WorldWideScience

Sample records for forests ecological implications

  1. Modeling the Carbon Implications of Ecologically Based Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Journal of Forestry 111, 59-66. Samuelson , L.J., Stokes, T.A., Johnsen, K.H., 2012. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine...and loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management 274, 108-115. Samuelson , L.J., Whitaker, W.B., 2012. Relationships between Soil CO2 Efflux and

  2. Modeling the Carbon Implications of Ecologically-Based Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Journal of Forestry 111, 59-66. Samuelson , L.J., Stokes, T.A., Johnsen, K.H., 2012. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine...and loblolly pine. Forest Ecology and Management 274, 108-115. Samuelson , L.J., Whitaker, W.B., 2012. Relationships between Soil CO2 Efflux and

  3. Forest-succession models and their ecological and management implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.; Smith, T.M.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Computer models of forest succession have been developed to an extent that allows their use as a tool for predicting forest ecosystem behavior over long periods of time. This paper outlines the use of one approach to forest succession modeling for a variety of problems including: (1) determining the effect of climate change on forests; (2) integrating information on wildlife habitat changes with the changes in forest structure associated with timber management; (3) assessing the potential effect of air pollutants on forest dynamics; and (4) determining the theoretical importance of disturbance on forest community diversity and function.

  4. US Forest Service Ecological Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ecological section boundaries within the conterminous United States. The map service contains regional geographic delineations for...

  5. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species and Myrtaceae (20 species were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which Siparuna guianensis was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.

  6. Implication of Forest-Savanna Dynamics on Biomass and Carbon Stock: Effectiveness of an Amazonian Ecological Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Santos, F. R.; Luizao, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The forests-savanna advancement/retraction process seems to play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in the climate-vegetation balance maintenance in the Amazon. To contribute with long term carbon dynamics and assess effectiveness of a protected area in reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon transitional areas, variations in forest-savanna mosaics biomass and carbon stock within Maraca Ecological Station (MES), Roraima/Brazil, and its outskirts non-protected areas were compared. Composite surface soil samples and indirect methods based on regression models were used to estimate aboveground tree biomass accumulation and assess vegetation and soil carbon stock along eleven 0.6 ha transects perpendicular to the forest-savanna limits. Aboveground biomass and carbon accumulation were influenced by vegetation structure, showing higher values within protected area, with great contribution of trees above 40 cm in diameter. In the savanna environments of protected areas, a higher tree density and carbon stock up to 30 m from the border confirmed a forest encroachment. This pointed that MES acts as carbon sink, even under variations in soil fertility gradient, with a potential increase of the total carbon stock from 9 to 150 Mg C ha-1. Under 20 years of fire and disturbance management, the results indicated the effectiveness of this protected area to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate greenhouse and climate change effects in a forest-savanna transitional area in Brazilian Northern Amazon. The contribution of this study in understanding rates and reasons for biomass and carbon variation, under different management strategies, should be considered the first approximation to assist policies of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) from underresearched Amazonian ecotone; despite further efforts in this direction are still needed. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Boticário Group Foundation (Fundação Grupo Boticário); National Council for

  7. Sleeping site ecology in a rain-forest dwelling nocturnal lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus): implications for sociality and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoloharijaona, Solofonirina; Randrianambinina, Blanchard; Zimmermann, Elke

    2008-03-01

    Suitable sleeping sites as potentially restricted resources are suggested to shape sociality in primates. We investigated sleeping site ecology of a rain-forest dwelling sportive lemur in eastern Madagascar for the first time. Using radiotelemetry, we characterized the type, quality and usage of sleeping sites as well as social sleeping habits of 11 focal individuals of the weasel sportive lemur (Lepilemur mustelinus) during the dry and the onset of the rainy season. Morphometric measurements provided additional information. The sexes showed an unusual sexual dimorphism for primates. Males and females did not differ in body length, but females surpassed males in body mass suggesting female dominance. Both sexes used dense vegetation and holes in hollow trees high above the ground as shelters for sleeping during the day. No sex difference in the quality of tree holes was found, but focal individuals used tree holes more often than open sleeping sites in dense vegetation. Both sexes showed high sleeping site fidelity limited to two to six different sites that they used primarily solitarily. The results imply that suitable sleeping sites are limited and survival of this species will strongly depend on the availability of mature rain forests with suitable hollow trees. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence of a solitary sleeping and ranging system in this rain-forest dwelling sportive lemur with suitable sleeping sites as defendable resources.

  8. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  9. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests inBenin

  10. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  11. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  12. Summarization on Evaluation of Ecological Value of Artificial Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUTao; ZHANGHuaxing

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a summarization on evaluation of value of artificial forest. The main contents include:(i) the difference in concepts between ecological function, ecological efficiency and ecological benefits of artificial forest; (ii) the motive and several taches of economic feedback or compensation for ecological benefit; (iii)the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlative factors which includes the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the main correlation factors infecting the ecological efficiency;(iv) the basic math correlations between ecological efficiencies of artificial forest and the related factors; (v)service range of the ecological efficiencies of artificial forest; and (vi) the basic principle of measurement of ecological efficiencies of artificial forest. At the end, the basic methods of main ecological efficiencies of artificial forest are expatiated.

  13. Leaf domatia in montane forest and Caatinga in the semiarid of Pernambuco State: Morphology and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana Keila dos Anjos Ramalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf domatia are cavity-shaped structures of different types or tufts of hairs located at the junction between ribs on the abaxial surface of the leaf blades of various families of angiosperms, serving as protection against phytophagous organisms by harboring beneficial mites, suggesting a mutualistic relationship. There is shortage of inventories of species with such structures; thus the present study examined native woody plant in two habitats of the backwoods of Pernambuco to identify the types of leaf domatia. 86 species were observed,43 inCaatinga area, out of which five had domatia, and43 inthe montane forest, 11 species with domatia. Four types of domatia were observed: hairtufts, pocket, pit and revolute margin. There was predominance of plant species with leaf domatia in the area Carro Quebrado in Triunfo,PernambucoState. These results corroborate the information available in the literature in which domatia are prevalent in more humid environments, and that these structures as micro-habitats influence the maintenance of diverse organisms.

  14. Compensation for forest ecological services in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Can; Wang Sen; Zhang Wei; Liang Dan

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses methods to compensate for the costs incurred in the supply of forest ecological services (FES), i.e.government dominated and market-based instruments as well as progress made so far in China. Factors which constrain the supply of these services and potential policy improvements are presented.

  15. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic abstract of the thesis for the library for the acquisitions department of Wageningen UR library (published as a html file so hyperlinks may be included) In English, one or 2 pages. Functional ecology of tropical forest recovery Currently in the tropics, the area of second

  16. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

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    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  17. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Mo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Background:Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods: Markov decision process models (MDPs) offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results: Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions:The findings il ustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  18. Adaptive economic and ecological forest management under risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest managers must deal with inherently stochastic ecological and economic processes. The future growth of trees is uncertain, and so is their value. The randomness of low-impact, high frequency or rare catastrophic shocks in forest growth has significant implications in shaping the mix of tree species and the forest landscape. In addition, the fluctuations of wood prices influence greatly forest revenues. Methods Markov decision process models (MDPs offer a rigorous and practical way of developing optimum management strategies, given these multiple sources of risk. Results Examples illustrate how such management guidelines are obtained with MDPs for combined ecological and economic objectives, including diversity of tree species and size, landscape diversity, old growth preservation, and carbon sequestration. Conclusions The findings illustrate the power of the MDP approach to deal with risk in forest resource management. They recognize that the future is best viewed in terms of probabilities. Given these probabilities, MDPs tie optimum adaptive actions strictly to the state of the forest and timber prices at decision time. The methods are theoretically rigorous, numerically efficient, and practical for field implementation.

  19. Forest landscape ecology and its applications in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shi-rong; Lin Yong; Sun Peng-sen; Li Chong-wei; Hu Yu-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Landscape ecology is playing an increasingly important role in resources management and landuse planning in recent decades and attracting much attention from resource managers and scientists in China as well as in the world. Reviews of landscape ecology development in China have been well documented, whereas forest landscape ecology and its applications receive relatively fewer reviews. In this paper, we first present a brief review of the historical development and current advances of landscape ecology in China and then introduce the applications of landscape ecology to forest park designs, urban greenspace planning, ecological restoration, biodiversity conservation and forest eco-hydrology. Finally, the problems with the application of forest landscape ecology in China, such as inadequate synthesis and integration, lack of basic research on patterns and processes, basic data shortage and model usage problem are discussed on the basis of which we suggest a future direction of forest landscape ecology in China.

  20. A tool for assessing ecological status of forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman Kassim, Abd; Afizzul Misman, Muhammad; Azahari Faidi, Mohd; Omar, Hamdan

    2016-06-01

    Managers and policy makers are beginning to appreciate the value of ecological monitoring of artificially regenerated forest especially in urban areas. With the advent of more advance technology in precision forestry, high resolution remotely sensed data e.g. hyperspectral and LiDAR are becoming available for rapid and precise assessment of the forest condition. An assessment of ecological status of forest ecosystem was developed and tested using FRIM campus forest stand. The forest consisted of three major blocks; the old growth artificially regenerated native species forests, naturally regenerated forest and recent planted forest for commercial timber and other forest products. Our aim is to assess the ecological status and its proximity to the mature old growth artificially regenerated stand. We used airborne LiDAR, orthophoto and thirty field sampling quadrats of 20x20m for ground verification. The parameter assessments were grouped into four broad categories: a. forest community level-composition, structures, function; landscape structures-road network and forest edges. A metric of parameters and rating criteria was introduced as indicators of the forest ecological status. We applied multi-criteria assessment to categorize the ecological status of the forest stand. The paper demonstrates the application of the assessment approach using FRIM campus forest as its first case study. Its potential application to both artificially and naturally regenerated forest in the variety of Malaysian landscape is discussed

  1. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  2. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  3. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  4. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  5. Strengthening Urban Forest Development Improving Urban Ecological Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGZehui

    2004-01-01

    Since the reform and opening up, urban development in China has entered a period of rapid progress. While making significant achievements, urban environmental problems such as air pollution, heatisland effects, water loss and soil erosion have become increasingly prominent. To speed up the process of urbanization in China, new challenges have been imposed on urban forest development, urban environment protection and ecological urban development. Aimed at ecological and environment problems existing in urban development in China, summarizing Chinese experiences and learning from other countries, scientifically planning urban forest to promote urban ecological development, improving urban forest ecosystem to assure urban ecological safety, carrying on forest culture to develop urban ecological civilization, have become the main tasks and direction for urban forest development in China.

  6. A study on the measurement for forest ecological benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 李绪尧; 姜秋来; 李长胜; 刘鹏; 董丹峰; 林丽莎; 徐文婷

    2000-01-01

    The indexes of dependent variables of the measurement on the forest ecological benefits were defined according to the analysis of the multiple ecological benefits of forest. This indexes system includes water-reserving, soil and water conservation, wind and sand suppression, microclimate improvement, carbon dioxide assimilation, atmosphere purification, flood and drought mitigation, tourism resource and wild creature protection benefits. The main factors from the numerous factors that affect dependent variables were chosen as independent variables. At last, a multivariate linear model was established for measurement of forest ecological benefit. With this multivariate linear model the forest ecological benefit of China was calculated. The forest ecological benefit of China is 723816 million yuan per year, which equals to 23.07% of the gross domestic product of China.

  7. Redefining Secondary Forests in the Mexican Forest Code: Implications for Management, Restoration, and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Román-Dañobeytia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Forest Code establishes structural reference values to differentiate between secondary and old-growth forests and requires a management plan when secondary forests become old-growth and potentially harvestable forests. The implications of this regulation for forest management, restoration, and conservation were assessed in the context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which is located in the Yucatan Peninsula. The basal area and stem density thresholds currently used by the legislation to differentiate old-growth from secondary forests are 4 m2/ha and 15 trees/ha (trees with a diameter at breast height of >25 cm; however, our research indicates that these values should be increased to 20 m2/ha and 100 trees/ha, respectively. Given that a management plan is required when secondary forests become old-growth forests, many landowners avoid forest-stand development by engaging slash-and-burn agriculture or cattle grazing. We present evidence that deforestation and land degradation may prevent the natural regeneration of late-successional tree species of high ecological and economic importance. Moreover, we discuss the results of this study in the light of an ongoing debate in the Yucatan Peninsula between policy makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, landowners and researchers, regarding the modification of this regulation to redefine the concept of acahual (secondary forest and to facilitate forest management and restoration with valuable timber tree species.

  8. Random forests for classification in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, D Richard; Edwards, Thomas C; Beard, Karen H; Cutler, Adele; Hess, Kyle T; Gibson, Jacob; Lawler, Joshua J

    2007-11-01

    Classification procedures are some of the most widely used statistical methods in ecology. Random forests (RF) is a new and powerful statistical classifier that is well established in other disciplines but is relatively unknown in ecology. Advantages of RF compared to other statistical classifiers include (1) very high classification accuracy; (2) a novel method of determining variable importance; (3) ability to model complex interactions among predictor variables; (4) flexibility to perform several types of statistical data analysis, including regression, classification, survival analysis, and unsupervised learning; and (5) an algorithm for imputing missing values. We compared the accuracies of RF and four other commonly used statistical classifiers using data on invasive plant species presence in Lava Beds National Monument, California, USA, rare lichen species presence in the Pacific Northwest, USA, and nest sites for cavity nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA. We observed high classification accuracy in all applications as measured by cross-validation and, in the case of the lichen data, by independent test data, when comparing RF to other common classification methods. We also observed that the variables that RF identified as most important for classifying invasive plant species coincided with expectations based on the literature.

  9. Ecological criterion effect on the forest road network longitudinal gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hrůza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific way in which a forest road is designed affects the management in the forest environment and timber transport. The aim of this study was to find out whether an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road design will change the parameter of the longitudinal gradient of forest hauling roads and whether these changes will have an effect on the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery. The possible changes in the longitudinal gradient can also affect the technology of forest road surfacing and the selection of the appropriate surface type. We can state that an inclusion of the ecological criterion in the forest road network design will bring statistically significant changes in longitudinal gradients of forest hauling roads. The mean longitudinal gradient of the current forest road network is 2.82 % and the mean longitudinal gradient of the forest road network designed with inclusion of the ecological criterion is 4.82 %. The results show statistically significant changes in the longitudinal parameters of forest hauling roads. However, it will not bring a need for a change in construction technology, and will not affect the accessibility of forest stands by timber hauling machinery.

  10. Balancing the Realization of Ecological,Economic and Social Values of Forests for Sustainable Forest Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Forests provide multiple ecological,economic and social benefits.A truly sustainable forest management should lead to a balanced realization of these forest values.This paper categorizes the forest resources as appreciating resources and depreciating resources in accordance with the specific form of forest values,and defines them conceptually in regard to the contrasting and competitive nature of these values.Necessary theoretic discussions were then made for the feasibility and operability in terms of t...

  11. Recommendations for Construction and Management of Ecological Public Welfare Forest in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang XUE; Renhui HONG; Dunxi LI; Zhipan LIN; Xiaoyan WANG; Shaofeng SU

    2016-01-01

    This paper firstly evaluated ecological service functions of ecological public welfare forest in Hainan Province. Then,it introduced value structure and existing problems of ecological service functions. Focusing on optimization and adjustment of scale and distribution of ecological public welfare forest,it came up with recommendations for construction and management of ecological public welfare forest in Hainan Province.

  12. Diversity in forest management to reduce wildfire losses: implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Thomas A. Spies; Ana M. G. Barros; Eric M. White; Keith A. Olsen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how federal, state, and private corporate forest owners in a fire-prone landscape of southcentral Oregon manage their forests to reduce wildfire hazard and loss to high-severity wildfire. We evaluate the implications of our findings for concepts of social–ecological resilience. Using interview data, we found a high degree of "response...

  13. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doug P. Aubrey; David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus...

  14. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America

  15. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  16. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  17. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  18. Ecology of whitebark pine populations in relation to white pine blister rust infection in subalpine forests of the Lake Tahoe Basin: Implications for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia E. Maloney; Detlev R. Vogler; Camille E. Jensen; Annette. Delfino Mix

    2012-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by the introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., has affected white pine (Subgenus Strobus) individuals, populations, and associated forest communities in North America. We surveyed eight populations of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) across a range of environmental conditions in...

  19. Digitally determining forest inventory units with an ecological classification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Lina; WANG Qingli; Guofan Shao; DAI Limin; WANG Shunzhong; LI Xiufen; XU Dong

    2006-01-01

    Management-level forest resource data in China were obtained with a combination of two forest inventories. However, inconsistencies in the spatial attributes of forest data vary between the two inventory types and between two inventories of the same type. The inconsistencies make it inconvenient for long-term forest management planning with digital technologies. Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs) have been mapped in selected forestry regions in northeast China, where important forest industries are located. The boundaries of ELTs are determined by geomorphic conditions, which are quantified by Digital Elevation Models (DEM); ELTPs are classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers that are obtained with both remotely sensed and ground data. The ELTPs represent the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore they are reliable units for forest inventories and management. This paper introduces a case study for digitally determining forest inventory units in Benxi City, Liaoning Province, northeast China. The general objective of the study was to explain how a compatible forest inventory system should be designed and why the compatible forest inventory system was significant to digital forestry in China.

  20. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  1. Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Lloret, Francisco; Breshears, David D

    2012-10-23

    A large number of episodes of forest mortality associated with drought and heat stress have been detected worldwide in recent decades, suggesting that some of the world's forested ecosystems may be already responding to climate change. Here, we summarize a special session titled 'Drought-induced forest decline: causes, scope and implications' within the 12th European Ecological Federation Congress, held in Ávila (Spain) from 25 to 29 September 2011. The session focused on the interacting causes and impacts of die-off episodes at the community and ecosystem levels, and highlighted recent events of drought- and heat-related tree decline, advances in understanding mechanisms and in predicting mortality events, and diverse consequences of forest decline. Talks and subsequent discussion noted a potentially important role of carbon that may be interrelated with plant hydraulics in the multi-faceted process leading to drought-induced mortality; a substantial and yet understudied capacity of many forests to cope with extreme climatic events; and the difficulty of separating climate effects from other anthropogenic changes currently shaping forest dynamics in many regions of the Earth. The need for standard protocols and multi-level monitoring programmes to track the spatio-temporal scope of forest decline globally was emphasized as critical for addressing this emerging environmental issue.

  2. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  3. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic

  4. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic fore

  5. Modeling Forest Succession among Ecological Land Units in Northern Minnesota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Host

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Field and modeling studies were used to quantify potential successional pathways among fine-scale ecological classification units within two geomorphic regions of north-central Minnesota. Soil and overstory data were collected on plots stratified across low-relief ground moraines and undulating sand dunes. Each geomorphic feature was sampled across gradients of topography or soil texture. Overstory conditions were sampled using five variable-radius point samples per plot; soil samples were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content. Climatic, forest composition, and soil data were used to parameterize the sample plots for use with LINKAGES, a forest growth model that simulates changes in composition and soil characteristics over time. Forest composition and soil properties varied within and among geomorphic features. LINKAGES simulations were using "bare ground" and the current overstory as starting conditions. Northern hardwoods or pines dominated the late-successional communities of morainal and dune landforms, respectively. The morainal landforms were dominated by yellow birch and sugar maple; yellow birch reached its maximum abundance in intermediate landscape positions. On the dune sites, pine was most abundant in drier landscape positions, with white spruce increasing in abundance with increasing soil moisture and N content. The differences in measured soil properties and predicted late-successional composition indicate that ecological land units incorporate some of the key variables that govern forest composition and structure. They further show the value of ecological classification and modeling for developing forest management strategies that incorporate the spatial and temporal dynamics of forest ecosystems.

  6. VALUE OF ECOLOGIC COMPONENT IN FOREST MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING. CASE STUDY: FORESTS ADJACENT TO BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Valentina RADULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To say environment management is, nowadays, of outmost importance for any ecosystem concerned in an understatement; nevertheless, in Romania, especially – as least, since the present paper analyses Romanian ecologic statu quo – improving forest management, so to speak, in Romania, is all the more important, since social and economic decisionmaking as to forests (e.g. forests close to Romania’s capital, Bucharest includes necessarily an ecologic component. The main issue is how to make this component as visible and important as posible, without simultaneously reducing the economic and social components.

  7. Community ecology of tropical forest snails: 30 years after Solem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical fo

  8. Soils characterisation along ecological forest zones in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alois; Dhendup, Kuenzang; Bahadur Rai, Prem; Gratzer, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Elevational gradients are commonly used to characterise vegetation patterns and, to a lesser extent, also to describe soil development. Furthermore, interactions between vegetation cover and soil characteristics are repeatedly observed. Combining information on soil development and easily to distinguish forest zones along elevational gradients, creates an added value for forest management decisions especially in less studied mountain regions. For this purpose, soil profiles along elevational gradients in the temperate conifer forests of Western and Central Bhutan, ranging from 2600-4000m asl were investigated. Thereby, 82 soil profiles were recorded and classified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources. Based on 19 representative profiles, genetic horizons were sampled and analysed. We aim to provide fundamental information on forest soil characteristics along these elevational transects. The results are presented with regard to ecological forest zones. The elevational distribution of the reference soil groups showed distinct distribution ranges for most of the soils. Cambisols were the most frequently recorded reference soil group with 58% of the sampled profiles, followed by Podzols in higher elevations, and Stagnosols, at intermediate elevations. Fluvisols occurred only at the lower end of the elevational transects and Phaeozems only at drier site conditions in the cool conifer dry forest zone. The humus layer thickness differs between forest zones and show a shift towards increased organic layer (O-layer) with increasing elevation. The reduced biomass productivity with increasing elevation and subsequently lower litter input compensates for the slow decomposition rates. The increasing O-layer thickness is an indicator of restrained intermixing of organic and mineral components by soil organisms at higher elevation. Overall, the soil types and soil characteristics along the elevational gradient showed a continuous and consistent change, instead

  9. The Cultural Ecology Protection and Management of Urban Forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; ZHANG; Weiming; SONG; Ke; CHEN; Chunjing; GOU

    2013-01-01

    Forests have economic,ecological,social and cultural functions.Forests Cultural ecology,the counterpart of forest ecology,is the integration of human spirit formed on the basis of natural forest and living systems.In recent years,China’s urbanization rate has increased from 28%in 1993 to 45.68%in 2008,and ecological protection of urban forest has made great progress,but insufficient attention was paid to the forest cultural ecology protection and the relevant regulatory was not well performed.In order to strengthen the protection of forest cultural ecology and the management,the study showed that the social economic development of China has become mature and entered the consumption phase,besides,cultural ecology protection of forest will be the essence of urban forestry development in the future,so more and more attention will be paid to the protection of urban forest cultural ecology,especially with the enhancement of urbanization in China.The study suggests that protection of urban forest cultural ecology should be included into the forest legislation and management.The development planning of urban forest development should be strengthened to highlight the organic combination of material wealth production and spiritual wealth production,and finally promote protection of urban forest culture and the development of green culture.

  10. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park.

  11. Panthers and Forests in South Florida: an Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jane Comiskey

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi survives in an area of pronounced habitat diversity in southern Florida, occupying extensive home ranges that encompass a mosaic of habitats. Twenty-one years of daytime monitoring via radiotelemetry have provided substantial but incomplete information about panther ecology, mainly because this method fails to capture movement and habitat use between dusk and dawn, when panthers are most active. Broad characterizations of panther habitat suitability have nonetheless been derived from telemetry-based habitat selection studies, focusing narrowly on forests where daytime resting sites are often located. The resulting forest-centered view of panthers attributed their restricted distribution and absence of population growth in the mid-1990s to a scarcity of unfragmented forest for expansion. However, the panther population has doubled since the beginning of genetic restoration in 1995, increasing five-fold in public areas described as unsuitable based on forest criteria. Although the forest-centered view no longer explains panther distribution, it continues to shape management decisions and habitat conservation policies. The assumptions and limitations of this view therefore merit critical examination. We analyze the role of forests in the ecology of the Florida panther. To address the absence of nighttime telemetry data, we use innovative telemetry mapping techniques and incorporate information from field observations indicating habitat use during active hours (e.g., tracks, scats, urine markers, and kill sites. We consider daytime telemetry data in the context of panther home ranges and breeding units. We analyze home range size in relation to the amount of forest within each range, concluding that percent forest cover is a poor predictor of size. We apply fractal analysis techniques to characterize the relative density of forest cover associated with daytime locations and interpret the results in

  12. Regional forest resource assessment in an ecological framework: the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis

    1998-01-01

    Information about forest resources grouped by ecologically homogeneous area can be used to discern relationships between those resources and ecological processes. The author used forest resource data from 0.4-ha plots, and data on population and land area (by county), together with a global-to-local hierarchical framework of land areas with similar ecological potential...

  13. Aesthetic dimension about tropical forest in ecology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Seniciato

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzes the aesthetic dimension on teaching about natural environment on Ecology disciplines. The semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce guided data analysis, regarding to suggested values on the answers of interviewees. The analysis has revealed that, in terms of methodological approaches, Ecology instructors tend to valorize scientific and objective criteria, demonstrating a certain embarrassment on including aesthetic dimension in their teaching, although they recognize the relevance of aesthetic dimension for ethic implications on teaching and for the conservation of natural environment.

  14. Suggestions on Forest Ecological Compensation-Taking Mudanjiang City as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhang Zheng; Cui Li-juan; Siji K-Maunel; Jia Li

    2015-01-01

    The forest ecological compensation is an important factor to balance the interests of different areas for sustainable development and environment protection. Mudanjiang City in Heilongjiang Province of China is rich of forest resources. The forestry coverage rate reached 62.3% in 2014, after forestry conservation program from 2002. The authors explored the factors impacted on forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City, which was a demonstration as a case study, through experts' evaluation scores and AHP methodology to analyze the forest ecological compensation factors and lay the foundation for the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. At the same time, we provided an example to explore the effective way and speed up the establishment of ecological compensation mechanism. The study found that the main factors that determined forest ecological compensation in Mudanjiang City were ecology and natural resources. Based on the analyses, some suggestions were put forward to promote the mechanism in a sustainable way.

  15. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  16. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  17. Ecological Hidden Troubles and Countermeasures under Reform of Collective Forest Tenure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three stages of reform of collective forest tenure after reform and opening up are reviewed.The reform of forest tenure brings sharp increase of economic benefit.However,due to forest farmers’ subjective pursuit for economic benefit and objective lack of necessary economic,financial and technical support,ecological hidden troubles are created.Based on these,we put forward countermeasures,including strengthening forest farmers’ awareness of ecological protection and solving ecological problems in accordance with actual conditions of the region.

  18. Study on Network System Construction of Forest Ecological in Huaining New Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGQingfeng; WUZemin; WANGJianan; HUANGChenglin; LIBao; QIANNimiao

    2004-01-01

    Urban forest is an important composition and the window and soul of modern cities, which has a close relationship with ecological environment and investing environment. So urban forest has been constructed in China. Huaining County could hold of the historical opportunity and come up with the great blueprint of forest ecological network system construction for the new town. This paper mainly introduces the guiding ideas, principles, goals and overall layouts of the construction in the new town, and hope that it will be a model for other county-level forest ecological network system construction in China.

  19. Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests

    OpenAIRE

    Sharik, Terry L.; William Adair; Fred A. Baker; Michael Battaglia; Emily J. Comfort; Anthony W. D'Amato; Craig Delong; R. Justin DeRose; Ducey, Mark J; Mark Harmon; Louise Levy; Jesse A. Logan; Joseph O'Brien; Brian J. Palik; Roberts, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ...

  20. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  1. A preliminary test of an ecological classification system for the Oconee National Forest using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; Ronald B. Stephens; Richard D. Rightmyer; Erika M. Mavity; Samuel G. Lambert

    2012-01-01

    An ecological classification system (ECS) has been developed for use in evaluating management, conservation and restoration options for forest and wildlife resources on the Oconee National Forest. Our study was the initial evaluation of the ECS to determine if the units at each level differed in potential productivity. We used loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  2. Evolutionary and ecological implications of sexual parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jussi; Schmidt, Daniel J; Heubel, Katja; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-05-01

    Sexual parasites offer unique insights into asexual and sexual reproduction. They mate with a 'host' whose genetic contribution is discarded either immediately (in androgenesis or gynogenesis) or after a delay of one generation (in hybridogenesis). The discarded genome can be maternal or paternal, implying that not only females but also males can reproduce asexually. The resulting lineages are often older than ecological or evolutionary theory predicts. Sexual parasites have links to a diverse set of concepts: selfish genetic elements, degradation of clonal genomes, evolution of sex, mate-choice theory, and host-parasite dynamics. We discuss the different sexually parasitic systems in both hermaphrodites and gonochoristic organisms, emphasizing their similarities and differences in ecological and evolutionary settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecological costs for total use of forest resources for energetic purposes; Custo ecologico do uso integral de recursos florestais para fins energeticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Josimar Ribeiro de; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Coelho, Maria Carolina Crisci [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Almeida, Marina Basilio de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Aguiar, Lais Alencar de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-04-15

    The search for maximum productivity from forest biomass lies mainly in two points: space reduction and smaller exploration periods. These procedures obviously promote a significant improvement in the biomass production, maintaining the economically viable standards, and might eventually lead to limitations in hydrological and productivity maintenance problems; inevitably, severe implications concerning ecological instability, not yet observed with such amplitude, will be experimented in the implanted forests. (author)

  4. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante-Filho, José Carlos; Faria, Deborah; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists) and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores) to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%). At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  5. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Morante-Filho

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%. At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  6. The Future of Eurasian Boreal Forests: Ecological Modeling Projections in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shugart, H.

    2008-12-01

    Ecological modeling is one of the primary methodologies for making predictions on future changes in forested ecosystems such as those occurring in Northern Eurasia and Siberia. In particular, combining ecological modeling with global circulation model simulation outputs is a method in which scientists can forecast the impact of climate change on biodiversity (Thuiller, 2007) as well as the forested landscape. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have been designed for specifically this purpose, however, these vegetation models run at large spatial scales and as a result make predictions that are highly uncertain (Purves and Pacala, 2008). In previous papers, we discussed the FAREAST forest gap model and its ability to accurately predict boreal forest dynamics at smaller scales and higher resolution than DGVMs. This presentation investigates the use of the FAREAST gap model, modified for spatial expansion to cover the entire country of Russia, to predict future land cover trends under different warming scenarios. The poster provides the initial framework for the project, as well as some initial results. The collection of input variables needed by FAREAST to model the Russian continent will involve collaboration with the Russian Academy of Sciences (CEPF). Together we have developed a framework in which to amalgamate both original (temperature, precipitation, soil values) parameters as well as new parameters (fire probability, logging probability) into a GIS database that can be integrated with the FAREAST model. This framework will be capable of providing visual and graphical output for interpretation of large model runs. In order to ensure accuracy in FAREAST's ability to simulate the current environment, a run of the model under current-day conditions will be compared to recent remote sensing land cover maps. The GLC2000 land cover classification project (EU JRC) will be the primary validation method with additional validation through other biophysical

  7. Ecological implications and roles of cyanobacteria (cyanophyta) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological implications and roles of cyanobacteria (cyanophyta) in food security ... Plant Products Research Journal ... Hence, they are of great importance in aquaculture. ... in symbiotic relationships where they enhance the nutritive quality of the host ... Control of blooms is expensive hence the need for research into their ...

  8. Sustainability assessment for Yanbian forest region, Jilin Province, Northeast China, based on ecological footprint model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiaofei; CHEN Fusheng; HU Anfeng; DAI Limin

    2007-01-01

    Ecological footprint(EF)is one of the most important indicators in assessing the status and capacity of sustainable development.In this paper,the EF of Yanbian forest region,Jilin Province,Northeast China,was calculated and analyzed by statistical yearbooks and forest yearbooks from 1996 to 2002.Results showed that the EF per capita decreased,ecological carrying capacity(ECC)per capita almost kept a static status,and ecological surplus per capita increased year after year.The EF per 10 thousand Yuan GDP per capita in Yanbian decreased from 1996 to 2002.This trend was similar to that in western China,and distinctly higher than that in eastern China.The forest EF per capita kept a steady status,while the forest production footprint (FPF)and forest export footprint(FEF)decreased.Comparing the two years before and after the implementation of Natural Forest Protection Program(NFPP)with the five years,the mean value of FPF and FEF reduced by 0.341 (46.32%)and 0.327 hm2 per capita(54.94%),respectively.In conclusion,the regional and forest development in Yanbian was sustainable,and the implementation of NFPP was favorable to improving sustainable development of forest region.However,the sustainability capacity was still lower than those in forest developed countries.Therefore,it is very necessary to improve forest productivity,resource use efficiency and management of forest ecosystems scientifically.

  9. Choice of forest map has implications for policy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    and harmonised approach at the European level. However, they possess different characteristics in terms of spatial detail or thematic accuracy. Little attention has been paid to the effect of these characteristics on simulation models and the resultant policy implications. In this study we tested whether...... the choice of a forest map has substantial influence on model output, i.e. if output differences can be related to the input differences. A sensitivity analysis of the spatially explicit Global Forest Model (G4M) was performed using four different forest maps: the pan-European high resolution forest...... utilization of forest biomass. The sensitivity analysis showed that the choice of the forest cover map has a major influence on the model outputs in particular at the country-level, while having less influence at the EU27 level. Differences between the input datasets are strongly reflected in the outputs...

  10. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  11. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Rice Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Rice Lake National...

  12. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Horicon NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Horicon National...

  13. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Ottawa NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Ottawa National...

  14. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Shiawassee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Shiawassee National...

  15. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests and Associated Exotic Earthworms in Tamarac NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary tables/figures and analysis associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Tamarac National...

  16. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brolly

    Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to

  17. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  18. Ecological restoration of peatlands in steppe and forest-steppe areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayeva, Tatiana; Sirin, Andrey; Dugarjav, Chultem

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands in the arid and semi-arid regions of steppe and forest steppe belt of Eurasia have some specific features. That demands the special approach to their management and restoration. The distribution of peatlands under conditions of dry climate is very limited and they are extremely vulnerable. Peatlands in those regions are found in the highlands where temperate conditions still present, in floodplains where they can get water from floods and springs, or in karst areas. Peatlands on watersheds present mainly remains from the more humid climate periods. Water and carbon storage as well as maintenance of the specific biodiversity are the key ecosystem natural functions of peatlands in the steppe and forest steppe. The performance of those functions has strong implications for people wellness and livelihood. Anyhow, peatlands are usually overlooked and poorly represented in the systems of natural protected areas. Land management plans, mitigation and restoration measures for ecosystems under use do not usually include special measures for peatlands. Peatlands'use depends on the traditional practices. Peat extraction is rather limited in subhumid regions but still act as one of the threats to peatlands. The most of peatlands are used as pastures and grasslands. In densely populated areas large part of peatlands are transformed to the arable lands. In many cases peatlands of piedmonts and highlands are affected by industrial developments: road construction, mining of subsoil resources (gold, etc.). Until now, the most of peatlands of steppe and forest steppe region are irreversibly lost, what also effects water regime, lands productivity, biodiversity status. To prevent further dramatic changes the ecological restoration approach should be introduced in the subhumid regions. The feasibility study to assess the potential for introducing ecological restoration techniques for peatlands in the arid and semi-arid conditions had been undertaken in steppe and forest

  19. Chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2013-01-01

    The future looks bright for the development and use of semiochemical-based tools in forests, particularly in remote and sensitive areas where other management techniques (e.g., the use of insecticides) may not be appropriate. This editorial provides an concise overview of chemical ecology and management of bark beetles in western coniferous forests.

  20. Ecology and management of morels harvested from the forests of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Pilz; Rebecca McLain; Susan Alexander; Luis Villarreal-Ruiz; Shannon Berch; Tricia L. Wurtz; Catherine G. Parks; Erika McFarlane; Blaze Baker; Randy Molina; Jane E. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Morels are prized edible mushrooms that fruit, sometimes prolifically, in many forest types throughout western North America. They are collected for personal consumption and commercially harvested as valuable special (nontimber) forest products. Large gaps remain, however, in our knowledge about their taxonomy, biology, ecology, cultivation, safety, and how to manage...

  1. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  2. Composition and ecological distribution of forest soil animal in Confucian graveyard of Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Secondary forest, Platycladus forest and Quercus acutissima forest in Confucian graveyard of Qufu were investigated. 3583 specimens were collected, belonging separately to 5 Phylums, 11 Classes and 23 Orders. Two dominant groups and 9 common groups account for 94.45% of the total numbers. The soil animals in these three forest habitats differ in composition, ecological distribution and important indices. The dominant groups of soil animals in the three forests were the same, but other groups differ more greatly. Diversity index (H') and evenness index (E) of soil animal in Secondary forest are the highest, and yet dominance index (C) in Quercus acutissima foerst is the highest. Most soil animals in each forest habitats congregate to the surface soil layer. Their sorts and individual numbers are all layer Ⅰ>Ⅱ>Ⅲ. It is very similar for composition of soil animals in the three forests.

  3. Historical, ecological, and governance aspects of intensive forest biomass harvesting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Intensive forest harvesting has increased in Fennoscandia over the last few decades. Similar developments may follow throughout Europe as renewable energy replaces fossil fuels. The international literature suggests that intensive harvesting could increase ecological risks to yield, carbon stores...... forest management impacts and conservation of light-demanding biodiversity associated with historic coppicing and grazing than on intensive harvesting. The energy sector drives the development of new governance to verify forest biomass sustainability, but the national knowledge base for such verification...

  4. Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry F. Franklin; Kermit Jr. Cromack; William Denison; Arthur McKee; Chris Maser; James Sedell; Fred Swanson; Glen. Juday

    1981-01-01

    Old-growth coniferous forests differ significantly from young-growth forests in species composition, function (rate and paths of energy flow and nutrient and water cycling), and structure. Most differences can be related to four key structural components of old growth: large live trees, large snags, large logs on land, and large logs in streams. Foresters wishing to...

  5. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the influences of various ecological factors on land surface temperature of urban forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yin; Deng, Lu-Ying; Zuo, Shu-Di; Song, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Yi-Lan; Xu, Cheng-Dong; Chen, Qi; Hua, Li-Zhong; Li, Zheng-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Identifying factors that influence the land surface temperature (LST) of urban forests can help improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cool islands. This requires a quantitative analytical method that combines spatial statistical analysis with multi-source observational data. The purpose of this study was to reveal how human activities and ecological factors jointly influence LST in clustering regions (hot or cool spots) of urban forests. Using Xiamen City, China from 1996 to 2006 as a case study, we explored the interactions between human activities and ecological factors, as well as their influences on urban forest LST. Population density was selected as a proxy for human activity. We integrated multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) to develop a database on a unified urban scale. The driving mechanism of urban forest LST was revealed through a combination of multi-source spatial data and spatial statistical analysis of clustering regions. The results showed that the main factors contributing to urban forest LST were dominant tree species and elevation. The interactions between human activity and specific ecological factors linearly or nonlinearly increased LST in urban forests. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots areas in different years. In conclusion, quantitative studies based on spatial statistics and GeogDetector models should be conducted in urban areas to reveal interactions between human activities, ecological factors, and LST.

  7. Ecological review of some problems in the sphere of forest use within the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, P.A. [State Environment Protection Committee of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the Russian Federation play some very important roles even in global level: they are an important element of our environment and they are a valuable renewable resource. Forest ecosystems are very effective in preventing erosion, in protecting water ecosystems, and in maintaining their balance. They are also a very important element of biodiversity protection and they are a significant buffer of coal. The state of the forests has a great impact on the ecological environment within the Russian Federation as a whole, as well as in certain regions, especially in forest regions. Taking into consideration the multifunctional character of forests, the interests of different groups, different levels of authority, Ministries and Committees, forest policy and practice do not always coincide, and conflicting situations appear. Forest policy should take into account these interests, find the ways for solving problems, and the management system should take all necessary steps to successfully apply the forest policy. The state of the forests within the Russian Federation is proof of the Federation`s forest policy and management practice having come to a crisis with their negative ecological impacts. (orig.)

  8. Carbon implications of forest restitution in post-socialist Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, P; Woodcock, C E [Department of Geography and Environment, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kuemmerle, T [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Telegraphenberg A62, D-14412 Potsdam (Germany); Griffiths, P; Knorn, J [Department of Geography, Humboldt-University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Baccini, A; Houghton, R A [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540 (United States); Gancz, V [Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Sos. Stefanesti 128, 077190 Voluntari, Bucharest (Romania); Blujdea, V [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change and Air Quality Unit, Via Fermi, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Abrudan, I V, E-mail: olofsson@bu.edu [Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Transylvania University of Brasov, Street Sirul Beethoven, nr. 1, Brasov (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    The collapse of socialism in 1989 triggered a phase of institutional restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe. Several countries chose to privatize forests or to return them to pre-socialist owners. Here, we assess the implications of forest restitution on the terrestrial carbon balance. New forest owners have strong incentives to immediately clearcut their forests, resulting in increased terrestrial emissions. On the other hand, logging generally decreased after 1989 and forests are expanding on unused or abandoned farmland, both of which may offset increased logging on restituted forests. We mapped changes in forest cover for the entire country of Romania using Landsat satellite images from 1990 to 2010. We use our satellite estimates, together with historic data on logging rates and changes in forest cover, to parameterize a carbon book-keeping model for estimating the terrestrial carbon flux (above and below ground) as a consequence of land use change and forest harvest. High logging rates during socialism resulted in substantial terrestrial carbon emissions and Romania was a net carbon source until the 1980s. After the collapse of the Soviet Union forest harvest rates decreased dramatically, but since restitution laws were implemented they have increased by 60% (from 15 122 {+-} 5397 ha y{sup -1} in 2000 to 23 884 {+-} 11 510 ha y{sup -1} in 2010), but still remain lower than prior to 1989. Romania currently remains a terrestrial carbon sink, offsetting 7.6% {+-} 2.5% of anthropogenic carbon emissions. A further increase in logging could result in net emissions from terrestrial ecosystems during the coming decades. However, forest expansion on degraded land and abandoned farmland offers great potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. Ecological factors governing the distribution of soil microfungi in some forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Chauhan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the microfungi occurring in the various forest soils of Pachmarhi Hills, India has been carried-out by the soil plate technique. Soil samples from 5 different forest communities viz., moist deciduous forest dominated by tree ferns, Diospyros forest, Terminalia forest, Shorea forest and scrub forest dominated by Acacia and Dalbergia sp. were collected during October, 1983. Some physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were analysed and their role in distribution of fungi in 5 soil types was studied and discussed. 43 fungal species were isolated, of which Asperigillus niger I and Penicillium janthinellum occurred in all the 5 soil types. Statistically, none of the edaphic factors showed positive significant correlation with the number of fungi.

  10. Distribution and ecology of lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, in Tanzanian coastal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuni, Christopher A; Sluydts, Vincent; Mulungu, Loth S; Maganga, Samwel L S; Makundi, Rhodes H; Leirs, Herwig

    2015-11-01

    The lesser pouched rat, Beamys hindei, is a small rodent that is patchily distributed in the Eastern Arc Mountains and coastal forests in East Africa. The ecology of this species and its current distribution in coastal forests is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study in selected coastal forests to assess the current distribution of the species and to investigate the population ecology in terms of abundance fluctuations and demographic patterns. Assessments of the species distribution were conducted in 5 forests through trapping with Sherman live traps. Data on ecology were obtained from monthly capture-mark-recapture studies conducted for 5 consecutive nights per month in two 1 ha grids set in Zaraninge Forest over a 2-year period. The results indicate the presence of B. hindei in 3 forests where it was not previously recorded. The population abundance estimates ranged from 1 to 40 animals per month, with high numbers recorded during rainy seasons. Reproduction patterns and sex ratios did not differ between months. Survival estimates were not influenced by season, and recruitment was low, with growth rate estimates of 1 animal per month. These estimates suggest a stable population of B. hindei in Zaraninge Forest. Further studies are recommended to establish the home range, diet and burrowing behavior of the species in coastal forests in East Africa.

