 12 hour oxidized CP-titanium counterfaces.

  16. Titanium complex formation of organic ligands in titania gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Todoroki, Kenta; Setiawan, Rudi Agus; Teshima, Katsuya; Fujii, Tsuneo; Satozono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-27

    Thin films of organic ligand-dispersing titania gels were prepared from titanium alkoxide sols containing ligand molecules by steam treatment without heating. The formation of the ligand-titanium complex and the photoinduced electron transfer process in the systems were investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements. The complex was formed between the 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and titanium species, such as the titanium ion, on the titania nanoparticle surface through the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the quinolate. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing the complex due to the electron injection from the LUMO of the complex into the titania conduction band. A bidentate ligand, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), formed the complex on the titania surface through dehydration between its two hydroxyl groups of DHN and two TiOH groups of the titania. The electron injection from the HOMO of DHN to the titania conduction band was observed during light irradiation. This direct electron injection was more effective than the two-step electron injection.

  17. 21 CFR 73.575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.575 Section 73.575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide is synthetically prepared TiO2, free from admixture with other substances. (2)...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.2575 Section 73.2575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1575 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.1575 Section 73.1575 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1575 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. (1) The color additive titanium dioxide shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1195 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Titanium dioxide. 180.1195 Section 180.1195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or...

  1. 21 CFR 73.3126 - Titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Titanium dioxide. 73.3126 Section 73.3126 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3126 Titanium dioxide. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive titanium dioxide (CAS Reg. No. 13463-67-7), Color Index No. 77891,...

  2. Spin forming development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. G.

    1982-05-01

    Bendix product applications require the capability of fabricating heavy gage, high strength materials. Five commercial sources have been identified that have the capability of spin forming metal thicknesses greater than 9.5 mm and four equipment manufacturers produce machines with this capability. Twelve assemblies selected as candidates for spin forming applications require spin forming of titanium, 250 maraging steel, 17-4 pH stainless steel, Nitronic 40 steel, 304 L stainless steel, and 6061 aluminum. Twelve parts have been cold spin formed from a 250 maraging steel 8.1 mm wall thickness machine preform, and six have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick flat plate. Thirty-three Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy parts and 26 17-4 pH stainless steel parts have been hot spin formed directly from 31.8-mm-thick plate. Hot spin forming directly from plate has demonstrated the feasibility and favorable economics of this fabrication technique for Bendix applications.

  3. Photonuclear reactions on titanium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyshev, S. S. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Dzhilavyan, L. Z. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ishkhanov, B. S.; Kapitonov, I. M. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, A. A., E-mail: kuznets@depni.sinp.msu.ru; Orlin, V. N.; Stopani, K. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    The photodisintegration of titanium isotopes in the giant-dipole-resonance energy region is studied by the photon-activation method. Bremsstrahlung photons whose spectrum has the endpoint energy of 55 MeV is used. The yields and integrated cross sections are determined for photoproton reactions on the titanium isotopes {sup 47,48,49,50}Ti. The respective experimental results are compared with their counterparts calculated on the basis of the TALYS code and a combined photonucleon-reaction model. The TALYS code disregards the isospin structure of the giant dipole resonance and is therefore unable to describe the yield of photoproton reactions on the heavy titanium isotopes {sup 49,50}Ti.

  4. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  5. XPS study on the use of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to bond chitosan to a titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Holly J; Schulz, Kirk H; Bumgardner, Joel D; Walters, Keisha B

    2007-06-05

    Chitosan, a biopolymer found in the exoskeletons of shellfish, has been shown to be antibacterial, biodegradable, osteoconductive, and has the ability to promote organized bone formation. These properties make chitosan an ideal material for use as a bioactive coating on medical implant materials. In this study, coatings made from 86.4% de-acetylated chitosan were bound to implant-quality titanium. The chitosan films were bound through a three-step process that involved the deposition of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in toluene, followed by a reaction between the amine end of APTES with gluteraldehyde, and finally, a reaction between the aldehyde end of gluteraldehyde and chitosan. Two different metal treatments were examined to determine if major differences in the ability to bind chitosan could be seen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface of the titanium metal and to study the individual reaction steps. The changes to the titanium surface were consistent with the anticipated reaction steps, with significant changes in the amounts of nitrogen, silicon, and titanium that were present. It was demonstrated that more APTES was bound to the piranha-treated titanium surface as compared to the passivated titanium surface, based on the amounts of titanium, carbon, nitrogen, and silicon that were present. The metal treatments did not affect the chemistry of the chitosan films. Using toluene to bond APTES on titanium surfaces, rather than aqueous solutions, prevented the formation of unwanted polysiloxanes and increased the amount of silane on the surface for forming bonds to the chitosan films. Qualitatively, the films were more strongly attached to the titanium surfaces after using toluene, which could withstand the ultrahigh vacuum environment of XPS, as compared to the aqueous solutions, which were removed from the titanium surface when exposed to the ultrahigh vacuum environment of XPS.

  6. Selective laser melting-produced porous titanium scaffolds regenerate bone in critical size cortical bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Stok, Johan; Van der Jagt, Olav P; Amin Yavari, Saber; De Haas, Mirthe F P; Waarsing, Jan H; Jahr, Holger; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter; Verhaar, Jan A N; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2013-05-01

    Porous titanium scaffolds have good mechanical properties that make them an interesting bone substitute material for large bone defects. These scaffolds can be produced with selective laser melting, which has the advantage of tailoring the structure's architecture. Reducing the strut size reduces the stiffness of the structure and may have a positive effect on bone formation. Two scaffolds with struts of 120-µm (titanium-120) or 230-µm (titanium-230) were studied in a load-bearing critical femoral bone defect in rats. The defect was stabilized with an internal plate and treated with titanium-120, titanium-230, or left empty. In vivo micro-CT scans at 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed more bone in the defects treated with scaffolds. Finally, 18.4 ± 7.1 mm(3) (titanium-120, p = 0.015) and 18.7 ± 8.0 mm(3) (titanium-230, p = 0.012) of bone was formed in those defects, significantly more than in the empty defects (5.8 ± 5.1 mm(3) ). Bending tests on the excised femurs after 12 weeks showed that the fusion strength reached 62% (titanium-120) and 45% (titanium-230) of the intact contralateral femurs, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds. This study showed that in addition to adequate mechanical support, porous titanium scaffolds facilitate bone formation, which results in high mechanical integrity of the treated large bone defects.

  7. Bioactivity and Osseointegration of PEEK Are Inferior to Those of Titanium: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Shariq; Bds, Zohaib Khurshid; Bds, Sana Zohaib; Bds, Muhammad Sohail Zafar

    2016-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been suggested as an alternative to replace titanium as a dental implant material. However, PEEK's bioactivity and osseointegration are debatable. This review has systematically analyzed studies that have compared PEEK (or PEEK-based) implants with titanium implants so that its feasibility as a possible replacement for titanium can be determined. The focused question was: "Are the bioactivity and osseointegration of PEEK implants comparable to or better than titanium implants?" Using the key words "dental implant," "implant," "polyetheretherketone," "PEEK," and "titanium" in various combinations, the following databases were searched electronically: PubMED/MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Database. 5 in vitro and 4 animal studies were included in the review. In 4 out of 5 in vitro studies, titanium exhibited more cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, osteoblast maturation, and osteogenesis compared to PEEK; one in vitro study observed comparable outcomes regardless of the implant material. In all animal studies, uncoated and coated titanium exhibited a more osteogenic behavior than did uncoated PEEK, while comparable bone-implant contact was observed in HA-coated PEEK and coated titanium implants. Unmodified PEEK is less osseoconductive and bioactive than titanium. Furthermore, the majority of studies had multiple sources of bias; hence, in its unmodified form, PEEK is unsuitable to be used as dental implant. Significantly more research and long-term trials must focus on improving the bioactivity of PEEK before it can be used as dental implant. More comparative animal and clinical studies are warranted to ascertain the potential of PEEK as a viable alternative to titanium.

  8. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloying Antibacterial Silver Coating on Pure Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Guo, Junwen; Hang, Ruiqiang; Zou, Jiaojuan; Tang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    In order to endow the commercial pure titanium dental implant material with antibacterial property and aimed at avoiding the invalidation that is caused by bacterial adhesion on the surface, a silver coating was fabricated via double glow plasma surface alloying. The antibacterial property of the silver coating was assessed via in vitro estimation. The results showed that a continuous and compact coating was formed. The silver coating had absolute superiority in antibacterial property to raw commercial pure titanium. Double glow plasma surface alloying with silver on commercial pure titanium dental implant material could be considered as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial adhesion.

  9. Sputter deposition of pure titanium onto complete denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming. Chososei keiseishita Ti-6Al-4V gishi zenbusho eno sputter jochaku ni yoru jun Ti no hifuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Sonoda, T. (Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    In order to improve the biocompatibility of TiNi shape memory alloy and Ti-6Al-4V alloy of functional Ti base alloys which are paid attention as the dental materials or implant materials, the sputter deposition coating using bio-inactive Ti metal was studied. DC source was superior to RF source in characteristics of sputtered film and the rate of deposition. The wiping with gauze impregnated by acetone followed by the ultrasonic cleaning was more effective for the precleaning of the substrate. The sputtered Ti film thickness was nearly proportional to electric power and showed the orientation which depended highly on the heating temperature of the substrate. The complete surface of denture base of Ti-6Al-4V deformed by superplastic forming was well coated with pure Ti and the prospect of biocompatibility of this Ti alloy could be obtained. But the film deposited by the heating condition showed the different characteristics of film compared with that formed under the cooling condition, and it is necessary that the effect of this on the biocompatibility must be investigated. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Effect of whitening toothpaste on titanium and titanium alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Bordin, Angelo Rafael de Vito; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants have increased the use of titanium and titanium alloys in prosthetic applications. Whitening toothpastes with peroxides are available for patients with high aesthetic requirements, but the effect of whitening toothpastes on titanium surfaces is not yet known, although titanium is prone to fluoride ion attack. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare Ti-5Ta alloy to cp Ti after toothbrushing with whitening and conventional toothpastes. Ti-5Ta (%wt) alloy was melted in an arc melting furnace and compared with cp Ti. Disks and toothbrush heads were embedded in PVC rings to be mounted onto a toothbrushing test apparatus. A total of 260,000 cycles were carried out at 250 cycles/minute under a load of 5 N on samples immersed in toothpaste slurries. Surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were evaluated before and after toothbrushing. One sample of each material/toothpaste was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and compared with a sample that had not been submitted to toothbrushing. Surface roughness increased significantly after toothbrushing, but no differences were noted after toothbrushing with different toothpastes. Toothbrushing did not significantly affect sample microhardness. The results suggest that toothpastes that contain and those that do not contain peroxides in their composition have different effects on cp Ti and Ti-5Ta surfaces. Although no significant difference was noted in the microhardness and roughness of the surfaces brushed with different toothpastes, both toothpastes increased roughness after toothbrushing.

  11. Physical, Mechanical, and Structural Properties of Highly Efficient Nanostructured n- and p-Silicides for Practical Thermoelectric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbstein, Yaniv; Tunbridge, Jonathan; Dixon, Richard; Reece, Mike J.; Ning, Huanpo; Gilchrist, Robert; Summers, Richard; Agote, Iñigo; Lagos, Miguel A.; Simpson, Kevin; Rouaud, Cedric; Feulner, Peter; Rivera, Sergio; Torrecillas, Ramon; Husband, Mark; Crossley, Julian; Robinson, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effective highly efficient nanostructured n-type Mg2Si1- x Sn x and p-type higher manganese silicide (HMS) compositions were prepared for the development of practical waste heat generators for automotive and marine thermoelectric applications, in the frame of the European Commission (EC)-funded PowerDriver project. The physical, mechanical, and structural properties were fully characterized as part of a database-generation exercise required for the thermoelectric converter design. A combination of high maximal ZT values of ˜0.6 and ˜1.1 for the HMS and Mg2Si1- x Sn x compositions, respectively, and adequate mechanical properties was obtained.

  12. The extraction of vanadium pentoxide from waste of titanium tetrachloride by various methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инна Михайловна Гунько

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the recovery possibility of vanadium pentoxide from wastes, formed as a result of purification from impurities of technical titanium tetrachloride is researched. The purification from impurities is realized by different methods – pulp of lower titanium chlorides, hydrocarbonic reducer and cascade-rectifying purification. Usage of these purification methods leads to formation of anthropogenic wastes. The researches is shown that processing of these wastes is reasonable for the purpose of vanadium pentoxide extraction

  13. Treatment of fractures of the condylar head with resorbable pins or titanium screws: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Loukota, Richard; Kuchta, Anne; Stadlinger, Bernd; Jung, Roland; Speckl, Katrin; Schmiedekampf, Robert; Eckelt, Uwe

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to compare in vivo the stability of fixation of condylar fractures in sheep using sonic bone welding and standard titanium screws. We assessed stability of the osteosynthesis and maintenance of the height of the mandibular ramus. Height decreased slightly in both groups compared with the opposite side. The volume of the condyle increased considerably in both groups mainly because callus had formed. The results showed no significant disadvantages for pin fixation compared with osteosynthesis using titanium screws.

  14. Analysis of plastic properties of titanium alloys under severe deformation conditions in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Khaimovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a method of analysis of titanium alloys plastic properties under severe deformation conditions during milling with registration of the cutting force components Fx, Fy, Fz in real time using a special stand. The obtained constitutive relations in the form the Johnson-Cook law for stresses and dependence for a friction coefficient describing the titanium alloy VT9 plastic properties under simulate operating conditions.

  15. Influence of sulfide concentration on the corrosion behavior of titanium in a simulated oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Rino; Takemoto, Shinji; Kinoshita, Hideaki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the corrosion behavior of titanium in response to sulfide by determining the effects of sulfide concentration and pH over immersion period. Corrosion was evaluated through changes in color, glossiness, surface characterization, and titanium release. Sulfide solutions were prepared in 3 different concentrations with Na2S, each in pH unadjusted (sulfide-alkaline) and pH adjusted to 7.5 (sulfide-neutral). Titanium discoloration increased and glossiness decreased as sulfide concentration and immersion period increased in sulfide-alkaline solutions. Coral-like complexes were observed on the surface of these specimens, which became more pronounced as concentration increased. Small amounts of titanium release were detected in sulfide-alkaline solutions; however, this was not affected by immersion periods. Corrosion was indicated through considerable surface oxidation suggesting the formation of a thick oxide layer. No significant changes in color and glossiness, or titanium release were indicated for titanium specimens immersed in sulfide-neutral solutions indicating that pH had a significant effect on corrosion. Our findings suggest that a thick oxide layer on the titanium surface was formed in sulfide-alkaline solutions due to excessive oxidation.

