WorldWideScience

Sample records for forestry initiative 1986-1987

  1. National Register of research projects, 1986/1987: Part 3, Human sciences: Social sciences. Nasionale Register van navorsingsprojekte, 1986/1987: Deel III, Geesteswetenskappe: Sosiale wetenskappe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This Register is intended to serve as a source of information on research which is being conducted in all fields (both natural and human sciences) in the Republic of South Africa. New and current research projects that were commenced or modified during 1986--1987, on which information was received by the compilers until January 1988, are included, with the exception of confidential projects.

  2. Beyond Child Survival: Towards a New Future. Report of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, 1986-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    This report on the Bernard van Leer Foundation's early childhood grant program of 1986-1987 is organized by geographic region. Regional sections cover Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe, and the Western Hemisphere. Each regional section contains an introduction, a table of major projects being supported in the region, and feature articles on…

  3. Autopsy of forestry ballot initiative: characterizing voter support for Oregon's measure 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Catriona. Armstrong

    2001-01-01

    On November 3,1998, Oregon voters soundly rejected a ballot initiative intended to promote sustainable forestry practices and protect forest ecosystems by restricting clearcut logging and herbicide and pesticide use. We found that initiative support was greater in more urban counties composed of more educated residents earning higher incomes and with higher proportions...

  4. Forestry Standardization & Forestry Insurance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Forestry insurance of our country has developed slowly,of which the main difficulty lies in predicting and determining forestry risk,confirming the sum insured,raising the premiums, indemnity for property loss,coordinating forestry insurance and forestry protection,and lack of insurance legal system etc.With the implementation of forestry's standardized project,and overcoming effectively the technological obstacle existing in forestry's insurance,the development speed of forestry's insurance will be accelerated too.

  5. Calidad sanitaria de las aguas de playa en Costa Rica: comparación entre los períodos 1986 - 1987 y 1996 - 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1998-01-01

    Se presenta una comparación de la calidad sanitaria de las aguas de 36 playas, ubicadas en ambos litorales durante los períodos 1986-1987 y 1996-1997. Para esto se utilizó la determinación de coliformes fecales/100 mL, y los parámetros físico-químicos de turbiedad y color, con una frecuencia de muestreo mensual y bimestral. Los resultados indican que existen cuatro aguas de playa que disminuyeron su contaminación fecal: Caldera, Quepos, Golfito y Cieneguita; por otro lado, 6 playas la increme...

  6. Calidad sanitaria de las aguas de playa en Costa Rica: comparación entre los períodos 1986 - 1987 y 1996 - 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darner Mora Alvarado

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una comparación de la calidad sanitaria de las aguas de 36 playas, ubicadas en ambos litorales durante los períodos 1986-1987 y 1996-1997. Para esto se utilizó la determinación de coliformes fecales/100 mL, y los parámetros físico-químicos de turbiedad y color, con una frecuencia de muestreo mensual y bimestral. Los resultados indican que existen cuatro aguas de playa que disminuyeron su contaminación fecal: Caldera, Quepos, Golfito y Cieneguita; por otro lado, 6 playas la incrementaron: Doña Ana, Azul, Mantas, Jacó, Puerto Jiménez y Balneario Municipal de Limón. Las restantes 26 playas se mantuvieron sin una contaminación fecal importante. Las playas no aptas para la natación son: Azul, Quepos, Guacalillo (sólo tiene datos del 96-97, Balneario Municipal y Cieneguita. Por último, se determinó que las principales fuentes de contaminación terrestre son las descargas de aguas domésticas sin tratamiento al mar, ríos, quebradas y esteros que desembocan en las cercanías de la playa.

  7. [Results of multiphasic oncology screening of the population in the community of Beĕj 1986-1987. II. Questionnaire screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burány, B; Beretka, F; Dzigurski-Sekulić, N