  11. Forest conservation, afforestation and reforestation in India: Implications for forest carbon stocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Chaturvedi, R.K.; Murthy, I.K. [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2008-07-25

    India is a large developing country with a high population density and low forest area per capita. The livestock population density is among the highest in the world. Further, nearly 70% of the population residing in rural areas depends on forest and other biomass resources for fuel-wood, timber and non-timber forest products for its energy needs and livelihood. In such a socio-economic scenario, one would have expected the forest area to decline, leading to large emissions of CO{sub 2} from the forest sector. The analysis of forest cover, afforestation and reforestation has shown that the forest cover has stabilized in the past 15 years. The progressive conservation-oriented forest policies and afforestation programs are contributing to reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere, stabilization of carbon stocks in forests and conservation of biodiversity. Thus, the Indian forest sector is projected to keep making positive contributions to global change and sustainable development. This article presents an assessment of the implications of past and current forest conservation and regeneration policies and programs for forest carbon sink in India. The area under forests, including part of the area afforested, is increasing and currently 67.83 mha of area is under forest cover. Assuming that the current trend continues, the area under forest cover is projected to reach 72 mha by 2030. Estimates of carbon stock in Indian forests in both soil and vegetation range from 8.58 to 9.57 GtC. The carbon stock in existing forests is projected to be nearly stable over the next 25 year period at 8.79 GtC. However, if the current rate of afforestation and reforestation is assumed to continue, the carbon stock could increase from 8.79 GtC in 2006 to 9.75 GtC by 2030 -- an increase of 11%. The estimates made in this study assume that the current trend will continue and do not include forest degradation and loss of carbon stock due to biomass extraction, fire, grazing and

  12. A mixed-methods analysis of social-ecological feedbacks between urbanization and forest persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd BenDor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined how social-ecological factors in the land-change decision-making process influenced neighboring decisions and trajectories of alternative landscape ecologies. We decomposed individual landowner decisions to conserve or develop forests in the rapidly growing Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S. region, exposing and quantifying the effects of forest quality, and social and cultural dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic value of forest resources, e.g., cultural attachment to land, influence woodland owners' propensity to sell. Data were collected from a sample of urban, nonindustrial private forest (U-NIPF owners using an individualized survey design that spatially matched land-owner responses to the ecological and timber values of their forest stands. Cluster analysis (n = 126 revealed four woodland owner typologies with widely ranging views on the ecosystem, cultural, and historical values of their forests. Classification tree analysis revealed woodland owners' willingness to sell was characterized by nonlinear, interactive factors, including sense of place values regarding the retention of native vegetation, the size of forest holdings, their connectedness to nature, 'pressure' from surrounding development, and behavioral patterns, such as how often landowners visit their land. Several ecological values and economic factors were not found to figure in the decision to retain forests. Our study design is unique in that we address metropolitan forest persistence across urban-rural and population gradients using a unique individualized survey design that richly contextualizes survey responses. Understanding the interplay between policies and landowner behavior can also help resource managers to better manage and promote forest persistence. Given the region's paucity of policy tools to manage the type and amount of development, the mosaic of land cover the region currently enjoys is far from stable.

  13. CARBON BALANCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER GLOBAL WARMING: LANDSCAPE-ECOLOGICAL PREDICTIVE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erland Kolomyts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of application of landscape-ecological methods for evaluation of biotic regulation of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. Methods for constructing analytical and cartographic empirical-statistical models for identification of forest associations and zonal/regional types of forest formations capable of stabilizing the continental biosphere under changing climate are described. Possible biotic regulation of the carbon cycle under known scenarios of future greenhouse warming is suggested. The maps on the carbon content and its changes in the forests of the Oka river basin are presented.

  14. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  15. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial

  16. POTENTIAL AREAS FOR THE FORMATION OF ECOLOGICAL CORRIDORS BETWEEN REMNANTS OF ATLANTIC FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, the remaining areas of Atlantic Forest are intensely fragmented. The connection of forest fragments through ecological corridors is an important step in biodiversity conservation. Certain areas are more resilient, and in those areas, natural forest regeneration, for example, can be encouraged. The aim of this study was to identify areas of greater resilience in order to support the connection of Atlantic Forest fragments with ecological corridors. Forest fragments in the municipality of Paraíba do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were mapped using the supervised maximum likelihood classification of an Operational Land Imager (OLI/Landsat-8 sensor image. Next, we analyzed the influence of terrain attributes (aspect, incident solar radiation, slope, and curvature profile on natural regeneration. The areas with the greatest potential to achieve natural regeneration and to form ecological corridors were indicated through fuzzy membership functions. Within Paraíba do Sul, 31% of the territory is covered by vegetation in different stages of regeneration. Recordings were made of 1,251 forest fragments in a middle or advanced stage of regeneration. These fragments are usually situated in the southeast, south, and southwest aspects, in areas that receive the least amount of global solar radiation (Wh·m-2 per year, and on slopes with an angle of inclination greater than 20%. The adjustment of fuzzy functions identified 17,327.5 ha with a tendency to recover, and which are therefore strategic areas in the development of ecological corridors.

  17. The Forest of Our Lives: In and Out of Political Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt G Karlsson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I seek to bring together a number of environmental histories to think about the place of forest in our lives. It is partly autobiographical in the sense that it concerns forest issues that I, for various reasons, have been entangled with recently. These are the making of carbon (REDD+ forests in Northeast India, preservation of the urban forests and planting of indigenous trees in Karura forests in Nairobi, Kenya, and the transformation of Swedish forests into vast industrial plantations. I come to these issues with little knowledge about the forest ecology or the flora and fauna, as such, but rather as a scholar with earlier experience of analysis of the social and political dynamics involved in conflicts over forests, that is, how differently powered actors seek to appropriate, stake claims to or control the forest. Hence, my point of departure and analytical framework is largely that of political ecology. In a conversation about the work of the anthropologist Brian Morris, I will point to the thinness of such an approach and open up aspects that are critical to Morris' way of engaging with the interactions of people, plants, insects, and animals. This, I will argue, is a truly grounded environmental anthropology.

  18. Using the Viability Theory to Assess the Flexibility of Forest Managers Under Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Bonté, Bruno; Cordonnier, Thomas; de Morogues, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Greater demand for wood material has converged with greater demand for biodiversity conservation to make balancing forest ecosystem services a key societal issue. Forest managers, owners, or policymakers need new approaches and methods to evaluate their ability to adapt to this dual objective. We analyze the ability of forest owners to define sustainable forest management options based on viability theory and a new flexibility index. This new indicator gauges the adaptive capacity of forest owners based on the number of sustainable actions available to them at a given time. Here we study a public forest owner who regulates harvest intensity and frequency in order to meet demand for timber wood at forest scale and to meet a biodiversity recommendation via a minimum permanently maintained volume of deadwood per hectare at stand scale. Dynamical systems theory was used to model uneven-aged forest dynamics-including deadwood dynamics-and the dynamics of timber wood demand and tree removals. Uneven-aged silver fir forest management in the "Quatre Montagnes region" (Vercors, France) is used as an illustrative example. The results explain situations where a joint increase in wood production and deadwood retention does not reduce the flexibility index more than increasing either one dimension alone, thus opening up ecological intensification options. To conclude, we discuss the value of the new flexibility index for addressing environmental management and ecological intensification issues.

  19. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  20. Repelling invaders: Hawaiian foresters use ecology to counter invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Kling; Julie Featured: Denslow; Tracy Johnson; Susan Cordell

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are one of the United States' most treasured natural resources. Their natural beauty attracts legions of visitors every year, and they represent a unique set of ecosystems. Despite their limited geographic size, Hawai‘i hosts a remarkable range of habitats. On some islands, dry tropical forest, wet rain forest, and alpine ecosystems are found...

  1. Ecology of beech forests in the northern hemisphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Beech forests are dominated or codominated by at least one Fagus species. The beeches are a homogeneous group of 11 deciduous tree species growing in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1). They often dominate forest ecosystems throughout their ranges. The optimum for beech is on acidic and mesic loam

  2. Fragmentation of Araucaria Forests in the Chapecó Ecological Corridor, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Garcia Alarcon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, only 2% of the Araucaria forest remains, and less than 1% of this forest is protected (as conservation units. In Santa Catarina, the Chapecó River sub-basin was evaluated for the creation of a state ecological corridor. Studies were developed within the Microbacias 2 Project between 2007 and 2009. Landscape metrics provided important data for evaluating the conservation status of the forest remnants for the zoning of the corridor. The Chapecó Ecological Corridor encompasses around 5,000km²; 50.5% of this area comprises remnants of natural ecosystems and 42.7% is used by agricultural activities. Fifteen fragments, which are each larger than 500ha, are Araucaria forests that contain elements of Floresta Estacional Decidual. Of the 83 watersheds studied in permanent preservation areas, 20.5% has more than 60% vegetation cover and 57.5% has between 10% and 30% vegetation cover. It is estimated that the sub-basin has 111,000km2 of forest on private properties, along with remnants in three conservation units and three indigenous areas. The forests of the Chapecó Ecological Corridor represent the last fragments of continuous Araucaria forest in western Santa Catarina.

  3. Bacterial motility in the sea and its ecological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Riemann, Lasse; Azam, F.

    2001-01-01

    Motility could be an important adaptation of heterotrophic bacteria and archaea, and it may have ecological and biogeochemical implications. However, the limited observations so far show that only a small fraction (=10%) of bacteria is motile. We report a systematic 10 mo long field study off......, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates. However, it was positively related with particulate organic carbon throughout diel sampling on 24 to 26 September 1997. During a mesocosm diatom bloom % motile rose sharply as the bloom crashed, suggesting algal detritus may elicit motility. Enhanced % motile resulted in increased...... swimming. Our results show that a variable fraction of marine bacteria is able to respond to loci of organic matter, e.g. organic particles and algae, and that motility underlies dynamic patterns of ecological relationships (symbiosis, competition, parasitism) between bacteria and algae. Since motility may...

  4. Ecological and biogeographical analyses of Mediterranean forests of northern Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajbilou, Redouan; Marañón, Teodoro; Arroyo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Mediterranean forests in northern Morocco have been studied. Tree species composition and abundance were investigated in 84 forest sites, distributed throughout the sandstone formation of the Tangier region. The relative abundance of 15 tree and arborescent shrub species was related, by ordination analysis, to altitude, disturbance by fire, and soil fertility. High-elevation forests were dominated by Cedrus atlantica, Quercus pyrenaica and Pinus pinaster. Sacred forests (protected as holy burial places) had a distinct stand structure, and were considered as refuges, for maintaining biodiversity at landscape scale. The evergreen oak Quercus suber and the semideciduous Quercus canariensis co-dominated the lowland forests. The mean basal area of the studied forests was 34 m 2 ha -1. The mean trunk size (dbh) for Q. suber was 24 cm and for Q. canariensis 36.5 cm; in both cases there were indications of declining regeneration at population level. A comparative biogeographical analysis with the equivalent region in southern Spain (separated by the Strait of Gibraltar; 14 km wide), indicated a possible biodiversity loss in the Moroccan forests.

  5. How livestock and flooding mediate the ecological integrity of working forests in Amazon River floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christine M; Sheikh, Pervaze; Gagnon, Paul R; Mcgrath, David G

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of working forests to tropical conservation and development depends upon the maintenance of ecological integrity under ongoing land use. Assessment of ecological integrity requires an understanding of the structure, composition, and function and major drivers that govern their variability. Working forests in tropical river floodplains provide many goods and services, yet the data on the ecological processes that sustain these services is scant. In flooded forests of riverside Amazonian communities, we established 46 0.1-ha plots varying in flood duration, use by cattle and water buffalo, and time since agricultural abandonment (30-90 yr). We monitored three aspects of ecological integrity (stand structure, species composition, and dynamics of trees and seedlings) to evaluate the impacts of different trajectories of livestock activity (alleviation, stasis, and intensification) over nine years. Negative effects of livestock intensification were solely evident in the forest understory, and plots alleviated from past heavy disturbance increased in seedling density but had higher abundance of thorny species than plots maintaining low activity. Stand structure, dynamics, and tree species composition were strongly influenced by the natural pulse of seasonal floods, such that the defining characteristics of integrity were dependent upon flood duration (3-200 d). Forests with prolonged floods ≥ 140 d had not only lower species richness but also lower rates of recruitment and species turnover relative to forests with short floods forest regeneration, but overall forest integrity was largely related to the hydrological regime and age. Given this disjunction between factors mediating canopy and understory integrity, we present a subset of metrics for regeneration and recruitment to distinguish forest condition by livestock trajectory. Although our study design includes confounded factors that preclude a definitive assessment of the major drivers of

  6. Social-Ecological Changes in a Quilombola Community in the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorkildsen, Kjersti

    2014-01-01

    Through a combined adaptive cycle and political ecology approach, this article explores how the Afro-Brazilian Quilombolas of Bombas, living inside the protected area of PETAR, respond to and shape social-ecological changes in the Atlantic Forest. Field data reveal that both environmental restrictions and social policies of state transfer payments and food packages have contributed to decreased engagement in agricultural practices, loss of traditional knowledge, and reduced agro-biodiversity. The claim to land rights based on a Quilombola identity and recent negotiations with forest authorities insinuate a shift of this trend. Contrary to dominant conservation narratives, the findings indicate that small-scale shifting cultivation practices by the Quilombolas have the potential to increase structural ecological complexity of the Atlantic Forest. The article therefore argues that legalization of settlement and subsistence activities is important not only for livelihood security and social cohesion of Bombas inhabitants, but also possibly for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Precision of Nest Method in Estimating Orangutan Population and Determination of Important Ecological Factors for Management of Conservation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanto Santosa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Orangutan as an umbrella species is closely interlinked with sustainable forest management meaning that the protection of this species has implications on the protection of other species and maintain ecosystem stability.  The total natural habitat required to support orangutan’s population could only be determined by the appropriate population size. It is associated with the carrying capacity to accommodate or fulfill the habitat requirements of a wildlife population. Selection and delineation of core and wilderness zones as habitat preference should be based on the results of preference test shown by the spatial distribution of orangutan population. Value of the coefficient  of  variation (CV was used to observe the precision of the population estimation and to identify important ecological factors in selection of nesting trees.  The study resulted in varied CV spatial values for various habitat types: 22.60%,  11.20%, and 13.30% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. In the other side, CV temporal values for various habitat types were 5.35%, 22.60%, and 17.60% for heath, lowland dipterocarp, and peat swamp forest, respectively. This indicated that the population density in each type of forest ecosystems had a variation based on location and did not varied according to time of survey.  The use of  nest survey technique showed good reliable results in estimating orangutan population density.  Efforts to improve the precision of estimation can be done by formulating r value as the harmonic average of nest production rates and t as the average of nest decay time per nest category. Selection of habitat preference and nest trees were influenced by food availability thus should form important consideration in conducting nest survey to avoid bias in estimating orangutan populations.Keywords: conservation forest management, nest survey, orangutan, population size, ecological factors

  8. Soil phosphorus and the ecology of lowland tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ben

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation I will explore the extent to which phosphorus influences the productivity, diversity, and distribution of plant species in tropical forests. I will highlight the range of soils that occur in tropical forests and will argue that pedogenesis and associated phosphorus depletion is a primary driver of forest diversity over long timescales. I will draw on data from a regional-scale network of forest dynamics plots in Panama to show that tree species distributions are determined predominantly as a function of dry season intensity and soil phosphorus availability, and will suggest potential mechanistic explanations for this pattern in relation to phosphorus acquisition. Finally, I will present observational and experimental evidence from Panama to show how phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium, limit plant productivity and microbial communities on strongly-weathered soils in the lowland tropics.

  9. Annotated bibliography of South African indigenous evergreen forest ecology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Annotated references to 519 publications are presented, together with keyword listings and keyword, regional, place name and taxonomic indices. This bibliography forms part of the first phase of the activities of the Forest Biome Task Group....

  10. Felling-system and regeneration of pine forests on ecological-genetic-geographical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A conception of the adaptation of Scots pine populations to the natural regeneration on open sites with the mosaic retained stand and mineralized soil surface on the basis of the ecological-genetic-geographical investigations in the forests of the Russia and the theory of petropsammofitness-pyrofitness (Sannikov S. N., 1983 has been substantiated. The methods of clear cuts with the seeding from surrounding forest, seed curtains and sufficiently extent of the substrate preparation for the pine selfsown have been selected and elaborated as a main organization principle of the system «felling-regeneration» in the plains pine forests of the forest zone. High regeneration efficiency of this system with the application of original aggregate for the optimal mineralization of the soil substrate (with its synchronous loosing has been shown on the example of dominating pine forest types in the subzone for-forest-steppe of the Western Siberia. The silvicultural-ecological and reproductive-genetic advantages of retaining seed curtains instead of separate seed trees have been substantiated. The basic parameters of the system «felling-regeneration», which guarantee a sufficient success of the following pine regeneration in the for-forest-steppe subzone, have been determined with the help of the methods of the mathematical imitation modeling of the pine selfsown density depending on the area and localization of seed curtains, surrounding forest and the extent of the substrate mineralization. The zonal differentiated system of the fellings and measures for the regeneration optimization in the climatically substituting pine forest types in the Western Siberia has been elaborated according to the parameters, studied earlier, on the ecological-genetic-geographical basis. The principles of this system in forest zone come to the clear strip-fellings with insemination of cuts from the seed curtains and forest walls, and to the hollow-fellings with the

  11. Regional ecosystem structure and function: ecological insights from remote sensing of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Asner, Gregory P; Morton, Douglas C; Anderson, Liana O; Saatchi, Sassan S; Espírito-Santo, Fernando D B; Palace, Michael; Souza, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Ecological studies in tropical forests have long been plagued by difficulties associated with sampling the crowns of large canopy trees and large inaccessible regions, such as the Amazon basin. Recent advances in remote sensing have overcome some of these obstacles, enabling progress towards tackling difficult ecological problems. Breakthroughs have helped transform the dialog between ecology and remote sensing, generating new regional perspectives on key environmental gradients and species assemblages with ecologically relevant measures such as canopy nutrient and moisture content, crown area, leaf-level drought responses, woody tissue and surface litter abundance, phenological patterns, and land-cover transitions. Issues that we address here include forest response to altered precipitation regimes, regional disturbance and land-use patterns, invasive species and landscape carbon balance.

  12. GPS and GIS Methods in an African Rain Forest: Applications to Tropical Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brean Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the completion of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS in 1995, the integration of GPS and Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology has expanded to a great number of ecological and conservation applications. In tropical rain forest ecology, however, the technology has remained relatively neglected, despite its great potential. Notwithstanding cost, this is principally due to (1 the difficulty of quality satellite reception beneath a dense forest canopy, and (2 a degree of spatial error unacceptable to fine-scale vegetation mapping. Here, we report on the technical use of GPS/GIS in the rain forest of Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the methodology necessary to acquire high-accuracy spatial measurements. We conclude that the stringent operating parameters necessary for high accuracy were rarely obtained while standing beneath the rain forest canopy. Raising the GPS antenna to heights of 25–30 m resolved this problem, allowing swift data collection on the spatial dispersion of individual rain forest trees. We discuss the impact of the 1996 Presidential Decision Directive that suspended U.S. military-induced GPS error on 1 May 2000, and comment on the potential applications of GPS/GIS technology to the ecological study and conservation of tropical rain forests.

  13. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo González-Zamora

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively. Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations

  14. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  15. Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  16. Ecology of lichens in boreal coniferous forests with reference to spatial and temporal patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Esseen, Per-Anders

    1983-01-01

    The thesis deals with the ecology of lichens in two contrasting types of forest, epiphytic lichens in old Picea abies forest of the fi re-refugia type and epigeic as well as epixylic lichens in a successional sequence of fire- susceptible Pinus sylvestris forests. Results in five separate papers form the basis for a discussion of general patterns of dispersal, succession and life strategies in lichens. The study sites were located in Medelpad and Väs­terbotten, in the central and northern par...

  17. Ecological constraints increase the climatic debt in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Romain; Riofrío-Dillon, Gabriela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Drapier, Jacques; de Ruffray, Patrice; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Loreau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity changes are lagging behind current climate warming. The underlying determinants of this climatic debt are unknown and yet critical to understand the impacts of climate change on the present biota and improve forecasts of biodiversity changes. Here we assess determinants of climatic debt accumulated in French forest herbaceous plant communities between 1987 and 2008 (that is, a 1.05 °C mean difference between the observed and bioindicated temperatures). We show that warmer baseline conditions predispose plant communities to larger climatic debts, and that climate warming exacerbates this response. Forest plant communities, however, are absorbing part of the temperature increase mainly through the species' ability to tolerate changing climate. As climate warming is expected to accelerate during the twenty-first century, plant migration and tolerance to climatic stresses probably will be insufficient to absorb this impact posing threats to the sustainability of forest plant communities. PMID:27561410

  18. Ecological constraints increase the climatic debt in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Romain; Riofrío-Dillon, Gabriela; Lenoir, Jonathan; Drapier, Jacques; de Ruffray, Patrice; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Loreau, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Biodiversity changes are lagging behind current climate warming. The underlying determinants of this climatic debt are unknown and yet critical to understand the impacts of climate change on the present biota and improve forecasts of biodiversity changes. Here we assess determinants of climatic debt accumulated in French forest herbaceous plant communities between 1987 and 2008 (that is, a 1.05 °C mean difference between the observed and bioindicated temperatures). We show that warmer baseline conditions predispose plant communities to larger climatic debts, and that climate warming exacerbates this response. Forest plant communities, however, are absorbing part of the temperature increase mainly through the species' ability to tolerate changing climate. As climate warming is expected to accelerate during the twenty-first century, plant migration and tolerance to climatic stresses probably will be insufficient to absorb this impact posing threats to the sustainability of forest plant communities.

  19. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  20. Caatinga Revisited: Ecology and Conservation of an Important Seasonal Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Lima Araújo, Elcida; El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; de Lima, André Luiz Alves; Souto, Antonio; Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Ferraz, Elba Maria Nogueira; Maria Xavier Freire, Eliza; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barreto; Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Pereira, Glauco Alves; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Alves Ramos, Marcelo; Rodal, Maria Jesus Nogueira; Schiel, Nicola; de Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Azevedo-Júnior, Severino Mendes; Telino Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Severi, William

    2012-01-01

    Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest) hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga. PMID:22919296

  1. Caatinga revisited: ecology and conservation of an important seasonal dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Lima Araújo, Elcida; El-Deir, Ana Carla Asfora; de Lima, André Luiz Alves; Souto, Antonio; Bezerra, Bruna Martins; Ferraz, Elba Maria Nogueira; Maria Xavier Freire, Eliza; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barreto; Las-Casas, Flor Maria Guedes; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa; Pereira, Glauco Alves; de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Alves Ramos, Marcelo; Rodal, Maria Jesus Nogueira; Schiel, Nicola; de Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; de Azevedo-Júnior, Severino Mendes; Telino Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Severi, William

    2012-01-01

    Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest) hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga.

  2. Caatinga Revisited: Ecology and Conservation of an Important Seasonal Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Paulino de Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides its extreme climate conditions, the Caatinga (a type of tropical seasonal forest hosts an impressive faunal and floristic biodiversity. In the last 50 years there has been a considerable increase in the number of studies in the area. Here we aimed to present a review of these studies, focusing on four main fields: vertebrate ecology, plant ecology, human ecology, and ethnobiology. Furthermore, we identify directions for future research. We hope that the present paper will help defining actions and strategies for the conservation of the biological diversity of the Caatinga.

  3. Response of the boreal forest ecosystem to climatic change and its silvicultural implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellomaeki, S.; Haenninen, H.; Karjalainen, T. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry] [and others

    1996-12-31

    During the next 100 years, the mean annual temperature is expected to be 1-6 deg C higher than at present. It is also expected to be accompanied by a lengthening of the thermal growing season and increased precipitation. Consequently, climatic change will increase the uncertainty of the management of forest ecosystems in the future. In this context, this research project aimed to outline the ecological and silvicultural implications of climatic change with regard to (1) how the expected climatic change might modify the functioning and structure of the boreal forest ecosystem, and (2) how the silvicultural management of the forest ecosystem should be modified in order to maintain sustainable forest yield under changing climatic conditions. The experimental component of the project concerned first the effect that elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon have on the ontogenetic development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L) and on the subsequent increase in frost damage during winter. The second part of the study looked the effect of elevating temperature and elevating concentration of atmospheric carbon on the growth of Scots pine through photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, nutrient supply, and changes in crown structure. This experiment was utilised in several subprojects of the overall project

  4. Ecological and Socio-Economic Contribution of Mt. Elgon Forest Park, Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ecological and socio-economic contribution of Mt. Elgon forest park, eastern Uganda. An effort was taken to evaluate the importance of Mt. Elgon forest park resources to the local people by using the local plant knowledge to value the forest park resources. An integrated approach of participatory rural appraisal (PRA, Participatory Resource Valuation (PRV, household survey, group discussions and forest walks were conducted during the months of June to December, 2008 in Mutushet and Kortek Parishes, Kapchorwa District. Using random sampling methods, 120 respondents were selected and interviewed. Ten forest uses were identified with the highest dependence being in the supply of timber for income and domestic building poles, the latter having the highest average annual household value of UGx. 67919 (US$37. The forest use most valued in both Mutushet and Koterk was medicine with an average annual household value of UGx. 60,371 (US$ 33 and UGx. 75,464 (US$ 42 respectively. The forest provision of medicine, domestic building materials, soil conservation, bush meat, charcoal and timber was more valued in Koterk, while provision of firewood, honey and pasture were more valued in Mutushet. The forest’s provision of food was valued equally in the two areas with an average annual value of UGx. 30,186 per household. Forest park resources accounted for 55% of the household income. Participatory valuation approaches are ecommended for estimation of forest park resources’ value in a non-cash economy.

  5. Theorizing the Implications of Gender Order for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeji Varghese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management is intended to draw attention to social, economic, and ecological dimensions. The social dimension, in particular, is intended to advance the effectiveness of institutions in accurately reflecting social values. Research demonstrates that while women bring distinctive interests and values to forest management issues, their nominal and effective participation is restricted by a gender order that marginalizes their interests and potential contributions. The purpose of this paper is to explain how gender order affects the attainment of sustainable forest management. We develop a theoretical discussion to explain how women's involvement in three different models for engagement—expert-based, stakeholder-based, and civic engagement—might be advanced or constrained. By conducting a meta-analysis of previous research conducted in Canada and internationally, we show how, in all three models, both nominal and effective participation of women is constrained by several factors including rules of entry, divisions of labour, social norms and perceptions and rules of practice, personal endowments and attributes, as well as organizational cultures. Regardless of the model for engagement, these factors are part of a masculine gender order that prevails in forestry and restricts opportunities for inclusive and sustainable forest management.

  6. [Dynamic changes of soil ecological factors in Ziwuling secondary forest area under human disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengchao; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2005-09-01

    As a widespread natural phenomenon, disturbance is considered as a discrete event occurred in natural ecosystems at various spatial and temporal scales. The occurrence of disturbance directly affects the structure, function and dynamics of ecosystems. Forest logging and forestland assart, the common human disturbances in forest area, have caused the dynamic changes of forest soil ecological factors in a relatively consistent environment. A study on the dynamics of soil bulk density, soil organic matter, soil microbes and other soil ecological factors under different human disturbance (logging and assart, logging but without assart, control) were conducted in the Ziwuling secondary forest area. The results indicated that human disturbance had a deep impact on the soil ecological factors, with soil physical and chemical properties become bad, soil organic matter decreased from 2.2% to 0.8%, and soil stable aggregates dropped more than 30%. The quantity of soil microbes decreased sharply with enhanced human disturbance. Soil organic matter and soil microbes decreased more than 50% and 90%, respectively, and soil bulk density increased from 0.9 to 1.21 g x cm(-3) with increasing soil depth. Ditch edge level also affected the dynamics of soil factors under the same disturbance, with a better soil ecological condition at low-than at high ditch edge level.

  7. Missing data in forest ecology and management: advances in quantitative methods [Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Barrett; Matti. Maltomo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, substantial progress has been made for handling missing data issues for applications in forest ecology and management, particularly in the area of imputation techniques. A session on this topic was held at the XXlll IUFRO World Congress in Seoul, South Korea, on August 23-28, 2010, resulting in this special issue of six papers that address recent...

  8. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  9. Ecological consequences of changing hydrological conditions in wetland forests of coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Keim; Jim L. Chambers; Melinda S. Hughes; J. Andrew Nyman; Craig A. Miller; Blake J. Amos; William H. Conner; John W. Day; Stephen P. Faulkner; Emile S. Gardiner; Sammy L. King; Kenneth W. McLeod; Gary P. Shaffer

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale and localized alterations of processes affecting deltaic coastal wetlands have caused the complete loss of some coastal wetland forests and reduced the productivity and vigor of many areas in coastal Louisiana. This loss and degradation threatens ecosystem functions and the services they provide. This paper summarizes ecological relationships controlled by...

  10. The Past and Future of Colorado's Forests: Connecting People and Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Binkley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The future composition, structure, and dynamics of forests in Colorado will develop in response to both ecological and social factors. Key ecological factors that shaped forests in the past included a great diversity of climatic conditions that results from complex topography and a broad range of elevations, as well as legacies of long-term climate changes and responses of plant and animal species. The influence of direct and indirect human impacts has steadily increased over the past two centuries, changing most forests. A workshop examined how goals of sustaining ecosystems and biodiversity will depend on a confluence of ecological and social changes. Key themes from the workshop included an acknowledgment that the sheer complexity of factors and interactions will limit our ability to shape the future, and that effective combinations of ecology and societies will depend in large part on the use of creative narratives that allow us to communicate productively among people with incredibly different knowledge and perspectives. These insights from Colorado's forest landscapes and communities will likely resonate with other regions.

  11. Dipterocarps and Mycorrhiza. An ecological adaptation and a factor in forest regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, W.Th.M.

    1983-01-01

    Each dipterocarp has its own species of fungus, forming an ectomycorrhiza. From literature and experiments (in East Kalimantan and in vitro) ecological consequences are explored. These help explain the clumping of dipterocarp trees in the forest, the lack of hybrids, the poor dispersal, and speciati

  12. Small mammal populations and ecology in the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project area

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Jr. Laudenslayer; Roberta J. Fargo

    2002-01-01

    Small mammals are important components of woodlands and forests. Since 1992, we have been studying several aspects of small mammal ecology in oak woodlands in western foothills of the southern Sierra Nevada. Assemblages of small, nocturnal mammal species are dominated by the brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii), California mouse (P. californicus...

  13. Geographic information analysis: An ecological approach for the management of wildlife on the forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a summary of the project funded by NAGw-1460 as part of the Earth Observation Commericalization/Applications Program (EOCAP) directed by NASA's Earth Science and Applications Division. The goal was to work with several agencies to focus on forest structure and landscape characterizations for wildlife habitat applications. New analysis techniques were used in remote sensing and landscape ecology with geographic information systems (GIS). The development of GIS and the emergence of the discipline of landscape ecology provided us with an opportunity to study forest and wildlife habitat resources from a new perspective. New techniques were developed to measure forest structure across scales from the canopy to the regional level. This paper describes the project team, technical advances, and technology adoption process that was used. Reprints of related refereed journal articles are in the Appendix.

  14. Fuzzy logic merger of spectral and ecological information for improved montane forest mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph D.; Running, Steven W.; Ryan, Kevin C.; Key, Carl H.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental data are often utilized to guide interpretation of spectral information based on context, however, these are also important in deriving vegetation maps themselves, especially where ecological information can be mapped spatially. A vegetation classification procedure is presented which combines a classification of spectral data from Landsat‐5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and environmental data based on topography and fire history. These data were combined utilizing fuzzy logic where assignment of each pixel to a single vegetation category was derived comparing the partial membership of each vegetation category within spectral and environmental classes. Partial membership was assigned from canopy cover for forest types measured from field sampling. Initial classification of spectral and ecological data produced map accuracies of less than 50% due to overlap between spectrally similar vegetation and limited spatial precision for predicting local vegetation types solely from the ecological information. Combination of environmental data through fuzzy logic increased overall mapping accuracy (70%) in coniferous forest communities of northwestern Montana, USA.

  15. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola; Santos-Neto Luiz Gonzaga; Lozovei Ana Leuch

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influence...

  16. Implications of Increasing Forest Density and Vegetation Water Demand on Drought Impacts in California Montane Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksa, P. C.; Safeeq, M.; Dymond, S.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation density has been increasing over the past 30 years at mid-elevation southern Sierra mixed-conifer catchments and northern California coastal conifer catchments, as shown from Landsat mean annual values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Forest vegetation in these regions is being maintained or even increased during the recent drought, despite record low precipitation levels statewide and heavy tree mortality at lower elevation Sierra pine-dominated forests. The increase in vegetation density suggests an increase in forest water use, exacerbating the effects of the drought on runoff and water supply. Between 1984 and 2015, mean annual NDVI increased in the southern Sierra from 0.47 to 0.56 (+19%) in the Providence Creek basin (1730-2115m elevation) and from 0.53 to 0.62 (+17%) in Bull Creek basin (2145-2490m), while NDVI increased along the northern California coast from 0.75 to 0.88 (+17%) in the Caspar Creek basin (40-300m). Previous research has shown an exponential relationship exists between NDVI and measured annual evapotranspiration (ET), indicating even greater increases in ET than NDVI over the three decades. This increase in vegetation has also led to more competition for plant available water, and can be used to explain the large tree mortality occurring in the pine forests at lower elevations, which did not occur during previous drought periods. Preliminary results of a hydro-ecological model, RHESSys, suggest intensive vegetation treatments in these regions can reduce evapotranspiration and modify the catchment-scale water balance. Forest management strategies for implementation of thinning and fuels treatments to reduce forest density may be effective in limiting vegetation mortality during future drought events.

  17. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Silaghi, Diana; Neagu, Stefan; Barbu, Ion; Iacoban, Carmen; Iacob, Corneliu; Guiman, Gheorghe; Preda, Elena; Seceleanu, Ioan; Oneata, Marian; Dumitru, Ion; Huber, Viorela; Iuncu, Horia; Dinca, Lucian; Leca, Stefan; Taut, Ioan

    2012-12-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006-2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O(3)) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH(3)) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to deposition of nutritional nitrogen (N) and could affect biodiversity changes. Higher that 50% contribution of acidic rain (pH Carpathian region levels. The observed nutritional imbalance could have negative effects on forest trees. Health of forests was moderately affected, with damaged trees (crown defoliation >25%) higher than 30%. The observed crown damage was accompanied by the annual volume losses for the entire research forest area up to 25.4%. High diversity and evenness specific to the stand type's structures and local climate conditions were observed within the herbaceous layer, indicating that biodiversity of the vascular plant communities was not compromised.

  18. Ecological and Economic Advantages of Using Polypropylene Tree Shelters in Lowland Oak Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Liović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The process of joining the market competition by the company “Croatian Forests”, managing state forests in Croatia, is related to the transformation of the company into a trading company. This means that beside the biological and ecological goals in managing forests, the special attention is to be paid to business operations with the highest economic outputs, reduced costs and increased income. In order to enhance the regeneration of pedunculate oak forests in present day changing ecological and challenging economic conditions, as our proposal, is implementation of one of the artificial methods of regeneration pedunculate oak forests by planting seedlings protected with polypropylene tree shelters. Materials and Methods: The paper deal with existing knowledge about the conditions and characteristics of two methods of oak stand regeneration and analyzed data of current norms, standards and prices for each of these methods. The analysis compared the two methods: method of regeneration with unprotected seedlings, and seedlings protected with polypropylene tree shelters. Results and Conslusions: The research results showed that in comparison to the common seedling planting method, this method of pedunculate oak stand regeneration on difficult terrains with complex stand conditions is ecologically and economically more beneficial.

  19. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F Stuart; Gowda, C Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  20. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  1. Restoring fish ecological quality in estuaries: Implication of interactive and cumulative effects among anthropogenic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Nils; Borja, Angel; Chust, Guillem; Uriarte, Ainhize; Lepage, Mario

    2016-01-15

    Estuaries are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors, which have additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects. Current challenges include the use of large databases of biological monitoring surveys (e.g. the European Water Framework Directive) to help environmental managers prioritizing restoration measures. This study investigated the impact of nine stressor categories on the fish ecological status derived from 90 estuaries of the North East Atlantic countries. We used a random forest model to: 1) detect the dominant stressors and their non-linear effects; 2) evaluate the ecological benefits expected from reducing pressure from stressors; and 3) investigate the interactions among stressors. Results showed that largest restoration benefits were expected when mitigating water pollution and oxygen depletion. Non-additive effects represented half of pairwise interactions among stressors, and antagonisms were the most common. Dredged sediments, flow changes and oxygen depletion were predominantly implicated in non-additive interactions, whereas the remainder stressors often showed additive impacts. The prevalence of interactive impacts reflects a complex scenario for estuaries management; hence, we proposed a step-by-step restoration scheme focusing on the mitigation of stressors providing the maximum of restoration benefits under a multi-stress context.

  2. Ecological Restoration and Reforestation of Fragmented Forests in Kianjavato, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Manjaribe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reforestation effort in Kianjavato Commune in southeast Madagascar is presented that combines native diversity with rapidly growing introduced and native pioneer trees. This work utilizes a three-tiered corridor design that capitalizes on the region’s mountainous terrain. The process of seed selection, transplantation, and survival rate of seedlings over a 16 month period is reported. The uppermost 50% of each mountain is planted with 38 woody species and most closely approximates native forest. This tier was divided into two categories, pioneer and secondary species. Most of the pioneer species were not native; however, results showed that four fast-growing, environmentally-tolerant native species could be suitable alternatives: Streblus mauritianus, Syzygium bernieri, Treculia madagascariensis and Uapaca thouarsii. More than 70,000 seeds of secondary species were extracted from fecal samples from wild, free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs; the majority of which germinated significantly better after gut passage. The most effective pretreatment that enhanced germination was to scarify unwashed seeds. Commercially valuable trees, belonging to the community members, were grown on the lower half of each mountain. Lastly, the various contributions of the community are described along with agroforestry development plans designed to reduce pressure on forest resources and generate supplemental income.

  3. Day-time feeding ecology of Eulemur cinereiceps in the Agnalazaha Forest, Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Agnalazaha Forest, a degraded fragment of littoral forest in southeast Madagascar, contains a small population of the endangered Eulemur cinereiceps. To better conserve this species its feeding ecology was described by habituating two groups and recording their activities, the food types and species exploited, and the location of food trees by focal animal sampling. The lemurs’ environment was also described by measuring forest structure, and monitoring climate and phenology. In total, the groups were observed for 498 hours over 11 months. Monthly time spent feeding averaged 9.6 % of total observation time. The species was highly frugivorous (93 % of total time spent feeding. 55 different plant species were exploited for food. Time spent feeding and diet were not simply related to rainfall and temperature nor to food type availability. The two groups’ homeranges were 54.9 ha and 58.4 ha and showed a 40 % overlap. The overlap occurred in the swamp forest, which is rich in food plants. To improve the conservation of E. cinereiceps at the Agnalazaha Forest, it is recommended that: The swamp forest be included within the zone of strict conservation; important lemur food plants used for restoration; and alternative sources of timber and fuel wood provided for the local population, thereby allowing greater forest regeneration.

  4. Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharik, Terry L.; Adair, William; Baker, Fred A.; Battaglia, Michael; Comfort, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Delong, Craig; DeRose, R. Justin; Ducey, Mark J.; Harmon, Mark; Levy, Louise; Logan, Jesse A.; O'Brien, Joseph; Palik, Brian J.; Roberts, Scott D.; Rogers, Paul C.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Spies, Thomas; Taylor, Sarah L.; Woodall, Christopher; Youngblood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1) consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2) long-term monitoring, (3) development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4) combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5) standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6) guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7) greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8) better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  5. Emerging Themes in the Ecology and Management of North American Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Sharik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1 consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2 long-term monitoring, (3 development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4 combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5 standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6 guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7 greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8 better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  6. Morphology and ecology of sibon snakes (Squamata: Dipsadidae from two forests in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Lewis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical measurements, abundance, and ecological observations were recorded for Sibon annulatus,S. argus, S. longifrens, and S. nebulatus at two Neotropical habitats: a lowland swamp forest in Costa Rica and a montane cloud forest in Panama. Fourty-four and 58 adult snakes were recorded from Costa Rica and Panama, respectively. Differences in morphology and body condition showed minimal significant differences among species from both geographical locations. Observations of feeding, reproduction, abundance, distribution and a new size record for S. annulatus are discussed.

  7. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  8. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  9. Ecological implications of metabolic compensation at low temperatures in salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is influencing the biology of the world’s biota. Temperature increases are occurring at a faster pace than that experienced by organisms in their evolutionary histories, limiting the organisms’ response to new conditions. Mechanistic models that include physiological traits can help predict species’ responses to warming. Changes in metabolism at high temperatures are often examined; yet many species are behaviorally shielded from high temperatures. Salamanders generally favor cold temperatures and are one of few groups of metazoans to be most species-rich in temperate regions. I examined variation in body temperature, behavioral activity, and temperature dependence of resting heart rate, used as a proxy for standard metabolic rate, in fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra. Over 26 years, I found that salamanders are behaviorally active at temperatures as low as 1 °C, and aestivate at temperatures above 16 °C. Infrared thermography indicates limited thermoregulation opportunities for these nocturnal amphibians. Temperature affects resting heart rate, causing metabolic depression above 11 °C, and metabolic compensation below 8 °C: heart rate at 3 °C is 224% the expected heart rate. Thus, salamanders operating at low temperatures during periods of peak behavioral activity are able to maintain a higher metabolic rate than the rate expected in absence of compensation. This compensatory mechanism has important ecological implications, because it increases estimated seasonal heart rates. Increased heart rate, and thus metabolism, will require higher caloric intake for field-active salamanders. Thus, it is important to consider a species performance breadth over the entire temperature range, and particularly low temperatures that are ecologically relevant for cold tolerant species such as salamanders.

  10. Mapping site index and volume increment from forest inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables in Tahoe National Forest, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengli; Ramirez, Carlos; Conway, Scott; Kennedy, Kama; Kohler, Tanya; Liu, Jinxun

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution site index (SI) and mean annual increment (MAI) maps are desired for local forest management. We integrated field inventory, Landsat, and ecological variables to produce 30 m SI and MAI maps for the Tahoe National Forest (TNF) where different tree species coexist. We converted species-specific SI using adjustment factors. Then, the SI map was produced by (i) intensifying plots to expand the training sets to more climatic, topographic, soil, and forest reflective classes, (ii) using results from a stepwise regression to enable a weighted imputation that minimized the effects of outlier plots within classes, and (iii) local interpolation and strata median filling to assign values to pixels without direct imputations. The SI (reference age is 50 years) map had an R2 of 0.7637, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.60, and a mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.07 m. The MAI map was similarly produced with an R2 of 0.6882, an RMSE of 1.73, and a MAE of 1.20 m3·ha−1·year−1. Spatial patterns and trends of SI and MAI were analyzed to be related to elevation, aspect, slope, soil productivity, and forest type. The 30 m SI and MAI maps can be used to support decisions on fire, plantation, biodiversity, and carbon.

  11. Assessment of traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs in the utilisation of important plant species: The case of Buhanga sacred forest, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runyambo Irakiza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional ecological knowledge is an integrated part of the African people and indeed the Rwandese for cultural purpose. Buhanga sacred forest is a relict forest of tremendous ecological importance to Rwandan society located in Musanze District. The aim of this study was to assess the traditional ecological knowledge and belief in the utilisation of some important plant species for the conservation of Buhanga sacred forest. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal and traditional practices were collected following structured questionnaire through interview involving eight traditional healers and three focus group discussions. Data were collected from the natural habitats, home gardens, farmlands and roadsides of Buhanga sacred forest. A total of 45 botanical taxa belonging to 28 families were reported to be used by the local community. Species such as Brillantaisia cicatricosa and Senna septemtrionalis were the popular species cited by traditional healers to treat human and animal diseases and ailments, respectively. The results of the study indicated that because of the cultural norms and values associated with the sacred forest, this has led to non-exploitation. The study presents key sites and plant species in which their use and belief can lead to their conservation. However, not only is it imperative to conserve traditional local knowledge for biocultural conservation motives but there is also need to train traditional healers on how to domesticate indigenous species as conservation measure because some species have become susceptible to extinction.Conservation implications: Highlighting indigenous species investigated in this research will provide a powerful tool for ensuring biodiversity conservation through community participation in a country of high population density in Africa. Some plant species that provided satisfactory Local Health Traditions among communities surrounding Buhanga can contribute as good material for further

  12. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Cara A; Guariguata, Manuel R; Menton, Mary; Arroyo Quispe, Eriks; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Fernandez Silva, Harol; Jurado Rojas, Edwin Eduardo; Kohagura Arrunátegui, José Andrés Hideki; Meza Vega, Luis Alberto; Revilla Vera, Olivia; Quenta Hancco, Roger; Valera Tito, Jonatan Frank; Villarroel Panduro, Betxy Tabita; Yucra Salas, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  13. Nut Production in Bertholletia excelsa across a Logged Forest Mosaic: Implications for Multiple Forest Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara A Rockwell

    nut rich forests, when a buffer zone cannot be observed, low logging intensities should be implemented. The sustainability of this integrated management system will ultimately depend on a complex series of socioeconomic and ecological interactions. Yet we submit that our study provides an important initial step in understanding the compatibility of timber harvesting with a high value NTFP, potentially allowing for diversification of forest use strategies in Amazonian Perù.

  14. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae) in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Juan C. Jordán A.; José Pérez Z.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru) was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Mic...

  15. Ecology of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  16. Ecology of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, C B; Santos-Neto, L G; Lozovei, A L

    2001-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandfly fauna of a primary forest reserve at Morretes (eastern Paraná State) was studied, using CDC-like light traps, one night per month, at canopy and ground level, between April 1995 and March 1996. A total of 3,106 insects were collected, identified as belonging to nine species. Lutzomyia ayrozai and Lu.geniculata were predominant, seven other species also being present. Monthly mean temperature, rainfall and the temperature of the collection night significantly influenced the numbers of Lu. ayrozai while the two first factors influenced the numbers of Lu. geniculata, besides the collected quantities of females of the two species. The influence of the factors on Lu. ayrozai numbers was more immediate than in those of Lu. geniculata. Numbers of both species and of the females of Lu. geniculata collected in different seasons, but not at the different heights, varied significantly. Differences between the behaviour of Lu. ayrozai in Morretes and in other regions could be attributed to environmental differences and/or to regional variations in the species, which could constitute species complexes. Hourly variations of collections were different in the species and seasons.