  16. Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijie; Chen, Yupeng; Rodriguez, Jose; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Natural bone consists of hard nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in a nanostructured protein-based soft hydrogel template (ie, mostly collagen). For this reason, nanostructured HA has been an intriguing coating material on traditionally used titanium for improving orthopedic applications. In addition, helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs), newly developed materials which form through the self-assembly process of DNA base pair building blocks in body solutions, are soft nanotubes with a helical architecture that mimics natural collagen. Thus, the objective of this in vitro study was for the first time to combine the promising attributes of HRNs and nanocrystalline HA on titanium and assess osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions. Different sizes of nanocrystalline HA were synthesized in this study through a wet chemical precipitation process following either hydrothermal treatment or sintering. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that HRNs aligned with nanocrystalline HA, which indicates a high affinity between both components. Some of the nanocrystalline HA formed dense coatings with HRNs on titanium. More importantly, results demonstrated enhanced osteoblast adhesion on the HRN/nanocrystalline HA-coated titanium compared with conventional uncoated titanium. Among all the HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings tested, osteoblast adhesion was the greatest when HA nanometer particle size was the smallest. In this manner, this study demonstrated for the first time that biomimetic HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings on titanium were cytocompatible for osteoblasts and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic implants.

  17. Antibacterial titanium nano-patterned arrays inspired by dragonfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chris M.; Khanh Truong, Vi; Pham, Vy T. H.; Al Kobaisi, Mohammad; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Wang, James Y.; Juodkazis, Saulius; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2015-11-01

    Titanium and its alloys remain the most popular choice as a medical implant material because of its desirable properties. The successful osseointegration of titanium implants is, however, adversely affected by the presence of bacterial biofilms that can form on the surface, and hence methods for preventing the formation of surface biofilms have been the subject of intensive research over the past few years. In this study, we report the response of bacteria and primary human fibroblasts to the antibacterial nanoarrays fabricated on titanium surfaces using a simple hydrothermal etching process. These fabricated titanium surfaces were shown to possess selective bactericidal activity, eliminating almost 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells and about 20% of the Staphylococcus aureus cells coming into contact with the surface. These nano-patterned surfaces were also shown to enhance the aligned attachment behavior and proliferation of primary human fibroblasts over 10 days of growth. These antibacterial surfaces, which are capable of exhibiting differential responses to bacterial and eukaryotic cells, represent surfaces that have excellent prospects for biomedical applications.

  18. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping-ze; XU Zhong; HE Zhi-yong; ZHANG Gao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-l.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%.Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  19. Double Glow Plasma Surface Alloyed Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGPing-ze; XUZhong; HEZhi-yong; ZHANGGao-hui

    2004-01-01

    Conventional titanium alloy may be ignited and burnt under high temperature, high pressure and high gas flow velocity condition. In order to avoid this problem, we have developed a new kind of burn-resistant titanium alloy-double glow plasma surface alloying burn-resistant titanium alloy. Alloying element Cr, Mo, Cu are induced into the Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si substrates according to double glow discharge phenomenon, Ti-Cr ,Ti-Mo, Ti-Cu binary burn-resistant alloy layers are formed on the surface of Ti-6A1-4V and Ti-6.5Al-0.3Mo-1.5Zr-0.25Si alloys. The depth of the surface burn-resistant alloy layer can reach to above 200 microns and alloying element concentration can reach 90%. Burn-resistant property experiments reveal that if Cr concentration reach to 14%, Cu concentration reach to 12%, Mo concentration reach to 10% in the alloying layers, ignition and burn of titanium alloy can be effectively avoided.

  20. Antibacterial titanium nano-patterned arrays inspired by dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chris M; Truong, Vi Khanh; Pham, Vy T H; Al Kobaisi, Mohammad; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Wang, James Y; Juodkazis, Saulius; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2015-11-18

    Titanium and its alloys remain the most popular choice as a medical implant material because of its desirable properties. The successful osseointegration of titanium implants is, however, adversely affected by the presence of bacterial biofilms that can form on the surface, and hence methods for preventing the formation of surface biofilms have been the subject of intensive research over the past few years. In this study, we report the response of bacteria and primary human fibroblasts to the antibacterial nanoarrays fabricated on titanium surfaces using a simple hydrothermal etching process. These fabricated titanium surfaces were shown to possess selective bactericidal activity, eliminating almost 50% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells and about 20% of the Staphylococcus aureus cells coming into contact with the surface. These nano-patterned surfaces were also shown to enhance the aligned attachment behavior and proliferation of primary human fibroblasts over 10 days of growth. These antibacterial surfaces, which are capable of exhibiting differential responses to bacterial and eukaryotic cells, represent surfaces that have excellent prospects for biomedical applications.

  1. The photocatalytic and cytotoxic effects of titanium dioxide particles used in sunscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampaul, Ashti

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in sunscreens to reflect UV radiation from the skin. However, titanium dioxide as anatase and rutile crystal forms is a well-known photocatalyst. The nanoparticles are surface coated with inert inorganic oxides such as silica and alumina or organics such as organosilanes or silicone polymers and more recently, have been doped with manganese oxide. These modifications to the titanium dioxide particles are purported to prevent the production of harmful reactive oxygen species. A range of sunscreens was tested with crystal form and modification type identified via XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, XPS and SSNMR. The particle modification and crystal form determined whether the particles were inert or rapidly degraded methylene blue dye, and killed or protected cultured human epithelium cells. Novel solid state Electron Paramagnetic Resonance analysis showed that the greatest amount of superoxide anions was formed during UVA irradiation of the mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms coated with an organosilane. These particles also degraded methylene blue at a similar rate to Degussa P25, a standard uncoated titanium dioxide powder and produced an increase in UVA induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes. Double Stranded Breaks were observed extensively in cells exposed to UVA irradiated mixed anatase and rutile titanium dioxide with organosilane. A new apoptotic-like cell death mechanism may have been recognised during the UVA irradiation of animal and human cells in the presence of titanium dioxide. This research concludes that mixed anatase and rutile crystal forms of titanium dioxide coated with organosilane or dimethicone may not be safe to use in sunscreen lotions. A less harmful alternative for sunscreen formulations is the manganese doped rutile particles or the alumina coated rutile powders, both of which exhibited a protective effect on cultured epithelial cells.

  2. Structure of the local environment of titanium atoms in multicomponent nitride coatings produced by plasma-ion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysina, O. V.; Timchenko, N. A.; Koval, N. N.; Zubavichus, Ya V.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was performed to examine the X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) and the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) near the K-edge of titanium in nanocrystalline titanium nitride coatings containing additives of copper, silicon, and aluminum. Using the observation data, the structure parameters of the local environment of titanium atoms have been estimated for the coatings. According to crystallographic data, the Ti-N distance in the bulk phase of titanium nitride is 2.12 Å and the Ti-Ti distance is 3.0 Å. Nearly these values have been obtained for the respective parameters of the coatings. The presence of copper as an additive in a TiN coating increases the Ti-N distance inappreciably compared to that estimated for titanium nitride, whereas addition of silicon decreases the bond distance. It has been revealed that the copper and silicon atoms in Ti-Cu-N and Ti-Si-N coatings do not enter into the crystallographic phase of titanium nitride and do not form bonds with titanium and nitrogen, whereas the aluminum atoms in Ti-Al-N coatings form intermetallic phases with titanium and nitride phases.

  3. Vertically grown multiwalled carbon nanotube anode and nickel silicide integrated high performance microsized (1.25 μl) microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2012-02-08

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an environmentally friendly method for water purification and self-sustained electricity generation using microorganisms. Microsized MFCs can also be a useful power source for lab-on-a-chip and similar integrated devices. We fabricated a 1.25 μL microsized MFC containing an anode of vertically aligned, forest type multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with a nickel silicide (NiSi) contact area that produced 197 mA/m 2 of current density and 392 mW/m 3 of power density. The MWCNTs increased the anode surface-to-volume ratio, which improved the ability of the microorganisms to couple and transfer electrons to the anode. The use of nickel silicide also helped to boost the output current by providing a low resistance contact area to more efficiently shuttle electrons from the anode out of the device. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form....... In general, students enter design education as far more skilled observers with regards to function than form. They are, in other words, predisposed to observe objects asking ‘what is?’, rather than ‘how is?’. This habit has not only cognitive implications. It is closely intertwined with a rudimentary...

  5. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...... means that form serves both as the connective value and as the concept for reflection. In other words, form is observed as form, not anything else. The didactical challenge of teaching form as form is accentuated by students’ everyday-based pre-orientation towards function at the expense of form...... vocabulary of form. Even in cases in which teaching uses terms and phrases from everyday life (for instance, ‘intersection’), the meaning of the word cannot necessarily be transmitted directly from an ordinary vocabulary into a design context. And it is clearly a common issue for the contributions...

  6. Processing of Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the possibility of processing titanium aluminide wires by cold deformation and annealing. An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to co-deform Ti and Al. Subsequently, a two step heat treatment is applied to form the desired intermetallics, which strongly depends on the ratio of Ti and Al in the final composite and therefore on the geometry of the starting composite. In a first step, the whole amount of Al is transformed to TiAl3 by Al diffusion into Ti. This involves the formation of 12% porosity. In a second step, the complete microstructure is transformed into the equilibrium state of -TiAl and TiAl3. Using this approach, it is possible to obtain various kinds of gradient materials, since there is an intrinsic concentration gradient installed due to the swaging and bundling technique, but the processing of pure -TiAl wires is possible as well.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Activity of Graphene Supported Titanium Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Segura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin TiO2 layers grown over few-layers graphene were prepared in order to evaluate the photoinduced chemical response of this composite. Graphene was grown over copper foils by decomposition of acetylene in a standard chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Graphene was subsequently transferred to a silicon substrate, on which the titanium dioxide was grown to form a TiO2/FLG/SiO2/Si composite. The formation of each layered material was verified by Raman spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical evaluation of the resulting composite, using it as a photoanode, was accomplished with a potentiostat, a solar simulator, and a three-electrode configuration. The electrochemical response indicates that the new composite preserves the average photoactive properties of the base material and at the same time shows a singular transient response where explicit benefits seem to be derived from the FLG/TiO2 combination.

  8. Self-Assembled Antimicrobial and biocompatible copolymer films on Titanium

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation on biomedical devices such as dental implants can result in serious infections and finally in device failure. Polymer coatings which provide antimicrobial action to surfaces without compromising the compatibility with human tissue are of great interest. Copolymers of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) phosphonate are interesting candidates in this respect. These copolymers form ultrathin polycationic layers on titanium surfaces. As the cop...

  9. Surface Modification of Titanium Dental Implants by Excimer Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Radnai, M; Bereznai, M.; Pelseczi, I.; Z. Toth; Turzo, K.; Bor, Z.; Fazekas, A

    2002-01-01

    The perfect osseointegration process of the dental implants depends among other factors on the surfact characteristics of the titanium. In this study enlarged mechanical roughness was produced by a laser-based technique, in order to decrease the healing period of the implant. There are different ways of forming laser induced surface structures. In the case of mask projection techniques the surface can be modified in larger areas and surface patterns. An ArF nanosecond excimer laser was use...

  10. Antimicrobial titanium/silver PVD coatings on titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thull Roger

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilm formation and deep infection of endoprostheses is a recurrent complication in implant surgery. Post-operative infections may be overcome by adjusting antimicrobial properties of the implant surface prior to implantation. In this work we described the development of an antimicrobial titanium/silver hard coating via the physical vapor deposition (PVD process. Methods Coatings with a thickness of approximately 2 μm were deposited on titanium surfaces by simultaneous vaporisation of both metals in an inert argon atmosphere with a silver content of approximately 0.7 – 9% as indicated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. On these surfaces microorganisms and eukaryotic culture cells were grown. Results The coatings released sufficient silver ions (0.5–2.3 ppb when immersed in PBS and showed significant antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus epidermis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. At the same time, no cytotoxic effects of the coatings on osteoblast and epithelial cells were found. Conclusion Due to similar mechanical performance when compared to pure titanium, the TiAg coatings should be suitable to provide antimicrobial activity on load-bearing implant surfaces.

  11. Near-Net Shape Fabrication Using Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David M. Bowden; Dr. William H. Peter

    2012-03-31

    The use of titanium in commercial aircraft production has risen steadily over the last half century. The aerospace industry currently accounts for 58% of the domestic titanium market. The Kroll process, which has been used for over 50 years to produce titanium metal from its mineral form, consumes large quantities of energy. And, methods used to convert the titanium sponge output of the Kroll process into useful mill products also require significant energy resources. These traditional approaches result in product forms that are very expensive, have long lead times of up to a year or more, and require costly operations to fabricate finished parts. Given the increasing role of titanium in commercial aircraft, new titanium technologies are needed to create a more sustainable manufacturing strategy that consumes less energy, requires less material, and significantly reduces material and fabrication costs. A number of emerging processes are under development which could lead to a breakthrough in extraction technology. Several of these processes produce titanium alloy powder as a product. The availability of low-cost titanium powders may in turn enable a more efficient approach to the manufacture of titanium components using powder metallurgical processing. The objective of this project was to define energy-efficient strategies for manufacturing large-scale titanium structures using these low-cost powders as the starting material. Strategies include approaches to powder consolidation to achieve fully dense mill products, and joining technologies such as friction and laser welding to combine those mill products into near net shape (NNS) preforms for machining. The near net shape approach reduces material and machining requirements providing for improved affordability of titanium structures. Energy and cost modeling was used to define those approaches that offer the largest energy savings together with the economic benefits needed to drive implementation. Technical

  12. HA coating on titanium with nanotubular anodized TiO2 intermediate layer via electrochemical deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yue-qin; TAO Jie; WANG Ling; HE Ping-ting; WANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating has been prepared on titanium substrate through an electrochemical deposition approach.In order to improve the bonding strength between HA coating and Ti substrate,a well oriented and uniform titanium oxide nanotube array on the surface of titanium substrate was applied by means of anodic oxidation pre-treatment.Then the calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO4-2H2O,DCPD) coating,as the precursor of hydroxyapatite coating,was electrodeposited on the anodized Ti.At the initial stage of electro-deposition,the DCPD crystals,in nanometer precipitates,are anchored in and between the tubes.With increasing the deposition time,the nanometer DCPD crystals are connected together to form a continuous coating on titanium oxide nanotube array.Finally,the DCPD coating is converted into hydroxyapatite one simply by being immersed in alkaline solution.

  13. Compositional and structural evolution of the titanium dioxide formation by thermal oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wei-Feng; Gnaser Hubert; Fan Yong-Liang; Jiang Zui-Min; Le Yong-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Titanium oxide films were prepared by annealing DC magnetron sputtered titanium films in an oxygen ambi-ent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) sputter profiling, MCs+-mode secondary ion mass spectrometry (MCs+-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed, respectively, for the structural, com-positional and morphological characterization of the obtained films. For temperatures below 875 K, titanium films could not be fully oxidized within one hour. Above that temperature, the completely oxidized films were found to be rutile in structure. Detailed studies on the oxidation process at 925 K were carried out for the understanding of the underlying mechanism of titanium dioxide (TiO2) formation by thermal oxidation. It was demonstrated that the formation of crystalline TiO2 could be divided into a short oxidation stage, followed by crystal forming stage. Relevance of this recognition was further discussed.