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the multiphase oncologic population screening in the community of Becej in the period from 1986-1987, the inquiry screening comprised 16,895 persons, whereby the following results were obtained: two malignant breast neoplasms, one uterine corpus neoplasm, one carcinoma of the larynx, and out of the non-target locations, not included in the specific questionnaire, there was one carcinoma of the lower lip and one malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland. Besides, 10 benign breast neoplasms and 12 benign uterine neoplasms were also detected. These specific results lagged behind the expected ones on the basis of the known average incidence and mortality in locations of Vojvodina included by this questionnaire. The elucidation of all possible causes leading to this disaccordance, was the task of specific studies intended for the improvement of this questionnaire as a method for the early detection of malignant and premalignant lesions. Other numerous mass pathological states were detected during the screening of either the characteristic signs of specific malignant neoplasm locations, or of risk factors of particular importance for the appearances of these malignant neoplasms. These health problems with clarified epidemiological dimensions in the population studied, necessitated planned solution according to the accepted doctrinary principals (protocols). Data on these diseases gave new dimensions to the inquiry (and the overall multiphase) oncologic population screening. The target-health educational effect of this inquiry which reached every man over 40 years of age in the population studied should not be neglected, either.

  8. Højde hos 6-16-årige danske skolebørn målt i perioden fra 1986/1987 til 1996/1997. Sammenlignet med danske målinger fra 1971/1972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Petersen, Tove Anne-Grete; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish schoolchildren are said to have grown taller during the last 25 years. Studies on this topic have not been nationwide, however. The aim of this study was to compare the heights of a nationwide sample of Danish schoolchildren in 1986/1987-1996/1997 to a sample in 1971/1972. MA......INTRODUCTION: Danish schoolchildren are said to have grown taller during the last 25 years. Studies on this topic have not been nationwide, however. The aim of this study was to compare the heights of a nationwide sample of Danish schoolchildren in 1986/1987-1996/1997 to a sample in 1971...... for 1971/1972. CONCLUSION: The children in our study were taller than schoolchildren in 1971/1972, and they seemed to have an earlier pubertal height spurt. A growth study of Danish children is needed. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Oct-21...

  9. Imagined forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Lund, Jens Friis

    2017-01-01

    of material, financial and politico-economic constraints that have largely determined how control and management have unfolded in practice. Thus, the paper illustrates how principles of scientific forestry have come to follow, rather than precede and guide, practices of forest exploitation, and how...... investments in forest management and silvicultural practices aimed at nurturing the long-term productive value of the forests have been few and far between and rendered ineffective by weaknesses in their theoretical basis and a lack of forest ecological data. Our account of the history of scientific forestry...... in Ghana is relevant to scholars of empire forestry through its attention to what notions of scientific forestry meant in practice, but also to today’s policy makers and practitioners in areas such as timber legality verification, forest certification and decentralised forest management where...

  10. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  11. AGS experiments: 1985, 1986, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depken, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains: Experimental areas layout, table of beam parameters and fluxes, experiment schedule ''as run,'' experiment long range schedule, a listing of experiments by number, two-page summaries of each experiment, also ordered by number, and publications of AGS experiments, 1982-1987.

  12. Enfrentar a Reagan y a la Contra: los intelectuales, opinión pública costarricense y la discusión por la paz en Centroamérica (1986-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz Arias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la construcción de una opinión pública en Costa Rica acerca de la guerra en Nicaragua entre los sandinistas y la Contra en 1986-1987 y sobre la política internacional de Costa Rica frente a ese conflicto y frente a los propósitos de expansión de la guerra del presidente estadounidense Ronald Reagan. Se revisan las opiniones emitidas por varios intelectuales costarricenses acerca del plan de paz de Óscar Arias y la construcción que hicieron de su imagen entre 1986 y 1987. Queda en evidencia que, en su afán de producir un total apoyo al plan de paz, los intelectuales costarricenses promovieron acríticamente a Arias como un héroe nacional, regional y casi mundial.

  13. Woodland carbon code: building an evidence base for the "4 per mil" initiative in land converted to forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Jacqueline; Vanguelova, Elena; West, Vicky

    2017-04-01

    The Woodland Carbon Code is a voluntary standard for woodland creation projects in the UK. Carbon sequestration resulting from certified projects will contribute directly to the UK's national targets for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Whilst this is concerned primarily with above ground capture there is little empirical evidence of the longer term carbon sequestration potential of soils under this land use change in the UK. We present preliminary results from a resurvey of 20 sites originally sampled as part of the soil survey of England and Wales. It includes soil carbon stocks assessed within the soil profile (up to 1m depth) where sites have been converted to forestry in the last 40 years. The small number of sites (n=20) and high variability in soil type, forest type and original land use prevented detailed analysis between these different factors, but overall there was an increase in carbon concentration in the whole profile, driven primarily by an increase the surface organic layers. For all sites combined there was no significant difference in the C stocks between the two survey periods. The increase in carbon stock in the surface organic horizons tended to be offset by a decrease in the mineral subsoils (specifically in Brown Earth soils) primarily as a result of bulk density changes. There are presently insufficient measured data from a range of UK climate, land-use and soil type conditions to quantify with confidence soil C changes during afforestation. This is partly because of the difficulties of detecting relatively slow changes in spatially heterogeneous soils and also obtaining good examples of sites that have undergone documented land use change. Reviewing results from all ongoing afforestation projects in the UK will provide better quantification of the C sequestration potential of forest soils to be accounted for in the Woodland Carbon Code's overall GHG mitigation potential.