  17. Short-term ecological consequences of collaborative restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Fornwalt, Paula J.; Feinstein, Jonas A.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration treatments are being implemented at an increasing rate in ponderosa pine and other dry conifer forests across the western United States, via the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration (CFLR) program. In this program, collaborative stakeholder groups work with National Forests (NFs) to adaptively implement and monitor ecological restoration treatments intended to offset the effects of many decades of anthropogenic stressors. We initiated a novel study to expand the scope of treatment effectiveness monitoring efforts in one of the first CFLR landscapes, Colorado’s Front Range. We used a Before/After/Control/Impact framework to evaluate the short-term consequences of treatments on numerous ecological properties. We collected pre-treatment and one year post-treatment data on NF and partner agencies’ lands, in 66 plots distributed across seven treatment units and nearby untreated areas. Our results reflected progress toward several treatment objectives: treated areas had lower tree density and basal area, greater openness, no increase in exotic understory plants, no decrease in native understory plants, and no decrease in use by tree squirrels and ungulates. However, some findings suggested the need for adaptive modification of both treatment prescriptions and monitoring protocols: treatments did not promote heterogeneity of stand structure, and monitoring methods may not have been robust enough to detect changes in surface fuels. Our study highlights both the effective aspects of these restoration treatments, and the importance of initiating and continuing collaborative science-based monitoring to improve the outcomes of broad-scale forest restoration efforts.

  18. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition.

  19. Advances in ecological genomics in forest trees and applications to genetic resources conservation and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jason A; Aitken, Sally N; Cooke, Janice E K; Fady, Bruno; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Heuertz, Myriam; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Lexer, Christian; Staton, Margaret; Whetten, Ross W; Plomion, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    Forest trees are an unparalleled group of organisms in their combined ecological, economic and societal importance. With widespread distributions, predominantly random mating systems and large population sizes, most tree species harbour extensive genetic variation both within and among populations. At the same time, demographic processes associated with Pleistocene climate oscillations and land-use change have affected contemporary range-wide diversity and may impinge on the potential for future adaptation. Understanding how these adaptive and neutral processes have shaped the genomes of trees species is therefore central to their management and conservation. As for many other taxa, the advent of high-throughput sequencing methods is expected to yield an understanding of the interplay between the genome and environment at a level of detail and depth not possible only a few years ago. An international conference entitled 'Genomics and Forest Tree Genetics' was held in May 2016, in Arcachon (France), and brought together forest geneticists with a wide range of research interests to disseminate recent efforts that leverage contemporary genomic tools to probe the population, quantitative and evolutionary genomics of trees. An important goal of the conference was to discuss how such data can be applied to both genome-enabled breeding and the conservation of forest genetic resources under land use and climate change. Here, we report discoveries presented at the meeting and discuss how the ecological genomic toolkit can be used to address both basic and applied questions in tree biology.

  20. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  1. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  2. Ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure in Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubin Guénolé Amagnide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure on Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (WMFR. The dynamics of forest cover has been assessed using a diachronic analysis of land cover maps from the Landsat satellite images of 1986, 1995 and 2006. Structural patterns of the forest has been described using forest inventory data with twenty five 1ha plots having two 50 m x 30 m plots set up inside and positioned at the opposite corners of the leading diagonal within each 1 ha plot. Established plots allowed identifying the most targeted species in illegal logging. Plots of 0.15 ha established inside each 1 ha plot helped assessing the volume of trees from which we derived carbon stock and carbon loss using conversion and expansion factors. For the two periods 1986 to 1995 and 1995 to 2006, there was a decline in forest cover which slowed down in the second decade (0.196 %.year-1 and 0.083 %.year-1 respectively. The two vegetation types of the WMFR were mainly distinguished by Lorey's mean height (12.81 m in woodland and 12.44 m in tree-savannah. Top five targeted species in illegal logging activities were: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir., Afzelia africana Sm., Isoberlinia spp., Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill. and Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe Hutch. & Dalziel. Results also showed mean values of carbon stock and carbon losses for the whole forest of 147.84 tons C.ha-1 and 17.57 tons C.ha-1 respectively and did not depend on vegetation type. Results from this study suggest that management strategies should focus on selectively logged species. Monitoring should also be enhanced to ensure conservation of resources of the reserve which are at high risks of extinction due to selective logging rates. Keywords: anthropogenic pressure, forest cover, structure, carbon stock, Wari-Maro forest reserve, Benin.

  3. Ecological and biological considerations for sustainable management of non-timber forest products in northern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luc C. Duchesne; John C. Zasada; Iain. Davidson-Hunt

    2001-01-01

    With a current output of over $241 million per year, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) contribute significantly to the welfare of rural and First Nations communities in Canada. Maple sap products, wild mushrooms, and wild fruits are the most important NTFPs for consumption both in Canada and abroad. However, because of increased access to international markets by...

  4. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Coyle, David, R. Coleman, Mark, D.

    2011-08-26

    Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus deltoides Bartr. and Platanus occidentalis L.) and broad (Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Pinus taeda L.) site requirements while grown with a range of nutrient and water resources. We constructed N budgets by measuring N concentration ([N]) and N content (N{sub C}) of above- and belowground perennial and ephemeral tissues, determined N uptake (N{sub UP}), and calculated N use efficiency (NUE). Forest stands regulated [N] within species-specific operating ranges without clear temporal or treatment patterns, thus demonstrating equilibrium between tissue [N] and biomass accumulation. Forest stand N{sub C} and N{sub UP} increased with stand development and paralleled treatment patterns of biomass accumulation, suggesting productivity is tightly linked to N{sub UP}. Inclusion of above- and belowground ephemeral tissue turnover in N{sub UP} calculations demonstrated that maximum N demand for narrow-sites adapted species exceeded 200 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} while demand for broad-site adapted species was below this level. NUE was species dependent but not consistently influenced by N availability, suggesting relationships between NUE and resource availability were species dependent. Based on early stand development, species with broad site adaptability are favored for woody cropping systems because they maintain high above- and belowground productivity with minimal fertilization requirements due to higher NUE than narrow site adapted species.

  5. Forests, savannas and grasslands: bridging the knowledge gap between ecology and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baudena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest, savanna, and grassland biomes, and the transitions between them, are expected to undergo major changes in the future, due to global climate change. Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs are very useful to understand vegetation dynamics under present climate, and to predict its changes under future conditions. However, several DGVMs display high uncertainty in predicting vegetation in tropical areas. Here we perform a comparative analysis of three different DGVMs (JSBACH, LPJ-GUESS-SPITFIRE and aDGVM with regard to their representation of the ecological mechanisms and feedbacks that determine the forest, savanna and grassland biomes, in an attempt to bridge the knowledge gap between ecology and global modelling. Model outcomes, obtained including different mechanisms, are compared to observed tree cover along a mean annual precipitation gradient in Africa. Through these comparisons, and by drawing on the large number of recent studies that have delivered new insights into the ecology of tropical ecosystems in general, and of savannas in particular, we identify two main mechanisms that need an improved representation in the DGVMs. The first mechanism includes water limitation to tree growth, and tree-grass competition for water, which are key factors in determining savanna presence in arid and semi-arid areas. The second is a grass-fire feedback, which maintains both forest and savanna occurrences in mesic areas. Grasses constitute the majority of the fuel load, and at the same time benefit from the openness of the landscape after fires, since they recover faster than trees. Additionally, these two mechanisms are better represented when the models also include tree life stages (adults and seedlings, and distinguish between fire-prone and shade-tolerant savanna trees, and fire-resistant and shade-intolerant forest trees. Including these basic elements could improve the predictive ability of the DGVMs, not only under current climate

  6. Ecological characterization of a tropical myxomycete assemblage--Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Steven L; Schnittler, Martin; Lado, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The assemblage of myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds) associated with cloud forests of the Maquipucuna Cloud Forest Reserve in the western Andes was investigated. Within three study sites located along a gradient extending from 1200 to 2700 m above sea level, a clear pattern of decreasing myxomycete diversity and productivity with elevation was apparent. As such, these data conform to the pattern of "reverse diversity" for myxomycetes in the neotropics, with higher diversity for less mesic forest types than for more mesic forest types. Canonical correspondence analysis of myxomycete abundances in relation to microhabitat parameters revealed three major ecological assemblages: wood-, litter- and inflorescence-inhabiting species. All three assemblages include a number of specialized species, with the assemblage associated with litter being the most diverse and the one associated with inflorescences being the most distinctive. In addition, samples from the microhabitat represented by the cover of epiphyllic liverworts on living leaves regularly produce myxomycetes in moist chamber culture but with few sporocarps and no evidence of any specialized species. At least near ground level, bark-inhabiting (corticolous) myxomycetes are uncommon in the cloud forests sampled in the present study.

  7. Distribution and Conservation of Davilla (Dilleniaceae in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Using Ecological Niche Modeling

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    Ismael Martins Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have modeled the ecological niche for 12 plant species belonging to the genus Davilla (Dilleniaceae which occur in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This group includes endemic species lianas threatened by extinction and is therefore a useful indicator for forest areas requiring conservation. The aims are to compare the distribution and richness of species within the protected areas, assessing the degree of protection and gap analysis of reserves for this group. We used the Maxent algorithm with environmental and occurrence data, and produced geographic distribution maps. The results show that high species richness occurs in forest and coastal forest of Espírito Santo to Bahia states. The endemic species comprise D. flexuosa, D. macrocarpa, D. flexuosa, D. grandifolia, and D. sessilifolia. In the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, the following endemic species occur: D. tintinnabulata and D. glaziovii, with this latter species being included in the “red list” due habitat loss and predatory extractivism. The indicators of species richness in the coastal region of Bahia correspond with floristic inventories that point to this area having a high biodiversity. Although this region has several protected areas, there are gaps in reserves, which, combined with anthropogenic threats and fragmentation, have caused several problems for biodiversity.

  8. Quantifying Forest Ecosystem Services Tradeoff—Coupled Ecological and Economic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.; Ling, P. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the effect of carbon-related forestland management activities on ecosystem services is difficult, because knowledge about the dynamics of coupled social-ecological systems is lacking. Different forestland management activities, such as various amount, timing, and methods of harvesting, and natural disturbances events, such as wind and fires, create shocks and uncertainties to the forest carbon dynamics. A spatially explicit model, Landis-ii, was used to model the forest succession for different harvest management scenarios at the Grandfather District, North Carolina. In addition to harvest, the model takes into account of the impact of natural disturbances, such as fire and insects, and species competition. The result shows the storage of carbon in standing biomass and in wood product for each species for each scenario. In this study, optimization is used to analyze the maximum profit and the number of tree species that each forest landowner can gain at different prices of carbon, roundwood, and interest rates for different harvest management scenarios. Time series of roundwood production of different types were estimated using remote sensing data. Econometric analysis is done to understand the possible interaction and relations between the production of different types of roundwood and roundwood prices, which can indicate the possible planting scheme that a forest owner may make. This study quantifies the tradeoffs between carbon sequestration, roundwood production, and forest species diversity not only from an economic perspective, but also takes into account of the forest succession mechanism in a species-diverse region. The resulting economic impact on the forest landowners is likely to influence their future planting decision, which in turn, will influence the species composition and future revenue of the landowners.

  9. Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Atlantic Forest and ecological risk to soil fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristhy Buch, Andressa; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Fernandes Correia, Maria Elizabeth; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere nowadays has a great contribution from anthropogenic sources and has been a great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. Certainly, the petroleum refineries have significant contribution, seen that 100 million m3 of crude oil are annually processed. These refineries contribute with low generation of solid waste; however, a large fraction of Hg can be emitted to the atmosphere. There are sixteen refineries in Brazil, three of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Hg is a toxic and hazardous trace element, naturally found in the earth crust. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of great importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transfer to the soil through litterfall, which play an important role as Hg sink. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil is the greater contributor of fauna and flora biodiversity in the world and, according to recent studies, this biome has the highest concentrations of mercury in litter in the world, as well as in China, at Subtropical Forest. Ecotoxicological assessments can predict the potential ecological risk of Hg toxicity in the soil can lead to impact the soil fauna and indirectly other trophic levels of the food chain within one or more ecosystems. This study aims to determine mercury levels that represent risks to diversity and functioning of soil fauna in tropical forest soils. The study is conducted in two forest areas inserted into conservation units of Rio de Janeiro state. One area is located next to an important petroleum refinery in activity since fifty-two years ago, whereas the other one is located next to other refinery under construction (beginning activities in 2015), which will

  10. Implications of Current Ecological Thinking for Biodiversity Conservation: a Review of the Salient Issues

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    Richard J. Hobbs

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Given escalating concern worldwide about the loss of biodiversity, and given biodiversity's centrality to quality of life, it is imperative that current ecological knowledge fully informs societal decision making. Over the past two decades, ecological science has undergone many significant shifts in emphasis and perspective, which have important implications for how we manage ecosystems and species. In particular, a shift has occurred from the equilibrium paradigm to one that recognizes the dynamic, non-equilibrium nature of ecosystems. Revised thinking about the spatial and temporal dynamics of ecological systems has important implications for management. Thus, it is of growing concern to ecologists and others that these recent developments have not been translated into information useful to managers and policy makers. Many conservation policies and plans are still based on equilibrium assumptions. A fundamental difficulty with integrating current ecological thinking into biodiversity policy and management planning is that field observations have yet to provide compelling evidence for many of the relationships suggested by non-equilibrium ecology. Yet despite this scientific uncertainty, management and policy decisions must still be made. This paper was motivated by the need for considered scientific debate on the significance of current ideas in theoretical ecology for biodiversity conservation. This paper aims to provide a platform for such discussion by presenting a critical synthesis of recent ecological literature that (1 identifies core issues in ecological theory, and (2 explores the implications of current ecological thinking for biodiversity conservation.

  11. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  12. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Sabatini, María; Verdiell, Adriana; Rodríguez Iglesias, Ricardo M; Vidal, Marta

    2007-04-01

    Zoning is a key prescriptive tool for administration and management of protected areas. However, the lack of zoning is common for most protected areas in developing countries and, as a consequence, many protected areas are not effective in achieving the goals for which they were created. In this work, we introduce a quantitative method to expeditiously zone protected areas and we evaluate its ecological implications on hypothetical zoning cases. A real-world application is reported for the Talampaya National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Argentina. Our method is a modification of the zoning forest model developed by Bos [Bos, J., 1993. Zoning in forest management: a quadratic assignment problem solved by simulated annealing. Journal of Environmental Management 37, 127-145.]. Main innovations involve a quadratic function of distance between land units, non-reciprocal weights for adjacent land uses (mathematically represented by a non-symmetric matrix), and the possibility of imposing a connectivity constraint. Due to its intrinsic spatial dimension, the zoning problem belongs to the NP-hard class, i.e. a solution can only be obtained in non-polynomial time [Nemhausser, G., Wolsey, L., 1988. Integer and Combinatorial Optimization. John Wiley, New York.]. For that purpose, we applied a simulated annealing heuristic implemented as a FORTRAN language routine. Our innovations were effective in achieving zoning designs more compatible with biological diversity protection. The quadratic distance term facilitated the delineation of core zones for elements of significance; the connectivity constraint minimized fragmentation; non-reciprocal land use weightings contributed to better representing management decisions, and influenced mainly the edge and shape of zones. This quantitative method can assist the zoning process within protected areas by offering many zonation scheme alternatives with minimum cost, time and effort. This ability provides a new tool to

  13. Assessment of landscape ecology of agricultural protection forest system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIChun-ping; GUANWen-bin; FANXiu-zhen; ZHAOTing-ning; CHENJian-gang; SUNBao-pina

    2003-01-01

    Based on theories of protective forests and landscape ecology, the reasonableness of structures and patterns of shelterbelt system at Beizang Town, Daxing County, Beijing were analyzed and assessed from the two scales of forest belts and networks, by integrating uses of field investigation, GIS and RS techniques. Results showed that the existent main belt (3-12 m in width) was too narrow, while the assistant belt (3-27.1 m in width) was too wide; the species composition of the existent shelterbelts was single, and the structures and patterns of the shelterbelt system were unreasonable. It is suggested that the structure of the main and the assistant belts should be changed, such as increasing the width of main belts, decreasing the width of assistant belt, and planting more mixed species, and the pattern with arbores in the middle and shrubs in the sides of belts could be taken into account. For the landscape structure of forest network after regenerating or reconstruction, the grid number of closed network should be 13 per km2 and the minimum number of belts should be 34 per km2, This study also testified that integrating GIS and remote technique with landscape ecology could provide an effective method for reasonable reconstruction of the structures and patterns of shelterbelts system.

  14. Forest fuel piles as ecological traps for saproxylic beetles in oak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Jonas (County Administration of Kronoberg, Vaexjoe (Sweden)); Isacsson, Gunnar (Swedish Forest Agency, Haessleholm (Sweden)); Jonsell, Mats; Komonen, Atte (Dept. of Ecology, SLU, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    Biodiversity management in broadleaved forests includes partial cutting to improve conditions for species that benefit from semi-open stand structure. The harvested wood is usually used as fuel and, therefore, it is stockpiled in situ for months before further processing. If such forest fuel piles attract saproxylic insects, they are likely to be ecological traps, because the settling cost for insects is death as the wood is chipped and used for energy. This study investigated beetle species composition in piles of oak wood in southern Sweden. Species density and frequency of occurrence were compared in wood with different diameters and at the top, middle and bottom parts of piles. A total of 39 species (six red-listed) and 3528 individual beetles emerged. The highest density of both individuals and species was in the top layer. No species was significantly more frequent in the middle or bottom layers. Diameter had only a limited effect on species density and individual species reproduced in both coarse and fine wood. In conclusion, forest fuel piles can be ecological traps for several uncommon and red-listed saproxylic beetles. The negative effects can be mitigated by removing the piles before the insects colonize them. If this is not possible, then the top layer should be retained

  15. Ecological indicator values of forest communities in Çitdere Region (Yenice-Karabük

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Çoban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species system, which has been used widely in Europe, has many advantages in vegetation analysis. It allows quick interpretation of ecological conditions using floristic data without doing any measurements about site conditions. Considering the amount of phytosociological studies carried out in Turkey, this system may provide important information about plants or plant communities if required modifications are done. In this study, Pignatti-Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs modified for the check list of Flora Europea were used to analyse and compare forest communities of Çitdere region in terms of light (radiation, temperature, moisture, continentality, soil reaction and soil nutrient in order to test how effectively mean EIVs indicate ecological conditions. Main differences were found between communities which occur on sunny and shady exposures in terms of moisture, soil nutrient, light and temperature indicator values. When normal and original permutation tests were used, all of six indicator values were significant. With the modified permutation test, only mean temperature and light indicator values showed significant differences among 8 forest communities of the region. Pinus sylvestris and Quercus petraea forest communities which have relatively narrow distribution area showed higher correlation with temperature and continentality indicator values when weighted average by species cover was used.

  16. Empirical test of the influence of global warming and forest disturbance on ant fauna at the Gwangneung Forest Long Term Ecological Research site, South Korea

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    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of forest disturbance and climate change on the ant fauna at the Long Term Ecological Research site in Gwangneung Forest, Korea in 2003 and 2012. After forest disturbance, the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the functional groups of forest ground forager and soil and litter dweller are predicted to decrease, while the occurrence and abundance of ants belonging to the open land forager and forest vegetation forager functional groups are predicted to increase. In terms of the effects of climate change, if the optimum temperature of the ants is lower than the annual average temperature in the survey area, the occurrence and abundance of the ants are predicted to decrease and vice versa. Ant surveys were carried out using pitfall traps. Changes in the dominant species, occurrence, and abundance mostly corresponded to the predictions for forest disturbance, but did not match the prediction for an increase in temperature.

  17. Monitoring the condition of the Canadian forest environment: The relevance of the concept of 'ecological indicators'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmins, J P

    1990-11-01

    The Canadian forest environment is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, especially in the west. Our forests vary according to climate, landform, and surficial geology, and according to the type, intensity, extent of, and the time since the last disturbance. Most Canadian forests have had a history of repeated acute, episodic disturbance from fire, insects, wind, diseases and/or logging, with a frequency of disturbance varying from a few decades to many centuries. These sources of variability have resulted in a complex and continually changing mosaic of forest conditions and stages of successional development.Monitoring the 'quality' of this dynamic forested landscape mosaic is extremely difficult, and in most cases the concept of a relatively simple index of forest ecosystem quality or condition (i.e. an 'ecological indicator') is probably inappropriate. Such ecological indicators are better suited for monitoring chronic anthropogenically induced disturbances that are continuous in their effect (e.g. 'acid rain', heavy metal pollution, air pollution, and the 'greenhouse effect') in ecosystems that, in the absence of such chronic disturbance, exhibit very slow directional change (e.g. lakes, higher order streams and rivers). Monitoring the effects of a chronic anthropogenic disturbance to forest ecosystems to determine if it is resulting in a sustained, directional alteration of environmental 'quality' will require a definition of the expected pattern of episodic disturbance and recovery therefrom (i.e. patterns of secondary succession in the absence of the chronic disturbance). Only when we have such a 'temporal fingerprint' of forest ecosystem condition for 'normal' patterns of disturbance and recovery can we determine if the ecosystem condition is being degraded by chronic human-induced alteration of the environment. Thus, degradation is assessed in terms of deviations from the expected temporal pattern of conditions rather than in terms of an

  18. Modeled effects of soil acidification on long-term ecological and economic outcomes for managed forests in the Adirondack region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Jesse PhD.; Beier, Colin M.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is among the most ecologically and economically important tree species in North America, and its growth and regeneration is often the focus of silvicultural practices in northern hardwood forests. A key stressor for sugar maple (SM) is acid rain, which depletes base cations from poorly-buffered forest soils and has been associated with much lower SM vigor, growth, and recruitment. However, the potential interactions between forest management and soil acidification – and their implications for the sustainability of SM and its economic and cultural benefits – have not been investigated. In this study, we simulated the development of 50 extant SM stands in the western Adirondack region of NY (USA) for 100 years under different soil chemical conditions and silvicultural prescriptions. We found that interactions between management prescription and soil base saturation will strongly shape the ability to maintain SM in managed forests. Below 12% base saturation, SM did not regenerate sufficiently after harvest and was replaced mainly by red maple (Acer rubrum) and American beech (Fagus grandifolia). Loss of SM on acid-impaired sites was predicted regardless of whether the shelterwood or diameter-limit prescriptions were used. On soils with sufficient base saturation, models predicted that SM will regenerate after harvest and be sustained for future rotations. We then estimated how these different post-harvest outcomes, mediated by acid impairment of forest soils, would affect the potential monetary value of ecosystem services provided by SM forests. Model simulations indicated that a management strategy focused on syrup production – although not feasible across the vast areas where acid impairment has occurred – may generate the greatest economic return. Although pollution from acid rain is declining, its long-term legacy in forest soils will shape future options for sustainable forestry and ecosystem stewardship in the northern

  19. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research.

  20. Ecology of Nitrogen Fixing, Nitrifying, and Denitrifying Microorganisms in Tropical Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Silvia; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play important roles in nitrogen cycling within forest ecosystems. Current research has revealed that a wider variety of microorganisms, with unexpected diversity in their functions and phylogenies, are involved in the nitrogen cycle than previously thought, including nitrogen-fixing bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea, heterotrophic nitrifying microorganisms, and anammox bacteria, as well as denitrifying bacteria, archaea, and fungi. However, the vast majority of this research has been focused in temperate regions, and relatively little is known regarding the ecology of nitrogen-cycling microorganisms within tropical and subtropical ecosystems. Tropical forests are characterized by relatively high precipitation, low annual temperature fluctuation, high heterogeneity in plant diversity, large amounts of plant litter, and unique soil chemistry. For these reasons, regulation of the nitrogen cycle in tropical forests may be very different from that of temperate ecosystems. This is of great importance because of growing concerns regarding the effect of land use change and chronic-elevated nitrogen deposition on nitrogen-cycling processes in tropical forests. In the context of global change, it is crucial to understand how environmental factors and land use changes in tropical ecosystems influence the composition, abundance and activity of key players in the nitrogen cycle. In this review, we synthesize the limited currently available information regarding the microbial communities involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification, to provide deeper insight into the mechanisms regulating nitrogen cycling in tropical forest ecosystems. We also highlight the large gaps in our understanding of microbially mediated nitrogen processes in tropical forest soils and identify important areas for future research. PMID:27468277

  1. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future.......Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current...

  2. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  3. Ecological Characteristics That Enhance Broussonetia papyrifera’s Invasion in a Semideciduous Forest in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kyereh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Broussonetia papyrifera (L. Vent. (Moraceae was introduced to Ghana in 1969 and has since become second only to Chromolaena odorata as an invasive species in Ghanaian forests. This study determined its ecological traits that enhance its invasion of plant communities. Fruiting and viability patterns were studied through monthly monitoring of 985 trees (≥6 cm gbh in one forest site. The effect of light on its seed germination was tested in light-proof boxes. Means of propagation were determined by tracking the origin of newly regenerated plants on a newly cleared plot of land that B. papyrifera had occupied. It fruited twice a year with one season (January–March producing more fruits than the other (July-August. Fruiting occurred in trees as small as 9 cm gbh but the percentage of individuals fruiting in each size class increased with tree size. There was a clear pattern of seed viability during the January–March fruiting period. The species did not appear to have a naturally high seed viability with germination always below 50% of each weekly collection. Seed germination was depressed in dark. These results suggest that the species may be competitive in disturbed forest sites and therefore its spread may be aided by forest degradation.

  4. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I; Grace, James B

    2010-11-09

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951-2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500-1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500-2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  5. Estádio inicial de sucessão em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual: implicações para a restauração ecológica. Early stage of succession in seasonal semideciduous forest: implications for the ecological restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque CIELO-FILHO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Projetos de recuperação florestal no Estado de São Paulo devem seguir um conjunto de normas legais que inclui, entre outros aspectos, o número total de espécies a serem plantadas. Contudo, questiona-se o embasamento ecológico dessas normas e a sua coerência com mecanismos que atuariam na organização das comunidades vegetais. Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma abordagem para o desenvolvimento de modelos de recuperação florestal que visa a atender às metas legais e, ao mesmo tempo, incorporar mecanismos ecológicos presumivelmente importantes na recuperação florestal baseada no plantio de mudas. Para isso, desenvolvemos um modelo básico de restauração, a partir de informações obtidas em um estudo fitossociológico do componente arbustivo-arbóreo da vegetação em estádio inicial de sucessão secundária na Floresta Estadual de Avaré – SP. O modelo básico deixou de atender a quatro das oito metas definidas pela legislação e foi modificado, incorporando-se informações de um estudo florístico da mesma vegetação, tendo em vista o atendimento de todas as metas legais, mas preservando a estrutura interna que lhe confere coerência ecológica. Nessa abordagem, as informações oriundas dos estudos florístico e fitossociológico auxiliam na definição das espécies a serem plantadas e os dados fitossociológicos permitem definir a densidade de cada espécie. Assim, obteve-se um modelo recomendado para projetos de restauração florestal na região da área de estudo, em sítios apresentando condições abióticas similares. A abordagem proposta pode ser aplicada também em outras situações, permitindo o desenvolvimento de modelos adequados a diferentes contextos ambientais. Projects of forest recovery in the São Paulo state must follow a set of legal rules, including, among other aspects, the total number of species to be planted. However, the ecological basis of these rules and its coherence with the plant communities

  6. Emerging issues in urban ecology: implications for research, social justice, human health, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniece Jennings; Myron F. Floyd; Danielle Shanahan; Christopher Coutts; Alex Sinykin

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization affects landscape structure and the overall human condition in numerous ways. Green spaces include vegetated land cover (e.g., urban forests, trees, riparian zones, parks) which play a distinctive role in urban ecology. This article reviews emergent literature on the linkages between urban green spaces, social justice, and human health. We explore this...

  7. [Comprehensive management patterns of economic fruit forest in Dashan Village and their ecological and economic benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie; Li, Hongkai; Zhu, Yougang; Yang, Xiaofei

    2005-07-01

    With the theories of economy and ecology, this paper analyzed the main management patterns of economic fruit forest in the Dashan Village, Huoqiu County, Anhui Province. The results showed that 9-year-old mandarin-tea, 5-year-old persimmon-potato-watermelon, 7-year-old pear-potato-soybean, and 7-year-old pear-balloonflower had obvious social, economic and ecological benefits. Their net economic benefits were 8 700.00, 12 351.00, 12 337.50 and 22 500.00 yuan x hm(-2), respectively, higher than that of single crop planting. In these patterns, the crown density between rows could reach 0.3 - 0.4, and the light utilization rate increased by 20% - 30%.

  8. An ecological basis for Nothofagus pumilio Forest management in Tierra del Fuego

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Laura; Frangi, Jorge Luis

    1992-01-01

    Tradicionalmente en la Argentina, la ecología forestal y la silvicultura han marchado en general por caminos separados. La información ecológica apropiada puede ser aprovechada para un mejor manejo del bosque. La especie nativa Nothofagus pumilio (n.v. lenga) y los bosques que forma en la Tierra del Fuego poseen características biológicas y ecológicas favorables y desfavorables para la producción de madera que pueden diferir si son otros los objetivos del manejo. Estas características estruct...

  9. Carbon concentration in species of the araucaria forest and effect of the ecological group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Farinha Watzlawick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Boa Ventura do São Roque, Paraná State, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the carbon concentration in components of 12 arboreal species from the Araucaria Forest, as well as the performance of the 0.5 conversion factor and the influence of trees ecological groups in their carbon concentration. Carbon concentration averages were obtained from the tree components, and compared among them, among the species and the conversion factor, to assess the interspecific differences and the reliability of the conversion factor. To analyze the influence of ecological groups over the carbon concentration of the species, cluster analyzes were performed. It was not found significant difference among the carbon concentration in the components of the trees. However, comparing the 12 species, Luehea divaricata, Albizia polycephala and Cestrum sp. differed significantly, presenting lower carbon concentration. Comparison between carbon concentration average of the species and the 0.5 conversion factor indicated that the latter overestimates the carbon concentration in the trees at an average rate of 14.27%. No correlation was found between the ecological groups of the species and their carbon concentration, since groups were formed by species with distinct ecological traits.

  10. Ecological and geochemical impacts of exotic earthworm dispersal in forest ecosystems of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Melanie; Fugere, Martine; Lapointe, Line; Vellend, Mark; Bradley, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    In Eastern Canada, native earthworm species did not survive the Wisconsin glaciation, which ended over 11,000 years ago. Accordingly, the 17 known Lumbricidae species in the province of Québec were introduced in recent centuries by European settlers. Given that natural migration rates are no more than 5-10 m yr-1, exotic earthworm dispersal across the landscape is presumed to be mediated by human activities, although this assertion needs further validation. In agroecosystems, earthworms have traditionally been considered beneficial soil organisms that facilitate litter decomposition, increase nutrient availability and improve soil structure. However, earthworm activities could also increase soil nutrient leaching and CO2 emissions. Furthermore, in natural forest ecosystems, exotic earthworms may reduce organic forest floors provoking changes in watershed hydrology and loss of habitat for some faunal species. Over the past decade, studies have also suggested a negative effect of exotic earthworms on understory plant diversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Finally, there are no studies to our knowledge that have tested the effects of Lumbricidae species on the production of N2O (an important greenhouse gas) in forest ecosystems. We report on a series of field, greenhouse and laboratory studies on the human activities responsible for the dispersal of exotic earthworms, and on their ecological / geochemical impacts in natural forest ecosystems. Our results show: (1) Car tire treads and bait discarded by fishermen are important human vectors driving the dispersal of earthworms into northern temperate forests; (2) Exotic earthworms significantly modify soil physicochemical properties, nutrient cycling, microbial community structure and biomass; (3) Earthworm abundances in the field correlate with a decrease in understory plant diversity; (4) Lumbricus terrestris, an anecic earthworm species and favorite bait of fishermen, reduces seed germination and

  11. Soil and water related forest ecosystem services and resilience of social ecological system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekalign, Meron; Muys, Bart; Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean

    2014-05-01

    In the central highlands of Ethiopia, deforestation and forest degradation are occurring and accelerating during the last century. The high population pressure is the most repeatedly mentioned reason. However, in the past 30 years researchers agreed that the absence of institutions, which could define the access rights to particular forest resources, is another underlying cause of forest depletion and loss. Changing forest areas into different land use types is affecting the biodiversity, which is manifested through not proper functioning of ecosystem services. Menagesha Suba forest, the focus of this study has been explored from various perspectives. However the social dimension and its interaction with the ecology have been addressed rarely. This research uses a combined theoretical framework of Ecosystem Services and that of Resilience thinking for understanding the complex social-ecological interactions in the forest and its influence on ecosystem services. For understanding the history and extent of land use land cover changes, in-depth literature review and a GIS and remote sensing analysis will be made. The effect of forest conversion into plantation and agricultural lands on soil and above ground carbon sequestration, fuel wood and timber products delivery will be analyzed with the accounting of the services on five land use types. The four ecosystem services to be considered are Supporting, Provisioning, Regulating, and Cultural services as set by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. A resilience based participatory framework approach will be used to analyze how the social and ecological systems responded towards the drivers of change that occurred in the past. The framework also will be applied to predict future uncertainties. Finally this study will focus on the possible interventions that could contribute to the sustainable management and conservation of the forest. An ecosystem services trade-off analysis and an environmental valuation of the water

  12. Unexpected ecological resilience in Bornean orangutans and implications for pulp and paper plantation management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Ecological studies of orangutans have almost exclusively focused on populations living in primary or selectively logged rainforest. The response of orangutans to severe habitat degradation remains therefore poorly understood. Most experts assume that viable populations cannot survive outside undisturbed or slightly disturbed forests. This is a concern because nearly 75% of all orangutans live outside protected areas, where degradation of natural forests is likely to occur, or where these are replaced by planted forests. To improve our understanding of orangutan survival in highly altered forest habitats, we conducted population density surveys in two pulp and paper plantation concessions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. These plantations consist of areas planted with fast-growing exotics intermixed with stands of highly degraded forests and scrublands. Our rapid surveys indicate unexpectedly high orangutan densities in plantation landscapes dominated by Acacia spp., although it remains unclear whether such landscapes can maintain long-term viable populations. These findings indicate the need to better understand how plantation-dominated landscapes can potentially be incorporated into orangutan conservation planning. Although we emphasize that plantations have less value for overall biodiversity conservation than natural forests, they could potentially boost the chances of orangutan survival. Our findings are based on a relatively short study and various methodological issues need to be addressed, but they suggest that orangutans may be more ecologically flexible than previously thought.

  13. [Ecological benefit evaluation of urban forests in Shenyang City based on QuickBird image and CITYgreen model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Fu; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Gui-Ling; Li, Ling; Xu, Wen-Duo

    2008-09-01

    Based on the urban forest coverage data interpreted from QuickBird image (2006) and the CITYgreen model, the benefits of Shenyang urban forest types with different canopy closure in carbon fixation and pollutant removal were investigated by means of sampling strategy. The results showed that the total amount of carbon storage, annual carbon sequestration, annual air pollutant removal, and their corresponding values were 0.51 Tg, 6858.20 Mg x a-1), 556.04 Mg x a(-1) 1.26 x 10(8) Yuan, 1.72 x 10(6) Yuan, and 0.22 x 10(8) Yuan, respectively. Among the urban forest types in Shenyang City, ecological and public welfare forest (E) contributed most to the carbon fixation and air pollutant removal. The carbon density decreased in the order of S (subordinated forest) > L (landscape and relaxation forest) > P (production and management forest) > E > R (road forest), annual carbon sequestration was in the order of P > L > E > S > R, and annual air pollutant removal was in the order of P > L > S > E > R. The carbon density of different urban forest types was closely related to their structural complexity. For the forests with high canopy closure, both the annual carbon sequestration and the annual pollutant removal were high; while for those with lower canopy closure, these two characteristics were dependent on the structural complexity of the forests.

  14. Association of extinction risk of saproxylic beetles with ecological degradation of forests in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Sebastian; Brandl, Roland; Buse, Jörn; Hothorn, Torsten; Schmidl, Jürgen; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    To reduce future loss of biodiversity and to allocate conservation funds effectively, the major drivers behind large-scale extinction processes must be identified. A promising approach is to link the red-list status of species and specific traits that connect species of functionally important taxa or guilds to resources they rely on. Such traits can be used to detect the influence of anthropogenic ecosystem changes and conservation efforts on species, which allows for practical recommendations for conservation. We modeled the German Red List categories as an ordinal index of extinction risk of 1025 saproxylic beetles with a proportional-odds linear mixed-effects model for ordered categorical responses. In this model, we estimated fixed effects for intrinsic traits characterizing species biology, required resources, and distribution with phylogenetically correlated random intercepts. The model also allowed predictions of extinction risk for species with no red-list category. Our model revealed a higher extinction risk for lowland and large species as well as for species that rely on wood of large diameter, broad-leaved trees, or open canopy. These results mirror well the ecological degradation of European forests over the last centuries caused by modern forestry, that is the conversion of natural broad-leaved forests to dense conifer-dominated forests and the loss of old growth and dead wood. Therefore, conservation activities aimed at saproxylic beetles in all types of forests in Central and Western Europe should focus on lowlands, and habitat management of forest stands should aim at increasing the amount of dead wood of large diameter, dead wood of broad-leaved trees, and dead wood in sunny areas.

  15. 环境再生产与森林生态效益补偿%THE ENVIRONMENTAL REPRODUCTION AND COMPENSATION FOR ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄选瑞; 张玉珍; 藤起和; 赵连清; 陈占稳

    2002-01-01

    To set up compensation system for ecological benefits of forest is important safeguard that can coordinate the benefit relationship between forest manager and person who benefit from environmental services function of forest,ensure funds for forest protection and management be firmly invested.By analyzing the problems confronted with study and practice in compensation system for ecological benefits of forest,author put forward that environmental reproduction is one of theoretical base of compensation system for ecological benefits of forest.The paper make systematic discussion about why compensation system for ecological benefits of forest should be made,how much funds should be compensated,who should supply with compensation funds and how to compensate.Meanwhile,the contents about how to use compensation funds,who should use funds and how to monitor the use of funds are also discussed.Finally,the overall train of though for directing study and practices be put forward.

  16. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  17. Urban forests and green spaces of Tbilisi and ecological problems of the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Patarkalashvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in urbanization is the most dramatic factor in today's world and it did not passed round Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, too. Since the sixties of the 20th century the population of the city nearly doubled and today is about 1.3–1.4 million. Many problems that may not have been so evident in the past, became obvious and dramatic today. These problems concern urban forests and green spaces of the city because they shrank considerably and as the result, deteriorated ecological situation. Today, their role in improvement of city climate is little. In the Soviet period the main polluters of the air considered factories and plants, but today, after breaking of the Soviet Union and closing or destruction of all factories and plants, the increasing number of light vehicles, especially outdated once, manufactured before 1999(67% are the main source of pollution(80%. The article highlights the historical development of Tbilisi urban forests and green spaces and outlines some challenges and prospects of ecological condition of the city.

  18. An Ecologically Based System for Sustainable Agroforestry in Sub-Tropical and Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests in tropical and sub-tropical countries face severe pressures due to a combination of poverty and environment degradation. To be effective, measures to protect these forests must therefore consider both economic and ecological dimensions synergistically. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize our long-term work (1994–2015 on a Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L. agroforestry system and demonstrate its potential for achieving both goals, and discuss its wider application in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The performance of various ecological, economic, and social indicators was compared among five Ginkgo agroforestry systems. Two additional indicators, Harmony Degree (HD and Development Degree (DD, were also used to show the integrated performance of these indicators. Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut (G+W+P and Ginkgo-Rapeseed-Peanut (G+R+P are the best systems when compared to pure and mixed Ginkgo plantations, or pure agricultural crops. Results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve both economic development and environmental protection through implementation of sustainable agroforestry systems in sub-tropical regions.

  19. The Ecological Implications of Light at Night (LAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Summary: Light at night (LAN) is now an established environmental problem, not only for astronomers but for the population at large. It has serious ecological effects that are wide ranging, and its environmental effects may be more serious than ever imagined. The ecological and environmental consequences are examined and emphasis is stressed on resolving the problem before it is too late.Introduction: A casual glance at NASA images of the Earth at night1 reveals the lights of thousands of cities. The larger cities will contain millions of street lights, along with commercial, sports and decorative lighting. Most of these lights are on all night, every night, three hundred and sixty-five nights a year, (fig 1), so they must be having a measurable ecological and environmental effect. The most obvious effect of all this excessive lighting is the light pollution suffered by astronomers.

  20. Forest edges associated with power-line corridors and implications for corridor siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luken, J.O.; Hinton, A.C.; Baker, D.G. (Northern Kentucky Univ., Highland Heights, KY (USA))

    1991-07-01

    In addition to the effects of power-lines on the visual perceptions of urban landscapes, planners and designers need to consider ecological factors and long-term maintenance costs when siting new corridors in forested areas. A survey of 20 corridors in the forests of Northern Kentucky revealed higher mean density and basal area of tree seedlings and saplings in forest edges adjacent to power-line corridors. Some edges also showed distinct community shifts entailing increased importance of shade intolerant tree species. In forests already fragmented by development activities, the presence of a single power-line corridor may render forest patches unsuitable for plant and animal species requiring large forest interior habitats. To avoid this, corridors can be sited in non-forested areas, along existing corridors, along the edges of existing forest patches, or in forest patches that at present lack viable interiors. Applying these recommendations to new corridor projects will stop further forest fragmentation and minimize long-term line maintenance costs, but may also degrade visual perceptions of urban landscapes. Where visual perception is a common facet of land use, corridors may be camouflaged or hidden in forests to reduce visual impact. 5 figs., 2 tabs., 27 refs.

  1. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  3. Historical ecology and the conservation of large, hermaphroditic fishes in Pacific Coast kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J.; Rick, Torben C.; Szpak, Paul; Newsome, Seth D.; McCain, Joseph M.; Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Glassow, Michael; Hamilton, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system. Little is known about the ecology and abundance of sheephead before commercial exploitation. Lack of a historical perspective creates a gap for evaluating fisheries management measures and marine reserves that seek to rebuild sheephead populations to historical baseline conditions. We use population abundance and size structure data from the zooarchaeological record, in concert with isotopic data, to evaluate the long-term health and viability of sheephead fisheries in southern California. Our results indicate that the importance of sheephead to the diet of native Chumash people varied spatially across the Channel Islands, reflecting modern biogeographic patterns. Comparing ancient (~10,000 calibrated years before the present to 1825 CE) and modern samples, we observed variability and significant declines in the relative abundance of sheephead, reductions in size frequency distributions, and shifts in the dietary niche between ancient and modern collections. These results highlight how size-selective fishing can alter the ecological role of key predators and how zooarchaeological data can inform fisheries management by establishing historical baselines that aid future conservation. PMID:28164155

  4. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  5. Human Ecology and Health Advancement: The Newcastle Experience and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jenny; Honari, Morteza

    1992-01-01

    Argues for the necessity of adopting a human ecological framework for the advancement of health. Focusing on the Australian experience, highlights the difficulties in moving beyond the narrow mold of Western Medical Science to a more holistic, quality of life orientation, and suggests that the role of education at all levels of the community is…

  6. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  7. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  8. The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological replacement involves the introduction of non-native species to habitats beyond their historical range, a factor identified as increasing the risk of failure for translocations. Yet the effectiveness and success of ecological replacement rely in part on the ability of translocatees to adapt, survive and potentially reproduce in a novel environment. We discuss the welfare aspects of translocating captive-reared non-native tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea and Astrochelys radiata, to two offshore Mauritian islands, and the costs and success of the projects to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because tortoises are long-lived, late-maturing reptiles, we assessed the progress of the translocation by monitoring the survival, health, growth, and breeding by the founders. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 26 A. gigantea were introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, and in 2007 twelve sexually immature A. gigantea and twelve male A. radiata were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius. Annual mortality rates were low, with most animals either maintaining or gaining weight. A minimum of 529 hatchlings were produced on Ile aux Aigrettes in 11 years; there was no potential for breeding on Round Island. Project costs were low. We attribute the success of these introductions to the tortoises' generalist diet, habitat requirements, and innate behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Feasibility analyses for ecological replacement and assisted colonisation projects should consider the candidate species' welfare during translocation and in its recipient environment. Our study provides a useful model for how this should be done. In addition to serving as ecological replacements for extinct Mauritian tortoises, we found that releasing small numbers of captive-reared A. gigantea and A. radiata is cost-effective and successful in the short term. The ability to release small numbers of animals is a particularly important attribute for ecological

  9. Volcano ecology at Chaiten, Chile: geophysical processes interact with forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.; Crisafulli, C.; Jones, J. A.; Lara, A.