  14. Facile hydrothermal preparation of titanium dioxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty Yea Sze; Huang, Nay Ming; An’amt, Mohd Nor; Marlinda, Abdul Rahman; Norazriena, Yusoff; Muhamad, Muhamad Rasat; Harrison, Ian; Lim, Hong Ngee; Chia, Chin Hua

    2012-01-01

    A simple single-stage approach, based on the hydrothermal technique, has been introduced to synthesize reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposites. The titanium dioxide nanoparticles are formed at the same time as the graphene oxide is reduced to graphene. The triethanolamine used in the process has two roles. It acts as a reducing agent for the graphene oxide as well as a capping agent, allowing the formation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution (~20 nm). Transmission electron micrographs show that the nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheet. Thermogravimetric analysis shows the nanocomposites have an enhanced thermal stability over the original components. The potential applications for this technology were demonstrated by the use of a reduced graphene oxide/titanium dioxide nanocomposite-modified glassy carbon electrode, which enhanced the electrochemical performance compared to a conventional glassy carbon electrode when interacting with mercury(II) ions in potassium chloride electrolyte. PMID:22848166

  15. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium-zirconium alloy after acid etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias J; Walter, Martin S; Lyngstadaas, S Petter; Wintermantel, Erich; Haugen, Håvard J

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium-zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (pzirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium.

  16. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elzbieta Dlugon; Wojciech Simka; Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta; Wiktor Niemiec; Jaroslaw Markowski; Marzena Szymanska; Marta Blazewicz

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports results of the modification of titanium surface with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The Ti samples were covered with CNTs via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Prior to EPD process, CNTs were functionalized by chemical treatment. Mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of CNT-covered Ti samples were studied and compared to those obtained for unmodified titanium surface. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface topography. To determine micromechanical characteristics of CNT-covered metallic samples indentation tests were conducted. Throughout electrochemical studies were performed in order to characterize the impact of the coating on the corrosion of titanium substrate. In vitro experiments were conducted using the human osteoblast NHOst cell line. CNT layers shielded titanium from corrosion gave the surface-enhanced biointegrative properties. Cells proliferated better on the modified surface in comparison to unmodified titanium. The deposited layer enhanced cell adhesion and spreading as compared to titanium sample.

  17. Atomically precise self-organization of perfectly ordered gadolinium–silicide nanomeshes controlled by anisotropic electromigration-induced growth on Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ie-Hong, E-mail: ihhong@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Institute of Optoelectronics and Solid State Electronics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tsung-Ming; Tsai, Yung-Feng [Institute of Optoelectronics and Solid State Electronics, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • This work provides a clear understanding of the template-directed self-organization mechanism of a perfectly ordered Gd-silicide nanomesh on a double-domain Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 and identifies that the anisotropic electromigration is the driving force governing the two-dimensional self-ordering of the atomically precise silicide nanomesh. • The ability to self-organize a variety of the perfectly ordered silicide nanomeshes on Si(1 1 0) with atomic precision represents a promising route for the optimal bottom-up fabrication of well-defined crossbar nanocircuits, which opens the possibility for their utilizations in crossbar nanoarchitectures and Si-based magnetoelectronic nanodevices. - Abstract: Detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS) studies for the effects of thermal migration and electromigration on the growth of gadolinium–silicide nanomeshes on double-domain Si(1 1 0)-16 × 2 surfaces are presented to identify the driving force for the self-organization of a perfectly ordered silicide nanomesh on Si(1 1 0). STM results clearly show that the anisotropic electromigration effect is crucial for the control of the spatial uniformity of a self-ordered silicide nanomesh on Si(1 1 0). This two-dimensional self-ordering driven by the anisotropic-electromigration-induced growth allows the sizes and positions of crossed nanowires to be precisely controlled within a variation of ±0.2 nm over a mesoscopic area, and it can be straightforwardly applied to other metals (e.g., Au and Ce) to grow a variety of highly regular silicide nanomeshes for the applications as nanoscale interconnects. Moreover, the STS results show that the anisotropic electromigration-induced growth causes the metallic horizontal nanowires to cross over the semiconducting oblique nanowires, which opens the possibility for the atomically precise bottom-up fabrication of well-defined crossbar nanoarchitectures.

  18. Titanium - ceramic restoration: How to improve the binding between titanium and ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Titanium alloys has been used as an alternative to nickel-chromium alloys for metal-ceramic restorations because of its good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. This indicated that it was possible to design coping according to standards established for metal-ceramics. However, titanium is chemically reacting strongly with gaseous elements which causes problems when ceramics are fused to titanium. Purpose: To provide information about improving the bonding between titanium and ceramic. Review: Titanium has two crystal modifications, the close-packed hexagonal (α structure, up to 880° C, and above this temperature the bodycentered cubic (β structure. The principal problems is the extensive dissolution of oxygen resulting in thick, oxygen-rich titanium layers called α-case that harms the bonding of ceramic to titanium and the great mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion of conventional ultra-low fusing ceramic. Methods have been developed for fusing ceramic to titanium like processing methods, the used of ultra-low fusing titanium ceramic, bonding agent, and protocol for ceramic bonding to titanium. Conclusion: Titanium and titanium alloys, based on their physical and chemical properties suitable for titanium-ceramic restorations, but careful selection of processing methods, ceramic materials, laboratory skill and strict protocol for ceramic bonding to titanium are necessary to improve the bonding between titanium and ceramic.Latar Belakang: Logam campur titanium telah dipakai sebagai salah satu bahan alternatif untuk logam nikel-krom pada pembuatan restorasi keramik taut logam karena mempunyai biokompatibilitas dan sifat mekanik yang baik. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa logam titanium dapat dipakai untuk pembuatan koping logam berdasarkan standar yang dipakai untuk pembuatan restorasi keramik taut logam. Meskipun, secara kimiawi logam titanium bereaksi dengan elemen-elemen gas yang menyebabkan masalah pada perlekatan

  19. A New Construction Material-Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR resulted in important proposals for the pro- duction of gallic acid and other preparations. AT-3 tita’ 4um...titanium with various elements, looks at phase transformation in certain alloy systems~and separateI alloys used in Industry. The articles give the...titanium alloys. Questions of the use of titanium and its alloys in various areas of the national econcmy are given. The work was written for scientists

  20. Production of titanium from ilmenite: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohli, R.

    1981-12-01

    The general principles for beneficiation of titanium ores are reviewed and the specific processes used in individual units in various countries are discussed. This is followed by a critical evaluation of various current and potential reduction methods for the production of titanium metal from the processed concentrates. Finally, the report outlines a research program for the development of a commercially viable alternative method for the production of titanium metal.

  1. Investigation of Infiltrated and Sintered Titanium Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-04-01

    taneive investigations in this field during the ’time preceding this contract, and concentrated their effort® On titanium carbide as the’ refractospy...component • The Basic work of this investigation consisted of? X, KpälfiCÄVtloh and refinement of cOmätrcial grades of titanium carbide hj...facilitate a comparison between the different methods» an investigation was then carried out with composite bodies* consisting of titanium carbide asd

  2. Brazing titanium structures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressly, H.B.

    1977-03-01

    A vacuum furnace brazing process using Ag-5A1-0.5Mn brazing alloy has been developed for joining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V structures. Lap-shear strengths of the braze joints and the effects of the brazing thermal cycle on the tensile and bending properties of mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V alloy sheet are reported. Nondestructive test methods were evaluated for detecting defects in these braze joints.

  3. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  4. 2005 Xi'an International Titanium Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ First Circular Call for Papers In the 98' Xi'an International Titanium Conference (XITC'98), more than 300 representatives of the research and industry circles from 12 countries were gathered in Xi'an to exchange the new progress on titanium R&D and industrialization. XITC'98played an important role in promoting titanium R&D for the world, especially for China. In order to let the people engaged in titanium industry know more Chinese and the world titanium industry, promote the exchange and cooperation of the world titanium circle, we decide to hold the 2005 Xi'an International titanium Conference (XITC'05), which will be held on October 16~19, 2005 in Xi'an, China. The conference will provide a forum on the exchange and discussion of new ideas and achievements related to the aspects of titanium technology and industry in recent years. At the same time, the 12th China National Conference on Titanium will be held on October 19~23, 2005 in the same place after XITC'05.

  5. Appcelerator Titanium patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Pollentine, Boydlee

    2013-01-01

    The book takes a step-by-step approach to help you understand CommonJS and Titanium architecture patterns, with easy to follow samples and plenty of in-depth explanations If you're an existing Titanium developer or perhaps a new developer looking to start off your Titanium applications "the right way", then this book is for you. With easy to follow examples and a full step-by-step account of architecting a sample application using CommonJS and MVC, along with chapters on new features such as ACS, you'll be implementing enterprise grade Titanium solutions in no time. You should have some JavaSc

  6. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  7. Raman scattering in transition metal compounds: Titanium and compounds of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Ederer, D.L.; Shu, T. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The transition metal compounds form a very interesting and important set of materials. The diversity arises from the many states of ionization the transition elements may take when forming compounds. This variety provides ample opportunity for a large class of materials to have a vast range of electronic and magnetic properties. The x-ray spectroscopy of the transition elements is especially interesting because they have unfilled d bands that are at the bottom of the conduction band with atomic like structure. This group embarked on the systematic study of transition metal sulfides and oxides. As an example of the type of spectra observed in some of these compounds they have chosen to showcase the L{sub II, III} emission and Raman scattering in some titanium compounds obtained by photon excitation.

  8. Electrochemical characterization of cast titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhuo; Shafer, Ty; Watanabe, Ikuya; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2003-01-01

    A reaction layer forms on cast titanium alloy surfaces due to the reaction of the molten metal with the investment. This surface layer may affect the corrosion of the alloy in the oral environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro corrosion behavior of cast titanium alloys. ASTM Grade 2 CP titanium, Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys were cast into a MgO-based investment. Experiments were performed on castings (N=4) with three surface conditions: (A) as-cast surface after sandblasting, (B) polished surface after removal of the reaction layer, and (C) sandblasted surface after removal of the reaction layer. Open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization, and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed in aerated (air+10% CO(2)) modified Tani-Zucchi synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was subsequently conducted in the same medium deaerated with N(2)+10% CO(2) gas 2 h before and during the experiment. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and corrosion rate (I(CORR)) were calculated. Numerical results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis at alpha=0.05. The OCP stabilized for all the specimens after 6 x 10(4)s. Apparent differences in anodic polarization were observed among the different surfaces for all the metals. A passivation region followed by breakdown and repassivation were seen on specimens with surfaces A and C. An extensive passive region was observed on all the metals with surface B. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences in OCP, R(p), I(CORR) or break down potential for each of the three surfaces among all the metals. The Mann-Whitney test showed significantly lower R(P) and higher I(CORR) values for surface C compared to the other surfaces. Results indicate that the surface condition has more effect on corrosion of these alloys than the surface reaction layer. Within the oxidation potential range of the oral cavity, all the metal

  9. Bacterial adherence to anodized titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremarch, C Perez-Jorge; Tanoira, R Perez; Arenas, M A; Matykina, E; Conde, A; De Damborenea, J J; Gomez Barrena, E; Esteban, J, E-mail: cperemarch@fjd.es

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Staphylococcus sp adhesion to modified surfaces of anodized titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Surface modification involved generation of fluoride-containing titanium oxide nanotube films. Specimens of Ti-6Al-4V alloy 6-4 ELI-grade 23- meets the requirements of ASTM F136 2002A (AMS 2631B class A1) were anodized in a mixture of sulphuric/hydrofluoric acid at 20 V for 5 and 60 min to form a 100 nm-thick porous film of 20 nm pore diameter and 230 nm-thick nanotube films of 100 nm in diameter. The amount of fluorine in the oxide films was of 6% and of 4%, respectively. Collection strains and six clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were studied. The adherence study was performed using a previously published protocol by Kinnari et al. The experiments were performed in triplicates. As a result, lower adherence was detected for collection strains in modified materials than in unmodified controls. Differences between clinical strains were detected for both species (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test), although global data showed similar results to that of collection strains (p<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Adherence of bacteria to modified surfaces was decreased for both species. The results also reflect a difference in the adherence between S. aureus and S. epidermidis to the modified material. As a conclusion, not only we were able to confirm the decrease of adherence in the modified surface, but also the need to test multiple clinical strains to obtain more realistic microbiological results due to intraspecies differences.

  10. Synthesis of titanium sapphire by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpeth, L.D.; McCallum, J.C.; Nugent, K.W. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1998-06-01

    Since laser action was first demonstrated in titanium sapphire (Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in 1982, it has become the most widely used tunable solid state laser source. The development of a titanium sapphire laser in a waveguide geometry would yield an elegant, compact, versatile and highly tunable light source useful for applications in many areas including optical telecommunications. We are investigating whether ion implantation techniques can be utilised to produce suitable crystal quality and waveguide geometry for fabrication of a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waveguide laser. The implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by subsequent thermal annealing under various conditions has been investigated as a means of forming the waveguide and optimising the fraction of Ti ions that have the correct oxidation state required for laser operation. A Raman Microprobe is being used to investigate the photo-luminescence associated with Ti{sup 3+} ion. Initial photoluminescence measurements of ion implanted samples are encouraging and reveal a broad luminescence profile over a range of {approx} .6 to .9 {mu}m, similar to that expected from Ti{sup 3+}. Rutherford Backscattering and Ion Channelling analysis have been used to study the crystal structure of the samples following implantation and annealing. This enables optimisation of the implantation parameters and annealing conditions to minimise defect levels which would otherwise limit the ability of light to propagate in the Ti:Al{sub 2O}3 waveguide. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Effect of Superhydrophobic Surface of Titanium on Staphylococcus aureus Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifu Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the systemic antibiotics prophylaxis, orthopedic implants still remain highly susceptible to bacterial adhesion and resulting in device-associated infection. Surface modification is an effective way to decrease bacterial adhesion. In this study, we prepared surfaces with different wettability on titanium surface based on TiO2 nanotube to examine the effect of bacterial adhesion. Firstly, titanium plates were calcined to form hydrophilic TiO2 nanotube films of anatase phase. Subsequently, the nanotube films and inoxidized titaniums were treated with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane (PTES, forming superhydrophobic and hydrophobic surfaces. Observed by SEM and contact angle measurements, the different surfaces have different characteristics. Staphylococcus aureus (SA adhesion on different surfaces was evaluated. Our experiment results show that the superhydrophobic surface has contact angles of water greater than 150∘ and also shows high resistance to bacterial contamination. It is indicated that superhydrophobic surface may be a factor to reduce device-associated infection and could be used in clinical practice.

  12. [Experimental study of osseointegration of zirconium and titanium dental implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, O B; Doktorov, A A; D'iakova, S V; Denisov-Nikol'skiĭ, Iu I; Grötz, K A

    2005-01-01

    In an experiment performed on pigs, methods of light and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the interaction of zirconium and titanium dental implants with bone 6 months following their insertion. Distinct features of integration of both implant types with bone structures were detected. Sites of direct contact of bone structures with metal were found to undergo constant remodeling according to biochemical and metabolic conditions in each zone of an implant surface. Statistically the degree of interactive properties of zirconium implants significantly exceeded similar parameter for titanium screws. Along the perimeter of the zones of bone contact with zirconium implants greater numbers of forming and formed bone areas were revealed as compared to the zones of bone contact with titanium implants, where erosion lacunae were more numerous. The complex of research methods used in this study have not revealed distinct changes in the structure of osteocytes, located in immediate proximity to the metal surface in comparison with more distant sites in the bone.