  14. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...... there is a generally accepted agreement that collective management (community forestry) will yield success in forest conservation. However, the claim is seldom rigorously examined. We suggest to have a review of the literature and to propose a first step to a test of the claim in order to reach a first generalization...... as to the success of community forestry in forest conservation. The review of the literature is the first step towards such an examination, enabling us to make some initial generalizations for further research. In the present paper, a statistical test is performed and the claim is found wanting. The reviewed papers...

  15. Reducing Impacts of Forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    New definitions are provided of intensive and extensive forestry in version 3 of the ecoinvent database. These definitions are based on explicit and easily measured indicators for the most important aspects of forestry management for biodiversity. Unfortunately, many certified forestry products...... come from what would be classified as intensive forestry in the ecoinvent classification. The real challenge is to develop forest management systems that have a neutral or positive biodiversity impact relative to that of plantation forestry. Such truly extensive, biodiversity-managed forestry is very...... challenging and not very common today. Ample options exist for increasing yields in intensive and plantation forests, which can be recommended as having lower biodiversity impact than similar products from other management systems, certified or not....

  16. State of Art and Knowledgeof Urban Forestry in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PALIJONArmandoManito

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry is an emerging science and art in the field of resource management in the Philippines.The concepts and principles are quite similar with traditional forestry being both resource management strategies. As a science and art, urban forestry needs to be assessed as to its present status. Hence, in this paper, I presented a brief historical background about urban forestry in the Philippines including the previous and present efforts, policies and programs related to urban forestry and the extent of their implementation.I also included the result of my assessment about the initiatives and capabilities of the local agencies specifically the local government units (LGUs) in Metro Manila on urban forestry. I also included the status of urban forestry research including the research gaps that need to be addressed. Some recommendations that are logical toward sustainability of urban green spaces are likewise enumerated.

  17. The data not collected on community forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Reem; Oldekop, Johan A; Cronkleton, Peter; Etue, Emily; Newton, Peter; Russel, Aaron J M; Tjajadi, Januarti Sinarra; Zhou, Wen; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-12-01

    Conservation and development practitioners increasingly promote community forestry as a way to conserve ecosystem services, consolidate resource rights, and reduce poverty. However, outcomes of community forestry have been mixed; many initiatives failed to achieve intended objectives. There is a rich literature on institutional arrangements of community forestry, but there has been little effort to examine the role of socioeconomic, market, and biophysical factors in shaping both land-cover change dynamics and individual and collective livelihood outcomes. We systematically reviewed the peer-reviewed literature on community forestry to examine and quantify existing knowledge gaps in the community-forestry literature relative to these factors. In examining 697 cases of community forest management (CFM), extracted from 267 peer-reviewed publications, we found 3 key trends that limit understanding of community forestry. First, we found substantial data gaps linking population dynamics, market forces, and biophysical characteristics to both environmental and livelihood outcomes. Second, most studies focused on environmental outcomes, and the majority of studies that assessed socioeconomic outcomes relied on qualitative data, making comparisons across cases difficult. Finally, there was a heavy bias toward studies on South Asian forests, indicating that the literature on community forestry may not be representative of decentralization policies and CFM globally. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. The potential of vegetable oila s an alternate source of liquid fuel for agriculture in the Pacific Northwest - V: Final report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auld, D.L.; Davis, J.B.; Feldman, M.E.; Hall, M.C.; Hawley, K.N.; Korus, R.A.; Magenis, B.R.; Mahler, K.A.; Melville, D.E.; Mosgrove, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    This research was conducted to develop the technology necessary to produce, process, and utilize vegetable oil as a diesel fuel substitute for agricultural production in the Pacific Northwest. Additional studies were conducted to determine the economic threshold, to derive energy budgets for various crop production regions and to insure that expeller extracted meals would make acceptable animal feeds. This research was conducted by an integrated team of scientists from the University of Idaho which initiated efforts in this field in December of 1979. Experiments were conducted by agronomists, agricultural engineers, animal nutritionists, chemical engineers, and agricultural economists. This report summarizes data accumulated from April 1986 to May 1987 as part of USDA/ARS Research Agreement No. 58-7B30-2-402. Copies for this report can be obtained from the Director of the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843.