    2010-12-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaiten Volcano (Chile) offers many insights into volcano ecology -ecological responses to volcanic and associated hydrologic processes and ecosystem development in post-eruption landscapes. Varied intensities of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) and thickness of tephra fall deposits (to 50+ cm) created strong gradients of disturbance in several hundred square kilometers of native forest in a sector north to southeast from the volcano. A gradient from tree removal to toppled forest to standing, scorched forest extends 1.5 km northward from the caldera rim along the trajectory of a PDC. Close to the vent (e.g., 2 km NE from rim) a rain of ca. 10 cm of gravel tephra stripped foliage and twigs from tree canopies; farther away (23 km SE) 10 cm of fine tephra loaded the canopy, causing extensive fall of limbs >8 cm diameter. Even in the severely disturbed, north-flank PDC zone, surviving bamboo, ferns, and other herbs sprouted from pre-eruption soil and other refugia; sprouts of new foliage appeared on the boles and major limbs of several species of toppled and scorched, standing trees; animals including vertebrates (rodents and amphibians) and terrestrial invertebrates (e.g., insects and arachnids) either survived or quickly recolonized; and a diverse fungal community began decomposing the vast dead wood resource. During the second growing season we documented the presence of some plant species that had colonized by seed. Within two years after the eruption secondary ecological disturbances resulting from channel change and overbank deposition of fluvially transported tephra created new patches of damaged forest in riparian zones of streams draining the north flank and along the Rio Rayas and Rio Chaiten. These features parallel observations in the intensively-studied, post-1980-eruption landscape of Mount St. Helens over a similar time period. However, several aspects of ecological response to the two eruptions differ because of differences

  10. Diversity within a colony morphotype: Implications for ecological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haldeman, D.L.; Amy, P.S. (Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In microbial ecology, accurate identification based on morphotype is often impossible, so the assumption is often made that colonies of the same morphotype represent the same species or biotype. This study examines the validity of using colony morphology as the selection criterion for calculating ecological indices of the diversity and equitability of recoverable microbial communities. Isolates within sets of microbial colonies were very similar in terms of colony morphology, microscopic appearance, resistance to metals, and response to API-rapid-NFT tests. Resistance to antibiotics was variable within sets. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis distinguished between isolates of the same species or biotype. However, isolates belonging to the same biotype can be selected by morhotype. The researchers conclude colony morphology can provide an accurate basis on which to define recoverable diversity.

  11. Different season, different strategies: Feeding ecology of two syntopic forest-dwelling salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Salvidio; Antonio, Romano; Fabrizio, Oneto; Dario, Ottonello; Roberta, Michelon

    2012-08-01

    Trophic niche may be the most important ecological dimension for some vertebrate groups and in particular for terrestrial amphibians, that are important predators of soil invertebrates. In general, resource partitioning occurs between syntopic species with similar ecological niches, and coexistence patterns seem to be regulated by temporal resource variability. However most of the generalization on foraging strategies of terrestrial salamanders are extrapolated from studies on New World temperate species, thus we investigated the seasonal effect of resource variation in an European forest ecosystem, in which two ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct salamander species are found. The diet of adult and juvenile cave salamanders (Speleomantes strinati), and of adult spectacled salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata) was obtained by stomach flushing, and results showed large seasonal changes both in prey availability and in salamander realised trophic niche. Values of trophic diversity were similar and niche overlaps were large among all salamander groups in spring, during high prey availability. Conversely in autumn, when a two-fold reduction in prey biomass was observed, there was a clear niche partitioning as the smaller S. perspicillata shifted from a generalist to a specialized trophic strategy. Juvenile Speleomantes strinatii, that largely overlapped in size with S. perspicillata, did not show any change in diet, suggesting that the feeding strategies were species-specific and not size-mediated. The observed patterns of variation in feeding ecology indicate that similar predators may react differently to changing prey availability to enhance niche partitioning. We also observed an increased energy intake during autumn for S perspicillata and S. strinatii juveniles, possibly related to differences in microhabitat use and activity patterns.

  12. Feeding on Phytoestrogens: Implications of Estrogenic Plants for Primate Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, Michael David

    2011-01-01

    As most primates depend heavily on plant foods, the chemical composition of edible plant parts, both nutritional and detrimental, are of key importance in understanding primate ecology and evolution. One class of plant compounds of strong current interest due to their potential ability to alter the fertility, fecundity, and survival of both males and females are phytoestrogens. These plant compounds mimic the activity of vertebrate estrogens mainly through binding with the estrogen receptor...

  13. An ecological perspective of the energy basis of sustainable Bolivian natural resources: Forests and natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izursa, Jose-Luis

    Bolivia, traditionally known for being a country rich in natural resources, has suffered from a constant exploitation of its natural resources benefiting only small groups in and outside the country. The devastation of natural resources that occurred for many years was of concern to the latest government, rural communities and indigenous groups. As a result, Bolivia has a more sustainability-oriented forest law that has a strong orientation towards the utilization of natural resources at a national level and encompasses a fast-growing forestry industry than in previous years. In this dissertation, the wealth of Bolivia's national system was evaluated using solar emergy. Emergy (spelled with "m") is the sum of all energy of one form needed to develop a flow of energy of another form, over a period of time. The basic idea is that solar energy is our ultimate energy source and by expressing the value of products in solar emergy units, it becomes possible to compare different kinds of energy, allowing to express the value for the natural resources in Emergy Dollars. It was found out that Bolivia relies heavily in its natural resources and that its emergy exchange ratio with its international trading partners changed from 12.2 to 1 in 2001 to 6.2 to 1 in 2005. This means that Bolivia went from export 12.2 emdollars of goods for each 1 it received in 2001 to export 6.2 emdollars of products for each 1 it received in 2005. The study also showed that under forest certification practices less emergy is removed from forests (1.49E+19 sej/yr) compared to the amount of emergy removed (2.36E+19 sej/yr) under traditional uncertified practices, reflecting that forest ecology does better under certification. The "Ecologically-based Development for the Bolivian Industrial Forestry System" (DEBBIF) simulation model constructed during this study, compared four different scenarios: the Reference Scenario, the Increased Export Scenario, the Increased Domestic Use Scenario and the

  14. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest health is an oft-used term without a generally accepted definition. Nonetheless, the concept of forest health continues to permeate scientific, resource management, and public discourse, and it is viewed as a helpful communication device for engagement on issues of concern to forests and their surrounding communities. Notwithstanding the challenges associated with defining the concept of 'forest health,' we present a model for assessing forest health at a watershed scale. Utilizing the Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado--a mountain watershed of 640,000 forested acres--as a case study, we have created a Forest Health Index that integrates a range of climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data into an assessment organized along a series of public goals including, 1) Ecosystem Services, 2) Public Health & Safety, 3) Sustainable Use & Management, and 4) Ecological Integrity. Methods for this index were adopted from an earlier effort called the Ocean Health Index by Halpern et al, 2012. Indicators that represent drivers of change, such as temperature and precipitation, as well as effects of change, such as primary productivity and phenology, were selected. Each indicator is assessed by comparing a current status of that indicator to a reference scenario obtained through one of the following methods: a) statistical analysis of baseline data from the indicator record, b) commonly accepted normals, thresholds, limits, concentrations, etc., and c) subjective expert judgment. The result of this assessment is a presentation of graphical data and accompanying ratings that combine to form an index of health for the watershed forest ecosystem. We find this product to have potential merit for communities working to assess the range of conditions affecting forest health as well as making sense of the outcomes of those affects. Here, we present a description of the index methodology, data results from engagement with forest watershed stakeholders, example results of data

  15. Linking sediment-charcoal records and ecological modeling to understand causes of fire-regime change in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda B. Brubaker; Philip E. Higuera; T. Scott Rupp; Mark A. Olson; Patricia M. Anderson; Feng Sheng. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between vegetation and fire have the potential to overshadow direct effects of climate change on fire regimes in boreal forests of North America. We develop methods to compare sediment-charcoal records with fire regimes simulated by an ecological model, ALFRESCO (Alaskan Frame-based Ecosystem Code) and apply these methods to evaluate potential causes of a...

  16. Using the forest, people, fire agent-based social network model to investigate interactions in social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige Fischer; Adam Korejwa; Jennifer Koch; Thomas Spies; Christine Olsen; Eric White; Derric Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire links social and ecological systems in dry-forest landscapes of the United States. The management of these landscapes, however, is bifurcated by two institutional cultures that have different sets of beliefs about wildfire, motivations for managing wildfire risk, and approaches to administering policy. Fire protection, preparedness, and response agencies often...

  17. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  18. Hurricane Impacts on Ecological Services and Economic Values of Coastal Urban Forest: A Case Study of Pensacola, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    As urbanized areas continue to grow and green spaces dwindle, the importance of urban forests increases for both ecologically derived health benefits and for their potential to mitigate climate change. This study examined pre- and post- hurricane conditions of Pensacola's urban f...

  19. Thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis (Sauria: Tropiduridae in the Plain Dry Forest of Tumbes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Jordán A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The thermal ecology of Microlophus occipitalis Peters 1871 in the plain dry forests of Tumbes (northewestern Peru was studied. Mean body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.8 ºC, similar to body temperatures exposed by Microlophus peruvianus in northern Peru. There were no differences between body temperature and degree of thermoregulation of males and females, due to a possible association to their social structure and microhabitat use. Air and substrate temperature affects the body temperature of Microlophus occipitalis, where air temperature accounts for a significant proportion of body temperature variation. We suggest more detailed studies on this lizard species, especially under climate change scenarios in northwestern Peru.

  20. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Monroy-Sais

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, which aimed at driving the collective use of lands and resources. However, few studies incorporate ecological processes for an integrated understanding of social-ecological systems. In this study, we seek to understand how ecological variability influences the creation and functioning of different rules and, consequently, institutions for forests management. Our case study was conducted in an ejido with high ecological variability located in Jalisco on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The research approach was interdisciplinary and combined qualitative and quantitative methods. We conducted participant observation and 23 semi-structured interviews; botanical collections were also carried out. We found that there is strong influence between ecological variables and the emergence of rules and collective action. The most important variables influencing these processes were the economic value of resource units, ecosystem services perceived by local people and location and size of the resource system (including area and number of species. Historical processes also play a part that generates knowledge of resource systems and the current social, economic and political settings at a larger scale. The establishment of relationships with variables that produce certain outcomes for the framework of the social-ecological system is an important challenge to be met in order to move forward in both theory and practice.

  1. An ecological framework for cancer communication: implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kevin; Intille, Stephen S; Zabinski, Marion F

    2005-07-01

    The field of cancer communication has undergone a major revolution as a result of the Internet. As recently as the early 1990s, face-to-face, print, and the telephone were the dominant methods of communication between health professionals and individuals in support of the prevention and treatment of cancer. Computer-supported interactive media existed, but this usually required sophisticated computer and video platforms that limited availability. The introduction of point-and-click interfaces for the Internet dramatically improved the ability of non-expert computer users to obtain and publish information electronically on the Web. Demand for Web access has driven computer sales for the home setting and improved the availability, capability, and affordability of desktop computers. New advances in information and computing technologies will lead to similarly dramatic changes in the affordability and accessibility of computers. Computers will move from the desktop into the environment and onto the body. Computers are becoming smaller, faster, more sophisticated, more responsive, less expensive, and--essentially--ubiquitous. Computers are evolving into much more than desktop communication devices. New computers include sensing, monitoring, geospatial tracking, just-in-time knowledge presentation, and a host of other information processes. The challenge for cancer communication researchers is to acknowledge the expanded capability of the Web and to move beyond the approaches to health promotion, behavior change, and communication that emerged during an era when language- and image-based interpersonal and mass communication strategies predominated. Ecological theory has been advanced since the early 1900s to explain the highly complex relationships among individuals, society, organizations, the built and natural environments, and personal and population health and well-being. This paper provides background on ecological theory, advances an Ecological Model of Internet

  2. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES FROM A TROPICAL MONTANE RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hua

    2004-01-01

    A pristine montane rain forest was recently discovered from Mengsong of Xishuangbanna in the southern Yunnan.It attracts botanists that many primitive plant taxa across various life forms were co-existed in the montane rain forest.In order to know the biogeography of the montane rain forest,distribution patterns of some species of biogeographical importance from the montane forest were enumerated and their biogeographical implications were discussed with geological explanation.It was concluded that the montane rain forest in the southern Yunnan has strong affinity to montane rain forests in Sumatra or Southeast Asia in broad sense.It was tentatively suggested that Sumatra could be once connected to Myanmar and drifted away due to northward movement of continental Asia by bumping of India plate.

  3. The Use of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Forest Management: an Example from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Rist

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many forest communities possess considerable knowledge of the natural resources they use. Such knowledge can potentially inform scientific approaches to management, either as a source of baseline data to fill information gaps that cannot otherwise be addressed or to provide alternative management approaches from which scientists and managers might learn. In general, however, little attention has been given to the relevance of quantitative forms of such knowledge for resource management. Much discussion has focused on the integration of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK into management, but less attention has been paid to identifying specific areas where it is most useful and where it may be most problematic. We contrasted scientific data with information from TEK in the context of a threat to the sustainable harvesting of a nontimber forest product (NTFP of livelihood importance in southern India, specifically, a fruit tree infected by mistletoe. The efficiency of deriving information from NTFP harvesters compared to scientific field studies was assessed. We further evaluated the potential of TEK to provide novel solutions to the management problem in question, the degree to which TEK could provide quantitative information, and the biases that might be associated with information derived from TEK. TEK complemented previously gathered ecological data by providing concordant and additional information, but also contradicted some results obtained using a scientific approach. TEK also gave a longer-term perspective with regard to NTFP harvesting patterns. Combining information on historical and current harvesting trends for the NTFP with official data suggests that current assessments of sustainability may be inaccurate and that the use of diverse information sources may provide an effective approach to assessing the status of harvested resources.

  4. Ecological variability and rule-making processes for forest management institutions: a social-ecological case study in the Jalisco coast, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Monroy-Sais; Alicia Castillo; Eduardo García-Frapolli; Guillermo Ibarra-Manríquez

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of social-ecological systems is becoming increasingly used since the framework provides a valuable set of variables for understanding relationships between people and ecosystems. This interaction focuses on the use and management of natural resources that, in many cases, are common-pool resources. In Mexico, common-pool resources have long been explored since at least 60% of the forested lands in the country are held under the legal figure of ‘ejidos’ and indigenous communities, whic...

  5. Distribution, Fraction, and Ecological Assessment of Heavy Metals in Sediment-Plant System in Mangrove Forest, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2016-01-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in the Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  6. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1991-11-01

    The two major aims of our lab are as follows: First, to develop and field-test general mechanistic models that predict animal life history characteristics as influenced by climate and the physical, physiological behavioral characteristics of species. This involves: understanding how animal time and energy budgets are affected by climate and animal properties; predicting growth and reproductive potential from time and energy budgets; predicting mortality based on climate and time and energy budgets; and linking these individual based models to population dynamics. Second to conduct empirical studies of animal physiological ecology, particularly the effects of temperature on time and energy budgets. The physiological ecology of individual animals is the key link between the physical environment and population-level phenomena. We address the macroclimate to microclimate linkage on a broad spatial scale; address the links between individuals and population dynamics for lizard species; test the endotherm energetics and behavior model using beaver; address the spatial variation in climate and its effects on individual energetics, growth and reproduction; and address patchiness in the environment and constraints they may impose on individual energetics, growth and reproduction. These projects are described individually in the following section. 24 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Patchy zooplankton grazing and high energy conversion efficiency: ecological implications of sandeel behavior and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deurs, Mikael van; Christensen, Asbjørn; Rindorf, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Sandeel display strong site-fidelity, and spend most of their life buried in the seabed. This strategy carries important ecological implications. Sandeels save energy when they are not foraging but in return are unable to move substantially and therefore possibly are sensitive to local depletion...... sandeel densities and growth rates per area than larger habitats...

  8. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.

  9. Satellite images as primers to target priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa

    Sustainable management of tropical forests has been identified as one of the main objectives for global conservation of carbon stocks. In order to achieve this, managers need tools to establish whether or not their management practices are sustainable. Several tool development initiatives have undertaken the creation of sets of criteria and indicators to aid managers to target, if not achieve, sustainability. The question of how to assess these indicators remains to be answered from an operational viewpoint, where logistical constraints become critical and priorization becomes necessary. The present dissertation sought to determine whether satellite imagery can be used, in conjunction with standard forest management data, to identify priority areas for field surveys of indicators of ecological sustainability of managed tropical forests. It presents a novel approach to the assessment of CIFOR indicator I.2.1.2: "The change in diversity of habitats as a result of human interventions is maintained within critical limits as defined by natural variation and/or regional conservation objectives" by means of semivariography of remote sensing data. It shows the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI) is a good alternative for the detection and quantification of tropical forests structural heterogeneity and its dynamic change. The differences observed between forest management units and natural areas forest structural heterogeneity were used to identify priority areas for field survey of ecological sustainability indicators and evaluate how these priorities were reflected in dung beetles community structure and composition. The link between forest structural heterogeneity dynamic change, forest logging intensity and dung beetle community structure and composition is established. A logging intensity threshold of 4 trees per hectare is identified as the limit between significant or not significant differences in forest structure dynamic changes and dung beetles community

  10. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network: An early warning system for tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovero, Francesco; Ahumada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    While there are well established early warning systems for a number of natural phenomena (e.g. earthquakes, catastrophic fires, tsunamis), we do not have an early warning system for biodiversity. Yet, we are losing species at an unprecedented rate, and this especially occurs in tropical rainforests, the biologically richest but most eroded biome on earth. Unfortunately, there is a chronic gap in standardized and pan-tropical data in tropical forests, affecting our capacity to monitor changes and anticipate future scenarios. The Tropical Ecology, Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network was established to contribute addressing this issue, as it generates real time data to monitor long-term trends in tropical biodiversity and guide conservation practice. We present the Network and focus primarily on the Terrestrial Vertebrates protocol, that uses systematic camera trapping to detect forest mammals and birds, and secondarily on the Zone of Interaction protocol, that measures changes in the anthroposphere around the core monitoring area. With over 3 million images so far recorded, and managed using advanced information technology, TEAM has created the most important data set on tropical forest mammals globally. We provide examples of site-specific and global analyses that, combined with data on anthropogenic disturbance collected in the larger ecosystem where monitoring sites are, allowed us to understand the drivers of changes of target species and communities in space and time. We discuss the potential of this system as a candidate model towards setting up an early warning system that can effectively anticipate changes in coupled human-natural system, trigger management actions, and hence decrease the gap between research and management responses. In turn, TEAM produces robust biodiversity indicators that meet the requirements set by global policies such as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. Standardization in data collection and public sharing of data in near real time

  11. Implications of land-use change on forest carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhlick, Joshua; Woodall, Christopher; Weiskittel, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Given the substantial role that forests play in removing CO2 from the atmosphere, there has been a growing need to evaluate the carbon (C) implications of various forest management and land-use decisions. Although assessment of land-use change is central to national-level greenhouse gas monitoring guidelines, it is rarely incorporated into forest stand-level evaluations of C dynamics and trajectories. To better inform the assessment of forest stand C dynamics in the context of potential land-use change, we used a region-wide repeated forest inventory (n = 71 444 plots) across the eastern United States to assess forest land-use conversion and associated changes in forest C stocks. Specifically, the probability of forest area reduction between 2002–2006 and 2007–2012 on these plots was related to key driving factors such as proportion of the landscape in forest land use, distance to roads, and initial forest C. Additional factors influencing the actual reduction in forest area were then used to assess the risk of forest land-use conversion to agriculture, settlement, and water. Plots in forests along the Great Plains had the highest periodic (approximately 5 years) probability of land-use change (0.160 ± 0.075; mean ± SD) with forest conversion to agricultural uses accounting for 70.5% of the observed land-use change. Aboveground forest C stock change for plots with a reduction in forest area was ‑4.2 ± 17.7 Mg ha‑1 (mean ± SD). The finding that poorly stocked stands and/or those with small diameter trees had the highest probability of conversion to non-forest land uses suggests that forest management strategies can maintain the US terrestrial C sink not only in terms of increased net forest growth but also retention of forest area to avoid conversion. This study highlights the importance of considering land-use change in planning and policy decisions that seek to maintain or enhance regional C sinks.

  12. Ecological and economical significance of homestead forest to the household of the offshore island in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazi Mohammad Masum; Mohammed Shafiul Alam; M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2008-01-01

    An explanatory survey was conducted to assess the contribution of plant diversity to the ecological and socio-economic condition of the rural household in the offshore island of Bangladesh.Assessment was done by means of multistage random sampling.The homestead sizes of the study area were classified into 3 groups viz,large (>0.25 ha),medium (0.05-0.25 ha) and small (<0.05 ha) based on the result obtained from a preliminary survey,and a total of 45 homesteads,15 from each group,were selected randomly for the study.The average annual income from homestead's plant diversity varied from Tk 5730.00 (US$95.5) to Tk 17500.00 (US$291.67).The rural people were mainly dependent on their homegarden for woodfuel and nutritional requirement as forest was unavailable in the island.The rural people here also cultivated the plant species as a safety measure from frequent cyclone.Constraints hindering the development of homestead plantation were identified and suggestions were given such as the adequate supply of seedlings of fast growing native species and conservation of endangered species to meet the demand of the household as well as to keep ecological balance.

  13. KNOWLEDGE OF THE SOIL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IN AREAS OF ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOREST FIR (Abies guatemalensis REHDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical composition ( pH , elements major and minor , % S.B., CIC , % M.O. and N.T on soils in open areas and forest fir (Abies guatemalensis Rehder in a successional gradient was studied. These results were related to vegetation through correlation analysis and Canonical Correspondence analysis. The aim was to show the relationships present between vegetation and soil chemistry through ecological succession in areas of cold climate. The results indicate that the vegetation is composed of 82 species of which 20 are the lower herbaceous layer, 34 the herbaceous layer of the upper, 21 shrubs and seven trees. The chemical characteristics of the soil through five successional stages have only few significant differences and not show a clear tendency to increase according to the degree of ecosystem development. A low percentage of correlations between vegetation and soil chemical characteristics are presented. The correspondence canonical analysis shows that the features that correlate with sites through vegetation are the K, and % S.B. and CIC. One can conclude that the approach of the study of the chemical composition of soils in areas of ecological sequence is complex, especially in high regions where, besides other factors, the temperature and humidity play an important role on the soil-vegetation dynamic.

  14. Identification of a system of ecologically homogeneous areas and of priority intervention levels for forest plantation planning in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizzurro GM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation and reforestation activities in Sicily have been widespreaded in the last century. The results of forestation activities indicate the need to adopt a operational tools to promote the extension of forest surface at regional and sub-regional levels. In this view, with the aim to produce useful tools for forest plantation planning, the entire regional area was analysed and ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified to join and target arboriculture and/or forestation plantation activities, to choose tree and shrub species for different environments and to identify priority areas of intervention. The map of Rivas-Martinez bioclimate and the map of litological types were used as basic information layers to map pedo-climatic homogeneous areas. In order to mitigate disruptive hydrogeological effects and to reduce desertification risk and forest fragmentation, the Corine Land Cover map (CLC2000, the hydrogeological bond map and the desertification risk map were used to identify areas characterized by urgent need of forest activities at high priority level. A total of 23 ecologically homogeneous areas have been identified in Sicily, while more than a quarter of the regional surface has been characterized as highest priority intervention level. At sub-regional level, the target of the analysis was carried out at administrative province and at hydrographic basin level.

  15. Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site and its ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RE Peterson; TM Poston

    2000-05-22

    Strontium-90, a radioactive contaminant from historical operations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, enters the Columbia River at several locations associated with former plutonium production reactors at the Site. Strontium-90 is of concern to humans and the environment because of its moderately long half-life (29.1 years), its potential for concentrating in bone tissue, and its relatively high energy of beta decay. Although strontium-90 in the environment is not a new issue for the Hanford Site, recent studies of near-river vegetation along the shoreline near the 100 Areas raised public concern about the possibility of strontium-90-contaminated groundwater reaching the riverbed and fall chinook salmon redds. To address these concerns, DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to prepare this report on strontium-90, its distribution in groundwater, how and where it enters the river, and its potential ecological impacts, particularly with respect to fall chinook salmon. The purpose of the report is to characterize groundwater contaminants in the near-shore environment and to assess the potential for ecological impact using salmon embryos, one of the most sensitive ecological indicators for aquatic organisms. Section 2.0 of the report provides background information on strontium-90 at the Hanford Site related to historical operations. Public access to information on strontium-90 also is described. Section 3.0 focuses on key issues associated with strontium-90 contamination in groundwater that discharges in the Hanford Reach. The occurrence and distribution of fall chinook salmon redds in the Hanford Reach and characteristics of salmon spawning are described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 describes the regulatory standards and criteria used to set action levels for strontium-90. Recommendations for initiating additional monitoring and remedial action associated with strontium-90 contamination at the Hanford Site are presented in Section 6

  16. Anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin and their ecological significance: the Verdun Forest, NE France

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matos Machado, Rémi; Amat, Jean-Paul; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Bétard, François; Bilodeau, Clélia; Jacquemot, Stéphanie; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    By its unprecedented industrial character, the First World War marked landscapes like no other conflict in the world. As a result of artillery bombardment and building facilities, the relief suffered major disturbances giving rise to millions anthropogenic landforms of warfare origin on the Western front: shell craters, trenches, shelters and gun sites. This landscape made of bumps and holes that dominated the lands of West Flanders and North-eastern France during the four years of war took chaotic aspects on the great battle sites. In some areas, substrate crushing by repeated bombings resulted in a field lowering of several metres. Although these geomorphological legacies of war are still present on these scarred lands, their effects on local environment and on present-day biodiversity patterns are not fully understood. On the battlefield of Verdun, where a huge number and range of conflict-induced landforms may be observed, special attention is being paid to the ecological significance of these anthropogenic landforms in a current landscape matrix dominated by forest. In 2013, an airborne LiDAR mission conducted over the battlefield has brought to light the relief inherited from the fighting that was until now concealed by the Verdun forest planted in the 1930's. Through a digital terrain model (DTM) with centimetre level accuracy, it is now possible to observe the smallest traces of the fighting. A first programmatic mapping work allowed to inventory and to locate these reliefs on the whole 10,000 hectares covered by the DTM. Also, the calculation of their geometry enabled us to quantify the erosion rate due to the military activities on the battlefield. On the basis of these morphometric measurements, a typology was developed to better appreciate the morphological diversity of conflict-induced landforms. The results show that these anthropogenic landforms are generally hollow. Because of this particular morphology, the conflict-induced landforms provide

  17. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  18. Forest in My Neighborhood: An Exercise Using Aerial Photos to Engage Students in Forest Ecology & Land Use History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlack, Glenn R.; McEwan, Ryan W.

    2008-01-01

    Human activity has profoundly altered the deciduous forest of the eastern United States. Modern forest is a patchwork of stands of varying ages, sizes, and shapes reflecting a complex history of land use. Much modern forest is nestled in and around human communities, and faces the threat of imminent clearance for residential and commercial…

  19. Mixed-forest species establishment in a monodominant forest in central Africa: implications for tropical forest invasibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin S-H Peh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450-800 m apart. Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement-revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement and population-level characteristics (relative abundance may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species.

  20. Mixed-Forest Species Establishment in a Monodominant Forest in Central Africa: Implications for Tropical Forest Invasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Kelvin S.-H.; Sonké, Bonaventure; Séné, Olivier; Djuikouo, Marie-Noël K.; Nguembou, Charlemagne K.; Taedoumg, Hermann; Begne, Serge K.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traits of non-dominant mixed-forest tree species and their synergies for successful co-occurrence in monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest have not yet been investigated. Here we compared the tree species diversity of the monodominant forest with its adjacent mixed forest and then determined which fitness proxies and life history traits of the mixed-forest tree species were most associated with successful co-existence in the monodominant forest. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled all trees (diameter in breast height [dbh]≥10 cm) within 6×1 ha topographically homogenous areas of intact central African forest in SE Cameroon, three independent patches of G. dewevrei-dominated forest and three adjacent areas (450–800 m apart). Monodominant G. dewevrei forest had lower sample-controlled species richness, species density and population density than its adjacent mixed forest in terms of stems with dbh≥10 cm. Analysis of a suite of population-level characteristics, such as relative abundance and geographical distribution, and traits such as wood density, height, diameter at breast height, fruit/seed dispersal mechanism and light requirement–revealed after controlling for phylogeny, species that co-occur with G. dewevrei tend to have higher abundance in adjacent mixed forest, higher wood density and a lower light requirement. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that certain traits (wood density and light requirement) and population-level characteristics (relative abundance) may increase the invasibility of a tree species into a tropical closed-canopy system. Such knowledge may assist in the pre-emptive identification of invasive tree species. PMID:24844914

  1. Environmental Escherichia coli: Ecology and public health implications - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeonghwan; Hur, Hor-Gil; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Yan, Tao; Ishii, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Escherichia coli is classified as a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The bacterium mainly inhabits the lower intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans, and is often discharged into the environment through feces or wastewater effluent. The presence of E. coli in environmental waters has long been considered as an indicator of recent fecal pollution. However, numerous recent studies have reported that some specific strains of E. coli can survive for long periods of time, and potentially reproduce, in extra-intestinal environments. This indicates that E. coli can be integrated into indigenous microbial communities in the environment. This naturalization phenomenon calls into question the reliability of E. coli as a fecal indicator bacterium (FIB). Recently, many studies reported that E. coli populations in the environment are affected by ambient environmental conditions affecting their long-term survival. Large-scale studies of population genetics provide the diversity and complexity of E. coli strains in various environments, affected by multiple environmental factors. This review examines the current knowledge on the ecology of E. coli strains in various environments in regards to its role as a FIB and as a naturalized member of indigenous microbial communities. Special emphasis is given on the growth of pathogenic E. coli in the environment, and the population genetics of environmental members of the genus Escherichia. The impact of environmental E. coli on water quality and public health is also discussed.

  2. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    The common goal of these diverse projects is to understand the mechanisms of how animal populations respond to the continual changes in their environment in both time and space. Our models are mechanistic allowing us to explore how a wide array of environmental variables may determine individual performance. Large scale climate change and its effect on animal populations can be seen as quantitative extensions of biological responses to smaller scales of environmental variability. Changes in developmental rates or reproductive levels of individuals, extension or contraction of geographic ranges, and modification of community organization have all been documented in response to previous changes in habitats. We know from our biophysical work that some changes in function are driven by microclimate conditions directly, and some are mediated indirectly through ecological parameters such as the food supply. Our research is guided by a comprehensive conceptual scheme of the interaction of an animal with its environment. The physical and physiological properties of the organism, and the range of available microclimates, set bounds on the performance of organismal function, such as growth, reproduction, storage, and behavior. To leave the most offspring over a lifetime, animals must perform those functions in a way that maximizes the amount of resources devoted to reproduction. Maximizing the total size of the budget and minimizing those budget items not devoted to reproduction are crucial. Animals trade off among expenditures for current and future reproduction. Both water and energy are important, potentially limiting resources. Projects described here include empirical studies and theoretical models.

  3. Modeling some long-term implications of CO2 fertilization for global forests and forest industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    Background:This paper explored the long-term, ceteris-paribus effects of potential CO2 fertilization on the global forest sector. Based on the findings of Norby et al. (PNAS 2005, 102(50)) about forest response to elevated [CO2]. Methods:Forest productivity was increased in the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) in proportion to the rising [CO2] projected in the IPCC scenario A1B, A2, and B2. Projections of the forest area and forest stock and of the production, consumption, prices, and trade of products ranging from fuelwood to paper and paperboard were obtained with the GFPM for each scenario, with and without CO2 fertilization beginning in 2011 and up to 2065. Results:CO2 fertilization increased wood supply, leading to lower wood prices which in turn induced modest lower prices of end products and higher global consumption. However, production and value added in industries decreased in some regions due to the relative competitive advantages and to the varying regional effects of CO2 fertilization. Conclusion:The main effect of CO2 fertilization was to raise the level of the world forest stock in 2065 by 9 to 10%for scenarios A2 and B2 and by 20%for scenario A1B. The rise in forest stock induced by fertilization was in part counteracted by its stimulation of the wood supply which resulted in lower wood prices and increased harvests.

  4. Geotechnology and landscape ecology applied to the selection of potential forest fragments for seed harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Rosa Dos; Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Carlos; de Oliveira Peluzio, Telma Machado; Esteves Peluzio, João Batista; de Queiroz, Vagner Tebaldi; Figueira Branco, Elvis Ricardo; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Santos Mota, Pedro Henrique; Ferreira da Silva, Samuel; Vargas, Rozimelia; de Carvalho, José Romário; Macedo, Leandro Levate; da Silva Araújo, Cintia; de Almeida, Samira Luns Hatum

    2016-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest biome is recognized for its biodiversity and is one of the most threatened biomes on the planet, with forest fragmentation increasing due to uncontrolled land use, land occupation, and population growth. The most serious aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the edge effect and the loss of biodiversity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of forest fragmentation and select potential forest fragments with a higher degree of conservation for seed harvesting in the Itapemirim river basin, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Image classification techniques, forest landscape ecology, and multi-criteria analysis were used to evaluate the evolution of forest fragmentation to develop the landscape metric indexes, and to select potential forest fragments for seed harvesting for the years 1985 and 2013. According to the results, there was a reduction of 2.55% of the occupancy of the fragments in the basin between the years 1985 and 2013. For the years 1985 and 2013, forest fragment units 2 and 3 were spatialized with a high potential for seed harvesting, representing 6.99% and 16.01% of the total fragments, respectively. The methodology used in this study has the potential to be used to support decisions for the selection of potential fragments for seed harvesting because selecting fragments in different environments by their spatial attributes provides a greater degree of conservation, contributing to the protection and conscious management of the forests. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and different biomes of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ecohydrological Implications of Drought for U.S. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vose, J. M.; Miniat, C.; Luce, C.; Asbjornsen, H.; Caldwell, P. V.; Campbell, J. L.; Grant, G.; Isaak, D.; Sun, G.; Steven, L. I.

    2015-12-01

    The relationships among drought, surface water flow, and groundwater recharge are not straightforward for most forest ecosystems due to the strong role that vegetation plays in the forest water balance. Hydrologic responses to drought can be either mitigated or exacerbated by forest vegetation depending upon vegetation water use and how drought affects forest population dynamics. Because different species and functional groups vary in their ecophysiological traits that influence water use patterns, changes in species assemblages can alter hydrological processes from the stand to the watershed scales. Recent warming trends and more prolonged and frequent droughts have accelerated the spread and intensity of insect attacks in the western US that kill nearly all of the canopy trees within forest stands, changing the energy balance of the land surface and affecting many hydrologic processes. In contrast, some eastern forest tree species and size classes can tolerate drought better than others, suggesting the potential for drought-mediated shifts in both species composition and structure. Drought-related shifts in species composition may impact streamflow; however, predicting how these changes will impact hydrologic processes at larger spatial scales presents a considerable challenge. The biogeochemical consequences of drought are closely linked to changes in vegetation and hydrology. For example, droughts can have a concentrating effect on solutes in stream water due to the limited volume of water. As with other natural disturbances, droughts are difficult to prepare for because they are unpredictable. However, there are management options that may be implemented to minimize the impacts of drought on water quantity and quality. Examples include reducing leaf area by thinning and regenerating cut forests with species that consume less water.

  6. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  7. Mass and energy budgets of animals: Behavioral and ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, W.P.

    1989-08-01

    We are now beginning a long term exploration of environmental constraints on continent-wide growth and reproduction in ectotherms and endotherms. We have begun to study a new lizard species, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, an active forager with a wide geographic distribution. Our state-of-the-art vacuum gas analysis system continues to function well, and we are using doubly labeled wear routinely in our research to test our first principle calculations of field metabolism and water loss. The computer controlled respirometer system routinely measures respiratory gases and body temperatures in small living mammals. We have just added two more species of mammals, Gerbillus allenbyi and Gerbillus pyramidum from Israel, to the list of 9 species of mammals and two species of birds for which we have successfully tested the dry fur model. We use gas respirometry in the laboratory and doubly labeled water in the field to verify the calculations of our models. We continue to focus on the dynamics of interactions between environmental and animal variance and their implications for growth and reproduction and the links between environmental effects on organisms and population dynamics. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  9. Fire catalyzed rapid ecological change in lowland coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest over the past 14,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crausbay, Shelley D; Higuera, Philip E; Sprugel, Douglas G; Brubaker, Linda B

    2017-09-01

    Disturbance can catalyze rapid ecological change by causing widespread mortality and initiating successional pathways, and during times of climate change, disturbance may contribute to ecosystem state changes by initiating a new successional pathway. In the Pacific Northwest of North America (PNW), disturbance by wildfires strongly shapes the composition and structure of lowland forests, but understanding the role of fire over periods of climate change is challenging, because fire-return intervals are long (e.g., millennia) and the coniferous trees dominating these forests can live for many centuries. We developed stand-scale paleorecords of vegetation and fire that span nearly the past 14,000 yr to study how fire was associated with state changes and rapid dynamics in forest vegetation at the stand scale (1-3 ha). We studied forest history with sediment cores from small hollow sites in the Marckworth State Forest, located ~1 km apart in the Tsuga heterophylla Zone in the Puget Lowland ecoregion of western Washington, USA. The median rate of change in pollen/spore assemblages was similar between sites (0.12 and 0.14% per year), but at both sites, rates of change increased significantly following fire events (ranging up to 1% per year, with a median of 0.28 and 0.38%, P < 0.003). During times of low climate velocity, forest composition was resilient to fires, which initiated successional pathways leading back to the dominant vegetation type. In contrast, during times of high climate variability and velocity (e.g., the early Holocene) forests were not resilient to fires, which triggered large-scale state changes. These records provide clear evidence that disturbance, in the form of an individual fire event, can be an important catalyst for rapid state changes, accelerating vegetation shifts in response to large-scale climate change. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  11. Carbon, biodiversity, and livelihoods in forest commons: synergies, trade-offs, and implications for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Peter; Oldekop, Johan A.; Brodnig, Gernot; Karna, Birendra K.; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the relationships and tradeoffs among management outcomes in forest commons has assumed new weight in the context of parallels between the objectives of community forest management and those of reduced emissions for deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) programs to reduce carbon emissions while supporting local livelihoods. We examine the association between biophysical, demographic, institutional and socio-economic variables and three distinct forest management outcomes of interest to both community forestry and REDD+ advocates—carbon storage, biodiversity conservation, and livelihood benefits—in 56 forest commons in Nepal. REDD+ programs aim foremost to increase forest carbon storage and sequestration, but also seek to improve forest biodiversity, and to contribute to local livelihood benefits. The success of REDD+ programs can therefore be defined by improvements in one or more of these dimensions, while satisfying the principle of ‘do no harm’ in the others. We find that each outcome is associated with a different set of independent variables. This suggests that there is a need for policy-makers to clearly define their desired outcomes and to target their interventions accordingly. Our research points to the complex ways in which different factors relate to forest outcomes and has implications for the large number of cases where REDD+ projects are being implemented in the context of community forestry.

  12. Measuring ecological impacts from logging in natural forests of the eastern Amazonia as a tool to assess forest degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco W Lentini; Johan C Zweede; Thomas P Holmes

    2010-01-01

    Sound forest management practices have been seen as an interesting strategy to ally forest conservation and rural economic development in Amazônia. However, the implementation of Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) techniques in the field has been incipient, while most of the Amazonian timber production is generated through predatory and illegal logging. Despite several...

  13. Pyrogenic Impact on Gray Humus Soils of Pine Forests in the Central Ecological Zone of the Baikal Lake Natural Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Krasnoshchekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The data of experimental research on the dynamics of post pirogenic gray humus soils of pine forests in the central ecological zone of the Baikal natural territory are analysed. Ground litter-humus fires transforms type diagnostic surface organic soil horizons, lead to the formation of new organogenic pyrogenic horizons (Opir. Negative impact of surface fires of varying intensity on stock change, quality of fractional composition of soil organic horizons, and their chemical composition is shown.

  14. Morphological characteristic of ecological areals of the oak forest on the territory of “Stryginsky Bor”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Nevidomova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It was ascertained that ecological areals of the oak forests located on the natural conservation territory “Stryginsky Bor” near Nizhny Novgorod city are changed under anthropogenic pressure. It is resulted on the value of dominants of herb-shrub’s layer, as well on increasing of the number of meadow and ruderal species like Chelidonium majus L. and Veronica chamaedrys L.

  15. Biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa in a cloud forest of the Bolivian Yungas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico-Bazoberry, Daniel; Caceres-Sanchez, Liliana; Saavedra-Ulloa, Daniela; Flores-Prado, Luis; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Pinto, Carlos F

    2014-01-01

    Treehoppers (Membracidae) exhibit different levels of sociality, from solitary to presocial. Although they are one of the best biological systems to study the evolution of maternal care in insects, information on the biology of species in this group is scarce. This work describes the biology and ecology of Alchisme grossa (Fairmaire) (Hemiptera: Membracidae) in a rain cloud forest of Bolivia. This subsocial membracid utilizes two host-plant species, Brugmansia suaveolens (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Wild) Bercht. & J.Presl and Solanum ursinum (Rusby) (both Solanaceae), the first one being used during the whole year and the second one almost exclusively during the wet season. The development of A. grossa from egg to adult occurred on the plant where eggs were laid. Maternal care was observed during the complete nymphal development, and involved behavioral traits such as food facilitation and antidepredatory defense. Life cycle was longer on B. suaveolens during the dry season and shorter on S. ursinum during the wet season. Mortality was similar on both host plants during the wet season but was lower on B. suaveolens during the dry season. The presence of a secondary female companion to the egg-guarding female individual and occasional iteropary is also reported. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Extant forest plantations as a potential bridge between social needs and ecological management: a comparative case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson Priebe, M E; Müller, J G

    2013-11-15

    In the face of global deforestation, there is a challenge to balance the management of areas of high conservation concern and social interests. As a response to the growing human-environment interface and the use of forests for subsistence, plantations became a management tool to provide for wood harvesting during the 1970s. Some plantations were subsequently protected from harvest as conservation of all forests increased. Plantations that are now illegal to harvest can cause local animosities toward forest protection to increase and may also result in concentrated harvesting impacts on surrounding natural forests. In this article, we analyzed case studies of plantations from El Salvador and Niger. By utilizing distinctly disparate case studies, commonalities between the two can illuminate possible management lessons. In the comparison of El Salvador and Niger forest plantations we found the following commonalities: utilizing plantations for sustainable harvest has the to potential to reduce animosity between managers and stakeholders; plantations can serve as a risk-averse testing ground for novel managerial practices; and the sustainable harvest of plantations can reduce deforestation and impacts on biodiversity in natural remnant forests. We argue that extant plantations currently under illegal harvesting legislation could become the epicenters of social and ecological conservation through a management shift to sustainable harvesting. By focusing on these relics, managers could work with stakeholders to change unduly burdening restrictions and promote cooperation between conservationists and local populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Summary Tables & Figures: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following are summary tables and figures associated with the 2010 rapid ecological assessment of sampled forest stands and associated earthworms at Seney...

  18. Distribution, fraction, and ecological risk assesment of heavy metals in sediment-plant system in mangrove forest, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, R.; Shen, X.; Li, Y. H.; Chai, M. W.; Qiu, G. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Overlying water, sediment, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove seedlings in Futian mangrove forest were analyzed for heavy metals. The results showed that mangrove plant acidified sediment and increased organic matter contents. Except for chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) in Aegiceras corniculatum sediment, heavy metals in all sediments were higher than in overlying water, rhizosphere sediment and mangrove root. Heavy metals in Avicennia marina sediments were higher than other sediments. The lower heavy metal biological concentration factors (BCFs) and translocation factors (TFs) indicated that mangrove plant adopted exclusion strategy. The geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index and risk assessment code (RAC) demonstrated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk, especially for cadmium (Cd). Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu and Cd) mainly existed in the reducible fractions. The RAC values of heavy metals indicated that heavy metals have posed a considerable ecological risk to the biota, especially for Cd. These findings provide actual heavy metal accumulations in sediment-plant ecosystems in mangrove forest, being important in designing the long-term management and conservation policies for managers of mangrove forest.

  19. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  20. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously provided…

  1. 林窗生态学研究进展%Advances in Studies of Forest Gap Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管云云; 费菲; 关庆伟; 陈斌

    2016-01-01

    Forest gap,though an interference at local scale,is an important driving force forest reqeneration nutrient cycling and ecosystem functioning of forests. By thoroughly reviewing the literature of forest gap studies,this paper was intended to advance the knowledge for both scientific research and forest management. Traditionally,forest gap ecology focuses on the formation and characteristics of gaps,and the consequent impacts on above-ground ecological processes( e. g. microclimate and plant community characteristics ) . Nowadays,a growing body of the research shifts sights to the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes ( e. g. fine roots and litter decomposition,soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics,soil enzyme activities) and ecophysiological traits of animals and soil microorganism. However,current knowledge of these new spots is limited by the small spatial and temporal research scales. With the purposes of improving stand structures,ecological services function and process of forests,future work should focus more on the effects of forest gap on under ground ecological processes( e. g. fine roots decomposition and rhizosphere effect,distribution,cycling and immobilization of soil carbon and nitrogen) and ecophysiological traits of organisms. Furthermore,future studies should enlarge their research scales,and should also integrate above-and under ground ecological ecosystem,biotic and abiotic factors,as well as micro-and macro-scales.%林窗是森林生态系统中的一种中小尺度干扰,是促进森林更新、养分循环、功能提高的重要推动力。本文阐述林窗生态学的研究进展与展望,以期为今后的林窗理论研究和森林经营实践提供参考。林窗生态学研究集中于林窗的形成、基本特征以及林窗对森林小气候和植物群落特征等地上结构与过程的影响;近年来,林窗对细根与枯落物分解、土壤碳氮动态及酶活性以及对森林动物和土壤微生物

  2. Uncertainty of Forest Biomass Estimates in North Temperate Forests Due to Allometry: Implications for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of above ground biomass density in forests are crucial for refining global climate models and understanding climate change. Although data from field studies can be aggregated to estimate carbon stocks on global scales, the sparsity of such field data, temporal heterogeneity and methodological variations introduce large errors. Remote sensing measurements from spaceborne sensors are a realistic alternative for global carbon accounting; however, the uncertainty of such measurements is not well known and remains an active area of research. This article describes an effort to collect field data at the Harvard and Howland Forest sites, set in the temperate forests of the Northeastern United States in an attempt to establish ground truth forest biomass for calibration of remote sensing measurements. We present an assessment of the quality of ground truth biomass estimates derived from three different sets of diameter-based allometric equations over the Harvard and Howland Forests to establish the contribution of errors in ground truth data to the error in biomass estimates from remote sensing measurements.