  13. Titanium nitride deposition in titanium implant alloys produced by powder metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V.A.R.; Cairo, C.A.A.; Faria, J., E-mail: vinicius@iae.cta.br, E-mail: ccairo@iae.cta.br, E-mail: juliacfaria@gmail.com [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AMR/CTA/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial. Divisao de Materiais; Lemos, T.G., E-mail: tgorla@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Galvani, E.T., E-mail: eduardotgalvani@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (CTA/ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial

    2009-07-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is an extremely hard material, often used as a coating on titanium alloy, steel, carbide, and aluminum components to improve wear resistance. Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) is a form of deposition in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum, producing a thin film in a substrate. In this work are presented results of TiN deposition in targets and substrates of Ti (C.P.) and Ti-{sup 13}Nb-{sup 13}Zr obtained by powder metallurgy. Samples were produced by mixing of hydride metallic powders followed by uniaxial and cold isostatic pressing with subsequent densification by sintering between 900°C up to 1400 °C, in vacuum. The deposition was carried out under nitrogen atmosphere. Sintered samples were characterized for phase composition, microstructure and microhardness by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Vickers indentation, respectively. It was shown that the samples were sintered to high densities and presented homogeneous microstructure, with ideal characteristics for an adequate deposition and adherence. The film layer presented a continuous structure with 15μm. (author)

  14. Corrosion of titanium in phosphoric acid at 250 ℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-shu

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion studies of a commercially pure titanium in phosphoric acid solutions at 250 ℃ were carried out by immersion test in an autoclave. At lower phosphoric acid concentration (0.1 mol/L), the corrosion was mild. At higher phosphoric concentration (1.0 mol/L) corrosion, a 25 μm-thick white corrosion products layer was formed on the samples after 24 h immersion. XRD analysis shows that the white layer consists mainly of titanium oxide phosphate hydrate (π-Ti2O(PO4)2·2H2O). The corrosion product shows the morphology of fiber bundles. A thermodynamic analysis of the formation of the corrosion product is presented.

  15. Trace Carbon in Biomedical Beta-Titanium Alloys: Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D.; Ebel, T.; Yan, M.; Qian, M.

    2015-08-01

    Owing to their relatively low Young's modulus, high strength, good resistance to corrosion, and excellent biocompatibility, β-titanium (Ti) alloys have shown great potential for biomedical applications. In β-Ti alloys, carbon can exist in the form of titanium carbide (TiC x ) as well as interstitial atoms. The Ti-C binary phase diagram predicts a carbon solubility value of 0.08 wt.% in β-Ti, which has been used as the carbon limit for a variety of β-Ti alloys. However, noticeable grain boundary TiC x particles have been observed in β-Ti alloys containing impurity levels of carbon well below the predicted 0.08 wt.%. This review focuses its attention on trace carbon (≤0.08 wt.%) in biomedical β-Ti alloys containing niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), and it discusses the nature and precipitation mechanism of the TiC x particles in these alloys.

  16. Electrochemical Properties of HA Coated Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungho; Zakiyuddin, Ahmad; Lee, Kwangmin

    2016-02-01

    CP Grade II titanium was first anodized in order to form TiO2 nanotubes, and then the TiO2 nano- tubes were coated with hydroxyapatite using the sol-gel method. The electrochemical properties of pure Ti, anodized TiO2 nanotubes, and HA-coated TiO2 nanotubes were investigated using poten- tiodynamic polarization and impedance tests. The sol-gel-coated HA nanoparticles were observed to sufficiently penetrate into the TiO2 nanotubes, and the polarization resistance of the HA-coated titanium nanotubes was higher than that of those that had just been anodized. In conclusion, the HA coating on the TiO2 nanotubes provides improved electrochemical properties and can be effective in overcoming the negative influence of passive TiO2 films.

  17. The titanium-coated polymeric membranes for hydrogen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, Y.K.; Wate, S.; Acharya, N.K.; Garg, J.C. [University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, (India). Physics Department

    2002-09-01

    The polymeric membranes are commercially used for gas separation. The important parameters for their commercial application are good permeabilities and permselectivities. These parameters have a strong dependence on the free volume properties of the material. The membranes alone are generally not suitable when high product purity and recovery is desired. However, the titanium-coated polymeric membranes can solve the problem. Hydrogen molecules when diffuse through metals like titanium and palladium, break into atomic form and recombine after recovery. The binding of metallic clusters on the polymeric material is improved partially by heat treatment, however, good results are obtained by dissolving the coated membranes and recasting them. The permeability of hydrogen in comparison to air has been found to increase 2-5 times. (author)

  18. Investigation of corrosion and ion release from titanium dental implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ektessabi, A.M. (Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)); Mouhyi, J.; Louvette, P.; Sennerby, L.

    1997-01-01

    A thin passive titanium dioxide, in its stoichiometric form, has a very high corrosion resistance, but the same conclusion can not be made on corrosion resistance of a surface which is not stoichiometrically titanium dioxide, or even a surface which is a composition of various elements and oxides. In practice, the implants available on the market have an oxide surface contaminated with other elements. The aim of this paper is to correlate clinical observations that show the deterioration of Ti made implants after certain period of insertion in the patients, and in vitro corrosion resistance of Ti implants with surface passive oxide layer. For this purpose, surface analysis of the retrieved failed implants were performed and in vivo animal experiments with relation to ion release from implants were done. Finally, on the basis of the clinical observation, in vivo animal test, and in vitro electrochemical corrosion test, a model is proposed to explain the corrosion and ion release from the Ti implant. (author)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav

    2013-06-01

    A set of layered ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate was prepared by solvothermal treatment of amorphous titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate with corresponding 1-alkanols, 1,ω-alkanediols, 1-aminoalkanes, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and 1,ω-amino alcohols and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Whereas alkyl chains with one functional group form bilayers tilted to the layers, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and most of 1,ω-alkanediols form bridges connecting the adjacent layers. In the case of amino alcohols, the alkyl chains form bilayer and either hydroxyl or amino group is used for bonding. This simple method for the synthesis of ester and amide derivatives does not require preparation of acid chloride derivative as a precursor or pre-intercalation with alkylamines and can be used also for the preparation of ester and amide derivatives of titanium carboxyethylphosphonate and zirconium carboxymethylphosphonate.

  20. Spin-forming Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  1. Osteoblast growth behavior on porous-structure titanium surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Yuan; Ding Siyang; Peng Hui; Lu Shanming; Wang Guoping [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Xia Lu, E-mail: shelueia@yahoo.com.cn [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Wang Peizhi, E-mail: wangpzi@sina.com [Research Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-arc oxidation technology formed a porous feature on titanium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This porous surface accelerated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared with smooth surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenesis-related proteins and genes were up regulated by this porous surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is anticipated that micro-arc oxidation surface could enhance osteoblastic activity and bone regeneration. - Abstract: A bioavailable surface generated by nano-technology could accelerate implant osteointegration, reduce healing time and enable implants to bear early loading. In this study, a nano-porous surface of titanium wafers was modified using micro-arc oxidation technique; surface of smooth titanium was used as control group. Surface characteristic was evaluated by investigating morphology, roughness and hydrophilicity of titanium wafers. In vitro studies, osteoblastic adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity, as well as gene and protein expressions relative to mineralization were assayed. Our results showed that a crater-liked nano-porous surface with greater roughness and better hydrophilicity were fabricated by micro-arc oxidation. It was further indicated that nano-porous surface could enhance adhesion, proliferation and ALP activity of osteoblasts compared with smooth surfaces. In addition, gene and protein expression of collagen-I, osteocalcin and osteopontin were also obviously increased. In summary, micro-arc oxidized techniques could form an irregular nano-porous morphology on implant surface which is favorable to improve osteoblastic function and prospected to be a potent modification of dental implant.

  2. Biomimetic helical rosette nanotubes and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium for improving orthopedic implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lijie Zhang1, Yupeng Chen2, Jose Rodriguez3, Hicham Fenniri3, Thomas J Webster11Division of Engineering, 2Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: Natural bone consists of hard nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA in a nanostructured protein-based soft hydrogel template (ie, mostly collagen. For this reason, nanostructured HA has been an intriguing coating material on traditionally used titanium for improving orthopedic applications. In addition, helical rosette nanotubes (HRNs, newly developed materials which form through the self-assembly process of DNA base pair building blocks in body solutions, are soft nanotubes with a helical architecture that mimics natural collagen. Thus, the objective of this in vitro study was for the first time to combine the promising attributes of HRNs and nanocrystalline HA on titanium and assess osteoblast (bone-forming cell functions. Different sizes of nanocrystalline HA were synthesized in this study through a wet chemical precipitation process following either hydrothermal treatment or sintering. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that HRNs aligned with nanocrystalline HA, which indicates a high affinity between both components. Some of the nanocrystalline HA formed dense coatings with HRNs on titanium. More importantly, results demonstrated enhanced osteoblast adhesion on the HRN/nanocrystalline HA-coated titanium compared with conventional uncoated titanium. Among all the HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings tested, osteoblast adhesion was the greatest when HA nanometer particle size was the smallest. In this manner, this study demonstrated for the first time that biomimetic HRN/nanocrystalline HA coatings on titanium were cytocompatible for osteoblasts and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic implants.Keywords: helical rosette nanotubes

  3. Material morphological characteristics in laser ablation of alpha case from titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liyang; Wang, Zengbo; Li, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Alpha case (an oxygen enriched alloy layer) is commonly formed in forged titanium alloys during the manufacturing process and it reduces the service life of the materials. This layer is normally removed mechanically or chemically. This paper reports the feasibility and characteristics of using a short pulsed laser to remove oxygen-enriched alpha case layer from a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrate. The material removal rate, i.e., ablation rate, and ablation threshold of the alpha case titanium were experimentally determined, and compared with those for the removal of bulk Ti6Al4V. Surface morphologies of laser processed alpha case titanium layer, especially that of cracks at different ablated depths, were carefully examined, and also compared with those for Ti6Al4V. It has been shown that in the alpha case layer, laser ablation has always resulted in crack formation while for laser ablation of alpha case free Ti6Al4V layers, cracking was not present. In addition, the surface is rougher within the alpha case layer and becomes smoother (Ra - 110 nm) once the substrate Ti-alloy is reached. The work has demonstrated that laser is a feasible processing tool for removing alpha case titanium, and could also be used for the rapid detection of the presence of alpha case titanium on Ti6Al4V surfaces in aerospace applications.

  4. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies. PMID:27021687

  5. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity analysis of plasma sprayed coatings on titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zia Ur; Shabib, Ishraq; Haider, Waseem

    2016-10-01

    In the realm of biomaterials, metallic materials are widely used for load bearing joints due to their superior mechanical properties. Despite the necessity for long term metallic implants, there are limitations to their prolonged use. Naturally, oxides of titanium have low solubilities and form passive oxide film spontaneously. However, some inclusion and discontinuity spots in oxide film make implant to adopt the decisive nature. These defects heighten the dissolution of metal ions from the implant surface, which results in diminishing bio-integration of titanium implant. To increase the long-term metallic implant stability, surface modifications of titanium alloys are being carried out. In the present study, biomimetic coatings of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite and titanium were applied to the surface of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V. Surface morphology and surface chemistry were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in order to study their electrochemical behavior. Moreover, cytotoxicity analysis was conducted for osteoblast cells by performing MTS assay. It is concluded that both hydroxyapatite and titanium coatings enhance corrosion resistance and improve cytocompatibility.

  6. Dense and porous titanium substrates with a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A.A., E-mail: aantunesr@yahoo.com.br [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Balestra, R.M. [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, M.N. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Peripolli, S.B. [Materials Metrology Division, National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Quality, No. 50 Nossa Senhora das Gracas Street, Building 3, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, M.C. [Polytechnic Institute of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State University, s/n, Alberto Rangel Street, 28630-050 Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, L.C. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68505, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, M.V. [Powder Technology Laboratory, Materials Processing and Characterization Division, National Institute of Technology, No. 82 Venezuela Avenue, Room 602, 20081-312 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A biomimetic coating method with simplified solution is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium substrates are submitted to chemical and heat treatments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium substrates are coated with biocompatible calcium phosphate phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simplified solution shows potential to be applied as a coating technique. - Abstract: The present work studied a biomimetic method using a simplified solution (SS) with calcium and phosphorus ions for coating titanium substrates, in order to improve their bioactivity. Commercially pure titanium dense sheet, microporous and macroporous titanium samples, both produced by powder metallurgy, were treated in NaOH solution followed by heat-treating and immersed in SS for 7, 14 or 21 days. The samples characterization was performed by quantitative metallographic analysis, confocal scanning optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and low angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed coatings with calcium phosphate precipitation in all samples, with globular or plate-like morphology, typical of hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate, respectively, indicating that the solution (SS) has potential for coating titanium substrates. In addition, the different surfaces of substrates had an effect on the formed calcium phosphate phase and thickness of coatings, depending on the substrate type and imersion time in the simplified solution.

  7. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. R.; Gemini-Piperni, S.; Travassos, R.; Lemgruber, L.; C. Silva, R.; Rossi, A. L.; Farina, M.; Anselme, K.; Shokuhfar, T.; Shahbazian-Yassar, R.; Borojevic, R.; Rocha, L. A.; Werckmann, J.; Granjeiro, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of ‘Trojan-horse’ internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  8. Trojan-Like Internalization of Anatase Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles by Human Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A R; Gemini-Piperni, S; Travassos, R; Lemgruber, L; Silva, R C; Rossi, A L; Farina, M; Anselme, K; Shokuhfar, T; Shahbazian-Yassar, R; Borojevic, R; Rocha, L A; Werckmann, J; Granjeiro, J M

    2016-03-29

    Dentistry and orthopedics are undergoing a revolution in order to provide more reliable, comfortable and long-lasting implants to patients. Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been used in dental implants and total hip arthroplasty due to their excellent biocompatibility. However, Ti-based implants in human body suffer surface degradation (corrosion and wear) resulting in the release of metallic ions and solid wear debris (mainly titanium dioxide) leading to peri-implant inflammatory reactions. Unfortunately, our current understanding of the biological interactions with titanium dioxide nanoparticles is still very limited. Taking this into consideration, this study focuses on the internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on primary bone cells, exploring the events occurring at the nano-bio interface. For the first time, we report the selective binding of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and proteins from cell culture medium to anatase nanoparticles that are extremely important for nanoparticle internalization and bone cells survival. In the intricate biological environment, anatase nanoparticles form bio-complexes (mixture of proteins and ions) which act as a kind of 'Trojan-horse' internalization by cells. Furthermore, anatase nanoparticles-induced modifications on cell behavior (viability and internalization) could be understand in detail. The results presented in this report can inspire new strategies for the use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in several regeneration therapies.