  19. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  20. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  1. Microalgae culture collection, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, W.; Johansen, J.; Chelf, P.; Nagle, N.; Roessler, P.; Lemke, P.

    1986-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection provides a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and makes these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. All of the newly added strains have been recently isolated by SERI and its subcontractors in organized screening programs. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers. The strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters and marine waters. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. Most of the strains are currently nonaxenic. Again this year, cultures will be shipped free of charge to interested researchers. An important function of the culture collection catalog, in addition to listing the available strains, is to provide culture and performance data for each of the organisms. By collecting a summary of the requirements and characteristics of these organisms, we hope to allow requestors of cultures to begin productive research with a minimum of preliminary work on culture techniques.

  2. Digital forestry research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Shouzheng; TANG; Lina; Guofan; Shao; DAI; Limin

    2006-01-01

    Digital Forestry as a concept was developed after the Digital Earth program. The Chinese scientists were not only among the pioneers who first proposed the concept of Digital Forestry, but also contributed a lot to the development of Digital Forestry. Digital Forestry is a digital framework to maintain forest planting, management, using, and protect. The synergetic use of computationally-intensive quantitative methods together with information technologies is the most important foundation for the development of Digital Forestry. Under this situation, the experience of Digital Forestry development in China is relatively rich. A number of academicians, scholars, and professional administrators were involved in discussing the Digital Forestry Construction Scheme. The Project of Digital Forestry Practicability approved by the State Forestry Administration is a major instance in developing Digital Forestry standard and key techniques. By introducing a case study of Digital Forestry, this paper reviews the concept of Digital Forestry, the way turning traditional forestry into Digital Forestry, and the future development of Digital Forestry.

  3. Forestry contracting in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khosa, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The outsourcing of forestry activities over the past decade has created an industry with an annual turnover of R600 million and 35000 employees (Edwards, 2000). During the past decade forestry companies have switched from employing some...

  4. Community forestry - participatie in beheer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Verbij, E.E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Verslag van de conferentie 'Community Forestry - a change for the better' (7-9 december 1999, Londen). De nadruk lag op de sociale aspecten van community forestry: gezondheid, verbondenheid met het bos, samenwerking, rol van de overheid. Verder aandacht voor community forestry projecten in Engeland

  5. MS1986-1987 - Vectorized Shoreline of Mississippi Derived from 1986-1987 Source Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — There are critical needs for a nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data. To meet these needs, the USGS has produced a comprehensive database of digital...

  6. BIOMASS ENERGY AND ENERGY FORESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Tilki

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass fuels account for nearly 14% of the world’s energy. Energy forestry has been investigated since the mid-1960s to produce fiber for the paper and pulp industry. In the 1970s, following the oil crises, the emphasis switched to producing woody biomass for energy using fast-growing trees. Fastgrowing broadleaved trees, such as poplars and willows are grown at close spacing and under intensive management systems more akin to agriculture practice than forestry. In Turkey, rehabilitation studies in especially oak coppice stands are thought to be a part of the energy forestry, but the areas coppice stands grow on and species common in those areas are not suitable for modern energy forestry used in developed countries.

  7. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slađana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  8. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...

  9. Daxing anling Forestry Group Co.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Located on the Daxing'anling forest region of China's frontier, the Daxing'anling Forestry Group Co. is one of the 500 national large size enterprise groups with a total management area of 8.225 million ha. There are 10forestry bureaus under its jurisdiction, 93 000 in-service staff and a population of 358 000. The net value of fixed asset is 3. 58 billion yuan, Accumulative total output of timber has amounted to 110 million m3 during the past 38 years. Its profits and tax turned over to the State has t...