  3. PHYTOSSOCIOLOGY AND DIAMETRIC ESTRUCTURE IN THE GALLERY FOREST OF PITOCO, IN THE ECOLOGICAL RESERVE OF IBGE, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Cláudio da Silva Júnior

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The gallery forest, in the cerrado region, has a very important function on the environmental and social equilibrium.Despite been protected by law, gallery forests have been systematically replaced by agriculture and other regional uses. One thousandtrees (DAP 5cm were sampled using point centered-quarter (PCQ method. Sampling lines were established, from the head to themouth of the stream and from the stream margins to the forest-cerrado border, of the Pitoco gallery forest, in the IBGE EcologicalReserve, in Federal District, Brazil. Results showed 99 species of 46 families in the area. The most important families were:Leguminosae, Vochysiaceae, Rubiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Moraceae, Annonaceae eSymplocaceae, while the most important species were: Callisthene major, Tapirira guianensis, Protium almecega, Copaifera langsdorffii,Sclerolobium paniculatum var. rubiginosum, Pseudolmedia guaranítica, Faramea cyanea, Emmotum nitens, Lamanonia ternata,Maprounea guianensis, excluding the group of dead trees which was ranked in the 5th position. Density and basal area were estimatedas 1971 trees.ha-1 and 38,8 m².ha-1 ,respectively. Diameter distribution showed a tendency to an inverted J curve revealing low levelsof disturbance in this gallery forest. A floristic comparison carried out with 21 gallery forests in the Federal District indicated Pitocogallery forest as a rich site including 99 (26,2% of the total of 378 species recorded, a Shannon & Weaver diversity index estimatedas 3,86 nats.ind-1 and Sørensen similarities ranging from 0,29 to 0,80 with DF gallery forests.

  4. Fire disturbance and climate change: implications for Russian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Jacquelyn K.; Foster, Adrianna C.; Shugart, Herman H.; Hoffman-Hall, Amanda; Krylov, Alexander; Loboda, Tatiana; Ershov, Dmitry; Sochilova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Change in the Russian boreal forest has the capacity to alter global carbon and climate dynamics. Fire disturbance is an integral determinant of the forest’s composition and structure, and changing climate conditions are expected to create more frequent and severe fires. Using the individual tree-based forest gap model UVAFME, along with an updated fire disturbance module that tracks mortality based on tree-species and –size level effects, biomass and species dynamics are simulated across Russia for multiple scenarios: with and without fire, and with and without altered climate. Historical fire return intervals and percent of forest stand mortality are calculated for the Russian eco-regions and applied to 31 010 simulation points across Russia. Simulation results from the scenarios are compared to assess changes in biomass, composition, and stand structure after 600 years of successional change following bare-ground initiation. Simulations that include fire disturbance show an increase in biomass across the region compared to equivalent simulations without fire. Fire disturbance allows the deciduous needle-leaved conifer larch to maintain dominance across much of the region due to their high growth rate and fire tolerance relative to other species. Larch remain dominant under the scenario of altered climate conditions with fire disturbance. The distribution of age cohorts shifts for the scenario of altered climate with fire disturbance, displaying a bimodal distribution with a peak of 280-year-old trees and another of 100-year-old cohorts. In these simulations, fire disturbance acts to increase the turnover rate and patterns of biomass accumulation, though species and tree size are also important factors in determining mortality and competitive success. These results reinforce the importance of the inclusion of complex competition at the species level in evaluating forest response to fire and climate.

  5. Effects of harvest of nontimber forest products and ecological differences between sites on the demography of African mahogany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaoue, Orou G; Ticktin, Tamara

    2010-04-01

    The demographic impacts of harvesting nontimber forest products (NTFP) have been increasingly studied because of reports of potentially unsustainable harvest. Nevertheless, our understanding of how plant demographic response to harvest is altered by variation in ecological conditions, which is critical for developing realistic sustainable-use plans, is limited. We built matrix population models to test whether and how variation in ecological conditions affects population responses to harvest. In particular, we examined the effect of bark and foliage harvest on the demography of populations of African mahogany (Khaya senegalensis) in two contrasting ecological regions of Benin, West Africa. K. senegalensis bark and foliage harvest significantly reduced its stochastic population growth rates, but ecological differences between regions had a greater effect on population growth rates than did harvest. The effect of harvest on population growth rates (Deltalambda) was slightly stronger in the moist than in the drier region. Life-table response experiments revealed that the mechanism by which harvesting reduced lambda differed between ecological regions. Lowered stasis (persistence) of larger life stages lead to a reduction in lambda in the drier region, whereas lowered growth of all life stages lowered lambda in moist region. Potential strategies to increase population growth rates should include decreasing the proportion of individuals harvested, promoting harvester-owned plantations of African mahogany, and increasing survival and growth by promoting no-fire zones in gallery forests. Our results show how population responses to harvest of NTFP may be altered by ecological differences across sites and emphasize the importance of monitoring populations over the climatic range in which they occur to develop more realistic recommendations for conservation.

  6. Hurricane Katrina-induced forest damage in relation to ecological factors at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2009-09-01

    Forest stand stability to strong winds such as hurricanes has been found to be associated with a number of forest, soil and topography factors. In this study, through applying geographic information system (GIS) and logit regression, we assessed effects of forest characteristics and site conditions on pattern, severity and probability of Hurricane Katrina disturbance to forests in the Lower Pearl River Valley, USA. The factors included forest type, forest coverage, stand density, soil great group, elevation, slope, aspect, and stream buffer zone. Results showed that Hurricane Katrina damaged 60% of the total forested land in the region. The distribution and intensity of the hurricane disturbance varied across the landscape, with the bottomland hardwood forests on river floodplains most severely affected. All these factors had a variety of effects on vulnerability of the forests to the hurricane disturbance and thereby spatial patterns of the disturbance. Soil groups and stand factors including forest types, forest coverage and stand density contributed to 85% of accuracy in modeling the probability of the hurricane disturbance to forests in this region. Besides assessment of Katrina's damage, this study elucidates the great usefulness of remote sensing and GIS techniques combined with statistics modeling in assessment of large-scale risks of hurricane damage to coastal forests.

  7. 广东省公益林补偿标准的能值研究%Emergy Synthesis on the Compensation Rate of Ecological Beneficial Forest in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪殿蓓; 陈飞鹏; 涂佳才; 暨淑仪

    2006-01-01

    To find out the feasible compensation rate for ecological beneficial forest, the ecological benefits such as fixation of solar energy, absorption of carbon dioxide, release of oxygen, and maintaining the global atmosphere balance, were evaluated with the employment of emergy synthesis for the ecological beneficial forest in Guangdong Province. The result showed that ecological benefit of the ecological beneficial forest in Guangdong Province was significant, and the emergy output value was 0.285 billion ($) per year. The emergy investment ratio (EIR) and environmental loading ratio (ELR) of ecological beneficial forest system were on a low level. More emergy should be input to the system in order to improve the utilization efficiency of resources. It was suggested that 136 ($)·hm-2 a-1 , i.e., 99 ($)·hm-2 a-1 for ecological benefit and 37 ($)·hm-2 a-1 for management expenditure, should be compensated at average level in Guangdong Province for the ecological beneficial forest.

  8. Patterns, drivers and implications of dissolved oxygen dynamics in tropical mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattone, Carlo; Sheaves, Marcus

    2017-10-01

    Estuarine mangrove forests regulate and facilitate many ecological processes, and provide nursery ground for many commercially important species. However, mangroves grow in sediments with high carbon loading and high respiration rates which can potentially influencing the dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics of tidal water flowing into mangrove forests, as bacteria strip DO from the incoming water to carry out metabolic functions. In turn this is likely to influence the way nekton and other aquatic organisms utilize mangrove forests. Despite these possibilities, previous work has focused on looking at DO dynamics within mangrove creeks, with little research focusing on understanding DO dynamics within the mangrove forests themselves during tidal inundation or of DO levels of pools within the forest remaining once the tide has ebbed. The present study investigates the pattern in DO at various distances within an estuarine Rhizophora stylosa forest in tropical north Queensland. DO levels were recorded at 5 min interval over 2 days and multiple tidal cycles, data were collected between 2013 and 2014 for a total of 32 tidal cycles encompassing multiples seasons and tidal amplitudes. There were substantial fluctuations in DO, often varying from normoxic to hypoxic within the same tidal cycle. A range of factors influenced DO dynamics, in particular: tidal height, amount of sunlight, tidal phase, and distance from the outer edge of the mangrove forest. In fact, spring tides tend to have high DO saturation, particularly during the flooding phase, however as the tide starts ebbing, DO depletes rapidly especially in areas further inside the forest. Moreover during tidal disconnection the remnant pools within the forest quickly became anoxic. These variations in DO suggest that the use of mangrove forests by animals is likely to be constrained by their ability to withstand low DO levels, and provides a plausible explanation for the apparent paucity of benthic organism observed

  9. Modeling some long-term implications of CO2 fertilization for global forests and forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper explored the long-term, ceteris-paribus effects of potential CO2 fertilization on the globalforest sector. Based on the findings of Norby et al. (PNAS 2005, 102(50)) about forest response to elevated [CO2].Methods:...

  10. Emerging Forest Regimes and Livelihoods in the Tano Offin Forest Reserve, Ghana: Implications for Social Safeguards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Derkyi; M.A.F. Ros-Tonen; B. Kyereh; T. Dietz

    2013-01-01

    Greater attention for law enforcement resulting from new forest governance initiatives may make livelihoods of people living in or near protected areas in the tropics more vulnerable due to restricted access and competing claims. This paper aims to provide a deeper insight into the livelihoods of in

  11. Population biology of the forest pathogen Heterbasidion annosum:implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Garbelotto; W.J. Otrosina; F.W. Cobb; T.D. Bruns

    1998-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosumranks as one of the most destructive pathogens in North American coniferous forests. Understanding the popula­tion biology of this fungus may facilitate un­derstanding not only the basic biology of the organism, but also the general patterns of disease development,...

  12. Natural forest regeneration and ecological restoration in human-modified tropical landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Pingarroni, Aline; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Toledo-Chelala, Lilibeth; Zermeño-Hernández, Isela; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In human-modified tropical landscapes (HMLs) the conservation of biodiversity, functions and services of forest ecosystems depends on persistence of old growth forest remnants, forest regeneration in abandoned agricultural fields, and restoration of degraded lands. Understanding the impacts of agric

  13. Socio-ecological analysis of multiple-use forest management in the Bolivian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soriano Candia, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Community families throughout tropical regions derive an important share of their income from multiple forest products, with generally positive outcomes on their livelihoods. The production of these products in a multiple-use forest management scheme (MFM, the production of multiple forest products

  14. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  15. Ecological traits affect the response of tropical forest bird species to land-use intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Butchart, Stuart H M; Sekercioğlu, Cağan H; Alkemade, Rob; Booth, Hollie; Purves, Drew W

    2013-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the main drivers of current and likely future biodiversity loss. Therefore, understanding how species are affected by it is crucial to guide conservation decisions. Species respond differently to land-use change, possibly related to their traits. Using pan-tropical data on bird occurrence and abundance across a human land-use intensity gradient, we tested the effects of seven traits on observed responses. A likelihood-based approach allowed us to quantify uncertainty in modelled responses, essential for applying the model to project future change. Compared with undisturbed habitats, the average probability of occurrence of bird species was 7.8 per cent and 31.4 per cent lower, and abundance declined by 3.7 per cent and 19.2 per cent in habitats with low and high human land-use intensity, respectively. Five of the seven traits tested affected the observed responses significantly: long-lived, large, non-migratory, primarily frugivorous or insectivorous forest specialists were both less likely to occur and less abundant in more intensively used habitats than short-lived, small, migratory, non-frugivorous/insectivorous habitat generalists. The finding that species responses to land use depend on their traits is important for understanding ecosystem functioning, because species' traits determine their contribution to ecosystem processes. Furthermore, the loss of species with particular traits might have implications for the delivery of ecosystem services.

  16. Using ecological memory as an indicator to monitor the ecological restoration of four forest plantations in subtropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhongyu Sun; Hai Ren; Val Schaefer; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    A large area of plantations has been established worldwide and especially in China. Evaluating the restoration status of these plantations is essential for their longterm management. Based on our previous work, we used an ecological memory (EM) approach to evaluate four 26-year-old plantations that represent four common kinds of plantations in subtropical China, i.e.,...

  17. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    Full Text Available Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea. After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing

  18. Potency and Ecological Habitat of Tabat Barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack in Natural Forest, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yudi firmanul arifin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of medicinal plants, one of which is Tabat Barito (Ficusdeltoidea Jack. The utilization of tabat barito is mainly  for women's health and until now its use continues to increase, especially for traditional medicines, but efforts for cultivation have not been much done. The first step for cultivation is to understand the potential and ecological habitat of this plant. This research was conducted in South Kalimantan, with three villages as the object based on a survey conducted earlier, i.e. the Village of Hamak in Hulu Sungai Selatan District and the Village of Auh and Sungsum in Balangan District. Data was collected using a survey method to create a transect in the areas where Tabat Barito isfound. The results showed Tabat Barito potential  in the two districts is quite rare, between 35 -50 clumps/ha. Tabat Barito was found in open areas in natural forest with elevation of 200-350 m above sea level, humidity of 36-54%, air temperature of 38-43 °C, soil temperature of 25 oC. vegetation found to be associated with Tabat Barito in Hamak Village is sasirihan (Ficussp. and beringin (Ficusbenyamina, while in Auh and Sangsum Village is mali-mali (Leeaindica, beringin (F. benyamina, and jambun (Eugenia sp.. The genus of Ficus is the dominant vegetation and significant association with Tabat Barito. The diversity of vegetation, in the Hamak Village is 1.63 higher than Auh and Sungsum Village of 1.16. The common species found in the two districts that have Tabat Barito of 28.57%.

  19. Ecological shifts in Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages related to gorgonian forest loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Massimo; Perlini, Rossella Angela; Ventra, Vincenzo; Grech, Daniele; Abbiati, Marco; Cerrano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean gorgonian forests are threatened by several human activities and are affected by climatic anomalies that have led to mass mortality events in recent decades. The ecological role of these habitats and the possible consequence of their loss are poorly understood. Effects of gorgonians on the recruitment of epibenthic organisms were investigated by manipulating presence of gorgonians on experimental panels at 24 m depth, for Eunicella cavolinii, and at 40 m depth, for Paramuricea clavata, at two sites: Tavolara Island (Tyrrhenian Sea) and Portofino Promontory (Ligurian Sea). After 4 months, the most abundant taxa on the panels were encrusting green algae, erect red algae and crustose coralline algae at 24 m depth and encrusting brown algae and erect red algae at 40 m depth. Assemblages on the panels were significantly affected by the presence of the gorgonians, although effects varied across sites and between gorgonian species. Species diversity and evenness were lower on panels with gorgonian branches. Growth of erect algae and recruitment of serpulid polychaetes were also affected by the presence of the gorgonians, primarily at Tavolara. Crustose coralline algae and erect sponges were more abundant on E. cavolinii panels at 24 m depth, while encrusting bryozoans were more abundant on P. clavata panels at 40 m depth. Effects of gorgonians on recruited assemblages could be due to microscale modification of hydrodynamics and sediment deposition rate, or by a shading effect reducing light intensity. Gorgonians may also intercept settling propagules, compete for food with the filter-feeders and/or for space by producing allelochemicals. Presence of gorgonians mainly limits the growth of erect algae and enhances the abundance of encrusting algae and sessile invertebrates. Therefore, the gorgonian disappearances may cause a shift from assemblages characterised by crustose coralline algae to filamentous algae assemblages, decreasing complexity and resilience

  20. Nutrients and water-forest interactions in an Amazon floodplain lake: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aprile

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Catalão Lake was surveyed between 2002 and 2011 with the aim of studying seasonality of the flow of nutrients between water, sediment and aquatic macrophytes. The role of the flood pulse and the ecological mechanisms influencing the forest-water interactions in the Amazon floodplain were discussed; METHODS: Catalão Lake is located in the Amazon floodplain (03º 08'-03º 14' S and 59º 53'-59º 58' W, near the confluence of the Solimões and Negro rivers, approximately 3000 m from the port of CEASA, near the city of Manaus. It is considered to be a mixed water lake because it receives white waters rich in sediments from the Solimões River and black waters with humic substances from the Negro River. Physical and chemical parameters including C, N and P levels were studied in the diverse compartments, and a flux model was developed; RESULTS: There is a strong nutritional (C, N and P and ionic (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, HCO3-, CO3(2- and SO4(2- flow from the rivers to the lake. The highest C:N:P ratio was found in Paspalum repens which, during periods of drought, played an important role in releaseing nutrients into the water. The connectivity of the lake with the rivers ensured a high variation of transparency and nutrient content, fundamental for biological processes. A model of the nutrient flow, interaction and connectivity between ecosystems, and the influence of the hydrological cycle has been developed.

  1. Global change and landscape structure in Ukraine: Ecological and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Lakyda, Petro; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Marchuk, Yuiry

    2013-04-01

    The current land cover of Ukraine is very heterogeneous. While on average forest covers 15.9% of its land, substantial part of the country is basically forestless. The agricultural potential of Ukraine is high. However, in spite of the fact that 68% of the arable land in Ukraine consists of the famous Ukrainian black soils (chernozems), the quality of the country's arable land (69.5% of the total land) is not satisfactory. The country has the highest over the globe share of the tilled land (~80% of the agricultural land in the country) and processes of soil erosion impact about one third of arable land. Air pollution, soil and water contamination are widespread. Substantial problems are generated by the Chernobyl disaster. Overall, about half of the country is in the critical and pre-critical ecological situation. Climatic predictions suppose that the country will live in much warmer and drier climate by end of this century. Taking into account that major pat of Ukraine lies in the xeric belt, the expected climatic change generates divers risks for both environment and vegetation ecosystems of the country, particularly for forests and agriculture. The presentation considers the role of forests and trees outside of forests in transition to integrated ecosystem management and sustainable structure of landscapes within two scenarios of socio-economic development for the next 20 yeas. The "business-as-usual" scenario prolongs tendencies of dynamics of the land-use and forest sectors during the last 20 years. This scenario leads to further deterioration of quality of land and environment in Ukraine. The "progressive" scenario is considered as a crucial initial step of adaptation to climatic change and includes a system of pressing measures which are needed to decrease destructive processes that are observed at the landscape level. It is shown that it would require development of 1.62 M ha of protective forests including 0.62 M ha on unstable elements of landscapes

  2. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

  3. 新乡城市森林生态建设规划%A Development Plan for Urban Forest and Modern Forestry Ecology in Xinxiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑吾; 张玲玲; 张利军; 张宏松; 刘保玲

    2009-01-01

    The industrial development and population expansion have resulted in deterioration of urban environment,and increasing attention has been paid to the quality of living conditions. Thus urban forest drew much attention because it could improve the quality of urban environment. This paper explains the concept and overall goal of urban forest ecological planning and describes the model of urban ecological plan in Xinxiang city. Problems existing in construction of coo-city were identified and suggestions were made to solve the problems. This paper is intended to provide a scientific basis for the ecological construction and sustainable development of Xinxiang city.

  4. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

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    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  5. Factors Affecting Migration Intentions in Ecological Restoration Areas and Their Implications for the Sustainability of Ecological Migration Policy in Arid Northwest China

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    Yongjin Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecological migration policy has been proposed and implemented as a means for depopulating ecological restoration areas in the arid Northwest China. Migration intention is critical to the effectiveness of ecological migration policy. However, studies on migration intention in relation to ecological migration policy in China remain scant. Thus this paper aims to investigate the rural residents’ migration intentions and their affecting factors under ecological migration policy in Minqin County, an ecological restoration area, located at the lower terminus of Shiyang River Basin in arid Northwest China. The data for this study come from a randomly sampled household questionnaire survey. Results from logistic regression modelling indicate that most residents do not intend to migrate, despite rigid eco-environmental conditions and governance polices threatening livelihood sustainability. In addition to demographic and socio-economic factors, the eco-environmental factors are also significantly correlated with the possibility of a resident intending to migrate. The implications of the significant independent variables for the sustainability of ecological migration policy are discussed. The paper concludes that ecological migration policies may ultimately be more sustainable when taking into account household interests within complex migration intention contexts, such as household livelihoods dynamics and environmental change.

  6. Setting Priorities for Urban Forest Planning. A Comprehensive Response to Ecological and Social Needs for the Metropolitan Area of Rome (Italy

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    Giulia Capotorti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban forests represent key elements of green infrastructure and provide essential ecosystem services in both the ecological and social spheres. Therefore, forestation planning plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategies of metropolitan areas and addresses the challenge of maintaining biodiversity while improving human health and well-being. The aim of this work is to present a methodological approach that can be used to identify priorities in urban forest planning and can provide comprehensive responses to ecological and social needs in any metropolitan context. The approach, which is based on interdisciplinary principles of landscape ecology, ecosystem geography and dynamic plant sociology, has been adopted in the Municipality of Rome (Italy. The first step entails defining an ecological framework for forestation plans by means of the ecological land classification and assessment of landscape conservation status. The second step entails setting forestation priorities according to both ecological and social criteria. The application of the method proved to effectively select limited areas requiring intervention within an extensive metropolitan area. Furthermore, it provided responses to sustainability issues such as long-term maintenance of restored habitats, landscape perspective of planning, greening of urban agriculture, improvement in urban resilience, and cost-effective improvement in ecosystem services provision.

  7. Primate seed dispersers as umbrella species: a case study from Kibale National Park, Uganda, with implications for Afrotropical forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joanna E

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of the world's extant primate species are of conservation concern [IUCN, International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species, 2008]. Primates are also effective seed dispersers. The implications of and interactions between these two facts are increasingly understood, and data demonstrating the consequences of losing primates for forest ecology are now available from throughout the tropics. However, a reality is that not all species-and the mutualisms among them-can be protected. Conservation managers must make difficult decisions and use shortcuts in the implementation of conservation tactics. Using taxa as "umbrellas" is one such shortcut, although a lack of an operational definition of what an umbrella species is and how to choose one has made implementing this tactic difficult. In this study, I discuss primates as umbrellas by defining a selection index in terms of richness/co-occurrence, rarity, and sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance. I evaluate the anthropoid assemblage of Kibale National Park, Uganda, in light of the selection index and determine that Cercopithecus is the genus best fitting the criteria for umbrella status. I then evaluate the functional significance-in terms of seed dispersal-of using Cercopithecus monkeys (guenons) as umbrellas. Results from 1,047 hr of observation of focal fruiting trees in Kibale indicate that Cercopithecus ascanius was the most commonly observed frugivore visitor (July 2001-June 2002). These data corroborate earlier data collected in Kibale demonstrating that guenons are highly effective seed dispersers. Patterns of richness/co-occurrence, rarity, and sensitivity observed in Kibale are reflected in Afrotropical forests more generally, with the genus Cercopithecus tending to exhibit greatest richness/co-occurrence with taxonomically similar species, to be neither extremely rare nor ubiquitous, and also to be moderately sensitive to human disturbance. Moreover, in all

  8. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN POURBABAEI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haghgooy T. 2012. Plant species diversity in the ecological species groups in the Kandelat Forest Park, Guilan, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 7-12. Forest vegetation indicates conditions and productivity potential of forest habitat, because it reflects the interaction of climate, soil and topography. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between vegetation and topography factors. In order to do this research, type, number and percentage cover of trees, shrubs (sample plot with 1000 m2 area and type and percentage cover of herbaceous species (sample plot with 64 m2 area investigated and recorded. The coverage percent of species were estimated on the basis of Domin scale. Vegetation classified using Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN. The results revealed that there were 6 ecosystem units (ecological groups in the region. The comparison of diversity indices and topographic factors between groups were performed with ANOVA test. Results also indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of biodiversity indices and topographic factors. The formation of a particular group is affected by a combination of environment variables. The aspect was the most important variable of topographic factors in this study.

  9. Adaptive genetic potential of coniferous forest tree species under climate change: implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Georgeta; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Teodosiu, Maria; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Daia, Mihai; Mirancea, Ionel; Ivanov, Paula; Alin, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change. The real potential for adaptation depends upon the existence of a wide genetic diversity in trees populations, upon the adaptive genetic variation, respectively. Genetic diversity offers the guarantee that forest species can survive, adapt and evolve under the influence of changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the genetic diversity and adaptive genetic potential of two local species - Norway spruce and European silver fir - in the context of regional climate change. Based on data from a long-term provenance experiments network and climate variables spanning over more than 50 years, we have investigated the impact of climatic factors on growth performance and adaptation of tree species. Our results indicate that climatic and geographic factors significantly affect forest site productivity. Mean annual temperature and annual precipitation amount were found to be statistically significant explanatory variables. Combining the additive genetic model with the analysis of nuclear markers we obtained different images of the genetic structure of tree populations. As genetic indicators we used: gene frequencies, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, genetic variance, plasticity. Spatial genetic analyses have allowed identifying the genetic centers holding high genetic diversity which will be valuable sources of gene able to buffer the negative effects of future climate change. Correlations between the marginal populations and in the optimal vegetation, between the level of genetic diversity and ecosystem stability, will allow the assessment of future risks arising from current genetic structure. Therefore, the strategies for sustainable forest management have to rely on the adaptive genetic variation and local adaptation of the valuable genetic resources. This work was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM (Evaluating the adaptive potential of the main

  10. Can global navigation satellite system signals reveal the ecological attributes of forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingbin; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liang, Xinlian; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Zhu, Lingli; Wang, Yunsheng; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Forests have important impacts on the global carbon cycle and climate, and they are also related to a wide range of industrial sectors. Currently, one of the biggest challenges in forestry research is effectively and accurately measuring and monitoring forest variables, as the exploitation potential of forest inventory products largely depends on the accuracy of estimates and on the cost of data collection. A low-cost crowdsourcing solution is needed for forest inventory to collect forest variables. Here, we propose global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals as a novel type of observables for predicting forest attributes and show the feasibility of utilizing GNSS signals for estimating important attributes of forest plots, including mean tree height, mean diameter at breast height, basal area, stem volume and tree biomass. The prediction accuracies of the proposed technique were better in boreal forest conditions than those of the conventional techniques of 2D remote sensing. More importantly, this technique provides a novel, cost-effective way of collecting large-scale forest measurements in the crowdsourcing context. This technique can be applied by, for example, harvesters or persons hiking or working in forests because GNSS devices are widely used, and the field operation of this technique is simple and does not require professional forestry skills.

  11. An evaluation of selected ecological benefits of forest stands under acid stress based on biogeochemical processes in a catchment in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Based on nutrient biogeochemical cycles between soil, plants and the atmosphere, four ecological functions and values of forest stands under acid stress in a small catchment in Southwestern China are evaluated in this work: nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, erosion control and water conservation. Integrated remote sensing Landsat-5 TM spectral data and field measurements of acid deposition are applied to simulate the temporal and spatial distributions of soil acidification and nutrient cycling for a small catchment with various types of vegetations in Southwestern China, using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) coupled with a soil water balance module and a vegetation growth model. The major cations in the soil solution, the net primary productivity, the soil conservation and the rainfall intercept are considered in the evaluation of the four selected ecological benefits of forest stands in the study area. Biogeochemical processes including deposition, nitrification, weathering, mineralization, uptake, allocation and litterfall are considered in the simulation. The simulation results show that the average amounts of nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, and soil and water conservation were 1.67 t/hm2, 2.96 t/hm2, 913 t/hm2 and 10000 t/hm2 respectively for the catchment during the period from April 2007 to April 2008. The ecological functions also vary with the vegetation types. The nutrient retaining amount is the highest in grassland and the mixed forest came next. The mixed forest has higher carbon sequestration amount than coniferous forest, shrubs and the grass. The coniferous forest and the shrubs have the highest soil conservation and water conservation amounts respectively. The forest ecological values for the selected four functions are also estimated by the prices of substitutes and found to be 20 times that of timber economic benefit. The forest ecological functions will change under different scenarios of acid

  12. STUDY CONCERNING FOREST ECOLOGIC RECONSTRUCTIUON ON DEGRADED LAND IN RANGE OCOLUL SILVIC “VALEA CIBINULUI”, SALISTE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert BLAJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the stationary conditions, determine solutions to improve degraded land, assessing the cost of ecological restoration work needed in the area of improving degraded lands at Rapa - Copăcel, estimated benefits of the project and its viability. Objectives of the paper: need to introduce in the circuit of productive forest lands within the improvement of the area "La Rapa - Copăcel" danger zone where activation of the phenomena of degradation (erosion , landslides predominate. Out of 102.33 ha as area for improvement, the effective area of 101.6 ha is forested, representing a difference of 0.73 ha, 1.2 m wide strip that is to be the place for hedges. Viability of the project results from the ratio calculated benefit/cost = 2.3 which justifies the need and opportunity for investment. Opportunity project results in immediate and potential beneficial effects of the a forestation namely stabilization by stopping land erosion and landslides with positive influences on human settlements, infrastructure and communication lines, reducing the intensity of land degradation processes and the gradual improvement their production capacity as the direct effect of forest cultures, the role of forests in improving the main factors of environmental water, air, climate, reducing extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, evapotranspiration, wind speed, humidity and air purification by the ozoning phyithoncide releasing the destructive effect of microbes; regulating rainfall, ensuring constant and permanent water flow, reducing the effects of drought and floods, improving stationary conditions for the maintenance and development of herbaceous vegetation and forest. It specifies the role and sanogene functions of the forest – ambient of the forest, an constructive and necessary factor for the ecosystems and human health, and its other roles: aesthetic role "attribute of all forests" - contemplating a sylvan landscape with positive effects

  13. Analysis of existing agroforestry practices in Madhupur Sal forest: an assessment based on ecological and economic perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Golam Kibria; Narayan Saha

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Madhupur sal forest of Tangail,Bangladesh to identify the suitable agroforestry practices of the area.Considering the ecological aspects of different agroforestry practices 10 sample plots (10 m × 10 m) from each land uses were taken,including natural forest to get a comparative scenario.The study showed that among the different agroforestry practices,Margalef and ShannonWeiner index values are the maximum for pineapple agroforestry and lower for banana agroforestry,and Evenness index value is the maximum for lemon agroforestry.Determination of tree biomass in different land uses revealed that it is highest (3078.6 kg/100 m2) in natural forest followed by pineapple agroforestry,lemon agroforestry and banana agroforestry.Soil pH,moisture content,organic matter,organic carbon,phosphorus and total nitrogen showed statistically significant variation while bulk density,particle density,sulphur and potassium did not show any statistically significant variation among the land uses.Soil fertility status showed that pineapple agroforestry is more fertile than rest of other land uses.The Net Present Value (NPV) indicated that banana agroforestry is financially more profitable than other two systems,while the BenefitCost ratio (BCR) is higher in pineapple agroforestry (4.21 in participatory agroforestry and 3.35 in privately managed land).Even though banana agroforestry gives higher NPV,capital required for this practice is much higher.The findings suggest that pineapple agroforestry has a tendency towards becoming ecologically and economically more sound than other two practices as it has better ecological attributes and required comparatively low investment.

  14. Assessment of water-recharging based on ecological features of riparian forest in the lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhenyong; WANG Ranghui; SUN Hongbo; ZHANG Huizhi

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and development of riparian forests which are mainly dominated by mesophytes species relate closely with surface water.Since there is no water discharge to the lower reaches of Tarim River in past 5 decade years, the riparian forests degrade severely. Based on the analyses of the monitored data of Yingsu, Argan and Luobuzhuang in 2002 and 2003, the effect of water-recharging is discussed. The water-recharging project neglects the fact that that it is flooding that controls the process of Populus euphratica colonizing on the bare surface, but focuses on groundwater influence on vegetation. The flooding control deviates inherent laws of riparian forests development, so the natural regeneration of riparian forests is checked.The responsescope of riparian plants on groundwater uplift is extremely narrow, and most riparian communities have not been optimized. No seedlings of dominant species are found in flooding areas because their physio-ecological characteristics are ignored. The vegetation changes in vicinities of stream only reflect the demand of mesophytes species on the shallow groundwater, however, the water-recharging fails to provide suitable habitats for the seedlings establishment of riparian plants. The present water-recharging scheme is difficult to realize vegetation restoration.

  15. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata, Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanni Ribeiro Loiola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral ecology of Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: a shade-seek Atlantic forest damselfly. The intensity of the inter and intra-sexual selection can affect male behavioral traits as territorial fidelity and aggressiveness allowing the existence of different strategies. However, its differential success could be affected by environmental - as the diel variation in temperature - and physiological constrains - as the variation in thermoregulatory abilities. In this context, we present a behavioral analysis of Heteragrion consors (Zygoptera, Megapodagrionidae trying to characterize its mating system, diel activity pattern, temporal budget, territoriality and reproductive biology. These data were obtained based on field observations using the focal individual method and mark-recapture techniques in 120 m of a shaded Atlantic Forest stream in Brazil. The males of this species were territorial, varying in its local fidelity, while the females appear sporadically. Males were perched in the majority of the time, but were also observed in cleaning movements, longitudinal abdominal flexion, wing flexion and sperm transfer during perch. The males presented a perched thermoregulatory behavior related to an exothermic regulation. Foraging and agonistic interactions were rare, but dominate the other behavioral activities. Abdominal movements associated to long lasting copula pointed to the existence of sperm competition in this species. Males performed contact post-copulatory guarding of the females. These observations pointed to a non-resource mating system for this species.Ecologia comportamental de Heteragrion consors Hagen (Odonata: Megapodagrionidae: uma libélula de áreas sombreadas da Floresta Atlântica. A intensidade de seleção inter e intra-sexual deve afetar características comportamentais dos machos como fidelidade a territórios e agressividade possibilitando a existência de diferentes estratégias. No entanto, seu

  17. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  18. Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Mack, Michelle; Veldhuis, Hugo; Gower, S. T.

    2003-02-01

    We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

  19. Proximity to forests drives bird conservation value of coffee plantations: implications for certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mandyam Osuri; Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; Das, Arundhati

    2008-10-01

    Widespread loss of primary habitat in the tropics has led to increased interest in production landscapes for biodiversity conservation. In the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, shade coffee plantations are located in close proximity to sites of high conservation value: protected and unprotected forests. Coffee is grown here under a tree canopy that may be dominated by native tree species or by nonnative species, particularly silver oak (Grevillea robusta). We investigated the influence of properties at the local scale and the landscape scale in determining bird communities in coffee plantations, with particular emphasis on species of conservation priority. We used systematic point counts in 11 coffee plantation sites and analyzed data in a randomized linear modeling framework that addressed spatial autocorrelation. Greater proportion of silver oak at the local scale and distance to contiguous forests at the landscape scale were implicated as factors most strongly driving declines in bird species richness and abundance, while increased basal area of native tree species, a local-scale variable, was frequently related to increased bird species richness and abundance. The influence of local-scale variables increased at greater distances from the forest. Distance to forests emerged as the strongest predictor of declines in restricted-range species, with 92% reduction in the abundance of two commonly encountered restricted-range species (Pompadour Green Pigeon and Yellow-browed Bulbul) and a 43% reduction in richness of bird species restricted to Indian hill forests within 8 km of forests. Increase in proportion of silver oak from 33% to 55% was associated with 91% reduction in the abundance of one commonly encountered restricted-range species (Crimson-fronted Barbet). One conservation strategy is providing incentives to grow coffee in a biodiversity-friendly manner. One implication of our study is that plantations located at varying distances to the forest

  20. Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity in the North American boreal forest region: an overview and summary of results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Eric S. Kasischke; Ronald J. Hall; Karen A. Murphy; David L. Verbyla; Elizabeth E. Hoy; Jennifer L. Allen

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the recent literature regarding the assessment of post-fire effects on forested areas within the North American boreal forest. Assessing the physical and ecological effects of fire in boreal forests has far-reaching implications for a variety of ecosystem processes -- such as post-fire forest succession -- and land management...

  1. Advance on Research Methods of Ecology of Forest Fire%林火生态研究方法进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋华; 舒立福; 李世友

    2009-01-01

    回顾了林火生态的发展历史,从火历史、火生态模型、火状况与生态系统特性、生态过程及景观研究等方面概述了林火生态学研究方法的演变与实践,指出应用景观生态学原理和方法,运用先进技术手段和数学方法,对火干扰后的森林群落动态进行研究是当前的重要内容.%Fire ecology is a branch of ecology. In the world, there are many forestry ecological systems which need fire disturbance to maintain their development. Reviews were made on history of fire ecology, its concepts and research contents. Suggestions were put forwarded to further study on forest community dynamics after fire with advanced technology and mathematic method.

  2. 生态公益林林木收购计价方法研究%Valuation Method of Acquisition Price for Ecological Forest Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建国; 蔡敏; 林力

    2012-01-01

    Based on practical investigation and taken the acquisition price of public products as theory basis, four kinds of valuation method for ecological forest ownership including historical cost valuation, forest asset assessment valuation, willingness acquisition price valuation, land compensation standard valuation also were analyzed. The results showed that standards of country acquisition price for ecological forest should take historical cost valuation as the lower limit, and take forest asset assessment valuation as the upper limit, and consult with the owner of ecological forest, and then established the standard of acquisition price for ecological forest scientifically.%通过实践调研,基于公共产品收购计价理论依据,对历史成本计价法、林木资产评估计价法、意愿收购计价法、征用林地补偿标准计价法等4种林木收购计价方法进行了分析.认为国家收购生态公益林林木计价标准应以历史成本计价法测算值为下限,以林木资产评估计价法测算值为上限,与生态公益林所有者充分协商后确定.

  3. Non-timber forest products enterprises in the south: perceived distribution and implications for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; M. Predny

    2003-01-01

    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered to produce non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  4. Illinois Natural Heritage Conservation/Education Kit II. Special Theme: Forest Ecology and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Sally F.

    This instructional guide contains 16 activities designed to help teachers familiarize their students with the forest resources of Illinois. Each activity is ready to be copied and given to students. Topics of the activities, which vary in format, include: an overview of past and present Illinois forests; organization and mechanics of a forest…

  5. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko;

    2016-01-01

    standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed...

  6. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  7. Long-term socio-ecological forest research in southeast France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teissier du Cros, E.; Bariteau, M.; Kramer, K.

    2004-01-01

    France concentrates its research involving Mediterranean forests and related land-use on a series of long-term study sites meant to assess the effect of historical land-use on the current distribution of forest tree species and on the adaptability of these ecosystems to natural and anthropogenic pre

  8. Simulating Changes in Fires and Ecology of the 21st Century Eurasian Boreal Forests of Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Brazhnik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires release the greatest amount of carbon into the atmosphere compared to other forest disturbances. To understand how current and potential future fire regimes may affect the role of the Eurasian boreal forest in the global carbon cycle, we employed a new, spatially-explicit fire module DISTURB-F (DISTURBance-Fire in tandem with a spatially-explicit, individually-based gap dynamics model SIBBORK (SIBerian BOReal forest simulator calibrated to Krasnoyarsk Region. DISTURB-F simulates the effect of forest fire on the boreal ecosystem, namely the mortality of all or only the susceptible trees (loss of biomass, i.e., carbon within the forested landscape. The fire module captures some important feedbacks between climate, fire and vegetation structure. We investigated the potential climate-driven changes in the fire regime and vegetation in middle and south taiga in central Siberia, a region with extensive boreal forest and rapidly changing climate. The output from this coupled simulation can be used to estimate carbon losses from the ecosystem as a result of fires of different sizes and intensities over the course of secondary succession (decades to centuries. Furthermore, it may be used to assess the post-fire carbon storage capacity of potential future forests, the structure and composition of which may differ significantly from current Eurasian boreal forests due to regeneration under a different climate.

  9. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity and ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs, harvesting regime

  10. Sustainable harvesting of non-timber forest products based on ecological and economic criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Barrios, J.C.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Harvesting of highly valuable non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been considered a win-win strategy where local people profit while conserving forest biodiversity ecosystem services. Nevertheless the sustainability of NTFP harvesting has been debated as the nature of NTFPs harvesting regimes

  11. Development of ecological restoration experiments in fire adapted forests at Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; Peter Z. Fule; Margaret H. Moore; Hiram B. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of...

  12. Catastrophic ecosystem shifts in dry tropical forest: evidence, mechanisms and implications for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D.; D'Odorico, P.; Runyan, C.; Diekmann, L.; DeLonge, M. S.; Das, R.; Eaton, J.; Vandecar, K.; Schmook, B.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests have long been used by humans. Has it been sustainable? Not in the southern Yucatan. Biomass accumulation declines with each cycle of shifting cultivation with implications for both internal recycling of nutrients and external inputs of nutrients. We detail the evidence for a decline in P inputs from biomass burning (aboveground biomass, litter, and coarse woody debris), an increase in leaching losses from deep soils, and a decline in atmospheric inputs of new P from Saharan dust following the transition from mature to secondary forest. Canopy trapping of dust is critical to maintaining P balance in this system. Effective trapping is diminished by changes in the structure of secondary forest--loss of height, leaf area and basal area. Experimental studies show that it is atmospheric transport of dust, not microbial shedding or leaching from live tissues, that explains the difference between throughfall P and P in bulk deposition. Because of net losses in P, uptake of carbon during regrowth is slower with each cycle of shifting cultivation. As much of the tropics has moved beyond a mature forest frontier, the decline in carbon sequestration is likely widespread over both dry and wet forests. The terrestrial carbon sink in the tropics may be declining. The capacity to sequester carbon through afforestation, reforestation and restoration has certainly diminished over time, limiting the effectiveness of such efforts to help mitigate climate change.

  13. Varying rotation lengths in northern production forests: Implications for habitats provided by retention and production trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Sonesson, Johan; Nilsson, Urban; Lämås, Tomas; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-24

    Because of the limited spatial extent and comprehensiveness of protected areas, an increasing emphasis is being placed on conserving habitats which promote biodiversity within production forest. For this reason, alternative silvicultural programs need to be evaluated with respect to their implications for forest biodiversity, especially if these programs are likely to be adopted. Here we simulated the effect of varied rotation length and associated thinning regimes on habitat availability in Scots pine and Norway spruce production forests, with high and low productivity. Shorter rotation lengths reduced the contribution made by production trees (trees grown for industrial use) to the availability of key habitat features, while concurrently increasing the contribution from retention trees. The contribution of production trees to habitat features was larger for high productivity sites, than for low productivity sites. We conclude that shortened rotation lengths result in losses of the availability of habitat features that are key for biodiversity conservation and that increased retention practices may only partially compensate for this. Ensuring that conservation efforts better reflect the inherent variation in stand rotation lengths would help improve the maintenance of key forest habitats in production forests.

  14. Microevolutionary, macroevolutionary, ecological and taxonomical implications of punctuational theories of adaptive evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-16

    Punctuational theories of evolution suggest that adaptive evolution proceeds mostly, or even entirely, in the distinct periods of existence of a particular species. The mechanisms of this punctuated nature of evolution suggested by the various theories differ. Therefore the predictions of particular theories concerning various evolutionary phenomena also differ.Punctuational theories can be subdivided into five classes, which differ in their mechanism and their evolutionary and ecological implications. For example, the transilience model of Templeton (class III), genetic revolution model of Mayr (class IV) or the frozen plasticity theory of Flegr (class V), suggests that adaptive evolution in sexual species is operative shortly after the emergence of a species by peripatric speciation--while it is evolutionary plastic. To a major degree, i.e. throughout 98-99% of their existence, sexual species are evolutionarily frozen (class III) or elastic (class IV and V) on a microevolutionary time scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time scale and can only wait for extinction, or the highly improbable return of a population segment to the plastic state due to peripatric speciation.The punctuational theories have many evolutionary and ecological implications. Most of these predictions could be tested empirically, and should be analyzed in greater depth theoretically. The punctuational theories offer many new predictions that need to be tested, but also provide explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classical gradualistic evolutionary theories.

  15. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in South African subtropical humid forest and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.