  9. Effect of preoxidation on the bond strength of titanium and porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, K M; Nagda, S J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of preoxidation on porcelain titanium- bond strength and the effect of paste bonder (adhesive) on the titanium porcelain bond strength. 11 specimens of commercially pure titanium (26 x 7 x 3 mm) were prepared by different heat treatments in programmable dental furnace. Identification of the oxides formed on the metal surface was conducted with an X-Ray diffractometer with CuKalpha radiation. Vickers hardness numbers were determine. Additional 50 specimens of commercially pure titanium were used to bond with low fusing porcelain. The bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. X-ray diffraction analysis of the surface of pure titanium revealed that the relative peak intensity of alpha -Ti decreased and that of TiO2 increased with increasing firing temperature. The Vickers hardness number decreased initially as the temperature increased but it increased remarkably above 900 degrees C & was harder in air than vacuum. The tensile shear bond strength was highest in the green stage i.e. without preoxidation of metal, and decreased above 900 degrees C, and was the lowest in the group without paste bonder application. The difference in bond strengths was statistically highly significant for all groups. Preoxidation under vacuum before porcelain firing can effectively improve bonding. The adhesive provided with the low fusing porcelain helps in the bond between titanium & porcelain.

  10. [Experimental research on porcelain fused to the surface of pure titanium and titanium alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Ai, S; Xu, J

    1995-07-01

    Titanium material has been widely used in prosthodontics since the end of 1980s. However, the research on porcelain fused to the surfaces of titanium material was quite few. This article introduced the technological process of low-fusing dental porcelain--Ceratin fused to pure titanium and titanium alloys. The values of the bond strength of Ceratin and titanium substrates were obtained by shearing test with INSTRON Model-1185. The average value of the shearing strength between TA2 and Ceratin was 31. 01MPa. The corresponding value between TC4 and Ceratin was 33.73MPa. The interface between Ceratin and titanium substrate was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this research proposed that it is hopeful that Ceratin is used as special procelain with titanium material.

  11. Production Cycle for Large Scale Fission Mo-99 Separation by the Processing of Irradiated LEU Uranium Silicide Fuel Element Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hadi Ali Sameh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium silicide fuels proved over decades their exceptional qualification for the operation of higher flux material testing reactors with LEU elements. The application of such fuels as target materials, particularly for the large scale fission Mo-99 producers, offers an efficient and economical solution for the related facilities. The realization of such aim demands the introduction of a suitable dissolution process for the applied U3Si2 compound. Excellent results are achieved by the oxidizing dissolution of the fuel meat in hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. The resulting solution is directly behind added to an over stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide solution. Uranium and the bulk of fission products are precipitated together with the transuranium compounds. The filtrate contains the molybdenum and the soluble fission product species. It is further treated similar to the in-full scale proven process. The generated off gas stream is handled also as experienced before after passing through KOH washing solution. The generated alkaline fluoride containing waste solution is noncorrosive. Nevertheless fluoride can be selectively bonded as in soluble CaF2 by addition of a mixture of solid calcium hydroxide calcium carbonate to the sand cement mixture used for waste solidification. The generated elevated amounts of LEU remnants can be recycled and retargeted. The related technology permits the minimization of the generated fuel waste, saving environment, and improving processing economy.

  12. Crystal Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Lightly Vanadium-Substituted Higher Manganese Silicides (Mn1-x V x )Si γ )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuzuru; Hamada, Haruki; Hayashi, Kei; Yubuta, Kunio

    2016-09-01

    To further enhance the thermoelectric (TE) properties of higher manganese silicides (HMSs), dissipation of layered precipitates of MnSi phase as well as optimization of hole carrier concentration are critical. We have prepared a lightly vanadium-substituted solid solution of HMS, (Mn1-x V x )Si γ , by a melt growth method. A 2% substitution of manganese with vanadium is found to dissipate MnSi precipitates effectively, resulting in a substantial increase in the electrical conductivity from 280 S/cm to 706 S/cm at 800 K. The resulting TE power factor reaches 2.4 mW/K2-m at 800 K, more than twice that of the V-free sample. The total thermal conductivity did not change significantly with increasing x owing to a reduction of the lattice contribution. As a consequence, the dimensionless figure of merit zT of the melt-grown samples increased from 0.26 ± 0.01 for x = 0 to 0.59 ± 0.01 for x = 0.02 at around 800 K.

  13. Oxidation and interdiffusion behavior of a germanium-modified silicide coating on an Nb-Si-based alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-long; Wang, Wan; Zhou, Chun-gen

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the interdiffusion behavior of Ge-modified silicide coatings on an Nb-Si-based alloy substrate, the coating was oxidized at 1250°C for 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 h. The interfacial diffusion between the (Nb,X)(Si,Ge)2 (X = Ti, Cr, Hf) coating and the Nb-Si based alloy was also examined. The transitional layer is composed of (Ti,Nb)5(Si,Ge)4 and a small amount of (Nb,X)5(Si,Ge)3. With increasing oxidation time, the thickness of the transitional layer increases because of the diffusion of Si from the outer layer to the substrate, which obeys a parabolic rate law. The parabolic growth rate constant of the transitional layer under oxidation conditions is 2.018 μm·h-1/2. Moreover, the interdiffusion coefficients of Si in the transitional layer were determined from the interdiffusion fluxes calculated directly from experimental concentration profiles.

  14. Removing biofilms from microstructured titanium ex vivo: a novel approach using atmospheric plasma technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rupf

    Full Text Available The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra: 1.96 µm were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (n = 5 each. Plasma treatment of biofilms was carried out ex vivo using a microwave-driven pulsed plasma source working at temperatures from 39 to 43°C. Following plasma treatment, one group was air/water spray treated before re-treatment by second plasma pulses. Vital microorganisms on the titanium surfaces were identified by contact culture (Rodac agar plates. Biofilm presence and bacterial viability were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of titanium surfaces and attached biofilms was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Total protein amounts of biofilms were colorimetrically quantified. Untreated and air/water treated biofilms served as controls. Cold plasma treatment of native biofilms with a mean thickness of 19 µm (24 h to 91 µm (72 h covering the microstructure of the titanium surface caused inactivation of biofilm bacteria and significant reduction of protein amounts. Total removal of biofilms, however, required additional application of air/water spray, and a second series of plasma treatment. Importantly, the microstructure of the titanium discs was not altered by plasma treatment. The combination of atmospheric plasma and non-abrasive air/water spray is applicable for complete elimination of oral biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants and may enable new routes for the therapy of periimplant disease.

  15. Removing biofilms from microstructured titanium ex vivo: a novel approach using atmospheric plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Stefan; Idlibi, Ahmad Nour; Marrawi, Fuad Al; Hannig, Matthias; Schubert, Andreas; von Mueller, Lutz; Spitzer, Wolfgang; Holtmann, Henrik; Lehmann, Antje; Rueppell, Andre; Schindler, Axel

    2011-01-01

    The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra): 1.96 µm) were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each) to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (n = 5 each). Plasma treatment of biofilms was carried out ex vivo using a microwave-driven pulsed plasma source working at temperatures from 39 to 43°C. Following plasma treatment, one group was air/water spray treated before re-treatment by second plasma pulses. Vital microorganisms on the titanium surfaces were identified by contact culture (Rodac agar plates). Biofilm presence and bacterial viability were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of titanium surfaces and attached biofilms was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Total protein amounts of biofilms were colorimetrically quantified. Untreated and air/water treated biofilms served as controls. Cold plasma treatment of native biofilms with a mean thickness of 19 µm (24 h) to 91 µm (72 h) covering the microstructure of the titanium surface caused inactivation of biofilm bacteria and significant reduction of protein amounts. Total removal of biofilms, however, required additional application of air/water spray, and a second series of plasma treatment. Importantly, the microstructure of the titanium discs was not altered by plasma treatment. The combination of atmospheric plasma and non-abrasive air/water spray is applicable for complete elimination of oral biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants and may enable new routes for the therapy of periimplant disease.

  16. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  17. Durability of polyimide to titanium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akram, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Bhowmik, S.; Ernst, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are usually bonded together using a high temperature resistant polyimide or epoxy adhesives. Such adhesives can withstand temperatures from 200°C to300°C. Earlier research work indicates that Surface modification of titanium with mechanical treatment and atmospheric pressure

  18. Titanium tetrachloride burns to the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chitkara, D K; McNeela, B. J.

    1992-01-01

    We present eight cases of chemical burns of the eyes from titanium tetrachloride, an acidic corrosive liquid. However it causes severe chemical burns which have a protracted course and features more akin to severe alkali burns. Injuries related to titanium tetrachloride should be treated seriously and accordingly appropriate management is suggested.

  19. Wettability studies of topologically distinct titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Mukta; Patil-Sen, Yogita; Junkar, Ita; Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V; Lorenzetti, Martina; Iglič, Aleš

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical implants made of titanium-based materials are expected to have certain essential features including high bone-to-implant contact and optimum osteointegration, which are often influenced by the surface topography and physicochemical properties of titanium surfaces. The surface structure in the nanoscale regime is presumed to alter/facilitate the protein binding, cell adhesion and proliferation, thereby reducing post-operative complications with increased lifespan of biomedical implants. The novelty of our TiO2 nanostructures lies mainly in the high level control over their morphology and roughness by mere compositional change and optimisation of the experimental parameters. The present work focuses on the wetting behaviour of various nanostructured titanium surfaces towards water. Kinetics of contact area of water droplet on macroscopically flat, nanoporous and nanotubular titanium surface topologies was monitored under similar evaporation conditions. The contact area of the water droplet on hydrophobic titanium planar surface (foil) was found to decrease during evaporation, whereas the contact area of the droplet on hydrophobic nanorough titanium surfaces practically remained unaffected until the complete evaporation. This demonstrates that the surface morphology and roughness at the nanoscale level substantially affect the titanium dioxide surface-water droplet interaction, opposing to previous observations for microscale structured surfaces. The difference in surface topographic nanofeatures of nanostructured titanium surfaces could be correlated not only with the time-dependency of the contact area, but also with time-dependency of the contact angle and electrochemical properties of these surfaces.

  20. Appcelerator Titanium business application development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Presented in easy to follow, step by step recipes, this guide is designed to lead you through the most important aspects of application design.Titanium developers who already have a basic knowledge of working with Appcelerator Titanium but want to further develop their knowledge for use with business applications

  1. Titanium minerals of placer deposits as a source for new materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Olga; Ponaryadov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Heavy mineral deposits are a source of the economic important element titanium, which is contained in ilmenite and leucoxene. The mineral composition of placer titanium ore and localization pattern of ore minerals determine their processing and enriching technologies. New data on the mineralogy of titanium ores from modern coastal-marine placer in Stradbroke Island, Eastern Australia, and Pizhma paleoplacer in Middle Timan, Russia, and materials on their basis are presented. The samples were studied by the following methods: optical-mineralogical (stereomicroscope MBS-10, polarizing microscope POLAM L-311), semiquantitative x-ray phase analysis (x-ray difractometer X'Pert PRO MPD). Besides microprobe (VEGA 3 TESCAN) and x-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF-1800 Shimadzu) were used. By the mineralogical composition ores of the both deposits are complex: enriched by valuable minerals. Apart from main ore concentrates it is possible to obtain accompanying nonmetallic products. This will increase the efficiency of deposit exploitation. Ilmenite dominates in ore sands of Stradbroke Island, and leucoxene dominates in the ores of the Pizhma titanium deposit. Australian ilmenite and its altered varieties are mainly characterized by a very high MnO content (from 5.24 to 11.08 %). The irregular distribution of iron oxides, titanium and manganese in the altered ilmenite was shown in the paper. E.g., in the areas of substitution of ilmenite by pseudorutile the concentrations of the given elements are greatly various due to various ratios of basic components in each grain. Their ratios are equal in the area of rutile evolution. Moreover, the high content of gold, diamonds and also rare earth elements (REE) and rare metals (their forms are not determined) were studied. We found native copper on the surface of minerals composing titanium-bearing sandstones of the Pizhma placer. According to the technological features of rocks (density and magnetic) studied placers are close. The

  2. Characterization of bioactive ceramic coatings prepared on titanium implants by micro-arc oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is an enhanced chemical technology in an electrolyte medium to obtain coating structures on valve-metal surfaces. Titanium oxide films obtained by MAO in the sodium phosphate electrolyte were investigated. The films were composed mainly of TiO2 phases in the form of anatase and rutile and enriched with Na and P elements at the surface. Their apatite-inducing ability was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF). When immersing in SBF for over 30 d, a preferential carbonated-hydroxyapatite was formed on the surfaces of the films, which suggests that the MAO-treated titanium has a promising positive biological response.

  3. Stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M. J.; Feeney, J. A.; Beck, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    In the light of research material published up to May 1970, the current understanding of the experimental variables involved in the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of titanium and its alloys is reviewed. Following a brief summary of the metallurgy and electrochemistry of titanium alloys, the mechanical, electrochemical, and metallurgical parameters influencing SCC behavior are explored with emphasis on crack growth kinetics. Macro- and microfeatures of fractures are examined, and it is shown that many transgranular SCC failures exhibit morphological and crystallographic features similar to mechanical cleavage failures. Current SCC models are reviewed with respect to their ability to explain the observed SCC behavior of titanium and its alloys. Possible methods for eliminating or minimizing stress corrosion hazards in titanium or titanium alloy components are described.

  4. [Use of titanium alloys for medical instruments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, R N; Chirkov, V K; Levin, M V

    1977-01-01

    On the ground of an analysis into properties of titanium and its alloys the fields of their possible utilization for making various medical instruments are proposed. Because of their insufficient hardness and wear-resistance the titanium alloys cannot be recommended for making medical instruments with thin cutting edges. For the reasons of their insufficient strength, low wear-resistance and substandard modulus of elasticity, it is inexpedient to use titanium alloys in making many types of clamping medical instruments. Nor is it advisable to employ titanium alloys in handles of the instruments, for this may lead to a contact corrosion of their working parts. The use of titanium alloys is recommended for making bone-joining members, retracting medical instruments, of the spatula and speculum types, some kinds of non-magnetic pincers and ultrasonic medical instruments.

  5. Titanium processing using selective laser sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Nicole Renee

    1999-11-01

    A materials development workstation specifically designed to test high temperature metal and metal-matrix composites for direct selective laser sintering (SLS) was constructed. Using the workstation, a titanium-aluminum alloy was sintered into single layer coupons to demonstrate the feasibility of producing titanium components using direct SLS. A combination of low temperature indirect SLS and colloidal infiltration was used to create "partially-stabilized" zirconia molds for titanium casting. The base material, stabilized zirconia mixed with a copolymer, was laser sintered into the desired mold geometry. The copolymer was pyrolyzed and replaced by a zirconia precursor. The flexural strength and surface roughness of the SLS-produced casting molds were sufficient for titanium casting trials. A laser-scanned human femur was used as the basis for a mold design and technology demonstration. Titanium castings produced from SLS molds exhibited typical as-cast microstructures and an average surface roughness (Ra) of 8 mum.

  6. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  7. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials for photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Zhe; Green, Michael; Just, Michael; Li, Yang Yang; Chen, Xiaobo

    2017-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been long regarded as one of the more promising photocatalysts to remove environmental pollution and to generate hydrogen from water under sunlight irradiation via photocatalysis. TiO2 is environmentally benign and thus is considered a ‘green’ catalyst. In this review we present a short introduction to the physical and electronic properties of TiO2, its photocatalytic mechanisms, and some recent examples of various TiO2 materials used for photocatalysis; these examples include 0, 1, 2, 3D, faceted, defected, composited, and hydrogenated TiO2 materials.