  10. Social Forestry : changing perspectives in forestry science or practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    Forestry has been defined as a profession embracing the science and the practice of creating, conserving, and managing forests for the continuing use of these resources. Since its inception in the 18th century it has gradually evolved in character in response to changing social values. At the end of

  11. An Educational Evaluation of Web-Based Forestry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Shorna Broussard; Smallidge, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Online forestry education can serve large populations of woodland owners and managers. Cornell University's ForestConnect program initiated the nation's first woodlot management educational webinar series. We conducted an educational evaluation to determine: (1) the educational impact of the ForestConnect Webinar series, (2) the involvement of new…

  12. Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.; Bommel, van S.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Verschoor, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resou

  13. Forest-people interfaces: understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Arts; S. van Bommel; M. Ros-Tonen; G. Verschoor

    2012-01-01

    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resou

  14. Strategic Trend of Chinese Urban Forestry Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhiyong

    2004-01-01

    China is facing new challenges of urban expansion of scale and deterioration of the ecological environment. Urban forestry has a new role and position in Chinese forestry development. ""Chinese Sustainable Development Forestry Strategic Research"" established the strategic objectives and policy measures on urban forestry, improved urban ecological environment and pushed Chinese urban ecological process through building up green forest island in urban central district, green forest zone in suburbs, forest system in remoter outskirts of cities.

  15. Participatory Indicators of Success of Community Forestry Programs in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyinza Mukadasi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, a large diversity of community initiated forest management systems have evolved recently in response to severe degradation of forests and grazing land and biomass shortages. Forestry professional, forest user group and farmers were organized in June 2004 to develop commonly agreed indicators of the performance of Community Forestry Program in Uganda. Indicators, such as access to fuel wood, incidence of forest fire and amount of community funds raised through the sale offorest products are commonly agreed at local level. Women participation in forestry related meetings and taste of drinking water in the watershed area are also important. Equitable benefit sharing by the community forest users serves as an indicator of better access to forest products. Socio-economic changes such as women participation in forest related decision-making, income generated from community forests, and equity of benefits from community forests also, reflect the program success.

  16. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude, e

  17. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  18. Real Forestry for Real Estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jennifer; Fisher, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Virginia is poised to see an unprecedented change in forest land ownership. To provide new landowners with information on sustainable forest management, we developed a two-part program, Real Forestry for Real Estate. First, we assembled New Landowner Packets, which contain a variety of sustainable forest management resources. Second, two…

  19. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude,

  20. A database framework of digital forestry towards sustainable forestry development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jingzhu; WANG Yanchun; DONG Rencai

    2006-01-01

    Six forestry scientific and technological projects being actualized in China were the implementations of ecological construction and security, development of forestry biological technique and fine variety cultivation, protection and utilization of forest biological germplasm resources, development of forestry bio-industry and digital forestry, and construction of forestry innovation ability. Among them, digital forestry was an effective measure to improve the ability of forestry innovation, to realize resources sharing, and to develop sustainable forestry. Spatial database of digital forestry should be constructed according to the criteria and index system of forest sustainable management. Based on analyzing the status and advances of China's digital forestry construction, a database framework of digital forestry towards sustainable forestry development was studied and established preparatorily. The database was divided into four layers as theory layer, system layer, status layer, and parameter layer. It was concluded that during the process of digital forestry platform construction, the relative social, economic, and politic data should be considered and collected, which meant that the database should represent not only the current forestry development, but also the social, politic, and economic situations. Constructing China's digital forestry information platform under full utilization of idea and index system for sustainable forest management was urgent and important.

  1. Framework of Social Responsibilities of Forestry Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang; SUI; Weimin; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Forestry industry plays a key role in regulating climate and promoting sustainable development of society.Environmental responsibility is the key part of social responsibilities of forestry enterprises.Based on the particularity of forestry industry,the framework of social responsibility reports of forestry enterprises is provided,and major topics of social responsibilities followed by forestry enterprises are analyzed.Meanwhile,the core values of social responsibilities of forestry enterprises are pointed out.It is proposed that the social responsibility reports of forestry enterprises should involve the responsibility to shareholders and creditors,the responsibility to suppliers,customers and consumers,the responsibility to employees,the responsibility to the environment,and the responsibility to communities and charity behavior.