  16. Instream wood recruitment, channel complexity, and their relationship to stream ecology in forested headwater streams under alternative stable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human alteration to forests has had lasting effects on stream channels worldwide. Such land use changes affect how wood enters and is stored in streams as individual pieces and as logjams. Changes in wood recruitment affect the complexity and benefits wood can provide to the stream environment, such as zones of flow separation that store fine sediment and organic matter, increased nutrient processing, and greater habitat potential, which can enhance biota and cascade through stream-riparian ecosystems. Previous research in our study area shows that modern headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams in young, managed forests, but does not explicitly evaluate how wood affects channel complexity or local ecology. 'Managed' refers to forests previously or currently exposed to human alteration. Alteration has long since ceased in some areas, but reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify stream complexity metrics, with instream wood as a mediator, on streams across a gradient of management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects of human alteration to forests. Data collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains include 24 2nd to 3rd order subalpine streams categorized into: old-growth unmanaged; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged; and younger managed. We assessed instream wood loads and logjams and evaluated how they relate to channel complexity using a number of metrics, such as standard deviation of bed and banks, volume of pools, ratios of stream to valley lengths and stream to valley area, and diversity of substrate, gradient, and morphology. Preliminary results show that channel complexity is directly related to instream wood loads and is greatest in streams in old-growth. Related research in the field area indicates that streams with greater wood loads also have increased nutrient processing and greater abundance and diversity of aquatic insect predators.

  17. Trends and Possible Future Developments in Global Forest-Product Markets—Implications for the Swedish Forest Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes trends and possible future developments in global wood-product markets and discusses implications for the Swedish forest sector. Four possible futures, or scenarios, are considered, based on qualitative scenario analysis. The scenarios are distinguished principally by divergent futures with respect to two highly influential factors driving change in global wood-product markets, whose future development is unpredictable. These so-called critical uncertainties were found to be degrees to which: (i current patterns of globalization will continue, or be replaced by regionalism, and (ii concern about the environment, particularly climate change, related policy initiatives and customer preferences, will materialize. The overall future of the Swedish solid wood-product industry looks bright, irrespective of which of the four possible futures occurs, provided it accommodates the expected growth in demand for factory-made, energy-efficient construction components. The prospects for the pulp and paper industry in Sweden appear more ambiguous. Globalization is increasingly shifting production and consumption to the Southern hemisphere, adversely affecting employment and forest owners in Sweden. Further, technical progress in information and communication technology (ICT is expected to lead to drastic reductions in demand for newsprint and printing paper. Chemical pulp producers may profit from a growing bio-energy industry, since they could manufacture new, high-value products in integrated bio-refineries. Mechanical pulp producers cannot do this, however, and might suffer from higher prices for raw materials and electricity.

  18. Open-cut coal mining in Australia's Hunter Valley: Sustainability and the industry's economic, ecological and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the sustainability of open-cut coal mining in the Hunter Valley region of Australia. The issue of sustainability is examined in relation to the economic, ecological and social implications of the Hunter Valley’s open-cut coal mining industry. The article demonstrates that critical social and ecological ramifications have been overshadowed by the open-cut coal mining industry’s importance to the economy of the Hunter region and of New South Wales.

  19. Assessment of ecological passages along road networks within the Mediterranean forest using GIS-based multi criteria evaluation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah Emin

    2015-12-01

    Major roads cause barrier effect and fragmentation on wildlife habitats that are suitable places for feeding, mating, socializing, and hiding. Due to wildlife collisions (Wc), human-wildlife conflicts result in lost lives and loss of biodiversity. Geographical information system (GIS)-based multi criteria evaluation (MCE) methods have been successfully used in short-term planning of road networks considering wild animals. Recently, wildlife passages have been effectively utilized as road engineering structures provide quick and certain solutions for traffic safety and wildlife conservation problems. GIS-based MCE methods provide decision makers with optimum location for ecological passages based on habitat suitability models (HSMs) that classify the areas based on ecological requirements of target species. In this study, ecological passages along Motorway 52 within forested areas in Mediterranean city of Osmaniye in Turkey were evaluated. Firstly, HSM coupled with nine eco-geographic decision variables were developed based on ecological requirements of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) that were chosen as target species. Then specified decision variables were evaluated using GIS-based weighted linear combination (WLC) method to estimate movement corridors and mitigation points along the motorway. In the solution process, two linkage nodes were evaluated for eco-passages which were determined based on the least-cost movement corridor intersecting with the motorway. One of the passages was identified as a natural wildlife overpass while the other was suggested as underpass construction. The results indicated that computer-based models provide accurate and quick solutions for positioning ecological passages to reduce environmental effects of road networks on wild animals.

  20. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  1. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics

  2. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  3. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  4. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  5. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  6. Changes of the Ecological Conditions in the Báb Forest on the Basis of a Bioindication Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilková Ivana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the changes of ecological conditions in the Báb forest on the basis of a bioindication method. The comparison is made between the phytocenological records from the years 1968-1969 and 2013 where permanent research plots (PRPs were established in the forest coppi-ce and on clearcuts. In 2013, the amount of photophilous and thermophilic species increased mainly on the clearcut PRP and the amount of suboceanic taxa on PRP in the forest coppice. Moreover, there is also an increase of taxa like nitrogen-rich posts. On the other hand, the share of fresh soils indicators and acidophilous species significantly decreased. The change in the ratio of the econumbers of the observed ecofactors between the records from 1968-1969 and 2013 is caused mainly by a diversified management. It is the formation of clearcuts due to which synanthropic, clearcut and invasive species occupy the free space. The given species are mainly thermophilic, photophilous representatives and representatives of nitrogen-rich soils and they have a significant influence on the change in the percentual ratios of the econumbers of the six observed ecofactors.

  7. Resilience of Sweet Chestnut and Truffle Holm-Oak Rural Forests in Languedoc-Roussillon, France: Roles of Social-Ecological Legacies, Domestication, and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cévennes sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. forest-orchards and the holm-oak (Quercus ilex L. black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad. associations of the garrigue in Languedoc-Roussillon have suffered a century of decline because of great reductions of rural populations and lack of understanding of the ecological and social dimensions of these rural forests by sectorial public agencies. Levels of tree and forest domestication alternated during historical periods in parallel with statuses of disorganization and reorganization of local social groups. Social-ecological legacies intrinsically linked to trees, forests, and landscape domestication, as well as knowledge, social, and technical practices have been mobilized and provided a basis for knowledge innovations, new domestications, uses, and new institutional networks related to changes in social set-ups. Collective actions emerging from local needs to revive territories in a modern context, cross-scale and reciprocal exchanges of rural and scientific knowledge, as well as institutional changes are interrelated variables that have enabled innovations and have increased resilience of these rural forests. This paper opens new avenues for future research on the interplay between the effects of social-ecological legacies and innovations on the resilience of social-ecological systems.

  8. Prioritization of Forest Restoration Projects: Tradeoffs between Wildfire Protection, Ecological Restoration and Economic Objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Vogler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of US federal forest restoration programs on national forests is a complex process that requires balancing diverse socioecological goals with project economics. Despite both the large geographic scope and substantial investments in restoration projects, a quantitative decision support framework to locate optimal project areas and examine tradeoffs among alternative restoration strategies is lacking. We developed and demonstrated a new prioritization approach for restoration projects using optimization and the framework of production possibility frontiers. The study area was a 914,657 ha national forest in eastern Oregon, US that was identified as a national priority for restoration with the goal of increasing fire resiliency and sustaining ecosystem services. The results illustrated sharp tradeoffs among the various restoration goals due to weak spatial correlation of forest stressors and provisional ecosystem services. The sharpest tradeoffs were found in simulated projects that addressed either wildfire risk to the urban interface or wildfire hazard, highlighting the challenges associated with meeting both economic and fire protection goals. Understanding the nature of tradeoffs between restoration objectives and communicating them to forest stakeholders will allow forest managers to more effectively design and implement economically feasible restoration projects.

  9. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission. (author)

  10. A framework model for investigating the export of phosphorus to surface waters in forested watersheds: Implications to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M B; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pereira, M G; Cortes, R M V; Pacheco, F A L

    2015-12-01

    The present study was developed in four sub-basins of rivers Cávado and Douro, located in the North of mainland Portugal. The goal was to identify main stressors as well as driving and attenuating processes responsible for the presence of phosphorus in masses of surface water in those catchments. To accomplish the goal, the basins were selected where a quality station was present at the outlet, the forest occupation was greater than 75% and the phosphorus concentrations have repeatedly exceeded the threshold for the good ecological status in the period 2000-2006. Further, in two basins the quality station was installed in a lotic (free-flow water) environment whereas in the other two was placed in a lentic (dammed water) environment. The ArcMap GIS-based software package was used for the spatial analysis of stressors and processes. The yields of phosphorus vary widely across the studied basins, from 0.2-30 kg·ha(-1)·yr(-1). The results point to post-fire soil erosion and hardwood clear cuttings as leading factors of phosphorus exports across the watersheds, with precipitation intensity being the key variable of erosion. However, yields can be attenuated by sediment deposition along the pathway from burned or managed areas to water masses. The observed high yields and concentrations of phosphorus in surface water encompass serious implications for water resources management in the basins, amplified in the lentic cases by potential release of phosphorus from lake sediments especially during the summer season. Therefore, a number of measures were proposed as regards wildfire combat, reduction of phosphorus exports after tree cuts, attenuation of soil erosion and improvement of riparian buffers, all with the purpose of preventing phosphorus concentrations to go beyond the regulatory good ecological status.

  11. Plant functional traits suggest a change in novel ecological strategies for dominant species in the stages of forest succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Ruichang; Wan, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    In forest succession, the ecological strategies of the dominant species that are based on functional traits are important in the determination of both the mechanisms and the potential directions of succession. Thirty-one plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. Fifteen leaf traits were measured for the 31 dominant species that represented the six stages of succession, and the traits included four that were related to morphology, seven to stoichiometry and four to physiological ecology. The species from the different successional stages had different patterns of distribution of the traits, and different key traits predicted the turnover of the species during succession. The ash and the cellulose contents were key regulatory factors of species turnover in the early successional communities, and the trait niche forces in sugar and leaf dry mass content might become more important with the progression of succession. When only the three herb stages were considered, a progressive replacement of the ruderal by the competitive-ruderal species occurred in the intermediate stages of succession, which was followed by the stress-tolerant-competitive or the competitive-stress tolerant-ruderal strategists late in the succession. Thus, the different species that occurred in the different stages of succession shared different trait-based ecological strategies. Additionally, these differences occurred concomitantly with a shift toward competitive-stress tolerant-ruderal strategies.

  12. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  13. Contrasting total carbon and nitrogen stocks between ecological site types in a Sub-Boreal research forest in central British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, C.H.; Janzen, D.T. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program; Sanborn, P.T.; Fredeen, A.L. [Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Ecosystem Science and Management Program]|[Northern British Columbia Univ., Prince George, BC (Canada). Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration and carbon stocks within managed and natural forests have become topical issues since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. A multi-year study was conducted to evaluate the total C stocks present in a 10 km{sup 2} area of University of British Columbia's Aleza Lake Research Forest located 60 km east of Prince George in the Sub-Boreal Spruce biogeoclimatic zone of east-central British Columbia. The purpose was to address gaps in knowledge about forest C budgets, total pool sizes, dynamics of forest floor and mineral soil carbon by studying the effects of forest management. Sampling plots were chosen randomly within strata composed of the dominant ecological site classes, soil textures and management histories. The study involved the creation of 137 plots, of which 108 and 29 were located on fine and coarse textured soils, respectively. Sampling was reduced in these strata due to a shortage of middle-aged stands and the near lack of coarse textured soils. Data collection and sampling methodology were adapted from the National Forest Inventory Ground Sampling Guidelines of the Canadian Forest Service. Carbon stocks were measured in forest floor and mineral soil to a depth of 1 metre. The Dumas-combustion method was used to determine C and nitrogen (N) concentrations. It was determined that stand age did not decidedly change the forest floor or mineral soil total C and N in either fine or coarse textured soil plots. However, forest floor C and N were considerably higher in coarse textured soils compared to C and N measured in fine soil plots. Mineral soil C concentration decreased methodically with depth from 4.6 per cent C at 0 cm to 0.2 per cent at 100 cm. The paper also addressed the breakdown of forest floor and mineral soil C and N pools according to ecological site series.

  14. Alaska’s changing fire regime - Implications for the vulnerability of its boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Verbyla, David L.; Rupp, T. Scott; McGuire, Anthony; Murphy, Karen A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Hoy, E.; Duffy, Paul A; Calef, Monika; Turetsky, Merritt R.

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska’s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha·year–1 burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from human-ignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska’s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska’s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  15. Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

  16. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  17. Effect of logging on rodent scatter-hoarding dynamics in tropical forests: implications for plant recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel

    2011-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that logging affects the scatter-hoarding behavior of rodents, which, in turn, negatively affects the quantity and quality of Pouteria campechiana (Sapotaceae) seed dispersal. A series of seed stations was established in logged and unlogged forests of ejido Señor, Yucatan Peninsula, and comparisons were made between logged and unlogged forests in terms of: (i) seed removal; (ii) number of seeds hoarded; (iii) hoarding distance; and (iv) the number of recruits and the survival of hoarded seeds. The number of both hoarded and removed seeds was significantly higher in unlogged sites. Furthermore, the mean distance of hoarding was greater in unlogged compared with logged sites. Although recruitment and survival were present in both logged and unlogged sites, there were more surviving seedlings in unlogged sites. The data indicate that both the quantity and quality of seed dispersal are negatively affected by logging because of a change in the rodent scatter-hoarding dynamics. These changes suggest that plant-animal interactions are crucial to the understanding of the ecology and conservation of managed tropical forests.

  18. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL PATTERN OF TROPICAL AGRO-FORESTRY EFFORTS AT EDUCATIONAL FOREST LANDSCAPE OF MOUNT WALAT, SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization has changed the face of the landscape, not only in urban environments, but it also has expanded the areas around it. The changes in land use are increasing not only occurs in areas formerly categorized a semi-intensive, such as agricultural lands, but also in extensive and protection areas. However, in some periphery still characterizes the function of a good environment; especially in rural areas the changes that occurred were limited to their own needs (subsistence, as in Mount Walat, Sukabumi. This study aims to identify and analyze the tropical agro-forestry efforts and to provide landscape ecological pattern in order to preserve the environment and social culture. The method used in this study was a site survey method with focusing on the biophysical condition of the site and analysis of reports or other sources regarding the management processes undertaken. Mount Walat ± 359 Ha area of forest is guided by land use pattern that is divided into four characters, i.e., forest ecosystem, opened forest, ownership land, and countrified. Its area of ± 70 Ha was managed as agro-forestry land. The form of tropical agro-forestry in the country side around the site consists of yard and mixture garden, while in the arable land is a mixture garden. In order to prevent of destruction, then the manager invites Hegarmanah villagers to cooperate in maintaining its sustainability by allowing land to cultivated in Mount Walat agro-forestry, with the terms agreed by both parties, without damaging the forest ecosystem. The study was suggested that the community structures and developmental pathways which arised across a gradient of disturbance frequencies can provide models for alternative agro-forestry solutions. Addressing multiple objectives and sustainability in a complex biophysical and socioeconomic system ought to be a challenging and exciting enterprises.

  19. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  20. Coping with human errors through system design: Implications for ecological interface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Vicente, Kim J.

    1989-01-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects...... of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should...... be on control of the effects of errors rather than on the elimination of errors per se. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for interface design that attempts to satisfy these objectives. The goal of our framework, called ecological interface design, is to develop a meaningful representation...

  1. Evidence and implications of recent and projected climate change in Alaska's forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Jane M.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Rupp, T. Scott; Chapin, Stuart III; Trainor, Sarah F.; Barrett, Tara M.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Hennon, Paul E.; Beever, Erik A.; Conn, Jeff S.; Crone, Lisa K.; D'Amore, David V.; Fresco, Nancy; Hanley, Thomas A.; Kielland, Knut; Kruse, James J.; Patterson, Trista; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Verbyla, David L.; Yarie, John

    2011-01-01

    The structure and function of Alaska's forests have changed significantly in response to a changing climate, including alterations in species composition and climate feedbacks (e.g., carbon, radiation budgets) that have important regional societal consequences and human feedbacks to forest ecosystems. In this paper we present the first comprehensive synthesis of climate-change impacts on all forested ecosystems of Alaska, highlighting changes in the most critical biophysical factors of each region. We developed a conceptual framework describing climate drivers, biophysical factors and types of change to illustrate how the biophysical and social subsystems of Alaskan forests interact and respond directly and indirectly to a changing climate. We then identify the regional and global implications to the climate system and associated socio-economic impacts, as presented in the current literature. Projections of temperature and precipitation suggest wildfire will continue to be the dominant biophysical factor in the Interior-boreal forest, leading to shifts from conifer- to deciduous-dominated forests. Based on existing research, projected increases in temperature in the Southcentral- and Kenai-boreal forests will likely increase the frequency and severity of insect outbreaks and associated wildfires, and increase the probability of establishment by invasive plant species. In the Coastal-temperate forest region snow and ice is regarded as the dominant biophysical factor. With continued warming, hydrologic changes related to more rapidly melting glaciers and rising elevation of the winter snowline will alter discharge in many rivers, which will have important consequences for terrestrial and marine ecosystem productivity. These climate-related changes will affect plant species distribution and wildlife habitat, which have regional societal consequences, and trace-gas emissions and radiation budgets, which are globally important. Our conceptual framework facilitates

  2. The community ecology of isoprene emissions from terrestrial plants and implications for other phytogenic volatiles (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 1960's Frits Went published some of the first English language descriptions of volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from plants. Within 15 years it was well understood that the dominant phytogenic VOC was isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). The years that followed saw a host of studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isoprene emissions, and many of the most important controls at these scales have been elucidated and incorporated into large-scale models of isoprene emissions to the atmosphere. In addition, extensive surveys of isoprene emissions from high latitude, temperate, and tropical ecosystems have consistently found enormous variations in emissions across taxa, and the mechanisms underlying this variability remain the largest unknown in current models of isoprene emissions. We integrate community ecological modeling with isoprene emissions modeling to develop a predictive model of isoprene emissions across decadal to centennial time scales. The model combines an individual-based model of forest succession that includes architectural and biodiversity changes over succession after disturbance with a species-based canopy-scale emissions model. We parameterize this model for the southeastern United States, a region that is well studied both in terms of forests succession and in terms of isoprene emission. Our results highlight the sensitivity of isoprene emissions to successional stage and species composition. From this effort we predict that the largest impacts of global environmental change on isoprene emissions will occur through effects on community composition and structure rather than through direct impacts on primary and secondary metabolism. We also predict that land use and disturbance history will continue to have dramatic impacts on isoprene emissions from terrestrial ecosystems through their effects on canopy structure and community composition, even in the face of climate change and nutrient deposition. We suggest

  3. Transitions in Arctic ecosystems: Ecological implications of a changing hydrological regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Frederick J.; Johansson, Margareta; Culp, Joseph M.; Jenkins, Alan; Mârd, Johanna; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Prowse, Terry D.; Vincent, Warwick F.; Wookey, Philip A.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous international scientific assessments and related articles have, during the last decade, described the observed and potential impacts of climate change as well as other related environmental stressors on Arctic ecosystems. There is increasing recognition that observed and projected changes in freshwater sources, fluxes, and storage will have profound implications for the physical, biogeochemical, biological, and ecological processes and properties of Arctic terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. However, a significant level of uncertainty remains in relation to forecasting the impacts of an intensified hydrological regime and related cryospheric change on ecosystem structure and function. As the terrestrial and freshwater ecology component of the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis, we review these uncertainties and recommend enhanced coordinated circumpolar research and monitoring efforts to improve quantification and prediction of how an altered hydrological regime influences local, regional, and circumpolar-level responses in terrestrial and freshwater systems. Specifically, we evaluate (i) changes in ecosystem productivity; (ii) alterations in ecosystem-level biogeochemical cycling and chemical transport; (iii) altered landscapes, successional trajectories, and creation of new habitats; (iv) altered seasonality and phenological mismatches; and (v) gains or losses of species and associated trophic interactions. We emphasize the need for developing a process-based understanding of interecosystem interactions, along with improved predictive models. We recommend enhanced use of the catchment scale as an integrated unit of study, thereby more explicitly considering the physical, chemical, and ecological processes and fluxes across a full freshwater continuum in a geographic region and spatial range of hydroecological units (e.g., stream-pond-lake-river-near shore marine environments).

  4. Microevolutionary, macroevolutionary, ecological and taxonomical implications of punctuational theories of adaptive evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flegr Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Punctuational theories of evolution suggest that adaptive evolution proceeds mostly, or even entirely, in the distinct periods of existence of a particular species. The mechanisms of this punctuated nature of evolution suggested by the various theories differ. Therefore the predictions of particular theories concerning various evolutionary phenomena also differ. Punctuational theories can be subdivided into five classes, which differ in their mechanism and their evolutionary and ecological implications. For example, the transilience model of Templeton (class III, genetic revolution model of Mayr (class IV or the frozen plasticity theory of Flegr (class V, suggests that adaptive evolution in sexual species is operative shortly after the emergence of a species by peripatric speciation – while it is evolutionary plastic. To a major degree, i.e. throughout 98-99% of their existence, sexual species are evolutionarily frozen (class III or elastic (class IV and V on a microevolutionary time scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time scale and can only wait for extinction, or the highly improbable return of a population segment to the plastic state due to peripatric speciation. The punctuational theories have many evolutionary and ecological implications. Most of these predictions could be tested empirically, and should be analyzed in greater depth theoretically. The punctuational theories offer many new predictions that need to be tested, but also provide explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classical gradualistic evolutionary theories. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Claus Wilke, Pierre Pantarotti and David Penny (nominated by Anthony Poole.

  5. Physiological and ecological implications of ocean deoxygenation for vision in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lillian R; Levin, Lisa A

    2017-09-13

    Climate change has induced ocean deoxygenation and exacerbated eutrophication-driven hypoxia in recent decades, affecting the physiology, behaviour and ecology of marine organisms. The high oxygen demand of visual tissues and the known inhibitory effects of hypoxia on human vision raise the questions if and how ocean deoxygenation alters vision in marine organisms. This is particularly important given the rapid loss of oxygen and strong vertical gradients in oxygen concentration in many areas of the ocean. This review evaluates the potential effects of low oxygen (hypoxia) on visual function in marine animals and their implications for marine biota under current and future ocean deoxygenation based on evidence from terrestrial and a few marine organisms. Evolutionary history shows radiation of eye designs during a period of increasing ocean oxygenation. Physiological effects of hypoxia on photoreceptor function and light sensitivity, in combination with morphological changes that may occur throughout ontogeny, have the potential to alter visual behaviour and, subsequently, the ecology of marine organisms, particularly for fish, cephalopods and arthropods with 'fast' vision. Visual responses to hypoxia, including greater light requirements, offer an alternative hypothesis for observed habitat compression and shoaling vertical distributions in visual marine species subject to ocean deoxygenation, which merits further investigation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Interaction between forest biodiversity and people’s use of forest resources in Roviana, Solomon Islands: implications for biocultural conservation under socioeconomic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In Solomon Islands, forests have provided people with ecological services while being affected by human use and protection. This study used a quantitative ethnobotanical analysis to explore the society–forest interaction and its transformation in Roviana, Solomon Islands. We compared local plant and land uses between a rural village and urbanized village. Special attention was paid to how local people depend on biodiversity and how traditional human modifications of forest contribute to biodiversity conservation. Methods After defining locally recognized land-use classes, vegetation surveys were conducted in seven forest classes. For detailed observations of daily plant uses, 15 and 17 households were randomly selected in the rural and urban villages, respectively. We quantitatively documented the plant species that were used as food, medicine, building materials, and tools. Results The vegetation survey revealed that each local forest class represented a different vegetative community with relatively low similarity between communities. Although commercial logging operations and agriculture were both prohibited in the customary nature reserve, local people were allowed to cut down trees for their personal use and to take several types of non-timber forest products. Useful trees were found at high frequencies in the barrier island’s primary forest (68.4%) and the main island’s reserve (68.3%). Various useful tree species were found only in the reserve forest and seldom available in the urban village. In the rural village, customary governance and control over the use of forest resources by the local people still functioned. Conclusions Human modifications of the forest created unique vegetation communities, thus increasing biodiversity overall. Each type of forest had different species that varied in their levels of importance to the local subsistence lifestyle, and the villagers’ behaviors, such as respect for forest reserves and the

  7. Interaction between forest biodiversity and people's use of forest resources in Roviana, Solomon Islands: implications for biocultural conservation under socioeconomic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Takuro; Sirikolo, Myknee Qusa; Sasaoka, Masatoshi; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2014-01-27

    In Solomon Islands, forests have provided people with ecological services while being affected by human use and protection. This study used a quantitative ethnobotanical analysis to explore the society-forest interaction and its transformation in Roviana, Solomon Islands. We compared local plant and land uses between a rural village and urbanized village. Special attention was paid to how local people depend on biodiversity and how traditional human modifications of forest contribute to biodiversity conservation. After defining locally recognized land-use classes, vegetation surveys were conducted in seven forest classes. For detailed observations of daily plant uses, 15 and 17 households were randomly selected in the rural and urban villages, respectively. We quantitatively documented the plant species that were used as food, medicine, building materials, and tools. The vegetation survey revealed that each local forest class represented a different vegetative community with relatively low similarity between communities. Although commercial logging operations and agriculture were both prohibited in the customary nature reserve, local people were allowed to cut down trees for their personal use and to take several types of non-timber forest products. Useful trees were found at high frequencies in the barrier island's primary forest (68.4%) and the main island's reserve (68.3%). Various useful tree species were found only in the reserve forest and seldom available in the urban village. In the rural village, customary governance and control over the use of forest resources by the local people still functioned. Human modifications of the forest created unique vegetation communities, thus increasing biodiversity overall. Each type of forest had different species that varied in their levels of importance to the local subsistence lifestyle, and the villagers' behaviors, such as respect for forest reserves and the semidomestication of some species, contributed to

  8. From forest fires to fisheries management: anthropology, conservation biology, and historical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Todd J; Rick, Torben C

    2013-01-01

    Human-environmental relationships have long been of interest to a variety of scientists, including ecologists, biologists, anthropologists, and many others. In anthropology, this interest was especially prevalent among cultural ecologists of the 1970s and earlier, who tended to explain culture as the result of techno-environmental constraints. More recently researchers have used historical ecology, an approach that focuses on the long-term dialectical relationship between humans and their environments, as well as long-term prehuman ecological datasets. An important contribution of anthropology to historical ecology is that anthropological datasets dealing with ethnohistory, traditional ecological knowledge, and human skeletal analysis, as well as archeological datasets on faunal and floral remains, artifacts, geochemistry, and stratigraphic analysis, provide a deep time perspective (across decades, centuries, and millennia) on the evolution of ecosystems and the place of people in those larger systems. Historical ecological data also have an applied component that can provide important information on the relative abundances of flora and fauna, changes in biogeography, alternations in food webs, landscape evolution, and much more.

  9. Simulated potential evapotranspiration over the Pacific Northwest and implications for forests in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, M. M.; Littell, J. S.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2009-12-01

    As part of a comprehensive database of hydrologic data and climate change scenarios for the greater Pacific Northwest (including the Columbia River basin and coastal drainages in Washington and Oregon), gridded daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) is offered for the first time as output from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. PET is the amount of water that would be transpired by vegetation, provided unlimited water supply, and has been widely used in ecological research as a reference value of land surface water stress (e.g. in characterizations of climate interactions with forest processes). PET in the VIC model is computed using a Penman Monteith approach that requires estimates of solar radiation, air temperature, windspeed, as well as vegetation characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI), aerodynamic resistance and vegetation resistances, including architectural and canopy resistance. Using different assumptions for these inputs, the hydrologic database provides five types of PET variables, including PET from natural vegetation, PET from natural vegetation with no canopy resistance, open water PET, and PET for short (grass) and tall (alfalfa) reference crops. We evaluate simulated PET by the VIC model through a comparison with available observed data and other datasets as well as investigate PET as it relates to forest processes. Using PET as a indicator of water stress and multi-model climate change scenarios for low and medium emissions scenarios (B1 and A1B, respectively) from the 2007 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on forests of the Pacific Northwest and the potential for use of the PET dataset as an indicator of forest stress.

  10. Geographical Distribution, Ecological Position, and Formation Causes of Temperate Zone Sparse Forest in China%中国温带疏林的地理分布、生态地位及成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利

    2011-01-01

    temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse forest, Sabina wallichiana sparse forest, Sabina saltuaria sparse forest, Larix potaninii var. Macrocarpa sparse forest, Cupressus torulosa sparse forest, Sabina convallium sparse forest, Pinus roxburghii sparse forest, Pinus yunnanensis sparse forest, Picea lihiangensis var. Balfouriana sparse forest, Ulmus macrocarpa sparse forest, and Ailanihus altissima sparse forest, etc. Sparse forest ecosystem is a transition between forest and grassland or shrub ecosystem. It belongs to a zonal vegetation type. Comprehensive ecological factors have determined its geographical distribution; however, the key factor is water (local rainfall amount). In the mainland of China from south to north, there are rain forests, season rain forests, evergreen broad leaf forests, summer green broad leaf forests, sparse forests, and grassland or shrubs along altitudinal gradient. From east to west, there are forests, sparse forest, shrubs, and grassland or meadow along longitudinal gradient. Compared with the distribution area of forests and grassland,China possesses various types of sparse forests. Except sparse forests in tropic regions of China, other two types of sparse forests are classified, namely, temperate zone spare forests and temperate zone mountain spare forests. In temperate zone of China, there are many types of sparse forests, such as Ulmus pumila sparse forest, Picea schrekiana sparse forest, Platycladus orientalis sparse forest, Junipents rigida sparse forest, Pinus sylveslnis var. Mongolica sparse forest, Larix tibetica sparse forest, Abies densa sparse forest, Cupressus gigantean sparse forest, Sabina tibetica sparse

  11. Land cover, more than monthly fire weather, drives fire-size distribution in Southern Québec forests: Implications for fire risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Jean; Cumming, Steve G; McIntire, Eliot J B

    2017-01-01

    Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region. Fires were highly selective on fuel-type under a wide range of fire weather conditions: specifically, deciduous forest, lakes and to a lesser extent recently burned areas decreased the expected fire size in their vicinity compared to conifer forest. This has large implications for fire risk management in that fuels management could reduce fire risk over the long term. Our results imply, for example, that if 30% of a conifer-dominated landscape were converted to hardwoods, the probability of a given fire, occurring in that landscape under mean fire weather conditions, exceeding 100,000 ha would be reduced by a factor of 21. A similarly marked but slightly smaller effect size would be expected under extreme fire weather conditions. We attribute the decrease in expected fire size that occurs in recently burned areas to fuel availability limitations on fires spread. Because regenerating burned conifer stands often pass through a deciduous stage, this would also act as a negative biotic feedback whereby the occurrence of fires limits the size of nearby future for some period of time. Our parameter estimates imply that changes in vegetation flammability or fuel availability after fires would tend to counteract shifts in the fire size distribution favoring larger fires that are expected under climate warming. Ecological forecasts from models neglecting these feedbacks may markedly overestimate the

  12. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    mature, dominant forest trees such as oaks (Quercus spp.), bitter pecan (Carya aquatica), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), and green ash (Fraxinus...Water hickory Celtis laevigata Sugarberry Cephalanthus occidentalis Common buttonbush Cocculus carolin, Carolina snailseed Commelina diffusa Dayflower 0...Cornus foemina Southern swamp dogwood Crataegus viridus Green hawthorn Diodia virginiana Buttonweed Diospyros virginiana Common persimmon Eupatorium

  14. Ecological benefits and risks arising from liming sugar maple dominated forests in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-David Moore; Rock Ouimet; Robert P. Long; Paul. A. Bukaveckas

    2015-01-01

    Liming, the application of carbonate materials (e.g., CaCO3, CaMg(CO3)2) to soils and surface waters, has been used extensively in Europe, and to a lesser extent in Canada and the United States, to mitigate the effects of acid deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems. This literature review was...

  15. Long-term ecological research on Italian forest ecosystems: perspectives and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo MARCHETTO

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the contents of the present volume devoted to forest research in Italy, within the National Programme for Forest Ecosystem Monitoring (CONECOFOR, part of the Level II forest monitoring, and other linked regional and provincial monitoring activities. The coordination of the project, through a National Focal Centre and a Task Force for the Integrated and Combined Evaluation of results, made up of the foremost Italian experts working in the field, is outlined. No clear signals of strong negative impacts emerge from the papers, although the results of several studies indicate nitrogen and ozone as possible causes of disturbances in a number of plots. The effects of the deposition of acidity are largely buffered by the nature of the soils, while nitrate is leached from the plots where runoff is analysed, indicating N saturation of soils. This paper describes the main activities of the Task Force as regards data validation and elaboration, aimed at providing reliable information leading to sustainable forest management in Italy as well as making a useful contribution to international activities in a Pan-European context.

  16. Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains ecological province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Riggs; Arthur R. Tiedemann; John G. Cook; et al.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more years) foraging by Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus...

  17. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics an

  18. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Luoma; Efren Cázares; David Pilz; Jane E. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Trappe

    2009-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over 350 truffle species and 55 genera currently identified. Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis...

  19. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  20. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  1. The Coupled Nature of C and N Cycles in Forest Ecosystems: Evidence, Implications and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollinger, S. V.; Aber, J. D.; Sievering, H.

    2001-12-01

    Cycles of carbon and nitrogen in forest ecosystems are mutually and interactively linked through a shared set of biological processes. A large number of field studies across diverse biomes have documented strong and generalizable relationships between foliar nitrogen concentrations and rates of net photosynthesis. This trend reflects the fact that the majority of N in plant canopies is found in the proteins responsible for CO2 capture (e.g. rubisco). In soils, the accumulation and availability of nitrogen is, in turn, affected by the quality and N content of litter inputs from vegetation. Taken together, these patterns reflect the broadly-coupled nature of terrestrial C and N cycles and suggest that human alteration of any aspect of one cycle can have important implications for the other. Nevertheless, the exact nature of C-N interactions in natural ecosystems can depend on a variety of factors including historical disturbance patterns, the effects of carbon quality on decomposition and N turnover, and the resulting differences in plant-soil feedbacks among species and functional groups. All of these factors greatly complicate efforts to characterize present-day patterns of C and N fluxes across real forested landscapes. Further, human-induced increases in atmospheric CO2 and N deposition hold the potential for either tightening the linkages between C and N cycles, or causing them to become uncoupled. This presentation will build on basic concepts to address several broad questions regarding C-N interactions in forests, both as they occur naturally and as they may be affected by elevated CO2 or N deposition: 1) What evidence is available from the field to demonstrate the coupled nature of C-N cycles in native forest ecosystems? 2) How are C-N interactions in forests influenced by the growth and allocation strategies of different species and/or functional groups? 3) To what degree are current C and N cycles reflected in the chemistry of forest foliage, and 4) Is

  2. Interpreting participatory Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as complex networks in the social-ecological systems of the Amazonian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Consuelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Estebe, Paloma; Toledo, Marisol; Martorano, Lucieta

    2015-04-01

    Social-ecological systems are linked complex systems that represent interconnected human and biophysical processes evolving and adapting across temporal and spatial scales. In the real world, social-ecological systems pose substantial challenges for modeling. In this regard, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have proven to be a useful method for capturing the functioning of this type of systems. FCMs are a semi-quantitative type of cognitive map that represent a system composed of relevant factors and weighted links showing the strength and direction of cause-effects relationships among factors. Therefore, FCMs can be interpreted as complex system structures or complex networks. In this sense, recent research has applied complex network concepts for the analysis of FCMs that represent social-ecological systems. Key to FCM the tool is its potential to allow feedback loops and to include stakeholder knowledge in the construction of the tool. Also, previous research has demonstrated their potential to represent system dynamics and simulate the effects of changes in the system, such as policy interventions. For illustrating this analysis, we have developed a series of participatory FCM for the study of the ecological and human systems related to biodiversity conservation in two case studies of the Amazonian region, the Bolivia lowlands of Guarayos and the Brazil Tapajos National forest. The research is carried out in the context of the EU project ROBIN1 and it is based on the development of a series of stakeholder workshops to analyze the current state of the socio-ecological environment in the Amazonian forest, reflecting conflicts and challenges for biodiversity conservation and human development. Stakeholders included all relevant actors in the local case studies, namely farmers, environmental groups, producer organizations, local and provincial authorities and scientists. In both case studies we illustrate the use of complex networks concepts, such as the adjacency

  3. Changing resource management paradigms, traditional ecological knowledge, and non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iain J. Davidson-Hunt; Fikret. Berkes

    2001-01-01

    We begin this paper by exploring the shift now occurring in the science that provides the theoretical basis for resource management practice. The concepts of traditional ecological knowledge and traditional management systems are presented next to provide the background for an examination of resilient landscapes that emerge through the work and play of humans. These...

  4. Postdispersal seed predation and seed viability in forest soils: implications for the regeneration of tree species in Ethiopian church forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Bekele, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Almost all dry Afromontane forests of Northern Ethiopia have been converted to agricultural, grazing or scrub lands except for small fragments left around churches ('Church forests'). Species regeneration in these forests is limited. We investigated (i) how intense postdispersal seed predation was i

  5. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  6. Ecological Security and Overall Development of Forest and Grassland Resources%林草资源统筹发展与生态安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍文

    2009-01-01

    Scarcity of forest resources and degradation of rangeland resources resulted in frequently natural disasters and alsothreatenedthe ecological security in China. Overall development of forest resources met the objective requirement of the construction of ecological civilization in China, andalso was one of the important assurances in maintaining the ecological security.%阐述森林资源匮乏与草地资源退化严重是导致我国自然灾害频发的重要原因,威胁着国家的生态安全.林草资源的统筹发展,是在全国范围内进行生态文明建设的客观要求,也是维护生态安全的重要保证之一.

  7. Location and description of transects for ecological studies in floodplain forests of the lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L.J.; Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve transects were established in floodplain forests along the lower Suwannee River, Florida, as the principal data collection sites for a comprehensive study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Suwannee River Water Management District from 1996 to 2001. Data collected along the 12 transects included hydrologic conditions, land-surface elevations, soils, and vegetation of floodplain forests in relation to river flow. Transect locations are marked in the field with permanent markers at approximately 30 meter intervals. Detailed descriptions of the 12 transects and their locations are provided so that they can be used for future ecological studies. Descriptions of the transects include contact information necessary for access to the property on which the transects are located, maps showing transect locations and routes from the nearest city or major road, small scale maps of each transect showing marker locations, latitude and longitude of each marker, compass bearings of each transect line and graphs showing land-surface elevations of the transect with marker locations.

  8. LANDSCAPE VALUATION BASED ON THE ECOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS OF TAYASSU PECARI AND TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS – FOREST WITH ARAUCARIA, PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisley Paula Vidolin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the landscape of ‘Lageado Grande’ farm (LGF, an area of 3,136.32 ha, located in General Carneiro, Palmas, and Bituruna, in Paraná state. The assessment was based on an integral analysis of the ecological requirements of Tayassu pecari and Tapirus terrestris and the functional aspects of the landscape in ‘Lajeado Grande’. Land use and land cover were mapped, and the map was divided into 335 grids of 10 ha each, which were scored with pre-defined criteria. The scores of each aspect were integrated by multiplying the values and calculating the standard deviation and the mean to establish the classification intervals of the general quality of the landscape. The class gradient for the survival and preservation of the analyzed species generated was: extremely important, very important, important, and of little importance. It was observed that 61.2% of the farm has relevant environments for the preservation of the species, composed of forest with the predominance of pine, broadleaves, lowlands, and some riparian forest patches on ‘Iratim’ river. The results show that LGF comprises a mosaic of environments suitable for the occurrence and maintenance of these ungulates.

  9. Reflection on Compensation of Ecological Non-commercial Forest in Guangxi%对广西生态公益林补偿问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨文珍; 农胜奇

    2011-01-01

    The present ecological compensation mechanism is facing many problems and difficulties. For examples, low compensation standards, inaptitude management, singular method, lack of corresponding policies and laws etc. This paper provided the measures to solve the problems of the ecological public forest compensation in Guangxi. Based on the existed problems in current, the author innovatively designed the ecological compensation mechanism and indicated the classification method in different region. It will effectively improve the using efficiency of ecological non-commercial forest compensation funds. The author advised the measure for establishing the compatible non-commercial forest compensation rules in Guangxi. These advices and measures are very significant for realizing the public forest protection in different region of Guangxi, and further promoting the ecological, social and economic function of non-commercial forest.%分析认为,我国现行的生态公益林补偿制度仍存在补偿标准偏低、规划管理不当、补偿方式单一、缺乏配套的政策法规体系等问题.结合当前广西区生态公益林补偿制度及其存在的问题,提出创新公益林补偿标准的形成机制,实施分地区分类别补偿的措施,有效提高生态公益林补偿资金的使用效率,尽快出台适合全区实际情况的生态公益林补偿实施条例,不断完善公益林补偿制度等时策与建议.

  10. Foreign Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation System and Reference%国外森林生态效益补偿制度及其借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世进; 焦艳

    2011-01-01

    森林生态效益补偿制度是通过运用经济、法律等手段来调整森林生态保护利益相关者间的权利义务关系的制度设计,美国、德国、日本、哥斯达黎加和巴西的森林生态效益补偿制度在补偿主体、补偿对象、补偿标准、补偿资金的筹集等方面都有许多先进的成功经验.我国应该借鉴国外成功经验,构建森林生态效益市场补偿机制,扩大补偿对象的范围,合理确定补偿标准,拓展补偿资金的来源渠道,引进激励机制,完善我国森林生态效益补偿制度.%By applying economic and legal means, forest ecological benefit compensation system adjusts the right and obligation relations between the forest ecological protect stakeholders. In many countries such as America, German,Japan, Costa Rica and Brazil, their forest ecological benefit compensation system has a lot of successful experience in compensation subject, compensation object, compensation standards and compensation fund raising channels. By learning from foreign success experience, we should establish forest ecological benefit compensation market mechanism, expand the scope of object of compensation, determine the compensation standards, expand the compensation fund sources and channels, introduce incentive mechanism, so as to perfect our forest ecological benefit compensation system.

  11. Status and Countermeasures of Deqin County Ecological Non-commercial Forest Management%德钦县生态公益林管理现状与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贤

    2013-01-01

    Status of organization, management and protection, management and protection measures of ecological non-commercial forest management in Deqin County was introduced. Problems such as decreased usable forest resources, unreasonable ecological benefits compensation, lack of reasonable compensation standard, short of publicity and education , lag behind of file build, low quality of forest stand, poor protection effect still existed. Thus, countermeasures and suggestions of ecological forest management, i. e. practise new non-commercial forest management mechanisms focused on performance management , step up publicity efforts, improve quality of forest stand, and enhance effectiveness of ecological protection, improve management mechanism and team building, strict protection and dynamic monitoring were proposed.%介绍德钦县生态公益林管理的组织机构、管护形式、管护办法等现状,目前公益林管理中尚存在着可利用森林资源减少,生态效益补偿缺乏合理性,补偿标准单一,宣传教育欠缺,档案建立滞后,林分质量低下,防护效益差等问题.藉此,提出推行以绩效管理为重点的公益林管理新机制,加大宣传力度,提高林分质量,增强生态防护效益,完善管理机制和队伍建设,严格保护,动态监测等生态公益林管理对策与建议.

  12. Ecology and phytosociology of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Narasimha Murthy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the species composition, abundance, density and community structure of the tropical dry deciduous forests of Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  Phytosociological analysis was based on the data generated from the 81 sample plots laid at random covering the entire sanctuary area. A total of 177 Angiosperms of species were enumerated from the sampled quadrats.  The species present as per preponderance are herbs 71, trees 55, climbers 33, and shrubs 18.  The species diversity indices indicate the following facts: Shannon-Weiner index as 4.15, Simpson index value as 0.91, Margalef’s species richness index as 5.20, density of trees above 10 cm GBH class as 470 individuals per hectare.  The total basal area of the tree species was 17.7m² ha-1.  These statistics along with the composition of the forest, and information on the diversity of the communities as a whole provided a better insight into the state of the forests in the Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary.  

  13. Forest response to CO{sub 2} enrichment: Physiology and ecology of loblolly pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, B.R.; Thomas, R.B.

    1997-03-10

    This report covers the results of a long-term project with the primary objective of developing and testing hypotheses on the environmental and physiological controls of loblolly pine response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment. Earlier research under DOE funding had provided information from loblolly pine and other plant species which allowed the development of specific hypotheses. Phase 1 of this research was a two year pot study of loblolly seedlings to determine the interaction of CO{sub 2} enrichment with soil nutrition. Phase 2 began with the enrichment of loblolly seedlings being grown in the ground, rather than pots, and continued through December 1995. Phase 3 began in April 1994 with the enrichment of undisturbed Piedmont North Carolina old field undergoing succession, including herbaceous annual plants, perennial grasses, and loblolly pine tree seedlings. Phase 3 was designed to gather preliminary information on a regenerating loblolly forest to be used for the development of hypotheses and measurement techniques for a long-term Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) study of regenerating forest in Duke Forest.