  8. Improvement and Experiment of the Reamer in Vibra Cutter Against Wave Edge of Titanium Sheet Alloy Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Duan-yang; ZUO Hong-fu; ZHENG Bai-zhan; XU Tong

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the influencing factors of part quality making of sheet alloy of titanium by vibra cutter, the shape of upper reamer is set as cylinder and wedge-shaped form, and the lower reamer as plain and hemicycle form, and its main structural parameters are defined as well. Then it is validated further that such improved vibra cutter reamer can be used to process curve-edged parts of titanium alloy sheet. The experimental result shows that the titanium alloy sheet parts processed by above equipment have no sharpen angles for convex parts and evident crevasse of concave-edged part. In summary, such improvement can eliminate the free-waved edge and improve the manufacture quality of titanium alloy sheet parts greatly.

  9. 钛聚合物的应用进展%Prowess in Application of Titanium Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文毓; 施浩兴

    2011-01-01

    钛是一种耐腐蚀性非常优良的金属材料,但是,由于钛金属材料价格昂贵,一直影响其在一般工业特别是民用工业领域的推广应用.如果将钛金属与有机高分子材料“嫁接”成合金态高聚物,再以涂层的形式推广应用到工业金属结构的防腐蚀领域,既可以替代不锈钢,解决工业腐蚀的难题,又能大大降低制造成本,提高企业的经济效益.对国内外钛聚合物的发展动向、有机钛特种防腐蚀涂料的研究、钛聚合物的应用等几方面进行了综述,希望对钛聚合物的应用与进展有所了解.%Titanium is a kind of metal material which has very good corrosion resistance. However, due to the expensive cost of titanium metal materials, the applications of titanium in general industry are affected much, especially in civilian industry. If titanium metal and organic polymer ma terial is "grafted'' into a alloy-form polymer, and then applied in the fields of industrial metal structures anti-corrosion in the form of coatings instead of stainless steel, both the corrosion and cost which are industrial problems can be solved, further more, the economic efficiency of enterprises is im proved. The development at home and abroad, studies on organic titanium special anticorrosion coating and applications of titanium polymer are sum marized in order to understand the applications and research progress of titanium polymer.

  10. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of titanium oxide and sulfated titanium oxide obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Esteban Benito

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2 and sulfated titanium oxide (TiO2-SO4(2- obtained by thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride. Titanium hydroxide synthesized by this method was impregnated with a 1 N H2SO4 solution, to give amounts of sulfate ions (SO4(2- of 3 and 7 wt%. The synthesized samples were dried at 120 °C during 24 h and then calcined for 3 h at 400 °C. Thermal analyses, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, infrared spectroscopy, potentiometric titration with n-butylamine, U.V.-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the materials. The results of physicochemical characterization revealed that a mixture of crystalline structures, anatase, brookite and rutile developed in the titanium oxide, stabilizing the anatase structure in the sulfated titanium oxides, and coexisting with a small amount of brookite structure. The synthesized mesoporous materials developed specific surface areas between 62 and 70 m² g-1, without detecting an important influence of sulfation on this parameter. The presence of sulfate ions improved the acidity of titanium oxide and modified the characteristics of light absorption in the 425-600 nm region, which suggests the possibility of using these materials in reactions assisted by visible light.

  11. Characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by powder metallurgy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Kumar, M., E-mail: sel_mcet@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi-642003 (India); Chandrasekar, P.; Chandramohan, P. [School of Engineering, Professional Group of Institutions, Coimbatore-641662 (India); Mohanraj, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Info Institute of Engineering, Coimbatore-641107 (India)

    2012-11-15

    In this work, a detailed characterisation of titanium-titanium boride composites processed by three powder metallurgy techniques, namely, hot isostatic pressing, spark plasma sintering and vacuum sintering, was conducted. Two composites with different volume percents of titanium boride reinforcement were used for the investigation. One was titanium with 20% titanium boride, and the other was titanium with 40% titanium boride (by volume). Characterisation was performed using X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro analysis - energy dispersive spectroscopy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The characterisation results confirm the completion of the titanium boride reaction. The results reveal the presence of titanium boride reinforcement in different morphologies such as needle-shaped whiskers, short agglomerated whiskers and fine plates. The paper also discusses how mechanical properties such as microhardness, elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio are influenced by the processing techniques as well as the volume fraction of the titanium boride reinforcement. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-TiB composites were processed by HIP, SPS and vacuum sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The completion of Ti-TiB{sub 2} reaction was confirmed by XRD, SEM and EPMA studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness and elastic properties of Ti-TiB composites were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Processing techniques were compared with respect to their microstructure.

  12. Corrosion of Titanium Alloys in High Temperature Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, J. J.; Blackwood, D. J. [National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    Materials of choice for offshore structures and the marine industry have been increasingly favoring materials that offer high strength-to-weight ratios. One of the most promising families of light-weight materials is titanium alloys, but these do have two potential Achilles' heels: (i) the passive film may not form or may be unstable in low oxygen environments, leading to rapid corrosion; and (ii) titanium is a strong hydride former, making it vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement (cracking) at high temperatures in low oxygen environments. Unfortunately, such environments exist at deep sea well-heads; temperatures can exceed 120 °C, and oxygen levels can drop below 1 ppm. The present study demonstrates the results of investigations into the corrosion behavior of a range of titanium alloys, including newly developed alloys containing rare earth additions for refined microstructure and added strength, in artificial seawater over the temperature range of 25 °C to 200 °C. Tests include potentiodynamic polarization, crevice corrosion, and U-bend stress corrosion cracking.

  13. Nano-engineered titanium for enhanced bone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Karan; Atkins, Gerald J.; Findlay, David M.; Losic, Dusan

    2013-09-01

    Current treatment of a number of orthopaedic conditions, for example fractures, bone infection, joint replacement and bone cancers, could be improved if mechanical support could be combined with drug delivery. A very challenging example is that of infection following joint replacement, which is very difficult to treat, can require multiple surgeries and compromises both the implant and the patient's wellbeing. An implant capable of providing appropriate biomechanics and releasing drugs/proteins locally might ensure improved healing of the traumatized bone. We propose fabrication of nanoengineered titanium bone implants using bioinert titanium wires in order to achieve this goal. Titanium in the form of flat foils and wires were modified by fabrication of titania nanotubes (TNTs), which are hollow self-ordered cylindrical tubes capable of accommodating substantial drug amounts and releasing them locally. To further control the release of drug to over a period of months, a thin layer of biodegradable polymer PLGA poly(lactic-coglycolic acid) was coated onto the drug loaded TNTs. This delayed release of drug and additionally the polymer enhanced bone cell adhesion and proliferation.

  14. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  15. Ion adsorption on titanium surfaces exposed to a physiological solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauchiger, L.; Taborelli, M.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Descouts, P.

    1999-04-01

    Changes in surface properties of titanium platelets exposed to a physiological solution (Hanks' solution) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy for surface chemical composition analysis and by Scanning Force Microscopy for surface topography measurements. An adsorbed layer of calcium-phosphate was spontaneously formed on the titanium oxide surface and its thickness as well as the Ca/P ratio was found to increase with immersion time. After 71 days of immersion, the Ca/P ratio corresponded to that of brushite or monetite and after 6 months it was close to the value of hydroxyapatite. A higher Ca/P ratio was found for adsorption from solutions where the pH had been increased. After adsorption, the grains of the evaporated titanium substrate appeared slightly smoother because they were covered by a thin layer of calcium phosphate. A comparison between immersion in a Hanks' solution and solutions containing only phosphates or only calcium ions, showed that the presence of phosphates is necessary for the adsorption of Ca-ions.

  16. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulac, B.L.; Edwards, G.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding, Joining, and Coatings Research; Burt, R.P. [Alumax Technical Center, Golden, CO (United States); David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    When gas-tungsten arc welded, iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure which is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Titanium inoculation effectively refined the fusion zone microstructure in iron aluminide weldments, but the inoculated weldments had a reduced fracture strength despite the presence of a finer microstructure. The weldments fractured by transgranular cleavage which nucleated at cracked second phase particles. With titanium inoculation, second phase particles in the fusion zone changed shape and also became more concentrated at the grain boundaries, which increased the particle spacing in the fusion zone. The observed decrease in fracture strength with titanium inoculation was attributed to increased spacing of second phase particles in the fusion zone. Current research has focused on the weldability of zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides. Preliminary work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has shown that zirconium and carbon additions affect the weldability of the alloy as well as the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the weldments. A sigmajig hot cracking test apparatus has been constructed and tested at Colorado School of Mines. Preliminary characterization of hot cracking of three zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides, each containing a different total concentration of zirconium at a constant zirconium/carbon ratio of ten, is in progress. Future testing will include low zirconium alloys at zirconium/carbon ratios of five and one, as well as high zirconium alloys (1.5 to 2.0 atomic percent) at zirconium/carbon ratios of ten to forty.

  17. Intermetallic and titanium matrix composite materials for hypersonic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, B.; Surdon, G.; Colin, C. [Dassault Aviation, Saint-Cloud (France)]|[Aersopatiale Space & Defence, St Medard en Jalles (France)

    1995-09-01

    As part of the French Program of Research and Technology for Advanced Hypersonic Propulsion (PREPHA) which was launched in 1992 between Aerospatiale, Dassault Aviation, ONERA, SNECMA and SEP, an important work is specially devoted to the development of titanium and intermetallic composite materials for large airframe structures. At Dassault Aviation, starting from a long experience in Superplastic Forming - Diffusion Bonding (SPF-DB) of titanium parts, the effort is brought on the manufacturing and characterization of composites made from Timet beta 21S or IMI 834 foils and Textron SCS6 fiber fabrics. At `Aersopatiale Espace & Defence`, associated since a long time about intermetallic composite materials with university research laboratories, the principal effort is brought on plasma technology to develop the gamma titanium aluminide TiAl matrix composite reinforced by protected silicon carbide fibers (BP SM 1240 or TEXTRON SCS6). The objective, is to achieve, after 3 years of time, to elaborate a medium size integrally stiffened panel (300 x 600 sq mm).

  18. Preparation of biocompatible structural gradient coatings on pure titanium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Guang-xin; ZHANG Ren-ji; YAN Yong-nian

    2004-01-01

    In order to overcome the poor osteo-inductive properties of titanium implant, some methods have been used. The efforts to improve implant biocompatibility and durability by applying a hybrid technique of composite oxidation (pre-anodic and micro-arc oxidation) and hydrothermal treatment were described. Pure titanium was used as the substrate material. An oxalic acid was used as the electrolyte for the pre-anodic oxidation. A calcium and phosphate salt solution was acted as the electrolyte of micro-arc oxidation and the common pure water was used for hydrothermal treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the coatings. The results show that a compact TiO2 film can be made by pre-anodic oxidation, which is effective as chemical barriers against the in-vivo release of metal ions from the implants. A porous TiO2 coating can be produced by micro-arc oxidation on titanium plate, which is beneficial to bone tissue growth and enhancing anchorage of implant to bone. De-calcium HA can be formed on the coating using hydrothermal treatment, which is similar with the primary component of bone and has a very good osteo-inductivity.The porous gradient titania coating made by the hybrid oxidation and hydrothermal treatment should show good biocompatibility in the environment of the human body.

  19. Isothermal and Near Isothermal Processing of Titanium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal and near isothermal forging are specialized metal processing techniques which are used for producing critical aeroengine components out of advanced materials such as titanium alloys. The process can be used to produce net / near net shape components leading to optimum utilization of materials. As titanium alloys are highly sensitive to temperature and strain rate, these processes help to deform them under slow and controlled strain rates.  Further, these processes can be combined with other conventional and non conventional metal forming processes to refine the microstructure. For example, multiaxial isothermal forging coupled with pack rolling can be used to produce thin sheets out of titanium alloys with submicron grain size. The refined structure exhibits superplastic characteristics at low temperatures and high strain rates. This lower temperature superplastic characteristic can be exploited to establish technologies for producing various components. The paper throws light on the capabilities of isothermal forging process and its variants.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(1, pp.72-80, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.321

  20. Electropolymerization of pyrrole on silanized polycrystalline titanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekhalif, Z. [Laboratory of Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Surfaces, University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: zineb.mekhalif@fundp.ac.be; Cossement, D.; Hevesi, L.; Delhalle, J. [Laboratory of Chemistry and Electrochemistry of Surfaces, University of Namur (FUNDP), Rue de Bruxelles, 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2008-04-30

    In this work is reported the silanization of titanium substrates and subsequent polymerization of pyrrole on the resulting substrates. First, titanium substrates were modified by n-hexyltrichlorosilane (HTCS) and 6-(1'-pyrrolyl)-n-hexyltrichlorosilane (PyHTCS). The corresponding self-assembled monolayers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. They were found to be densely packed. Second, pyrrole was electrochemically polymerized on silanized titanium substrates. Chronoamperometry was used to study the growth of polypyrrole films. The polymer films were characterized by qualitative peel tests, cyclic voltametry and scanning electron spectroscopy. Polypyrrole grown from PyHTCS was found to adherent as compared to HTCS modified and bare substrates. Cyclic voltametry indicated that polymer films formed from PyHTCS have an oxidation peak potential located at higher values than HTCS-modified and bare substrates. Moreover, the films grown on the three types of substrates were found to be equally uniform. Finally, we improved the electrochemical properties of the polypyrrole films using a two-step process, electroreticulation of the PyHTCS monolayers followed by a pyrrole polymerization.

  1. Anodisation Increases Integration of Unloaded Titanium Implants in Sheep Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick J. Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spark discharge anodic oxidation forms porous TiO2 films on titanium implant surfaces. This increases surface roughness and concentration of calcium and phosphate ions and may enhance early osseointegration. To test this, forty 3.75 mm × 13 mm titanium implants (Megagen, Korea were placed into healed mandibular postextraction ridges of 10 sheep. There were 10 implants per group: RBM surface (control, RBM + anodised, RBM + anodised + fluoride, and titanium alloy + anodised surface. Resonant frequency analysis (RFA was measured in implant stability quotient (ISQ at surgery and at sacrifice after 1-month unloaded healing. Mean bone-implant contact (% BIC was measured in undemineralised ground sections for the best three consecutive threads. One of 40 implants showed evidence of failure. RFA differed between groups at surgery but not after 1 month. RFA values increased nonsignificantly for all implants after 1 month, except for controls. There was a marked difference in BIC after 1-month healing, with higher values for alloy implants, followed by anodised + fluoride and anodised implants. Anodisation increased early osseointegration of rough-surfaced implants by 50–80%. RFA testing lacked sufficient resolution to detect this improvement. Whether this gain in early bone-implant contact is clinically significant is the subject of future experiments.

  2. Hydrogen interactions with polycrystalline and with deposited titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azoulay, A. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel); Shamir, N. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel); Fromm, E. [Max-Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Szokefalvi-Nagy, A. [Max-Planck Institute fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Mintz, M.H. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel)]|[Nuclear Research Center-Negev, PO Box 9001, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    1997-02-15

    The room temperature kinetics of hydrogen chemisorption and adsorption on polycrystalline and on deposited (sputter-deposited and evaporation-deposited) titanium surfaces were studied. Measurements of hydrogen surface accumulation were performed in a combined surface analyses system incorporating direct recoils spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). There, three different types of surface cleaning procedure were applied: heat-flashing, sputtering and sputter-deposition of titanium on a polycrystalline titanium substrate. The surface chemisorption kinetics obtained for the deposited samples were compared with the total kinetics of the gas phase consumption, performed in a volumetric Wagener system. From this comparison it was possible to distinguish between topmost surface chemisorption and subsurface (or bulk) absorption kinetics. It was concluded that, for all types of surface studied, hydrogen chemisorbed according to a Langmuir-type random two-sites chemisorption model, with high (close to unity) zero-coverage sticking probabilities. The only difference between these surfaces was in their roughness factors, which increased going from the heat-flashed, through the sputtered, to the deposited surfaces. Following the initial stage of a chemisorbed surface layer formation, constant-rate absorption of hydrogen proceeded over a very wide range of exposures (greater than 10{sup 4} Langmuirs). The accommodation probability of hydrogen during this linear stage was about 10{sup -2}. It is possible that this absorption process is controlled by the chemisorption of the H{sub 2} on the surface hydride phase, formed by the earlier hydrogen chemisorption. (orig.)

  3. Osseointegration of titanium implants in the tibia. Electron microscopy of biopsies from 4 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, C M; Boivin, G; Obrant, K J; Linder, L

    1994-06-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of bone tissue around implants of pure titanium inserted into the tibia in 4 patients with arthrosis or rheumatoid arthritis. Three main appearances of the interface were noted. First, a close contact between titanium and calcified bone with living osteocytes inside the newly-formed bone was observed in all samples. Secondly, a close contact was also seen between the implant and osteoid, the newly formed collagenous matrix being either uncalcified or calcifying. Thirdly, a loose extracellular matrix with fibrillar and nonfibrillar materials was sometimes observed between bone mineral and implant. There was no inflammatory reaction at the interface. We concluded that the titanium implants were osseointegrated, but the calcification of the bone tissue was not complete even after 20 months. However, mineralization of osteoid and living bone cells revealed the presence of an active tissue.

  4. Functionalizing Titanium Disilicide Nanonets with Cobalt Oxide and Palladium for Stable Li Oxygen Battery Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiahui; Cheng, Qingmei; Xie, Jin; Dong, Qi; Wang, Dunwei

    2015-10-07

    Li oxygen (Li-O2) batteries promise high energy densities but suffer from challenges such as poor cycling lifetime and low round-trip efficiencies. Recently, the instability of carbon cathode support has been recognized to contribute significantly to the problems faced by Li-O2 batteries. One strategy to address the challenge is to replace carbon materials with carbon-free ones. Here, we present titanium silicide nanonets (TiSi2) as such a new material platform for this purpose. Because TiSi2 exhibits no oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) or oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activities, catalysts are required to promote discharge and recharge reactions at reduced overpotentials. Pd nanoparticles grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were observed to provide the bifunctionalities of ORR and OER. Their adhesion to TiSi2 nanonets, however, was found to be poor, leading to drastic performance decay due to Pd detachments and aggregation. The problem was solved by adding another layer of Co3O4, also prepared by ALD. Together, the Pd/Co3O4/TiSi2 combination affords the desired functionalities and stability. Li-O2 test cells that lasted more than 126 cycles were achieved. The reversible formation and decomposition of Li2O2 was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ferrocenium back-titration, and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results provide a new material platform for detailed studies of Li-O2 operations for better understanding of the chemistries involved, which is expected to help pave the way toward practical Li-O2 battery realizations.

  5. Titanium in Engine Valve Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, J. E.; Sherman, A. M.; Bapna, M. R.

    1987-03-01

    Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and favorable high temperature mechanical properties. Still, their relatively high cost has discouraged consideration for widespread use in automotive components. Recent demands for increased fuel economy have led to the consideration of these alloys for use as valve train materials where higher costs might be offset by improvements in performance and fuel economy. Lighter weight valve train components permit the use of lower spring loads, thus reducing friction and increasing fuel economy. Camshaft friction measurements made on a typical small displacement engine indicate that a twoto-four percent increase in fuel economy can be achieved. Valve train components are, however, subject to a severe operating environment, including elevated temperatures, sliding wear and high mechanical loads. This paper discusses the details of alloy and heat treatment selection for optimizing valve performance. When properly manufactured, titanium valves have been shown to withstand very stringent durability testing, indicating the technical feasibility of this approach to fuel economy improvement.

  6. [Ossiculoplasty with KURZ titanium prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D-Q; Morel, N; Dumas, G; Troussier, J; Lavieille, J-P; Schmerber, S

    2005-09-01

    Report the functional and anatomic results of ossicular reconstruction by titanium prosthesis. Retrospective chart reviews were performed for 111 patients who had undergone titanium ossicular implants between November 1998 and 2002 (61 PORP, 50 TORP). The anatomical and audiometric data were analyzed on average at 3 and 20 months. At 20 months, the improvement of air-bone-gap mean was 12.7 dB with better results at low frequencies. The global success rate was 66% (PORP 77%, TORP 52%). It decreased significantly in the open techniques. Extrusion rate was low (2/111) and the labyrinthization rate was 3.6%. Twenty patients required a surgical revision (18%). In 9 patients, the prosthesis was too short. At long-term follow-up, the gains were stable in 60 patients, improved in 32 patients and worsened in 19 patients. The success rate is higher in the group of the PORP with the closed technique. The stability of the TORP in open technique still remains problematic. In all cases, the risk of extrusion requires a large cartilage graft recovering the plate of the prosthesis. The high rate of luxation (9/111 prosthesis too short) has led us to increase slightly the length of the prosthesis (+1.22 mm mean).

  7. High-performance scaffolds on titanium surfaces: Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization promoted by a globular fibrinogen layer through cell-autonomous BMP signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horasawa, Noriko, E-mail: horasawa@po.mdu.ac.jp [Department of Dental Materials, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Yamashita, Teruhito [Institute for Oral Science, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan); Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Biochemistry, Matsumoto Dental University, 1780 Hiro-oka Gobara, Shiojiri, Nagano 399-0781 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Titanium has been widely used as a dental implant material. However, it takes several months for the implant body to bind with the jawbone. To develop new bioactive modification on titanium surfaces to achieve full osseointegration expeditiously, we used fibrinogen and fibronectin as bioactive scaffolds on the titanium plate, which are common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. We analyzed the features of the surface of ECM-modified titanium plates by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. We also evaluated the effect of ECM modification on promoting the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts on these surfaces. Fibrinogen had excellent adsorption on titanium surfaces even at low concentrations, due to the binding ability of fibrinogen via its RGD motif. The surface was composed of a fibrinogen monolayer, in which the ratio of β-sheets was decreased. Osteoblast proliferation on ECM-modified titanium surface was significantly promoted compared with titanium alone. Calcification on the modified surface was also accelerated. These ECM-promoting effects correlated with increased expression of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) by the osteoblasts themselves and were inhibited by Noggin, a BMP inhibitor. These results suggest that the fibrinogen monolayer-modified titanium surface is recognized as bioactive scaffolds and promotes bone formation, resulting in the acceleration of osseointegration. - Highlights: • Fibrinogen had an excellent adsorption on titanium at low concentrations. • Fibrinogen on titanium formed composite layer with a decrease in β-sheet structure. • Osteoblast proliferation and calcification on the ECM-modified titanium plates were significant. • These effects of fibrinogen were increased of BMPs by osteoblasts themselves. • The scaffolds of fibrinogen on titanium might accelerate osseointegration.

  8. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with nanonetwork structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Helin Xing,1,2 Satoshi Komasa,3 Yoichiro Taguchi,4 Tohru Sekino,5 Joji Okazaki3 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 2Graduate School of Dentistry (Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 3Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 4Department of Periodontology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan; 5Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan Background: Titanium surfaces play an important role in affecting osseointegration of dental implants. Previous studies have shown that the titania nanotube promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteogenic differentiation. Only relatively recently have the effects of titanium surfaces with other nanostructures on osteogenic differentiation been investigated. Methods: In this study, we used NaOH solutions with concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 M to develop a simple and useful titanium surface modification that introduces the nanonetwork structures with titania nanosheet (TNS nanofeatures to the surface of titanium disks. The effects of such a modified nanonetwork structure, with different alkaline concentrations on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs, were evaluated. Results: The nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures induced by alkali etching markedly enhanced BMMSC functions of cell adhesion and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and other cell behaviors such as proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix deposition, and mineralization were also significantly increased. These effects were most pronounced when the concentration of NaOH was 10.0 M. Conclusion: The results suggest that nanonetwork structures with TNS nanofeatures improved BMMSC proliferation and induced BMMSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, the surfaces formed

  9. Surface Modification of Porous Titanium Granules for Improving Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaji, Zahra Gorgin; Houshmand, Behzad; Faghihi, Shahab

    The highly porous titanium granules are currently being used as bone substitute material and for bone tissue augmentation. However, they suffer from weak bone bonding ability. The aim of this study was to create a nanostructured surface oxide layer on irregularly shaped titanium granules to improve their bioactivity. This could be achieved using optimized electrochemical anodic oxidation (anodizing) and heat treatment processes. The anodizing process was done in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte at an optimized condition of 60 V for 3 hours. The anodized granules were subsequently annealed at 450°C for 1 hour. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface structure and morphology of the granules. The in vitro bioactivity of the samples was evaluated by immersion of specimens in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. The human osteoblastic sarcoma cell line, MG63, was used to evaluate cell viability on the samples using dimethylthiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated the formation of amorphous nanostructured titanium oxide after anodizing, which transformed to crystalline anatase and rutile phases upon heat treatment. After immersion in SBF, spherical aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate were formed on the surface of the anodized sample, which turned into crystalline hydroxyapatite on the surface of the anodized annealed sample. No cytotoxicity was detected among the samples. It is suggested that anodic oxidation followed by heat treatment could be used as an effective surface treatment procedure to improve bioactivity of titanium granules implemented for bone tissue repair and augmentation.

  10. Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends of 1111-like silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides MCuXAs (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Si, Ge) from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, V.V.; Shein, I.R. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ivanovskii, A.L., E-mail: ivanovskii@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides of Ti, Zr, Hf are probed from first principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bulk moduli of HfCuSiAs and HfCuGeAs are the largest among all 1111-like phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding is analyzed. - Abstract: The tetragonal (s.g. I4/nmm; no. 129) silicide arsenide ZrCuSiAs is well known as a structural type of the broad family of so-called 1111-like quaternary phases which includes now more than 150 representatives. These materials demonstrate a rich variety of outstanding physical properties (from p-type transparent semiconductors to high-temperature Fe-based superconductors) and attracted a great interest as promising candidates for a broad range of applications. At the same time, the data about the electronic and elastic properties of the ZrCuSiAs phase itself, as well as of related silicide arsenides and germanide arsenides are still very limited. Here for a series of six isostructural and isoelectronic 1111-like phases which includes both synthesized (ZrCuSiAs, HfCuSiAs, ZrCuGeAs, and HfCuGeAs) and hypothetical (TiCuSiAs and TiCuGeAs) materials, systematical studies of their structural, elastic, electronic properties and stability trends are performed by means of first-principles calculations.

  11. Titanium diffusion coatings on austenitic steel obtained by the pack cementation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA BRITCHI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface of specimens made of 316L austenitic steel was modified by titanium diffusion. The diffusion coatings were obtained by packing in a powder mixture consisting of titanium powder, NH4Cl and Al2O3 powder. The procedure required high temperatures, over 900 °C, and long durations. Atomic titanium was formed in the muffle during the process. Titanium atoms from the metallic part surfaces diffuse towards the interior and a diffusion layer is formed as a function of the steel composition. Titanium diffusion into the surface of 316L austenitic steel determines the formation of a complex coating: a thin layer of TiN at the exterior and a layer consisting of compounds containing Ti, Ni and Fe in the interior of the coating. The obtained coatings were continuous, adherent and had a hardness higher than that of the substrate material. The diffusion coatings were investigated by optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers microhardness tests.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Titanium Slag from Ilmenite by Thermal Plasma Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sneha

    2016-09-01

    Titanium rich slag has emerged as a raw material for alternative titanium source. Ilmenite contains 42-50% TiO2 as the mineralogical composition depending on the geographical resources. Application of titanium in paper, plastic, pigment and other various industries is increasing day by day. Due to the scarcity of natural raw mineral rutile (TiO2), ilmenite is considered as precursor for the extraction of TiO2. Ilmenite is reduced at the initial stage for the conversion of complex iron oxide into simpler form. Therefore, pre-reduction of ilmenite concentrate is essential to minimize the energy consumption during thermal plasma process. Thermal plasma processing of ilmenite for the production of titania rich slag is considered to be the direct route to meet the current demand of industrial needs of titanium. Titania rich slag contains 70-80% TiO2 as the major component with some other minor impurities, like oxide phases of Si, Al, Cr, Mg, Mn, Ca, etc. Usually titanium is present in tetravalent forms with globular metallic iron in the slag. Titania rich slag undergoes leaching for the removal of iron and transforming the slag into synthetic rutile having 85-95% of TiO2.

  13. Effect of Chemistry and Particle Size on the Performance of Calcium Disilicide Primers. Part 1 - Synthesis of Calcium Silicide (CaSi2) by Rotary Atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    refs. 8 and 9); electrolysis (refs. 10 and 11); calcium hydride (CaH2) and Si (ref. 12); SiC and CaO (ref. 13); and combustion synthesis (ref. 14...obtained using a goiniometer (Phillips Model PW 3040, Phillips, Eindhoven, the Netherlands) using copper (Cu) K„ radiation (X - 1.54183 A) with a graphite...34 Electrolysis of Molten Alkali and Alkaline Earth Silicates." Bull. Soc. Chim., 6,206, 1939. 12. Louis, V. and Franck, H. H., "Silicide of Calcium," Z. Anorq

  14. Study of Nickel Silicide as a Copper Diffusion Barrier in Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Abhijit; Beese, Emily; Saenz, Theresa; Warren, Emily; Nemeth, William; Young, David; Marshall, Alexander; Florent, Karine; Kurinec, Santosh K.; Agarwal, Sumit; Stradins, Pauls

    2016-11-21

    NiSi as a conductive diffusion barrier to silicon has been studied. We demonstrate that the NiSi films formed using the single step annealing process are as good as the two step process using XRD and Raman. Quality of NiSi films formed using e-beam Ni and electroless Ni process has been compared. Incomplete surface coverage and presence of constituents other than Ni are the main challenges with electroless Ni. We also demonstrate that Cu reduces the thermal stability of NiSi films. The detection of Cu has proven to be difficult due to temperature limitations.