  14. Using historical ecology to reassess the conservation status of coniferous forests in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter; Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Švarcová, Markéta Gabriela; Křížová, Lucie; Suchánková, Silvie; Müllerová, Jana; Hédl, Radim

    2017-02-01

    Forests cover approximately one-third of Central Europe. Oak (Quercus) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) are considered the natural dominants at low and middle elevations, respectively. Many coniferous forests (especially of Picea abies) occur primarily at midelevations, but these are thought to have resulted from forestry plantations planted over the past 200 years. Nature conservation and forestry policy seek to promote broadleaved trees over conifers. However, there are discrepancies between conservation guidelines (included in Natura 2000) and historical and palaeoecological data with regard to the distribution of conifers. Our aim was to bring new evidence to the debate on the conservation of conifers versus broadleaved trees at midelevations in Central Europe. We created a vegetation and land-cover model based on pollen data for a highland area of 11,300 km(2) in the Czech Republic and assessed tree species composition in the forests before the onset of modern forestry based on 18th-century archival sources. Conifers dominated the study region throughout the entire Holocene (approximately 40-60% of the area). Broadleaved trees were present in a much smaller area than envisaged by current ideas of natural vegetation. Rather than casting doubt on the principles of Central European nature conservation in general, our results highlight the necessity of detailed regional investigations and the importance of historical data in challenging established notions on the natural distribution of tree species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Recent advances in recreation ecology and the implications of different relationships between recreation use and ecological impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Monz; Catherine M. Pickering; Wade L. Hadwen

    2013-01-01

    Recreation ecology - the study of the environmental consequences of outdoor recreation/nature-based tourism activities and their effective management - is an emerging field of global importance. A primary research generalization in this field, the use-impact relationship, is commonly described as curvilinear, with proportionally more impact from initial recreation/...

  16. Invasive sequence and ecological niche of main insect borers of Larix gmelinii forest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)SVAARA; QI Guo-xin; LI Xiang-jun; HAN Yong-shi; CHEN Chao

    2008-01-01

    After the outbreak of Dendrolimus superans Buret in 2002, many insect borers quickly invaded larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) forests in the Aershan of Inner Mongolia. Methods involved included setting sample plots, collecting adults in iron traps and measuring areas of galleries to study the invasive sequence, their ecological niche and the extent of the different effects by the main insect borers to their hosts. The results showed that the damage of D. superans weakened L. gmelinii, first Ips subelongatus Motschulsky invaded, followed by Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler, Monochamus urussovi Fisher and M. sutor L. After the outbreak of D. superans, the average density of longhorn beetles per L. gmelinii tree increased. The ecological niche of Ips subelongatus stretches almost from the base to the top of the trunk. The number of insects in older stands of L. gmelinii is larger than those in middle aged stands. They do not damage healthy trees of L. gmelinii. The ecological niche of A. carinulatus is higher in dead L. gmelinii trees than in weak ones. The degree of damage is directly proportional with age and depth of bark. M. urussovi mainly damages trunks below 4 m in weak trees; in dead trees they can do damage up to 6 m in height. M. sutor mainly damages trunks below 5 m in weak L.gmelinii trees; in dead trees they cause damage up to 7 m. Again, the degree of damage is directly proportional with age. None of the three species of longhorn beetles damage healthy L. gmelinii and younger trees. Among the main insect borers, the degree of damage caused by L subelongatus is more serious than that of other insects.

  17. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  18. Pathogen evolution across the agro-ecological interface: implications for disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Thrall, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease is a major causal factor in the demography of human, plant and animal populations. While it is generally accepted in medical, veterinary and agricultural contexts that variation in host resistance and pathogen virulence and aggressiveness is of central importance to understanding patterns of infection, there has been remarkably little effort to directly investigate causal links between population genetic structure and disease dynamics, and even less work on factors influencing host-pathogen coevolution. The lack of empirical evidence is particularly surprising, given the potential for such variation to not only affect disease dynamics and prevalence, but also when or where new diseases or pathotypes emerge. Increasingly, this lack of knowledge has led to calls for an integrated approach to disease management, incorporating both ecological and evolutionary processes. Here, we argue that plant pathogens occurring in agro-ecosystems represent one clear example where the application of evolutionary principles to disease management would be of great benefit, as well as providing model systems for advancing our ability to generalize about the long-term coevolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen systems. We suggest that this is particularly the case given that agro-ecological host-pathogen interactions represent a diversity of situations ranging from those that only involve agricultural crops through to those that also include weedy crop relatives or even unrelated native plant communities. We begin by examining some of the criteria that are important in determining involvement in agricultural pathogen evolution by noncrop plants. Throughout we use empirical examples to illustrate the fact that different processes may dominate in different systems, and suggest that consideration of life history and spatial structure are central to understanding dynamics and direction of the interaction. We then discuss the implications that such interactions have for

  19. Plant-insect interactions under bacterial influence: ecological implications and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David; Simon, Jean-Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Plants and insects have been co-existing for more than 400 million years, leading to intimate and complex relationships. Throughout their own evolutionary history, plants and insects have also established intricate and very diverse relationships with microbial associates. Studies in recent years have revealed plant- or insect-associated microbes to be instrumental in plant-insect interactions, with important implications for plant defences and plant utilization by insects. Microbial communities associated with plants are rich in diversity, and their structure greatly differs between below- and above-ground levels. Microbial communities associated with insect herbivores generally present a lower diversity and can reside in different body parts of their hosts including bacteriocytes, haemolymph, gut, and salivary glands. Acquisition of microbial communities by vertical or horizontal transmission and possible genetic exchanges through lateral transfer could strongly impact on the host insect or plant fitness by conferring adaptations to new habitats. Recent developments in sequencing technologies and molecular tools have dramatically enhanced opportunities to characterize the microbial diversity associated with plants and insects and have unveiled some of the mechanisms by which symbionts modulate plant-insect interactions. Here, we focus on the diversity and ecological consequences of bacterial communities associated with plants and herbivorous insects. We also highlight the known mechanisms by which these microbes interfere with plant-insect interactions. Revealing such mechanisms in model systems under controlled environments but also in more natural ecological settings will help us to understand the evolution of complex multitrophic interactions in which plants, herbivorous insects, and micro-organisms are inserted.

  20. Experimental and Ecological Implications of Evening Bird Surveys in Stream-Riparian Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. Mažeika P.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2009-10-01

    Stream-riparian ecosystems are dynamic and complex entities that can support high levels of bird assemblage abundance and diversity. The myriad patches (e.g., aquatic, floodplain, riparian) found in the riverscape habitat mosaic attract a unique mixture of aquatic, semiaquatic, riparian, and upland birds, each uniquely utilizing the river corridor. Whereas standard morning bird surveys are widely used across ecosystems, the variety of bird guilds and the temporal habitat partitioning that likely occur in stream-riparian ecosystems argue for the inclusion of evening surveys. At 41 stream reaches in Vermont and Idaho, USA, we surveyed bird assemblages using a combination of morning and evening fixed-width transect counts. Student’s paired t-tests showed that while bird abundance was not significantly different between morning and evening surveys, bird assemblage diversity (as measured by species richness, Shannon-Weiner’s index, and Simpson’s index) was significantly higher in the morning than in the evening. NMS ordinations of bird species and time (i.e., morning, evening) indicated that the structure of morning bird assemblages was different from that of evening assemblages. NMS further showed that a set of species was only found in evening surveys. The inclusion of evening counts in surveying bird assemblages in stream-riparian ecosystems has important experimental and ecological implications. Experimentally, the sole use of morning bird surveys may significantly underestimate the diversity and misrepresent the community composition of bird assemblages in these ecosystems. Ecologically, many of the birds detected in evening surveys were water-associated species that occupy high trophic levels and aerial insectivores that represent unique aquatic-terrestrial energy transfers.

  1. Natural vs Anthropocene Streams in Europe: History, Ecology and Implications for Sustainable River Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. G.; Lespez, L.; Sear, D. A.; Houben, P.; Klimek, K.

    2016-12-01

    In Europe as in North America the prevailing model of `natural' lowland streams is incised-meandering channels with silt-clay floodplains, and this model is the template for stream restoration. This papers tests this proposition using geological and historical data from across Europe and examines the implications for carbon sequestration and channel-floodplain restoration. Floodplain chronostratigraphy shows that early Holocene, pre-impact, European streams were predominantly multi-channel (anabranching) systems, and often choked with vegetation. In most cases floodplains were either non-existent or limited to adjacent organic-filled palaeochannels, spring/valley mires, flushes and hydromorphic soils. During the mid-Holocene and particularly 2-4 k BP, overbank silt-clay deposition transformed floodplains covering former wetlands and silting up secondary channels. This was followed by direct intervention in the Medieval period to a mill-based technological system. The final transformation was the `industrialiation of channels' through hard-engineering especially after the great acceleration of the Anthropocene. The primary factor in this sequence was accelerated soil erosion caused by deforestation and arable farming but with sediment delivery reflecting climatic fluctuations. Unlike North America where channel-floodplain transformation was rapid the transformation of European streams occurred over a much longer time-period in three phases; catchment driven sedimentation, Medieval management and finally industrialisation. Due to a combination of catchment controls, ecological change and the cultural value of this legacy it is both impractical, if not impossible, to restore European rivers to their pre-transformation state. However, attempts to restore them to intermediate historical (pre-industrial) states with some areas of anabranching, would have both ecological and carbon offset benefits. Sustainable restoration designed to maximise ecosystem services must be

  2. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I.; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane la...

  3. Low thermal tolerances of stream amphibians in the Pacific Northwest: Implications for riparian and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Temperature has a profound effect on survival and ecology of amphibians. In the Pacific Northwest, timber harvest is known to increase peak stream temperatures to 24??C or higher, which has potential to negatively impact cold-water stream amphibians. I determined the Critical Thermal Maxima (CT max) for two salamanders that are endemic to the Pacific Northwest. Rhyacotriton variegatus larvae acclimated at 10??C had mean CTmax of 26.7 ?? 0.7 SD??C and adults acclimated at 11??C had mean CT max of 27.9 ?? 1.1??C. These were among the lowest known values for any amphibian. Values were significantly higher for larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus acclimated at 14??C (x = 29.1 ?? 0.2??C). Although the smallest R. variegatus had some of the lowest values, size of larvae and adults did not influence CTmax in this species. Current forest practices retain riparian buffers along larger fish-bearing streams; however, such buffers along smaller headwaters and non-fish bearing streams may provide favorable habitat conditions for coldwater-associated species in the Pacific Northwest. The current study lends further evidence to the need for protection of Northwest stream amphibians from environmental perturbations. Forest guidelines that include riparian buffer zones and configurations of upland stands should be developed, while monitoring amphibian responses to determine their success. ?? 2008 Brill Academic Publishers.

  4. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  5. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  6. Community Dependence on Non-timber Forest Products - A Household Analysis and its Implication for Forest Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Shylajan; G. Mythili

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the factors determining the dependence of local people on protected area of forest based on household analysis of a Protected Area from Kerala. The findings confirm the hypothesis that alternative income source would greatly reduce the dependence and hence ease the conflict between local people interests and forest management in conservation activities. This study raised certain issues in the institutional mechanism of marketing and management of non-wood forest products. ...

  7. Dormancy Breaking and Storage Behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. (Guttiferae) Seeds: Implications for Ecological Function and Germplasm Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LIU; Yu-Ping QIU; Ling ZHANG; Jin CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The dormancy breaking and storage behavior of Garcinia cowa Roxb. seeds were investigated.The seeds of G. cowa had 8-11 months dormancy in their natural habitat. Seeds were matured and dispersed at the end of the rainy season (mid-late August to late September) and were scatter-hoarded by rodents as food for winter after the seeds had fallen to the ground. Seedlings often emerged in the forest during the rainy season (May to August) the following year. Intact seeds of G. cowa failed to germinate after being sown at 30 ℃ for 120 d and the mean germination time (MGT) of seeds cultured in a shade (50% sunlight)nursery was 252 d. The most effective method of breaking dormancy was to remove the seed coat totally,which reduced the MGT to 13 d at 30 ℃. Germination was also promoted by partial removal of the seed coat (excising the hilum and exposing the radicle) and chemical scarification (immersion in 1% H2O2 for 1 d).Unscarified seeds take up water rapidly in the first 96 h, but water was absorbed by the outside seed coat,without penetrating through it. The moisture content (MC) of G. cowa seeds was high (50% in fresh weight)at shedding. The seeds could tolerate desiccation to some extent, until the MC reached approximately 40%;below that, the viability decreases rapidly and all seeds died at approximately 17% of MC. Seed viability decreased rapidly when seeds were chilled at 4 ℃; germination was 2% after storage for 1 week. Even stored at 10 ℃, seeds began to be damaged after 4 weeks. Seed storage for 1 yr revealed that in both dry (relative humidity (35 ± 5)%) and moist (wet sand) storage conditions, seed viability declined, but germination percentages for seeds stored under moist conditions are better than for seed stored under dry conditions.Because of their low tolerance to desiccation, marked chilling sensitivity and relatively short lifespan, G.cowa seeds should be classified into the tropical recalcitrant category. The ecological implications of dormant

  8. Ecological network analysis for economic systems: growth and development and implications for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input-output (I-O) tables for 1985-2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985-2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects.

  9. Secondary metabolites with ecologic and medicinal implications in Anthemis cretica subsp. petraea from Majella National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Venditti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthemis cretica subsp. petraea (Ten. Greuter is a plant belonging to the Asteraceae family and endemic of central Italy. In this paper, the first analysis of the ethanolic fraction of samples collected in the Majella National Park is reported. Seven compounds were isolated and identified namely parthenolide (1, 9α-acetoxyparthenolide (2, tamarixetin (3, 7-hydroxycoumarin (4, 4'-hydroxyacetophenone (5, leucanthemitol (conduritol F (6, and proto-quercitol (7. Isolation of the compounds was achieved by means of column chromatography (CC, while their identification was achieved through spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The presence of these compounds is of great relevance. Compounds 1 and 2 are chemosystematic markers of the family, thus confirming the correct botanical classification of the species. Conversely, compounds 3, 5, and 7 were identified for the first time in the species and, instead, confirm the tendency of endemic entities to develop characteristic metabolite patterns in respect to cosmopolite species. Moreover, the presence of compounds 6 and 7 has ecologic implications and may be linked to this taxon’s adaption to dry environments. The production of these osmolytes may, in fact, represent the reason why this species is able to survive in extreme conditions of aridity. Lastly, from a medicinal standpoint, the isolated compounds are endowed with interesting biological activities and may justify, on a molecular base, the widespread traditional uses of the Anthemis species, as well as a basis for the use of the subspecies petraea.

  10. Co-precipitation of phosphate and carbonate minerals: geological and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Román, Monica; McKenzie, Judith; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in natural environments by controlling the metal cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+) and the anions (CO32-, NH4+, PO43-) that precipitate as biominerals (e.g., carbonates, phosphates). In contrast to phosphate minerals, precipitation of carbonate minerals by bacteria has been widely studied in culture experiments and in natural environments. Moreover, studies of sedimentary phosphate minerals and their geological and ecological implications are rare. Nevertheless, phosphate minerals frequently co-precipitate with carbonates in culture experiments and in natural systems. In the present work, we investigate how microorganisms control the mineralogy and geochemistry of phosphate and carbonate minerals. For this, culture experiments were performed to study the co-precipitation of phosphate and carbonate minerals using aerobic heterotrophic bacteria at sedimentary Earth's surface conditions. Ca-Mg carbonate (dolomite, Mg-calcite) and/or Mg-carbonate (hydromagnesite) precipitated with Mg-phosphate (struvite). In most of the cultures, phosphate was the dominant mineral phase found in the bacterial precipitates and carbonates precipitated after phosphate phases. Notably, in all the cultures, we found a mixture of phosphate and carbonate minerals. This study shines new light into the microbial diagenetic processes involved in the co-precipitation of phosphate and carbonate minerals and links the P and C cycles.

  11. Ecological implications of anti-pathogen effects of tropical fungal endophytes and mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herre, Edward Allen; Mejía, Luis C; Kyllo, Damond A; Rojas, Enith; Maynard, Zuleyka; Butler, Andre; Van Bael, Sunshine A

    2007-03-01

    We discuss studies of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with Theobroma cacao in Panama. Direct, experimentally controlled comparisons of endophyte free (E-) and endophyte containing (E+) plant tissues in T. cacao show that foliar endophytes (FEF) that commonly occur in healthy host leaves enhance host defenses against foliar damage due to the pathogen (Phytophthora palmivora). Similarly, root inoculations with commonly occurring AMF also reduce foliar damage due to the same pathogen. These results suggest that endophytic fungi can play a potentially important mutualistic role by augmenting host defensive responses against pathogens. There are two broad classes of potential mechanisms by which endophytes could contribute to host protection: (1) inducing or increasing the expression of intrinsic host defense mechanisms and (2) providing additional sources of defense, extrinsic to those of the host (e.g., endophyte-based chemical antibiosis). The degree to which either of these mechanisms predominates holds distinct consequences for the evolutionary ecology of host-endophyte-pathogen relationships. More generally, the growing recognition that plants are composed of a mosaic of plant and fungal tissues holds a series of implications for the study of plant defense, physiology, and genetics.

  12. Chronobiology of trematode cercarial emergence: from data recovery to epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théron, André

    2015-04-01

    One major challenge for parasites with complex cycles consists to succeed in the transmission from one host to the next host. To maximize the probability of encountering the right host, numerous trematode species have selected various emergence rhythms occurring during the escape of the short-lived cercariae from the mollusc host. Cercarial shedding patterns are beautiful examples of adaptation of the parasite for a successful rendezvous with its subsequent host. In this review, after an analysis of the technical and statistical aspects specific to such studies, we compile the knowledge and unresolved issues we have about the synchronization of these rhythms, their genetic support and the role of the host physiology or activity. We are also interested on how cercarial rhythmicity influences cercarial densities in waters of transmission sites and then the risk of host infection in case of schistosomiasis. Ecological significance of the inter- and intra-specific diversity of these rhythms is emphasized as well as the evolutionary implication of new chronotypes resulting from the capture of new host species and promoting reproductive isolation and alloxenic speciation. Currently, genome sequence data now available for some trematodes such as the schistosomes provide an unprecedented resource for new research approaches that should contribute identification of the genes and mechanisms involved in determining the cercarial shedding rhythms observed.

  13. Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Swanson, Mark E; Freund, James A

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m(2). We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a few large trees as opposed to many smaller trees.

  14. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  15. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics.

  16. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  17. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  18. A Framework for Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Olympic National Park: Prototype for the Coniferous Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Ed

    2003-01-01

    This report is the result of a five-year collaboration between scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Olympic Field Station, and the natural resources staff of Olympic National Park to develop a comprehensive strategy for monitoring natural resources of Olympic National Park. Olympic National Park is the National Park Serviceʼs prototype monitoring park, representing parks in the coniferous forest biome. Under the umbrella of the National Park Serviceʼs prototype parks program, U.S. Geological Survey and Olympic National Park staffs are obligated to:develop strategies and designs for monitoring the long-term health and integrity of national park ecosystems with a significant coniferous forest component.design exportable monitoring protocols that can be used by other parks within the coniferous forest biome (i.e., parks having similar environments), andcreate a demonstration area and ʻcenter of excellenceʼ for assisting other parks in developing ecological monitoring programs.Olympic National Park is part of the North Coast and Cascades Network, a network of seven Pacific Northwestern park units created recently by the National Park Serviceʼs Inventory and Monitoring Program to extend the monitoring of ʻvital signsʼ of park health to all National Park Service units. It is our intent and hope that the monitoring strategies and conceptual models described here will meet the overall purpose of the prototype parks monitoring program in proving useful not only to Olympic National Park, but also to parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network and elsewhere. Part I contains the conceptual design and sampling framework for the prototype long-term monitoring program in Olympic National Park. In this section, we explore key elements of monitoring design that help to ensure the spatial, ecological, and temporal integration of monitoring program elements and discuss approaches used to design an ecosystem

  19. Small-scale non-industrial private forest ownership in the United States: rationale and implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoqi Zhang; Daowei Zhang; John Schelhas

    2005-01-01

    The transaction cost approach is used to explain why small non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownerships are increasing in the U.S. We argue that the number of small NIPF owners have increased because: 1) a significant amount of forestland is no longer used economically if primarily for timber production, but rather for non-timber forest products and environmental...

  20. Publication patterns of award-winning forest scientists and implications for the ERA journal ranking

    CERN Document Server

    Vanclay, Jerome K

    2011-01-01

    Publication patterns of 79 forest scientists awarded major international forestry prizes during 1990-2010 were compared with the journal classification and ranking promoted as part of the 'Excellence in Research for Australia' (ERA) by the Australian Research Council. The data revealed that these scientists exhibited an elite publication performance during the decade before and two decades following their first major award. An analysis of their 1703 articles in 431 journals revealed substantial differences between the journal choices of these elite scientists and the ERA classification and ranking of journals. Implications from these findings are that additional cross-classifications should be added for many journals, and there should be an adjustment to the ranking of several journals relevant to the ERA Field of Research classified as 0705 Forestry Sciences.

  1. Implications of Decentralized Forest Management and REDD+ for Rural Vulnerability in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomba, Susan Wangui

    + affects the vulnerability of forest dependent communities in Kenya. The first step was to build a framework that links access to benefits and decision making powers under REDD+/ CBFM to vulnerability. Using this framework, the study then went on to identify and detail the dimensions of governance...... that stresses three dimensions: contextual, distributive and procedural. The study focused mainly on how contextual equity, mapped through the distribution of key endowments such as land, determines distribution of REDD+ benefits among various local actors. The findings indicate that when benefit sharing models...... at the voluntary international market), in favor of those endowed with larger parcels of land, at the expense of asset-poor marginalized groups. The fourth and last research question looked at whether institutional choices under REDD+ present any implications for local democracy. Democracy is viewed...

  2. Ecological aspect of the soil mechanical resistance in the oak forest of the steep bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. М. Kunah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obtained data revealed that soil mechanical resistance is an important factor affected many essential ecological properties of the biogeocoenosis. The soil layer’s mechanical resistance of 5MP is a limitation factor for the projective cover of herbaceous vegetation. If the 5MP mechanical resistance spreads to upper soil layer up, then the the grass cover decreases. The development of the plants projective cover affects the soil animals’ trophic activity and soil electrical conductivity. The expansion of the plant cover impacts on the capasity of dead plant horizon. The decrease of the projective plant cover favours the increase of the litter mass. The litter also influences the soil animals’ trophic activity and soil electrical conductivity.

  3. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions.

  4. Role of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla in seed dispersal in tropical forests and implications of its decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre, CA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of seed dispersal significantly affect plant demography, dynamics and succession. In the tropics, the majority of tree species bear fruits that are adapted to animal-mediated dispersal. Amongst seed dispersers, the contribution of primates is widely recognized by ecologists as incomparable. However, in lowland Afrotropical forests, the specific role of the largest primate species, the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla Savage and Wyman, 1847, has been overlooked. This is of particular relevance as this species seems to fulfill important criteria for effective dispersal, both quantitatively and qualitatively. One trait makes it potentially unique as seed disperser; the regular deposition of seeds in open canopy environments where light will not be a limiting factor for subsequent seedling growth and survival. The magnitude of which this particular trait contributes to forest dynamics remains unexplored though it could be potentially important. It might no longer be the case, however, as the western lowland gorilla is critically endangered. The loss of the ecological services provided by large-bodied seed dispersers may have considerable impacts on the forests. Through dispersal limitation, population dynamics of plants in forests devoid of large frugivores will be strongly impacted. In the long-term, this may lead to shifts in plant community structure, composition and to reduced tree diversity. Currently, forests of the Congo basin face increasing level of deforestation and degradation, which puts already the ecosystem integrity in jeopardy. The additional threat that represents frugivorous wildlife depletion is therefore of forest management concern.

  5. Enhanced accumulation and storage of mercury on subtropical evergreen forest floor: Implications on mercury budget in global forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Lu, Zhiyun; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yiping; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-08-01

    Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global cycling of mercury (Hg). In this study, we characterized the Hg cycling at a remote evergreen broadleaf (EB) forest site in southwest China (Mount Ailao). The annual Hg input via litterfall is estimated to be 75.0 ± 24.2 µg m-2 yr-1 at Mount Ailao. Such a quantity is up to 1 order of magnitude greater than those observed at remote temperate/boreal (T/B) forest sites. Production of litter biomass is found to be the most influential factor causing the high Hg input to the EB forest. Given their large areal coverage, Hg deposition through litterfall in EB forests is appropriately 9 ± 5 Mg yr-1 in China and 1086 ± 775 Mg yr-1 globally. The observed wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao is 4.9 ± 4.5 µg m-2 yr-1, falling in the lower range of those observed at 49 T/B forest sites in North America and Europe. Given the data, the Hg deposition flux through litterfall is approximately 15 times higher than the wet Hg deposition at Mount Ailao. Steady Hg accumulation in decomposing litter biomass and Hg uptake from the environment were observed during 25 months of litter decomposition. The size of the Hg pool in the organic horizon of EB forest floors is estimated to be up to 2-10 times the typical pool size in T/B forests. This study highlights the importance of EB forest ecosystems in global Hg cycling, which requires further assessment when more data become available in tropical forests.

  6. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  7. In vitro foliage susceptibility of canary islands laurel forests: a model for better understanding the ecology of Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Moralejo; Enrique Descals

    2008-01-01

    The tree species that dominate the cloud-zone forests of Macaronesia, the coastal redwoods of California, the Valdivian forests of Chile, the Atlantic forests of Brazil and the podocarp forests of New Zealand are all examples of paleoendemic species that once had a much wider distribution. They appear to owe their survival to the particular environmental conditions...

  8. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    %. From an ecological point of view algal flora forest floor of studied plantings characterized by a predominance of species of soil-inhabiting algae from X-life forms.

  9. Forest restoration as ecological succession: should we speed it up or slow it down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.B.; Twedt, D.J.; Nuttle, T.J.; Woodson, C.A.; Broerman, F.; Wahome, J.M.; Holland, Marjorie M.; Warren, Melvin L.; Stanturf, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent assessments of afforestation of agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley imply the importance of quickly developing vertical forest structure to benefit 'wildlife.' We examine this assumption and find that animal species of interest as targets of proactive management, as well as targets of control, occur through the full successional sere. Different species of mammals and birds respond positively to the structure available at different times during succession. Thus, managers must decide on the species and communities they wish to favor. Early successional species, particularly those avian communities occurring during winter, have been heretofore considered only in passing. However, because they occur in areas where herbaceous plants dominate vegetation structure, these communities include species otherwise rare or absent from the landscape. Extensive afforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley provides ephemeral habitat for birds that winter in herbaceous areas. Managers may wish to consider maintaining large tracts in herbaceous vegetation similar to that occurring 3-7 years after cessation of farming activities, as habitat for such birds.

  10. Post-fire ecological restoration of a mixed Pinus-Quercus forest in northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alanís-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se desarrolló en un bosque de Pinus-Quercus en el Parque Ecológico Chipinque (noreste de México, el cual fue afectado por un incendio forestal y sometido a tratamiento de restauración ecológica. Los objetivos fueron evaluar el establecimiento artificial de Pinus pseudostrobus (Lindl. y analizar el efecto de las barreras de retención de suelo después de 10 años de su instalación. Para ello se estableció un área de estudio con tratamiento de restauración ecológica y otra área sin tratamiento en las que se muestreó la comunidad vegetal y la profundidad del suelo. De acuerdo con los resultados, se registró 35 % de supervivencia de la plantación, la cual se considera como no aceptable. Las barreras de retención de suelo tuvieron efecto positivo, pues incrementaron la profundidad del suelo hasta 25 %. Con la investigación se concluye que las técnicas de restauración post-incendio aplicadas han sido eficaces, ya que incorporan una especie clave de ecosistemas maduros y evitan la pérdida de suelo por arrastre, por lo que se recomienda su uso en rodales de Pinus-Quercus afectados por incendios en la Sierra Madre Oriental.

  11. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Al Yemeni, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing.

  12. Distribution and ecology of myxomycetes in the high-elevation oak forests of Cerro Bellavista, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Carlos; Stephenson, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Myxomycetes associated with a high-elevation (>3000 m) oak forest in the Talamanca Range of Costa Rica were studied for 7 mo. Field collections were supplemented with collections obtained from moist chamber cultures prepared with samples of bark and ground litter of Quercus costaricensis. Various microenvironmental parameters including pH, substrate moisture and diameter, height above the ground and canopy openness were recorded for each field collection, whereas macroenvironmental data for temperature and precipitation were obtained from a meteorological station near the study area. Niche breadth and niche overlap indices were calculated to assess possible resource partitioning by myxomycetes. Thirty-seven species were recorded, including 11 new records for Costa Rica, eight for Central America and one for the neotropics. Both PCA and NMS multivariate analyses indicated that pH and height above the ground explained most of the observed variation, although substrate diameter also seemed to be an important factor. Precipitation showed an inverse correlation with the number of fruitings, confirming its importance as a macroenvironmental factor. Niche overlap values were not higher for closely related species and values for niche breadths were similar for most of the more common species, suggesting that most members of the assemblage of myxomycetes present in the study site are ecological generalists.

  13. Forests, food, and fuel in the tropics: the uneven social and ecological consequences of the emerging political economy of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, Peter; Neville, Kate J

    2010-01-01

    The global political economy of biofuels emerging since 2007 appears set to intensify inequalities among the countries and rural peoples of the global South. Looking through a global political economy lens, this paper analyses the consequences of proliferating biofuel alliances among multinational corporations, governments, and domestic producers. Since many major biofuel feedstocks - such as sugar, oil palm, and soy - are already entrenched in industrial agricultural and forestry production systems, the authors extrapolate from patterns of production for these crops to bolster their argument that state capacities, the timing of market entry, existing institutions, and historical state-society land tenure relations will particularly affect the potential consequences of further biofuel development. Although the impacts of biofuels vary by region and feedstock, and although some agrarian communities in some countries of the global South are poised to benefit, the analysis suggests that already-vulnerable people and communities will bear a disproportionate share of the costs of biofuel development, particularly for biofuels from crops already embedded in industrial production systems. A core reason, this paper argues, is that the emerging biofuel alliances are reinforcing processes and structures that increase pressures on the ecological integrity of tropical forests and further wrest control of resources from subsistence farmers, indigenous peoples, and people with insecure land rights. Even the development of so-called 'sustainable' biofuels looks set to displace livelihoods and reinforce and extend previous waves of hardship for such marginalised peoples.

  14. Browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) on secondary vegetation in forest plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Dahlan; Jiwan, Dawend

    2015-02-01

    The browsing preference and ecological carrying capacity (ECC) of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in acacia plantations for management and conservation of the ecosystem were investigated at Sabal Forest Reserve in Sarawak, Malaysia. The identification of the species browsed by the sambar deer was based on an observation of the plant parts consumed. ECC estimation was based on body weight (BW) and the physiological stages of animals browsed in six fenced 4-ha paddocks. Sambar deer were found foraging on only 29 out of 42 species of secondary vegetation in the acacia plantation. The remaining species are too high for the deer to reach. Planted species, Shorea macrophylla are not palatable to the deer. This augurs well for the integration of sambar deer into shorea plantations. The most frequently exploited plants were Ficus spp. Sambar deer preferred woody species more than non-woody species and they are browser animals. By producing metabolizable energy of 19,000 to 27,000 MJ/ha, the ECC was five head/ha to 5.25 head/ha. Given its contribution to the conservation of wildlife and its capacity to sustain the ecosystem, the sambar deer integrated farming system offers a promising strategy for the future of tropical forestry management.

  15. Microbial ecology of a novel sulphur cycling consortia from AMD: implications for acid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, L. M.; Norlund, K. L.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    assess whether or not pods formed and/or disassociated under non-competitive and/or non-nutrient limiting scenarios. The results of these experiments will be presented and their ecological and AMD sulphur geochemical implications discussed.

  16. Protection Measures and Compensation Strategies of Ecological Public Welfare Forest in Changsha City%长沙市生态公益林保护措施及补偿对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱模清

    2012-01-01

    介绍了长沙市生态公益林建设现状及管理措施,分析了该市生态公益林补偿存在的问题,并提出了补偿对策。%Status and management measures of ecological public welfare forest construction in Changsha City were introduced, existing problems in the compensation of ecological public welfare forest were analyzed, and the compensation strategies were proposed.

  17. Root diseases in coniferous forests of the Inland West: potential implications of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raini C. Rippy; Jane E. Stewart; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Walter G. Thies

    2005-01-01

    After nearly 100 years of fire exclusion, introduced pests, and selective harvesting, a change in forest composition has occurred in many Inland West forests of North America. This change in forest structure has frequently been accompanied by increases in root diseases and/or an unprecedented buildup of fuels. Consequently, many forest managers are implementing plans...

  18. Transitions in forest fragmentation: implications for restoration opportunities at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Robert V. O' Neill

    1999-01-01

    Where the potential natural vegetation is continuous forest (e.g., eastern US), a region can be divided into smaller units (e.g., counties, watersheds), and a graph of the proportion of forest in the largest patch versus the proportion in anthropogenic cover can be used as an index of forest fragmentation. If forests are not fragmented beyond that converted to...

  19. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Carl S

    2005-12-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  20. Potentials for win-win alliances among animal agriculture and forest products industries: application of the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Ellis B; Furiness, Cari S

    2005-09-01

    Commercial forests in many parts of the world are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrient-deficient forests often exist in close proximity to large animal feeding operations, meat processing and other food, textile, or other biomass-processing plants, and municipal waste treatment facilities. Many of these facilities produce large surpluses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic matter as gaseous ammonia, urea, uric acid, phosphorus compounds, bacterial sludges, and partially treated municipal wastewaters. These co-existing and substantial nutrient deficiencies and surpluses offer ready-made opportunities for discovery, demonstration, and commercial development of science-based, technology-facilitated, environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable "win-win alliances" among these major industries based on the principles of industrial ecology and sustainable development. The major challenge is to discover practical means to capture the surplus nutrients and put them to work in forest stands from which value-added products can be produced and sold at a profit.

  1. A Framework for Evaluating Forest Conservation Implications of Community-based Capacity Building: Experiences from the Northern Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Biedenweg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity-building projects in forest-based communities are implemented by governments, cooperatives, and non-government organisations to encourage sustainable management of community forests. While such projects are regularly evaluated on a case-by-case basis, they are rarely subjected to a landscape-level examination to explore conservation implications. To understand how environmental capacity-building projects address regional conservation goals, an interdisciplinary framework was developed to highlight the thematic focus, the geographic distribution, and the degree of community participation in environmental capacity-building projects. We demonstrate how the framework can be used by characterising projects in campesino communities in the Amazonian department of Pando, Bolivia, that were active during 2006-2008. While projects were too recent to affect forest cover, we describe how the framework elucidates three project themes (timber, Brazil nut, and agroforestry management; that project distribution was largely related to land tenure security, proximity to town, historical relationships, and motorised access; and that capacity-building strategies varied in participation, depending on thematic content and federal requirements for specific resources. We then discuss how the framework can be used to analyse forest cover implications over many years. Understanding the combination of thematic focus, geographic distribution, and degree of participation in project strategies offers a foundation for understanding how capacity-building initiatives can influence forest landscapes.

  2. Study on Measurement of the Ecological Value of the Forest Resources in Yugong Forest Farm%愚公林场森林资源生态价值计量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利

    2014-01-01

    Forest resources are important parts of natural resources. Calculating their ecological value with scientific mehtods is conducive to promoting biological balance,a necessary requirement of social development. In this paper,Yugong Forest Farm was taken as an example and the ecological value of its forest resources was calculated with fuzzy mathematics calculation model. The results should be of important guiding significance in formulating forestry policies and establishing the ecological compensation mechanism.%森林资源是自然资源的重要组成部分,用科学的方法计算其生态价值有助于促进生态环境的平衡,是社会发展的必然要求。本文以愚公林场为例,用模糊数学模型计算了森林的生态价值,其结果对林业政策的制订和建立生态补偿机制有重要的指导意义。

  3. Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, D. R.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Miller, J. B.; Burns, S. P.; Conway, T. J.; Menzer, O.; Stephens, B. B.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ≈ 115 µmol mol-1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (δ13C) by 1.7-2‰ (the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the δ13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosystems is expected to differ from the δ13C of CO2 assimilated by land plants during photosynthesis. This isotopic difference between land-atmosphere respiration (δR) and photosynthetic assimilation (δA) fluxes gives rise to the 13C land disequilibrium (D). Contemporary understanding suggests that over annual and longer time scales, D is determined primarily by the Suess effect, and thus, D is generally positive (δR > δA). A 7 year record of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange was used to evaluate the seasonality of δA and δR, and the 13C land disequilibrium, in a subalpine conifer forest. A novel isotopic mixing model was employed to determine the δ13C of net land-atmosphere exchange during day and night and combined with tower-based flux observations to assess δA and δR. The disequilibrium varied seasonally and when flux-weighted was opposite in sign than expected from the Suess effect (D = -0.75 ± 0.21‰ or -0.88 ± 0.10‰ depending on method). Seasonality in D appeared to be driven by photosynthetic discrimination (Δcanopy) responding to environmental factors. Possible explanations for negative D include (1) changes in Δcanopy over decades as CO2 and temperature have risen, and/or (2) post-photosynthetic fractionation processes leading to sequestration of isotopically enriched carbon in long-lived pools like wood and soil.

  4. Breeding ecology of the Black Kite in forest shelter belts of Altai Kray, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman F. Bachtin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the data on breeding ecology of the Black Kite breeding in shelter belts in south-eastern part of Altai Region. The length of the shelter belts studied in this work was 50 km. Through the period of this study a 72 nests of this species were revealed. We studied nesting preferences of Black Kites towards different wood species, ontogenetic state of trees, trunk diameter and tree strength using Ivlev-Jacobs electivity index. As a result we establish that the most preferable wood species is poplar (Populus sp. (electivity index is 0.5, birch (Betula sp. is used proportioned to its abundance (-0.02, and pine (Pinus silvestris and maple (Acer sp. are mostly ignored. Kites also prefer middle-aged generative trees (0.74 and avoid old ones (-0,18. Trees with trunk diameter 31–40 cm considered as most preferable (0,23. And trees with trunk diameter 21–30 cm is used proportioned to its abundance (-0,04. Trees with another trunk diameter are mostly ignored or completely avoided. Based on the index of tree strength (ITS we established that Kites breeding in the shelter belts prefer trees with ITS = 1.6–2.0 (0.31, trees with ITT = 1.1–1.5 and ITT = 2.1–2.5 are used proportioned to its abundance (-0.02 and -0.07, respectively, and trees with ITT above 2.6 or below 1 are ignored.

  5. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé R Memiaghe

    Full Text Available Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh <10 cm comprised 93.7% of the total tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  6. Ecological Importance of Small-Diameter Trees to the Structure, Diversity and Biomass of a Tropical Evergreen Forest at Rabi, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiaghe, Hervé R; Lutz, James A; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso; Kenfack, David

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests have long been recognized for their biodiversity and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, tropical forests, and particularly those of central Africa, remain understudied. Until recently, most forest inventories in Central Africa have focused on trees ≥10 cm in diameter, even though several studies have shown that small-diameter tree population may be important to demographic rates and nutrient cycling. To determine the ecological importance of small-diameter trees in central African forests, we used data from a 25-ha permanent plot that we established in the rainforest of Gabon to study the diversity and dynamics of these forests. Within the plot, we censused 175,830 trees ≥1 cm dbh from 54 families, 192 genera, and 345 species. Average tree density was 7,026 trees/ha, basal area 31.64 m2/ha, and above-ground biomass 369.40 Mg/ha. Fabaceae, Ebenaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the most important families by basal area, density and above-ground biomass. Small-diameter trees (1 cm ≥ dbh tree population, 16.5% of basal area, and 4.8% of the above-ground biomass. They also had diversity 18% higher at family level, 34% higher at genus level, and 42% higher at species level than trees ≥10 cm dbh. Although the relative contribution of small-diameter trees to biomass was comparable to other forests globally, their contribution to forest density, and diversity was disproportionately higher. The high levels of diversity within small-diameter classes may give these forests high levels of structural resilience to anthropogenic/natural disturbance and a changing climate.

  7. The Everyday Ways That School Ecologies Facilitate Resilience: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    From a socio-ecological perspective of resilience, social ecologies are crucial to children's functional outcomes in the face of adversity. Schools, in particular, are integral to the multiple social systems that children are embedded in. Consequently schools have a special responsibility towards meaningfully and routinely supporting children's…

  8. The Evolving Ecological Universe: a Study in the Science and Human Implications of a New World Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerner, Sally Jo.

    1992-01-01

    This study describes a broad cultural shift and a parallel scientific shift. Scientifically and culturally, Western civilization is moving toward a vision of a living, evolving, ecological universe and away from the Newtonian clockwork-machine universe. In Stephen Pepper's (1946) terms, the shift represents a change in dominant world hypothesis--that is, the dominant metaphor of how the world works. The bulk of the dissertation is a detailed exploration of the scientific shift because science's understanding of how the world works profoundly shapes beliefs in general. The exploration shows how a number of minirevolutions in physics and biology are related and how each supports an evolving ecological vision. The work in these different fields combines to produce a particularly important change in understanding--a vision of evolution as a single overall physical process from molecules to humankind. Ecological science (physics to biology) and the new view of evolution become possible because of a major conceptual shift in physics, the nonlinear revolution. The nonlinear revolution includes three major elements: chaos (modern nonlinear dynamics); self-organization theory (far -from-equilibrium thermodynamics); and the thermodynamics of evolution. Together these elements produce a physical understanding of an evolving, order-producing, universe --that is, a universe that evolves toward higher and higher levels of ordered complexity through interactive ecological dynamics. This very different physical picture of how the world works has important implications for human beliefs in general. A final section of the study explores the ecological shift's implications for humankind. It looks at ecological changes occurring outside the physical sciences (for example, in economics) and at how the radically changed physical sense of how the world works might affect other beliefs. For instance, the new physical view shows a remarkable ability to support and connect many

  9. The impact of a catastrophic storm event on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in upland headwater streams and potential implications for ecological diversity and assessment of ecological status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kelly-Quinn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Upland headwater streams are dynamic systems, responding rapidly to changes in climatic conditions. This study examined the effects of a catastrophic rainfall event, that occured on 24 October 2011 on the east coast of Ireland, on the macroinvertebrate community composition and structure of four headwater streams in the river Liffey catchment located in the Wicklow Mountains. The ecological status before and after the storm were also evaluated. The water level and pH of each stream were recorded using continuous monitoring equipment, while rainfall data for the study period were sourced from a local weather station. Benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated before and after the storm event using Surber sampling. Results showed rapid and large increases in water level and significant declines in stream pH in response to intensive rainfall during the storm. The high water levels also caused major physical damage and abrasion in all four streams, that significantly altered instream habitats. The storm event induced significant losses to the richness and/or density of most taxonomic groups, with the exception of the Plecoptera. Furthermore, the overall community composition and structure changed significantly, most likely as a result of physical disturbance, given the relative persistence of acid-sensitive taxa and the relatively short period of harsh acidic conditions (<5 pH. Interestingly however, the ecological status of each of the four study sites, tested using Stream Risk Score (SSRS, Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT indices, was unaltered by the loss in richness and densities. This was likely a result of the maintenance of plecopteran richness and the absence of organic pollution, thus highlighting the need to develop appropriate indices to assess the ecological status of streams and rivers affected by physical disturbance caused by large storm events. Ultimately, catastrophic storm events in

  10. Emissions from prescribed fire in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    We estimated of emissions of carbon, as CO2-equivalents, from planned fire in four sites in a south-eastern Australian forest. Emission estimates were calculated using measurements of fuel load and carbon content of different fuel types, before and after burning, and determination of fuel-specific emission factors. Median estimates of emissions for the four sites ranged from 20 to 139 T CO2-e ha-1. Variability in estimates was a consequence of different burning efficiencies of each fuel type from the four sites. Higher emissions resulted from more fine fuel (twigs, decomposing matter, near-surface live and leaf litter) or coarse woody debris (CWD; > 25 mm diameter) being consumed. In order to assess the effect of estimating emissions when only a few fuel variables are known, Monte-Carlo simulations were used to create seven scenarios where input parameters values were replaced by probability density functions. Calculation methods were: (1) all measured data were constrained between measured maximum and minimum values for each variable, (2) as for (1) except the proportion of carbon within a fuel type was constrained between 0 and 1, (3) as for (2) but losses of mass caused by fire were replaced with burning efficiency factors constrained between 0 and 1; and (4) emissions were calculated using default values in the Australian National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA), National Inventory Report 2011, as appropriate for our sites. Effects of including CWD in calculations were assessed for calculation Method 1, 2 and 3 but not for Method 4 as the NGA does not consider this fuel type. Simulations demonstrate that the probability of estimating true median emissions declines strongly as the amount of information available declines. Including CWD in scenarios increased uncertainty in calculations because CWD is the most variable contributor to fuel load. Inclusion of CWD in scenarios generally increased the amount of carbon lost. We discuss implications of these simulations and

  11. Establishing the boundaries and building bridges: a literature review on ecological theory: implications for research into the refugee parenting experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nombasa

    2010-03-01

    Currently an ecological model for conceptualizing and capturing the refugee parenting experience is lacking. After an extensive review of the literature related to the usages of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of child development, a gap was found in knowledge and research centred on describing the environment of pre-resettlement (i.e. pre-flight, flight, migration, camp) contexts and their impact on refugee parents and carer experiences. The culture of the refugee parenting experience may be characterized by disruptions in and alterations to family structure and organization; values and norms; and gender roles. This paper begins by examining the definition and usages of existing ecological frameworks in the 20th and 21st century. Particular attention is drawn to the gaps in the existing literature and an ecological model is offered. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for practice. The outcomes of this paper suggest the need for practitioners, policymakers and researchers to engage and develop culturally competent, relevant and appropriate interventions (i.e. reconciling differing beliefs and behaviours concerning child-rearing practices; affirming positive parenting practices of these families during engagement protocols and processes; adopting a strengths-based orientation) in the area of child protection whilst at the same time safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children within pre- and post-resettlement contexts.

  12. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  13. Climatic and ecological implications of Late Pliocene palynoflora from Longling, Yunnan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.X.; Ferguson, D.K.; Li, C.S.; Wang, Y.F.; Du, N.Q. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany

    2004-07-01

    The Longling Coal Mine (W. Yunnan) is situated in an area of substantial geotectonic activity. Its Late Pliocene palynollora is of considerable interest, since the area represents a centre of biodiversity.Eighty-two palynomorphs belonging to 61 families were recovered from the lignite. The palynoflora is dominated by angiosperms (68.3%), with ferns (24.4%), gymnosperms (4.9%) and algae (2.4%). Comparisons indicate that most of the palynoflora was derived from the Montane Humid Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest, with lesser contributions from the Tsuga dumosa Forest and Evergreen Coniferous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest, as well as the Montane Mossy Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest. This indicates that the Late Pliocene climate was cooler than that of the present. In the course of the accumulation of the lignite, the climate underwent five major phases of warming and cooling.

  14. Species richness and ecological characterization of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms in the canopy of a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittler, Martin; Unterseher, Martin; Tesmer, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The ecological community of myxomycetes and myxomycete-like organisms (MMLO) in the canopy of living deciduous trees was studied in a riparian deciduous forest at Leipzig, Germany. A systematic survey carried out with a total of 146 moist chamber cultures resulted in 386 records of 37 taxa, with 32 myxomycetes, two myxobacteria, two protostelids and the fruit body forming ciliate Sorogena stoianovitchae, the latter recorded for the first time for Europe. With 94% of all cultures positive for MMLO, these organisms are present consistently in the investigated sections of white-rotten twigs attached to living trees at 10-30 m above the ground. Our sampling recovered a majority of the likely species, with 37 out of the 42-45 predicted according to a species-accumulation curve and two other estimators of species richness. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed pH, water-holding capacity and stage of decay to explain most of the variation in species distribution. Arcyria cinerea and Perichaena depressa as the most common species occurred in 32% and 29% of all samples, respectively. Viewing the sampled twigs as habitat islands and a single spore as sufficient to establish a population, a simulation program assuming a random spore rain estimated an average of 0.4 and 0.35 spore hits per twig as necessary to explain the observed frequencies. This is matched by the potential productivity of the substrate. All fruit bodies from the cultured twigs would be able to create a spore rain of 86 (A. cinerea) or 40 (P. depressa) spore hits per twig when dispersed evenly over the plot. The terminal fall velocity of spores was measured, revealing that it took about 5 h for a spore to land (30 m) in still air and indicating high dispersal ability for canopy-inhabiting MMLO.

  15. Applying Behavioral Ecology and Behavioral Economics to Conservation and Development Planning: An Example from the Mikea Forest, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Bram

    2007-09-01

    Governments and non-govermental organizations (NGOs) that plan projects to conserve the environment and alleviate poverty often attempt to modify rural livelihoods by halting activities they judge to be destructive or inefficient and encouraging alternatives. Project planners typically do so without understanding how rural people themselves judge the value of their activities. When the alternatives planners recommend do not replace the value of banned activities, alternatives are unlikely to be adopted, and local people will refuse to participate. Human behavioral ecology and behavioral economics may provide useful tools for generating and evaluating hypotheses for how people value economic activities in their portfolios and potential alternatives. This is demonstrated with a case example from southwestern Madagascar, where plans to create a Mikea Forest National Park began with the elimination of slash-and-burn maize agriculture and the encouragement to plant labor-intensive manioc instead. Future park plans could restrict access to wild tuber patches, hunting small game, and fishing. The value of these activities is considered using observational data informed by optimal foraging theory, and experimental data describing people's time preference and covariation perception. Analyses suggest that manioc is not a suitable replacement for maize for many Mikea because the two crops differ in terms of labor requirements, delay-to-reward, and covariation with rainfall. Park planners should promote wild tuber foraging and stewardship of tuber patches and the anthropogenic landscapes in which they are found. To conserve small game, planners must provide alternative sources of protein and cash. Little effort should be spent protecting lemurs, as they are rarely eaten and never sold.

  16. Ficus insipida subsp. insipida (Moraceae) reveals the role of ecology in the phylogeography of widespread Neotropical rain forest tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N; Dexter, Kyle G; Poelchau, Monica F; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Phillips, Oliver L; Pennington, R Toby; Carine, Mark

    2014-09-01

    To examine the phylogeography of Ficus insipida subsp. insipida in order to investigate patterns of spatial genetic structure across the Neotropics and within Amazonia. Neotropics. Plastid DNA (trnH-psbA; 410 individuals from 54 populations) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS; 85 individuals from 27 populations) sequences were sampled from Mexico to Bolivia, representing the full extent of the taxon's distribution. Divergence of plastid lineages was dated using a Bayesian coalescent approach. Genetic diversity was assessed with indices of haplotype and nucleotide diversities, and genetic structure was examined using spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA) and haplotype networks. Population expansion within Amazonia was tested using neutrality and mismatch distribution tests. trnH-psbA sequences yielded 19 haplotypes restricted to either Mesoamerica or Amazonia; six haplotypes were found among ITS sequences. Diversification of the plastid DNA haplotypes began c. 14.6 Ma. Haplotype diversity for trnH-psbA was higher in Amazonia. Seven genetically differentiated SAMOVA groups were described for trnH-psbA, of which two were also supported by the presence of unique ITS sequences. Population expansion was suggested for both markers for the SAMOVA group that contains most Amazonian populations. Our results show marked population genetic structure in F. insipida between Mesoamerica and Amazonia, implying that the Andes and seasonally dry areas of northern South America are eco-climatic barriers to its migration. This pattern is shared with other widespread pioneer species affiliated to wet habitats, indicating that the ecological characteristics of species may impact upon large-scale phylogeography. Ficus insipida also shows genetic structure in north-western Amazonia potentially related to pre-Pleistocene historical events. In contrast, evident population expansion elsewhere in Amazonia, in particular the presence of genetically uniform

  17. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

    2016-04-01

    The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community

  18. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    In tropical developing countries, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is becoming an important mechanism for conserving forests and protecting biodiversity. A key prerequisite for any successful REDD+ project, however, is obtaining baseline estimates of carbon in ...

  19. A new estimate of carbon for Bangladesh forest ecosystems with their spatial distribution and REDD+ implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Biswas, Shekhar R.; Rashid, A. Z. M. Manzoor;

    2014-01-01

    in forest ecosystems. Using available published data, we provide here a new and more reliable estimate of carbon in Bangladesh forest ecosystems, along with their geo-spatial distribution. Our study reveals great variability in carbon density in different forests and higher carbon stock in the mangrove...... ecosystems, followed by in hill forests and in inland Sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the country. Due to its coverage, degraded nature, and diverse stakeholder engagement, the hill forests of Bangladesh can be used to obtain maximum REDD+ benefits. Further research on carbon and biodiversity in under......-represented forest ecosystems using a commonly accepted protocol is essential for the establishment of successful REDD+ projects and for the protection of the country’s degraded forests and for addressing declining levels of biodiversity....

  20. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social-ecological system: implications for human wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C; Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Paddock, Jessica; Baker, Susan; McKenzie, Len J; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2014-06-30

    Seagrass ecosystems are diminishing worldwide and repeated studies confirm a lack of appreciation for the value of these systems. In order to highlight their value we provide the first discussion of seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system on a global scale. We consider the impact of a declining resource on people, including those for whom seagrass meadows are utilised for income generation and a source of food security through fisheries support. Case studies from across the globe are used to demonstrate the intricate relationship between seagrass meadows and people that highlight the multi-functional role of seagrasses in human wellbeing. While each case underscores unique issues, these examples simultaneously reveal social-ecological coupling that transcends cultural and geographical boundaries. We conclude that understanding seagrass meadows as a coupled social-ecological system is crucial in carving pathways for social and ecological resilience in light of current patterns of local to global environmental change.

  1. 苏北山丘区森林群落枯枝落叶层的生态功能分析%Analysis on Ecological Function of Forest Floor of Forest Community in the Hilly Region of Northern Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨盼盼; 于法展; 曾晨; 周颖

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out on ecological functions of forest floor,such as standing stock of litter,detainment of heavy metals,nutrient storage ability and water holding capacity of six typical forest communities in the hilly region of northern Jiangsu Province.The results show that with regard to standing stock of litter,for N storage capacity and the water holding capacity of forest floor,the Quercus community is the highest among the six forest communities,while as far as P and five heavy metals storage capacity is concerned,the Platycladus orientails forest community is the highest and followed by the Quercus.By comparison,the Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergli forest and Robinia pseudoacacia forest community are inferior in all these aspects.%通过对苏北山丘区6种代表性森林群落枯落物现存量、吸纳重金属、养分贮存能力和蓄水固土等生态功能的研究,结果表明:6种代表性森林群落枯枝落叶层现存量、对氮的贮存能力以及最大拦蓄量均以栎类林群落最大;对磷和5种重金属的贮存量以侧柏林群落最大,栎类林群落次之;赤松林、黑松林和刺槐林群落的各项生态功能相对较弱。

  2. Climate and Pest-Driven Geographic Shifts in Global Coffee Production: Implications for Forest Cover, Biodiversity and Carbon Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. We project areas suitable for future coffee cultivation based on several climate scenarios and expected responses of the coffee berry borer, a principle pest of coffee crops. We show that the global climatically-suitable area will suffer marked shifts from some current major centres of cultivation. Most areas will be suited to Robusta coffee, demand for which could be met without incurring forest encroachment. The cultivation of Arabica, which represents 70% of consumed coffee, can also be accommodated in the future, but only by incurring some natural forest loss. This has corresponding implications for carbon storage, and is likely to affect areas currently designated as priority areas for biodiversity. Where Arabica coffee does encroach on natural forests, we project average local losses of 35% of threatened vertebrate species. The interaction of climate and coffee berry borer greatly influences projected outcomes.

  3. Climate and Pest-Driven Geographic Shifts in Global Coffee Production: Implications for Forest Cover, Biodiversity and Carbon Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. We project areas suitable for future coffee cultivation based on several climate scenarios and expected responses of the coffee berry borer, a principle pest of coffee crops. We show that the global climatically-suitable area will suffer marked shifts from some current major centres of cultivation. Most areas will be suited to Robusta coffee, demand for which could be met without incurring forest encroachment. The cultivation of Arabica, which represents 70% of consumed coffee, can also be accommodated in the future, but only by incurring some natural forest loss. This has corresponding implications for carbon storage, and is likely to affect areas currently designated as priority areas for biodiversity. Where Arabica coffee does encroach on natural forests, we project average local losses of 35% of threatened vertebrate species. The interaction of climate and coffee berry borer greatly influences projected outcomes.

  4. Feeding ecology of penaeid shrimp in Kenyan mangrove ecosystems: implications for biological shrimp aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gatune, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological shrimp aquaculture derives its feed input from the naturally occurring food sources. This practice has an environmental advantage of reducing the use of fish meal as the main food input. Use of fish meal in aquaculture has a negative effect on the coastal fisheries in the sense of depleting fish stocks. It also has a tendency to discharge wastes that pollutes the receiving coastal ecosystems. Ecological shrimp aquaculture therefore impacts low burden to the coastal ecosystems since...

  5. Ecological Meaning and Consideration of Economic Forest Carbon Sinks in China----Take Yan-Shan Chestnut for Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, W. W.; Liu, S. R.

    Along with our country scientific researchers' study on native forest carbon sinks as well as the summary of the increasing amount of China's forest carbon, With the deepening of our scientists on the study of the national forest carbon sinks, forest carbon sinks has become a favorable support for climate diplomacy. Currently, a lot of work has focused on the carbon cycle, the level of carbon sinks of forest ecosystems, but the characteristics of economic forest carbon sinks are in a blank state. Beijing chestnut is one of the national food strategic security stockpiles, and estimate the potential of economic forest carbon sinks has important scientific significance to the establishment of carbon sink function area, and expansion of sustainable economic and social development of response measures.

  6. The formation of dense understory layers in the forest worldwide: consequences and implications for forest dynamics, biodiversity, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2010-01-01

    Alterations to natural herbivore and disturbance regimes often allow a select suite of forest understory plant species to dramatically spread and form persistent, mono-dominant thickets. Following their expansion, this newly established understory canopy can alter tree seedling recruitment rates and exert considerable control over the rate and direction of secondary...

  7. The formation of dense understory layers in forests worldwide: consequences and implications for forest dynamics, biodiversity, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Walter P. Carson

    2010-01-01

    Alterations to natural herbivore and disturbance regimes often allow a select suite of forest understory plant species to dramatically spread and form persistent, mono-dominant thickets. Following their expansion, this newly established understory canopy can alter tree seedling recruitment rates and exert considerable control over the rate and direction of secondary...

  8. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramesha Mallegowda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat and their migration. Aim of this work is to create detailed NDVI based land change maps and to use them to identify time-series trends in greening and browning in forest corridors in the study area and to identify the drivers that are influencing the observed changes. Over the four decades in BRT, NDVI increased in the core area of the forest and reduced in the fringe areas. The change analysis between 1973 and 2014 shows significant changes; browning due to anthropogenic activities as well as natural processes and greening due to Lantana spread. This indicates that the change processes are complex, involving multiple driving factors, such as socio-economic changes, high population growth, historical forest management practices and policies. Our study suggests that the use of updated and accurate change detection maps will be useful in taking appropriate site specific action-oriented conservation decisions to restore and manage the degraded critical wildlife corridors in human-dominated landscape.

  9. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela White; Patricia Manley; Gina Tarbill; T. W. Richardson; R. E. Russell; H. D. Safford; S. Z. Dobrowski

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire...

  10. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  11. Biomechanical effects of trees in a mountain temperate forest: implications for biogeomorphology, soil science, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Senecká, Anna; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2017-04-01

    Biomechanical effects of trees in forest soils represent a potentially significant factor in hillslope processes, pedocomplexity, and forest dynamics. However, these processes have been only rarely studied so far. Within this study we aim (i) to elaborate a detailed and widely applicable methodology of quantification of the main biomechanical effects of trees in soil, (ii) to reveal actual (minimal) frequencies, areas and volumes related to these effects in a mountain temperate old-growth forest. The research took place in the Boubín Primeval Forest in the Czech Republic. The fir-spruce-beech forest reserve belongs among the oldest protected areas in Europe. The reserve occupies NE slopes of an average inclination of about 14˚ on gneiss at an altitude of 930-1110 m a.s.l. We evaluated effects of all standing or lying trees of diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm in an area of 10.2 ha. In total, 4000 trees were studied from viewpoint of following features: treethrow, root mound, bioprotective function of standing as well as lying tree, baumstein, root baumstein, infilling stump, hole after trunk fall, stemwash, trunkwash. Any biomechanical phenomena were recorded in 59% of standing and 51% of lying dead trees (excluding the pervasive soil displacement by thickening trunk and roots and the converse infilling of the space freed during their decay with surrounding soil). Approximately one tenth of the trees expressed simultaneously opposing phenomena such as blocking of slope processes and their intensification. Different tree species and DBH categories exhibited significantly different structure of biomechanical effects in soil. Bioprotective function represented the most frequent process. However, concerning area and volume of affected soil, treethrows were an even more important phenomenon. Total area influenced by the studied biomechanical effects of current generation of trees was 343 m2ha-1. Additional 774 m2ha-1 were occupied by older treethrow pit

  12. Research on accounting recognition and measurement of forest ecological assets%森林生态资产的特征、会计确认与计量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梅娟; 温作民; 魏远竹

    2012-01-01

    现行的会计准则及制度从未涉及森林生态资产的核算规定.随着当今人们对森林生态问题前所未有的关注及其会计信息披露的需要,其核算问题也成为会计界研究的前沿与热点问题,有关它的特殊性及会计确认与计量等深层次问题都亟待解决.在阐述森林生态资产特殊性及其对会计确认与计量影响的基础上,分析认为森林生态资产的会计确认应该在评估的基础上进行,森林生态资产的初始及后续的会计计量均比较适合采用公允价值计量模式,其公允价值的获取途径应更多地考虑非市场价值的评估技术,而其估价技术方法应充分采纳现行成熟的生态经济学或环境经济学价值评价方法.%Current accounting standards and systems do not include the accounting of forest ecological assets. With the increasing attention that people pay to forest ecological issues and the needs for accounting information disclosure, its value accounting has become a forefront issue and hot topic in the accounting profession. The profound issues about its particularities, accounting recognition and measurements are to be solved. Based on the analysis of the features of forest ecological assets and its impacts on accounting recognition and measurement, this paper proposes that accounting recognition should be based on the appraisal and a fair value model is suggested for initial and further measurement of forest ecological assets. For the fair value measurement, the appraisal techniques of non-market values should be given more consideration. And its value appraisal methods should refer to the existing mature ecological economic or environmental economic appraisal methods.

  13. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  14. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Forest Dwellers Involved in Forest Ecology Tourism%林区居民参与森林生态旅游影响因素实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙惠; 张芳

    2015-01-01

    在现有文献和专家意见的基础上,设计调查问卷,运用SPSS软件对750份调查问卷搜集的数据进行统计和运算,对伊春市林区居民参与森林生态旅游意愿的影响因素进行研究。结果表明:除了林区自身内在因素、受教育水平程度、认知程度与参与影响感知外,一些外部环境因素也影响着林区居民的参与意愿,经济收入水平、预期经济成本与收益、政府的支持力度都对居民参与森林生态旅游有重要影响。在此基础上,提出相关建议政策促进森林生态旅游可持续发展,并为相关部门决策提供参考。%In order to fully develop the cultural and forest ecology landscape resources to carry out this particular forest eco-tourism activities is essential.Study on factors of residents to participate in forest eco-tourism has played a great role to enhance the develop-ment of forest eco-tourism industry,helping local residents out of poverty and become rich.Author on the basis of existing literature and expert opinions,including 22 questions designed questionnaire,using SPSS software 750 questionnaires survey data collected for statistical and computational analysis of the factors of Yichun forest residents willingness to participate in forest eco-tourism.The re-sults show that:In addition to forest its own internal factors,the level of education degree,awareness,participation affect perception, some external environmental factors also affect forest resident′s willingness to participate in forest eco-tourism,income levels,the ex-pected economic costs and benefits,the government′s efforts to support both have a major impact.On this basis,put forward policy recommendations to promote the sustainable development of forest eco-tourism and provide a reference for the relevant departments.

  15. Land Use Changes of an Aeolian-Loessial Soil Area in Northwest China: Implications for Ecological Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Fu; LIU Yan-Sui; WANG Jing; YAN Jian-Ping; GUO Xu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    China has experienced dramatic land use changes over recent decades,with marked environmental and socio-economic consequences.Hcngshan County,located in the aeolian-loessial area of Northwest China,was investigated to illustrate land use changes and their implications for environmental and long-term rural economic development.The farmland in Hengshan County significantly decreased during 1990-2003,whereas forest land and grassland increased.The conversion rates of farmland,orchard land,forest land and construction land varied markedly among different periods:1990-1995,1995-2000 and 2000-2003.Conversion of orchard land,grassland and construction land was dominant in 1990-1995,whereas the conversion of farmland to forest land mainly occurred in 2000-2003.The results suggested a profound transition in institutional policy and political economy of land management,including implementation of integrated soil erosion control projects,adoption of a market-oriented economy and the 'Grain-for-Green' policy,during this period in China.To achieve long-term sustainable land use in Hengshan County,efforts should aim at increasing off-farm income of rural families as well as establishing land-economizing mechanisms to promote land productivity,in addition to conservation measures.

  16. 公益林生态服务市场补偿政策研究%Studying on Ecological Service Market Compensation Policy of Non-commercial Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钦; 林雅秋; 黄志榕; 杨秀云; 黄李煌; 谢锦华

    2011-01-01

    文章论述了公益林生态服务市场补偿政策的理论依据,认为政府政策创新是公益林生态服务市场补偿的基础,政府应制订公益林生态服务交易制度,明确规定公益林生态服务的权利和义务;并且提出政府要规定企业二氧化碳的排放标准和公益林水丈生态服务补偿主体,制订自然保护区配额交易政策等.%The paper illustrates theory base of ecological service market compensation policy of non-commercial forest.It is considered that government policy innovation is foundation of market compensation, and government must establish trading system and regulate right and obligation of ecological service of non-commercial forest. The paper put forward that government regulate corporation CO2 emission standard and subject of ecological compensation, and establish quota trading policy of natural protection area, and so on.

  17. The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Matzke, Nicholas J; Dawson, Todd E

    2013-03-01

    Although clouds are the most recognisable and defining feature of tropical montane cloud forests, little research has focussed on how clouds affect plant functioning. We used satellite and ground-based observations to study cloud and leaf wetting patterns in contrasting tropical montane and pre-montane cloud forests. We then studied the consequences of leaf wetting for the direct uptake of water accumulated on leaf surfaces into the leaves themselves. During the dry season, the montane forest experienced higher precipitation, cloud cover and leaf wetting events of longer duration than the pre-montane forest. Leaf wetting events resulted in foliar water uptake in all species studied. The capacity for foliar water uptake differed significantly between the montane and pre-montane forest plant communities, as well as among species within a forest. Our results indicate that foliar water uptake is common in these forest plants and improves plant water status during the dry season.

  18. 基于生态保护格局的长白山北部森林景观特征分析%Analysis of landscape characteristics of forests in northern Changbai Mountains based on ecological protection pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健铭; 张天汉; 于琳倩; 董芳宇; 李景文; 李俊清; 赵秀海

    2015-01-01

    overall landscape in the study area, and fragmentation is more serious in the dominant landscape. The dominance of landscape of dominant tree species and age group is weak, the landscape connectivity is poor, tree species and age composition are complex, and the landscape fragmentation is more serious. The young growth forest is subjected to the most serious fragmentation. Human activities have significant effects on the dominant tree species and age composition, and human disturbance is the major reason causing landscape fragmentation. Based on the forest landscape classification and spatial pattern analysis, according to the current status of landscape and the objectives of forest landscape planning, we propose methods of landscape planning at different scales in this area. We suggest that the ideal forest landscape should include natural forest protection area, artificial tending area, Korean pine seed orchard protection areas and ecological corridors. To sum up, managers should make greater efforts in tending Korean pine seedlings, replanting bare land, restoring degraded forest, improving the status of landscape fragmentation and establishing ecological corridors. All these measures have important implications for responding to climate change and improving the biological diversity and stability of forest ecosystem.

  19. Health, safety, and ecological implications of using biobased floor-stripping products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Geiser, Kenneth; Ellenbecker, Michael; Marshall, Jason

    2007-05-01

    The main objective of the study reported here was to investigate the ecological, health, and safety (EHS) implications of using biobased floor strippers as alternatives to solvent-based products such as Johnson Wax Professional (Pro Strip). The authors applied a quick EHS-scoring technique developed by the Surface Solution Laboratory (SSL) of the Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) to some alternative, biobased products that had previously performed as well as or close to as well as the currently used product. The quick technique is considered an important step in EHS assessment, particularly for toxics use reduction planners and advocates who may not have the resources to subject many alternative products or processes at once to detailed EHS analysis. Taking this step narrows available options to a manageable number. (Technical-performance experiments were also conducted, but the results are not discussed or reported in this paper). The cost of switching to biobased floor strippers was assessed and compared with the cost of using the traditional product, both at full strength and at the dilution ratios recommended by the respective manufacturers. The EHS analysis was based on a framework consisting of five parameters: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); pH; global-warming potential (GWP); ozone depletion potential (ODP); and safety scores in areas such as flammability, stability, and special hazards, based on ratings from the Hazardous Material Classification System (HMIS) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Total EHS scores were calculated with data derived from the material safety data sheets. For most cleaning products previously investigated by the TURI SSL, the investigators have demonstrated that the five key parameters used in the study reported here can successfully be used for quick screening of the EHS impacts of cleaning alternatives. All eight biobased, or green, products evaluated in the study had better EHS-screening scores than did

  20. Assessing Habitat Quality of Forest-Corridors through NDVI Analysis in Dry Tropical Forests of South India: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Paramesha Mallegowda; Ganesan Rengaian; Jayalakshmi Krishnan; Madhura Niphadkar

    2015-01-01

    Most wildlife habitats and migratory routes are extremely threatened due to increasing demands on forestland and forest resources by burgeoning human population. Corridor landscape in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT) is one among them, subjected to various anthropogenic pressures. Human habitation, intensive farming, coffee plantations, ill-planned infrastructure developments and rapid spreading of invasive plant species Lantana camara, pose a serious threat to wildlife habitat ...

  1. Mortality, recruitment and growth of the tree communities in three forest formations at the Panga Ecological Station over ten years (1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The area evaluated in this study was a continuous stretch comprising three vegetation formations: gallery forest, semideciduous seasonal forest and cerradão (woodland savanna. The aim of this study was to examine the tree community dynamics in a forest gradient-from gallery forest to cerradão-at Panga Ecological Station, in the city of Uberlandia, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was based on data from a previous inventory of the continuous forest conducted in 211 permanent 10 × 10 m sample plots in eight parallel transect running perpendicular to Panga Creek. Trees with a diameter at breast height > 4.77 cm were sampled in 1997, 2002 and 2007. With the exception of the cerradão, there was a net reduction in tree density over the studied period of ten years, because mortality rates were higher than the recruitment rates. The basal area increased during the period of the study, especially at cerradão. The mean mortality rate in the studied area was 2.64%.yr-1 and 3.36%.yr-1 for the 1997-2002 and 2002-2007 periods, respectively, whereas the mean recruitment rate was 1.76%.yr-1 and 1.97%.yr-1, respectively. In general, mortality rates and recruitment rates have increased during the two successive periods of measurement and showed an imbalance in favor of mortality for the semideciduous seasonal forest and the gallery forest. This fact, added to the low density and high basal area, suggest that there was a process of thinning in the tree community. However, at cerradão, there was an imbalance in favor of recruitment, with a consequent increase in density and basal area, indicating that the cerradão is in a construction phase, which was further favored by a decrease in the occurrence of fire and other anthropogenic disturbances. When the turnover rates are taken into consideration, the global dynamics of the study area over the ten years evaluated can be expressed as cerradão > semideciduous seasonal forest > gallery

  2. Emissions from prescribed fires in temperate forest in south-east Australia: implications for carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possell, M.; Jenkins, M.; Bell, T. L.; Adams, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    implications of these simulations and how emissions from prescribed burns in temperate Australian forests could be improved.

  3. Assessing bias and knowledge gaps on seed ecology research: implications for conservation agenda and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme V T; Teixido, Alberto L; Barbosa, Newton P U; Silveira, Fernando A O

    2016-10-01

    Sampling biases permeate ecological research and result in knowledge gaps that have vital consequences for conservation planning. The consequences of knowledge gaps on species identity and distribution (the Wallacean and Linnean shortfalls, respectively) have become apparent recently, but we know little about the extent that research biases and knowledge gaps on traits that influence species' niches (the Hutchinsonian shortfall) affect conservation policy. To examine whether knowledge of species' traits based on seed ecology is geographically, phylogenetically, and ecologically biased, we retrieved research data on seed germination, seed dormancy, seed dispersal, seed banks, seed predation, and seed removal from a database of 847 papers, 1648 species, and 5322 cases. Brazil was selected as a model system for megadiverse, undersampled countries. Kernel density maps showed that research was geographically biased towards highly populated sites, with vast areas remaining historically unexplored. We also show that research was clustered into protected areas. We detected a significant positive phylogenetic bias at genus-level, indicating research concentration in few genera and lower relative bias rates for many herbaceous genera. Unexpectedly, information on seed banking was available for only 74 (3.4%) of threatened species, which suggests that information deficits are highest for species with critical needs for ex situ conservation strategies. Tree, fleshy-fruited, and biotic dispersal species were disproportionately overstudied. Our data indicate that information deficits on seed ecology preclude our ability to effectively restore ecosystems and to safeguard endangered species. We call for a systematic improvement of environmental agenda in which policy makers and scientists target sites, clades, and functional groups historically neglected. Lessons from developed countries and collaborative efforts will be important for megadiverse, underdeveloped countries to

  4. 构建人与自然和谐的森林生态旅游%Construct the Human and the Nature Harmonious Forest Ecological Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福祥

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces distribution and characteristics of tourism resources in Inner Mongolia Daxinganling. By discussing and analyzing the problems that include the achievement of forest park construction, tourism product development, ecological culture construction, excellent tourist routes and tourism development and protection, this paper described how to construct forest eco-tourism of harmony between man and nature.%  介绍了内蒙古大兴安岭旅游资源的分布与特点,对森林公园建设成就、旅游产品开发、旅游精品线路、生态文化建设、旅游开发与保护等问题进行论述分析,提出了构建人与自然和谐的森林生态旅游的对策措施。

  5. Kyasanur forest disease virus breaking the endemic barrier: An investigation into ecological effects on disease emergence and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajesh, K; Nagaraja, B K; Sreejith, K

    2017-02-20

    Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is found in a limited range of India, but is epidemiologically understudied. The seasonal patterns of KFD are well known; however, the significant concern is on the extent to which changes in epidemiology happen especially under the influence of ecological destructions and by the eventual effects of resulting climate change. Presently, a southward and northward spread of the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) along the Western Ghats has been reported in the adjoining states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Maharashtra. In this review, we investigate the cascade of factors that might have facilitated the resurgence of KFDV among the endemic regions in higher frequency and its recent emergence in the area previously not reported. Utilizing published data, we additionally endeavour to exhibit a portion of the impediments of control systems and embody the powerful option strategies for developing KFDV control.

  6. Ecological effects of utilizing non-timber forest products%非木材森林产品利用的生态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洁; 栾晓峰

    2011-01-01

    Non-timber forest products ( NTFPs) include all plant materials other than timber. such as seeds. flowers. fruits. leaves. roots. bark. latex. resms. and other non-wood plant parts. The significant role of NTFPs in improving local people ' s lives and forest biodiversity conservation has been widely accepted. However. many studies in past decades indicated that NTFPs utilization had various ecological effects on different levels, from plant individual and population to community and forest ecosystem, depending not only on the plant parts extracted and their biological or ecological attributes. but also on the harvest forms. This paper reviewed the research progress about the effects of the utilization of NTFPs from biological and ecological aspects, and discussed some research problems and research priorities.%非木材森林产品指来自森林的非木材植物产品,如果实、种子、枝叶、树皮、树胶等,在维持当地居民生活以及森林生物多样性保护中扮演着重要角色.非木材森林产品利用对植物个体、种群、群落和生态系统均会产生影响,这不仅取决于植物的利用部位、生物学或生态学特征,而且与资源的利用方式密切相关.本文从植物生物学和生态学角度综述了非木材森林产品利用影响的研究进展,讨论了研究中存在的问题和今后的研究方向.

  7. Social-Ecological Innovation in Purposeful Organizations: Implications & Impacts in an Age of Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Blahova, Michaela

    Purpose: This present age is one that is human-made, rather than defined by geologic strata. As such it has come to be called the Anthropocene Age. It is an age fraught with wicked social, ecological, and environmental challenges for which no clear resolutions exist. While many means of warfare...... that span societal, ecological, and economic dimensions. Findings: Edmund Husserl cited intentionality as central to human consciousness. Most certainly intentionality is equally central to conscious enterprise consideration and combat of wicked global challenges we face – ones that threaten people, planet...

  8. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  9. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  10. 基于云计算的现代林火生态管理系统的研究%Research of modern forest-fire ecology management system based on cloud-computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐箭

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing based modern forest fire ecology management system is built on forest-fire ecological resources and related information database. Aiming at the characteristics of forest-fires ecological resources,using cloud computing platform to manage and analyze ecological data,combining with forest-fire ecology management and monitoring center system and forest-fire ecology management decision support system,it provided accurate,timely and comprehensive information and pre-arranged planning for forest-fire ecology management and decision-making, which meets the actual requirements of the forestry sector and the security management setor,and realized intelligence,digitization and automation of modern forest-fire ecological management. The system improves management effficiency,gives a new mode of forest-fire ecology management ,and maintains the forest ecosystem stable and economic prosperous.%基于云计算的现代林火生态管理系统是建立在林火生态资源及相关信息库的基础上,针对林火生态资源的特点,利用云计算平台对林火生态数据的管理、分析功能,结合林火生态管理监控管理中心系统、林火生态管理决策支持系统,为林火生态管理和决策提供准确、及时、全面的信息和预案,以满足林业部门及安全管理部门的实际需要,实现现代林火生态管理的智能化、数字化和自动化.该系统提高了管理的工作效率,给出了林火生态管理的新模式,维护了森林生态系统稳定和林区经济的繁荣.

  11. Soil data for a thermokarst bog and the surrounding permafrost plateau forest, located at Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manies, Kristen L.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jones, Miriam C.; Waldrop, Mark P.; McGeehin, John P.

    2017-01-19

    Peatlands play an important role in boreal ecosystems, storing a large amount of soil organic carbon. In northern ecosystems, collapse-scar bogs (also known as thermokarst bogs) often form as the result of ground subsidence following permafrost thaw. To examine how ecosystem carbon balance changes with the loss of permafrost, we measured carbon and nitrogen storage within a thermokarst bog and the surrounding forest, which continues to have permafrost. These sites are a part of the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and are located within Interior Alaska. Here, we report on methods used for core collection analysis as well as the cores’ physical, chemical, and descriptive properties.

  12. 芒市生态公益林保护管理现状及对策%Conservation Status and Countermeasures of Ecological Non-commercial Forest in Mangshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兆平

    2011-01-01

    介绍生态公益林相关定义,芒市森林分类经营区划,公益林区划界定概况、管理现状.对生态公益林补偿标准偏低、集体生态公益林管护责任未能有效落实、民众保护意识有待增强,公益林科学利用机制不健全、监测机制有待建立等生态公益林保护管理中存在的问题进行了分析,藉此提出了相应对策或建议.%The ecological non-commercial forest-related definitions, Mangshi forest classification management division, non-commercial forest division defining and management status quo have been introduced. Problems existed in management, I. E. Low standard of ecological benefit compensation, obligation to manage collective ecological forest unclear, low public awareness, non perfect scientific using of forest, monitoring mechanisms to be established in the ecological forest protection and management, have also been analyzed. Corresponding measures or proposals were put forward.

  13. Pollination ecology of the rare orchid, Spiranthes diluvialis: Implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Pierson; Vincent J. Tepedino; Sedonia Sipes; Kim Kuta

    2001-01-01

    We examined the pollination ecology of Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak, Ute ladies-tresses, a federally listed, threatened orchid species known only from small, isolated populations in the western United States. The pollinator composition, male and female reproductive success, and demography of S. diluvialis populations were examined in 1995,1997, and 1999. Spiranthes...

  14. Magnitude and ecological implications of thermal inertia in skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, W.H.; Chang, R.K.C.; Dizon, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses results of experiments or the heat exchange processes used in skipjack tuna thormoregulation and the role of large thermal inertia in tuna ecology. The results indicated that skipjack tuna exchanged core heat with the environment only about 60% as rapidly as did typical telcosts and even somewhat more slowly than did air-breathing aquatic reptiles. (JWP)

  15. Microbial interactions involving sulfur bacteria : implications for the ecology and evolution of bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmann, J; van Gemerden, H

    2000-01-01

    A major goal of microbial ecology is the identification and characterization of those microorganisms which govern transformations in natural ecosystems. This review summarizes our present knowledge of microbial interactions in the natural sulfur cycle. Central to the discussion is the recent progres

  16. Microbial interactions involving sulfur bacteria : implications for the ecology and evolution of bacterial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmann, J; van Gemerden, H

    2000-01-01

    A major goal of microbial ecology is the identification and characterization of those microorganisms which govern transformations in natural ecosystems. This review summarizes our present knowledge of microbial interactions in the natural sulfur cycle. Central to the discussion is the recent

  17. 安徽省森林可持续发展与生态足迹分析%Analysis of the Forest Sustainable Development and the Ecological Footprint in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张然; 王仙慧

    2014-01-01

    在传统生态足迹模型的基础上,分出生态足迹和承载力两部分来计算安徽省2009-2011年的森林生态足迹,根据统计数据中生物资源和各项能源的消费量,计算出森林的生物资源账户和能源消费账户的生态足迹,再进一步计算各年的生态承载力,发现安徽省2009-2011年都是生态盈余,但森林生态足迹会很快赶超其生态承载力。并对如何维持森林资源的可持续发展从能源消费和森林资源恢复两方面提出若干建议。%Ecological footprint is a new method for quantitative measures of sustainable development,which reflecting the degree to people taking advantage of natural. This Article calculated two parts of the forest ecological footprint and bearing capacity from 2009 to 2011 in Anhui province with the basis of traditional ecological footprint model.According to the statistics of forestry biological resources and the fossil energy consumption,calculate the forest ecological footprint of biological resources accounts and fossil energy con-sumption accounts,then work out each of the ecological carrying capacity,further found that from 2009 to 2011 Anhui province keeps the ecological surplus,but the forest ecological footprint will catches up with the ecological carrying capacity soon,the author gave some advices from energy consumption and recovery of forest resources to maintain the sustainable development of forest resources.

  18. Forest management for water: a hydro-ecological modeling exercise of headwater catchments in the mixed-conifer belt of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Hydro-ecological modeling provides a cost-effective method for evaluating the effects of vegetation change on water cycling within a catchment. In mountain watersheds, change in forest vegetation not only has direct effects on transpiration rates, but also energy exchanges that influence patterns of snow ablation. In this study, treatment scenarios were implemented using the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys) to estimate impacts on key elements of the hydrologic cycle affected by forest harvesting - snowpack accumulation, ablation, transpiration, and streamflow. Twelve headwater catchments (0.5 - 2.6 km2, 1460 - 2450m) in the mixed-conifer zone of the central Sierra Nevada, within the Sierra and Tahoe National Forests, were included for analysis. These research sites are part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project (SNAMP), located in the headwaters of the American and Merced Rivers, and the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) in the Kings River basin. Two methods of forest harvesting were simulated in the study watersheds: 1) uniform canopy thinning, through reduction of Leaf Area Index (LAI) values and 2) strip-cut treatments, suggested as the best method for retaining snowpack. Results from this study compare the influence of vegetation on water cycle dynamics through the two harvesting treatments, initial vegetation densities, and individual catchment size. Model simulations for pre-treatment snow depth, soil moisture, and streamflow were validated with SNAMP and CZO in-situ measurements. Preliminary results show that a linear reduction of forest canopy reduces transpiration accordingly, but produces a non-linear increase in streamflow. Peak discharges also increased, occurring earlier in the spring and having more pronounced effects in the smaller catchments. Based on these results, harvesting thresholds required for obtaining increases in water yield are evaluated. Investigating the impact of forest management on these

  19. Climatic-Induced Shifts in the Distribution of Teak ( Tectona grandis) in Tropical Asia: Implications for Forest Management and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Jiban Chandra; Phinn, Stuart; Butt, Nathalie; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2017-09-01

    Modelling the future suitable climate space for tree species has become a widely used tool for forest management planning under global climate change. Teak ( Tectona grandis) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwood species in the international timber market, and natural teak forests are distributed from India through Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. The extents of teak forests are shrinking due to deforestation and the local impacts of global climate change. However, the direct impacts of climate changes on the continental-scale distributions of native and non-native teak have not been examined. In this study, we developed a species distribution model for teak across its entire native distribution in tropical Asia, and its non-native distribution in Bangladesh. We used presence-only records of trees and twelve environmental variables that were most representative for current teak distributions in South and Southeast Asia. MaxEnt (maximum entropy) models were used to model the distributions of teak under current and future climate scenarios. We found that land use/land cover change and elevation were the two most important variables explaining the current and future distributions of native and non-native teak in tropical Asia. Changes in annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and annual mean actual evapotranspiration may result in shifts in the distributions of teak across tropical Asia. We discuss the implications for the conservation of critical teak habitats, forest management planning, and risks of biological invasion that may occur due to its cultivation in non-native ranges.

  20. Post-independence fledgling ecology in a migratory songbird: Implications for breeding-grounds conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, H.M.; Peterson, S.M.; Kramer, G.R.; Anderson, D.E.

    2014-01-01

    For migratory songbirds, breeding-grounds conservation and management plans are generally focused on habitat associated with locations of singing males and sometimes nesting females. However, habitat structure is often different in areas used for raising fledglings compared with areas used for song territories, and very little is known about habitat use by fledglings after independence from adult care. From 2010 to 2012, we used radiotelemetry to monitor 68 fledgling golden-winged warblers Vermivora chrysoptera after independence from adult care in mixed managed forests of Minnesota, US and Manitoba, Canada. This species is of high conservation concern in the US, is listed as threatened in Canada and is listed as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. We assessed distance and orientation of independent fledgling movements and we used compositional analysis to test for selection among cover types. Fledglings of this species, commonly described as a shrubland specialist, selected mature forest (78% of locations) over all other cover types, and foraged in forest canopy and understory in mixed-species flocks. Fledgling golden-winged warbler movements were apparently associated with habitat optimization (although prioritizing foraging over predator avoidance), and likely not with commencement of migration, or scouting future breeding territories. Ten days after independence, fledglings were an average of 1238 m north of their nest, which may be related to homing-target formation and the species' northward range expansion. We conclude that consideration for independent fledgling habitat associations is necessary for developing full-fledged forest management plans on the breeding grounds of migratory songbirds.

  1. Ecological impacts and management implications of reef walking on a tropical reef flat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jane E; Byrnes, Evan E; Clark, Jennalee A; Connolly, David M; Schiller, Sabine E; Thompson, Jessica A; Tosetto, Louise; Martinelli, Julieta C; Raoult, Vincent

    2017-01-30

    Continued growth of tourism has led to concerns about direct and indirect impacts on the ecology of coral reefs and ultimate sustainability of these environments under such pressure. This research assessed impacts of reef walking by tourists on a relatively pristine reef flat community associated with an 'ecoresort' on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Heavily walked areas had lower abundances of live hard coral but greater amounts of dead coral and sediment. Abundances of macroalgae were not affected between sites. Coral-associated butterflyfish were less abundant and less diverse in more trampled sites. A manipulative experiment showed handling holothurians on reef walks had lasting negative impacts. This is the first study to show potential impacts of such handling on holothurians. Ecological impacts of reef walking are weighed against sociocultural benefits of a first hand experience in nature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of the dynamic......Burrowing polychaetes are typically the most numerous and active class among macrobenthic infauna in Danish estuaries. Their ecological role is well-recognized and has been often associated with their bioturbating activities. Construction and maintenance of galleries as well as ingestion...... and defecation displace sediment particles. Ventilation of their burrow irrigates the sediment. These activities transform the environment for other species: from microbes to plants (MS5). Given the important relations between bioturbating polychaetes and their ecosystem, any significant changes in population...

  3. Using ecology to inform physiology studies: implications of high population density in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Amy E M; Edmunds, Nicholas B; Ferraro, Shannon; Heffell, Quentin; Merritt, Gillian M; Pakkala, Jesse J; Schilling, Cory R; Schorno, Sarah

    2015-03-15

    Conspecific density is widely recognized as an important ecological factor across the animal kingdom; however, the physiological impacts are less thoroughly described. In fact, population density is rarely mentioned as a factor in physiological studies on captive animals and, when it is infrequently addressed, the animals used are reared and housed at densities far above those in nature, making the translation of results from the laboratory to natural systems difficult. We survey the literature to highlight this important ecophysiological gap and bring attention to the possibility that conspecific density prior to experimentation may be a critical factor influencing results. Across three taxa: mammals, birds, and fish, we present evidence from ecology that density influences glucocorticoid levels, immune function, and body condition with the intention of stimulating discussion and increasing consideration of population density in physiology studies. We conclude with several directives to improve the applicability of insights gained in the laboratory to organisms in the natural environment.

  4. Perceptions of Forest Health among Preservice Educators and Implication for Teaching Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Martha C.; Lauretta, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) determine preservice educators' perceptions of forest health, (b) define the experiences which may have influenced their understanding, and (c) identify the approaches they might use to convey forest health information. Twelve interviews were conducted with preservice science and agriculture education…

  5. Alternative definitions of growth and removals and implications for forest sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2008-01-01

    Alternative definitions for growth and removals from a forest being monitored over time are discussed. It is shown that the definitions that are used in practice may not be what one would expect and estimates can vary substantially under alternative definitions. This can result in conclusions about forest sustainability that may be misleading. Alternative definitions...

  6. Complex phylogeographic history of central African forest elephants and its implications for taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Bryan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous phylogenetic analyses of African elephants have included limited numbers of forest elephant samples. A large-scale assessment of mitochondrial DNA diversity in forest elephant populations here reveals a more complex evolutionary history in African elephants as a whole than two-taxon models assume. Results We analysed hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial control region for 71 new central African forest elephants and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 28 new samples and compare these sequences to other African elephant data. We find that central African forest elephant populations fall into at least two lineages and that west African elephants (both forest and savannah share their mitochondrial history almost exclusively with central African forest elephants. We also find that central African forest populations show lower genetic diversity than those in savannahs, and infer a recent population expansion. Conclusion Our data do not support the separation of African elephants into two evolutionary lineages. The demographic history of African elephants seems more complex, with a combination of multiple refugial mitochondrial lineages and recurrent hybridization among them rendering a simple forest/savannah elephant split inapplicable to modern African