  15. Laser assisted forming techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Alexander

    2007-05-01

    During forming processes high deformations rates can lead to cracks and rupture very easily. Especially brittle materials like titanium or magnesium make difficulties in forming. Due to the dependence of the yield strength on temperature, forming at elevated temperatures eases processing of such materials. Since forming takes place only at localized areas of the work piece selective heating is suffcient and advantageous in most cases. Selective Laser heating offers a possibility to heat only the areas of the work piece where strongest deformations are required. For this purpose several laser sources have been tested like CO II, Diode and Nd:YAG Lasers and their advantages and disadvantages in localized heating of the work pieces will be discussed. The work presented here summarizes research activities at the Institute for Forming and High Power Laser Technology, Vienna University of Technology, on laser assisted deep drawing, laser assisted bending, wire drawing and so on during the last decade. Recent developments like roll profiling, incremental forming processes and hydro forming are discussed briefly.

  16. Selection of crucible oxides in molten titanium and titanium aluminum alloys by thermo-chemistry calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium and its alloys interstitially dissolve a large amount of impurities such as oxygen and nitrogen, which degrade the mechanical and physical properties of alloys. On the other hand crucible oxides based on CaO, ZrO2 Y2O3, etc., and their spinels (combination of two or more oxides can be used for melting titanium and its alloys. However, the thermodynamic behavior of calcium, zirconium, yttrium on the one side, and oxygen on the other side, in molten Ti and Ti-Al alloys have not been made clear and because of that, it is very interesting for research. Owing of literature data, as well as these crucibles are cheaper than standard crucibles for melting titanium and titanium alloys, in this paper will be presented the results of selection of thermo-chemistry analysis with the aim to determine the crucible oxide stability in contact with molten titanium and titanium-aluminum alloys.

  17. Tailoring properties of commercially pure titanium by gradation extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Markus; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Selbmann, René; de Oliveira, Raoni Barreto; Coelho, Rodrigo Santiago; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) is of great importance in medical applications due to its attractive properties, such as high biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and relatively low density and suitable stiffness. Compared to the commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy, its lower strength has to be increased. The most attractive approach is to subject CP Ti to severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). The resulting decreased grain size in CP Ti yields a significant increase in hardness and strength. Common SPD-processes typically provide a uniform modification of the material. Their material efficiency and productivity are critical and limiting factors. A new approach is to tailor the material properties by using Gradation Extrusion, which produces a distinct gradient in microstructure and strength. The forming process combines a regular impact extrusion process and severe plastic deformation in the lateral area of the material. This efficient process can be integrated easily into forming process chains, for instance for dental implants. This paper presents the forming process and the applied die geometry. The results of numerical simulations are used to illustrate the potential of the process to modify and strengthen the titanium material. Experiments show that the material is successfully processed by gradation extrusion. By characterizing the hardness and its distribution within the formed parts the effects of the process are investigated.

  18. Collaborative form(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunn, Wendy

    Gunn asks us to consider beauty as collaborative forms of action generated by moving between design by means of anthropology and anthropology by means of design. Specifically, she gives focus to play-like reflexions on practices of designing energy products, systems and infrastructure. Design...

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, G. R.; Spretnak, J. W.; Beck, F. H.; Fontana, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on the properties of metals, including titanium and its alloys, was investigated. The basic theories of stress corrosion of titanium alloys are reviewed along with the literature concerned with the effect of absorbed hydrogen on the mechanical properties of metals. Finally, the basic modes of metal fracture and their importance to this study is considered. The experimental work was designed to determine the effects of hydrogen concentration on the critical strain at which plastic instability along pure shear directions occurs. The materials used were titanium alloys Ti-8Al-lMo-lV and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn.

  20. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  1. Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystal- and Micro-structures from Titanium Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Kobayashi; Hideki Kato; Masato Kakihana

    2013-01-01

    Selective synthesis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs including anatase, rutile, brookite and TiO2(B) by solvothermal treatment of water-soluble titanium complexes is described with a special focus on their morphological control. The utilization of water-soluble titanium complexes as a raw material allowed us to employ various additives in the synthesis of TiO2. As a result, the selective synthesis of the polymorphs, as well as diverse morphological control, was achieved.

  2. Low-valent pentafulvene titanium dinitrogen complex as a precursor for cationic titanium complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherer, Axel; Haase, Detlev; Saak, Wolfgang; Beckhaus, Ruediger; Meetsma, Auke; Bouwkamp, Marco W.; Beckhaus, Rüdiger

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of titanium dinitrogen complex [Cp*(eta(6)-C(5)H(4)=C(10)H(14))Ti](2)(mu-N(2)) (1) with ferrocenium borate, [Cp(2)Fe][BPh(4)], in THF results in oxidation of the titanium center, affording the titanium(IV) pentafulvene compound [Cp*(eta(6)-C(5)H(4)=C(10)H(14))Ti(THF)][BPh(4)] (2). Treatmen

  3. Enery Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Zwitter; Phillip Nash; Xiaoyan Xu; Chadwick Johnson

    2011-03-31

    This is the final technical report for the Department of Energy NETL project NT01931 Energy Efficient Press and Sinter of Titanium Powder for Low-Cost Components in Vehicle Applications. Titanium has been identified as one of the key materials with the required strength that can reduce the weight of automotive components and thereby reduce fuel consumption. Working with newly developed sources of titanium powder, Webster-Hoff will develop the processing technology to manufacture low cost vehicle components using the single press/single sinter techniques developed for iron based powder metallurgy today. Working with an automotive or truck manufacturer, Webster-Hoff will demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a press and sinter titanium component for a vehicle application. The project objective is two-fold, to develop the technology for manufacturing press and sinter titanium components, and to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle application. The lowest cost method for converting metal powder into a net shape part is the Powder Metallurgy Press and Sinter Process. The method involves compaction of the metal powder in a tool (usually a die and punches, upper and lower) at a high pressure (up to 60 TSI or 827 MPa) to form a green compact with the net shape of the final component. The powder in the green compact is held together by the compression bonds between the powder particles. The sinter process then converts the green compact to a metallurgically bonded net shape part through the process of solid state diffusion. The goal of this project is to expand the understanding and application of press and sinter technology to Titanium Powder applications, developing techniques to manufacture net shape Titanium components via the press and sinter process. In addition, working with a vehicle manufacturer, demonstrate the feasibility of producing a titanium component for a vehicle. This is not a research program, but rather a

  4. [Comparison of the biological tolerance of titanium and titanium alloys in human gingiva cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehner, B; Heidemann, D

    1989-01-01

    Mirror-finished solid specimens of pure titanium and the titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V as well as Ti-5Al-2.5Fe showed no effects on the growth behavior and cell morphology of human gingival epithelial cell and fibroblast cultures. The growth of the cells contacting all three materials was uninhibited. SEM revealed growth of fibroblasts on the surfaces of the specimens, too. No differences could be found between the biocompatibility of titanium alloys and that of pure titanium. The formation of a stable surface oxide layer providing resistance to corrosion may be decisive.

  5. Microstructure of alumina-matrix composites reinforced with nanometric titanium and titanium carbide dispersions

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Refugio-García; David Hernández-Silva; Eduardo Terrés-Rojas; José Amparo Rodríguez-García; Enrique Rocha-Rangel

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of alumina (Al2O3)-composites having different amount of very fine titanium and titanium carbide reinforcement-particles has been explored. Two experimental steps have been set for the synthesis; the first step consisted of the pressureless-sintering of Al2O3-titanium powders which were thoroughly mixed under high energy ball-milling and through the second step it was induced the formation of titanium carbide during different times at 500 ºC by the cementation packing process. S...

  6. Effect of plasma nitriding and titanium nitride coating on the corrosion resistance of titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianli; Bai, Shizhu; Li, Fang; Li, Dongmei; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Min; Zhang, Qian; Tong, Yu; Zhang, Zichuan; Wang, Guowei; Guo, Tianwen; Ma, Chufan

    2016-09-01

    The passive film on the surface of titanium can be destroyed by immersion in a fluoridated acidic medium. Coating with titanium nitride (TiN) may improve the corrosion resistance of titanium. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of duplex treatment with plasma nitriding and TiN coating on the corrosion resistance of cast titanium. Cast titanium was treated with plasma nitriding and TiN coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex-treated titanium in fluoride-containing artificial saliva was then investigated through electrochemical and immersion tests. The corroded surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy surface scan analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=.05) RESULTS: Duplex treatment generated a dense and uniform TiN film with a thickness of 4.5 μm. Compared with untreated titanium, the duplex-treated titanium displayed higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) values (Pplasma nitriding and TiN coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of cast titanium in a fluoride-containing environment. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrical characterization of strained and unstrained silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Habicht, S.; Zhao, Q. T.; Feste, S. F.; Knoll, L.; Trellenkamp, S.; Ghyselen, B.; Mantl, S

    2010-01-01

    We present electrical characterization of nickel monosilicide (NiSi) contacts formed on strained and unstrained silicon nanowires (NWs), which were fabricated by top-down processing of initially As(+) implanted and activated strained and unstrained silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The resistivity of doped Si NWs and the contact resistivity of the NiSi to Si NW contacts are studied as functions of the As(+) ion implantation dose and the cross-sectional area of the wires. Strained silicon...

  8. Water vapor interactions with polycrystalline titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, A.; Shamir, N.; Volterra, V.; Mintz, M. H.

    1999-02-01

    The initial interactions of water vapor with polycrystalline titanium surfaces were studied at room temperature. Measurements of water vapor surface accumulation were performed in a combined surface analysis system incorporating direct recoils spectrometry (DRS), Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The kinetics of accommodation of the water dissociation fragments (H, O and OH) displayed a complex behavior depending not only on the exposure dose but also on the exposure pressure. For a given exposure dose the efficiency of chemisorption increased with increasing exposure pressure. DRS measurements indicated the occurrence of clustered hydroxyl moieties with tilted O-H bonds formed even at very low surface coverage. A model which assumes two parallel routes of chemisorption, by direct collisions (Langmuir type) and by a precursor state is proposed to account for the observed behavior. The oxidation efficiency of water seemed to be much lower than that of oxygen. No Ti 4+ states were detected even at high water exposure values. It is likely that hydroxyl species play an important role in the reduced oxidation efficiency of water.

  9. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  10. Titanium in engine valve systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, J.E.; Sherman, A.M.; Bapna, M.R.

    1987-03-01

    Titanium alloys offer a unique combination of high strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and favorable high temperature mechanical properties. Still, their relatively high cost has discouraged consideration for widespread use in automotive components. Recent demands for increased fuel economy have led to the consideration of these alloys for use as valve train materials where higher costs might be offset by improvements in performance and fuel economy. Lighter weight valve train components permit the use of lower spring loads, thus reducing friction and increasing fuel economy. Camshaft friction measurements made on a typical small displacement engine indicate that a two-to-four percent increase in fuel economy can be achieved. Valve train components are, however, subject to a severe operating environment, including elevated temperatures, sliding wear and high mechanical loads. This paper discusses the details of alloy and heat treatment selection for optimizing valve performance.

  11. Diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卓然; 冯吉才; 刘会杰

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum diffusion bonding of titanium alloy to tin-bronze has been studied and the feasibility and appropriate processing parameters have been investigated. The maximum tensile strength of the joints is bonded joint has been observed by SEM, X-ray and EPMA, and the main factors affecting diffusion bonding have been analyzed. The intermetallic compounds Ti2Cu and TiCu were formed near the interface. The width and quantity of the intermetallic compound increases with the increase of the bonding time. The formation of the intermetallic compounds results in embrittlement of the joint and the poor joint properties.

  12. Titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid film on 6061 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuanghong WANG; Lei WANG; Changsheng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Three titanium-zirconium-phosphonate hybrid films were formed on AA6061 aluminum alloy by immersing in fluorotitanic acid and fluorozirconic acid based solution containing different phosphonic acids for protective coatings of aluminium alloy. The corrosion resistance of three hybrid films as the substitute for chromate film were evaluated and compared. The neutral salt spray test was explored,the immersion test was conducted and electrochemical test was also executed. The hybrid films exhibited well-pleasing corrosion resistance and adhesion to epoxy resin paints. It was found out that the hybrid films could efficiently be a substitute for chromate based primer over aluminium alloy.

  13. Self-assembled antimicrobial and biocompatible copolymer films on titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenroth, Cornelia; Winkel, Andreas; Dempwolf, Wibke; Gamble, Lara J; Castner, David G; Stiesch, Meike; Menzel, Henning

    2011-11-10

    Copolymers of 4-vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium bromide and dimethyl(2-methacryloyloxyethyl) phosphonate self-assemble to form ultrathin layers on titanium surfaces that show antimicrobial activity, and biocompatibility. The copolymer layers are characterized by contact angle measurements, ellipsometry and XPS. Antibacterial activity is assessed by investigation of adherence of S. mutans. Biocompatibility is rated based on human gingival fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. By balancing the opposing effects of the chemical composition on biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, copolymer coatings are fabricated that are able to inhibit the growth of S. mutans on the surface but still show attachment of gingival fibroblasts, and therefore might prevent biofilm formation on implants.

  14. Photoelectrochemical properties of sol–gel obtained titanium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrochemical properties of a sol–gel prepared titanium oxide coating applied onto a Ti substrate were investigated. The oxide coating was formed from an inorganic sol thermally treated in air at 350 °C. The coating consisted of agglomerates of narrow size distribution around 100 nm. The photoelectrochemical characteristics were evaluated by investigating the changes in the open circuit potential, current transients and impedance characteristics of a Ti/TiO2 electrode upon illumination by UV light in H2SO4 solution and in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol. The electrode was found to be active for photoelectrochemical reactions in the investigated solutions.

  15. Titanium nitride: A new Ohmic contact material for n-type CdS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, A.; Battjes, H.; Machunze, R.; Dam, B.; Van de Krol, R.

    2011-01-01

    In devices based on CdS, indium is often used to make Ohmic contacts. Since indium is scarce and expensive, suitable replacement materials need to be found. In this work, we show that sputtered titanium nitride forms an Ohmic contact with n-type CdS. The CdS films, deposited with chemical bath depos

  16. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  17. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  18. Titanium nitride nanoparticles for therapeutic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guler, Urcan; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2014-01-01

    Titanium nitride nanoparticles exhibit plasmonic resonances in the biological transparency window where high absorption efficiencies can be obtained with small dimensions. Both lithographic and colloidal samples are examined from the perspective of nanoparticle thermal therapy. © 2014 OSA....

  19. Challenges of titanium metal injection moulding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benson, JM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . With the increased availability of higher quality titanium powder, metal injection moulding offers an attractive method for producing small, intricate components at a reasonable cost. This paper will present an overview of the metal injection moulding process...

  20. Advanced Surface Engineering of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Dong

    2000-01-01

    Despite their outstanding combination of properties, titanium and its alloys are very susceptible to severe adhesive wear in rubbing with most engineering surfaces and can exhibit poorcorrosion resistance in some aggressive environments. Surface engineering research centred at the University of Birmingham has been focused on creating designer surfaces for titanium components via surface engineering.Great progress has been made recently through the development of such advanced surface engineering techniques as thermal oxidation, palladium-treated thermal oxidation, oxygen boost diffusion and duplex systems.Such advances thus provide scope for designing titanium components for a diversified range of engineering application, usually as direct replacements for steel components. By way of example, some of the successful steps towards titanium designer surfaces are demonstrated. To data, the potential of these advanced technologies has been realised first in auto-sport and off-shore industrials.