  2. Urban Forestry as a Vehiclefor Healthy and Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NILSSONKjell

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry has been defined as the art, science and technology of managing trees and forest resources in and around urban community ecosystems for the physiological, sociological, economic and aesthetic benefits trees provide. The importance of urban forestry has received limited attention in many poor countries as it is often percieved as being associated with beautification projects, which are considered a luxury benefiting only the wealthier part of the population. However, urban forestry may have a number ofenvironmental, economic and socio-cultural values, which will also benefit poorer segments of city populations.Even in poorer countries, planning for urban trees and forests is a good investment, as these areas will be demanded when income levels increase. Once everything is allocated to other construction or infrastructure,it may be very difficult to create new green areas unless these are planned for.The Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning has been leading actor in the development of Urban Forestry during the last decade. EUFORIC (European Urban Forestry Research and Information Centre),COST Action E12 “Urban Forests and Trees” and E39 “Forests, Trees and Human Health and Wellbeing” are all examples of activities initiated and coordinated by the Danish centre. It has also developed urban forestry and urban greening as a concept for environment and development aid projects in Eastern Europe and developing countries in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa. Over the coming years, the main challange will be to ensure that the expansion of the green infrastructure in the world's urban areas is implemented within the framework of sustainability and human health and well-being, without the use of a technology inimical to man and nature and with as few chemical aids as possible.

  3. Addendum to Microalgae Culture Collection 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J. R.; Lemke, P.; Nagle, N. J.; Chelf, P.; Roessler, P. G.; Galloway, R.; Toon, S.

    1987-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production.

  4. Project Caribe, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Jose J.; Cabrera, Eulalia

    Project CARIBE (Career Awareness in Bilingual Education) was a Title VII-funded project in its third year at two New York high schools, one in Brooklyn and one in Queens. The project supplemented municipally funded bilingual programs for limited-English-speaking Hispanic students by establishing a resource/computer center and conducting academic…

  5. Miguel Reale and his autobiographical accounts (1986-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Patschiki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will analyze the two autobiographical volumes by Miguel Reale (1910-2006—Memórias: Destinos cruzados (Memoirs: Crossed destinies and Memórias: A balança e a espada (Memoirs: The balance and the sword, published in 1986 and 1987 by Editora Saraiva—seeking to understand Reale’s tactics and discursive strategies in his (reconstruction of a public biography. In addition to being an articulator and civilian theoretician of the 1964 Brazilian coup d’état, Reale was a constant collaborator with the dictatorship. During the process of the democratic reorganization of the autocratic-bourgeois State, Reale was a legal counselor to João Figueiredo. In that capacity, he fought for a conservative political opening to be abided and understood by the people as a “gift.” This proximity created numerous issues because if Reale could not deny his old commitments, he could not likewise publicly admit his defense of the regime. Seeking to secure his position as an intellectual, Reale took several coordinated actions, the most important of which was to publish his memoirs.

  6. America's People, 1986-1987 Edition. Aspects of America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    It is important for students to have a feel for some of the key numerical and size characteristics of their country, and often graphic blackline masters permit easier, quicker learning than many chapters of text. For this purpose maps, tables, and graphs depicting various characteristics of the United States' population have been compiled in this…

  7. Project BRIDGES. 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Margaret H.; And Others

    In its first year under Title VII funding, Project BRIDGES (Bilingual Resource Instruction for the Development of Gainful Employment Skills) provided instructional and support services to 346 limited-English-speaking students in three Brooklyn (New York) high schools (South Shore, Sheepshead Bay, Franklin D. Roosevelt). The project's aim was to…

  8. Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem research, 1986-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

    1987-01-01

    The apparent lifelessness of the Ross Desert is in marked contrast to the diversity of cryptoendolithic microorganisms inhabiting the interstices of sandstone rocks. The endolithic habitat provides a protective niche for lichens, bacteria, algae, and fungi, enabling them to exist in an extremely dry and cold climate. Composed solely of microorganisms living under the surface of rocks and totally lacking animals and protozoa, this ecosystem is controlled by measurable physical variables and well suited for ecosystem study and modeling. The work of the antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem research group has involved physical measurements of nanoclimate (microbial environment inside rocks) (Friedmann, McKay, and Nienow 1987), taxonomy (Darling, Friedmann, and Broady 1987; Hale 1987), microdistribution, organism-substrate interactions including the ongoing process of fossilization (Friedmann and Weed 1987), physiological ecology, and quantification of the nitrogen economy.

  9. Addendum to Microalgae Culture Collection 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, J. R.; Lemke, P.; Nagle, N. J.; Chelf, P.; Roessler, P. G.; Galloway, R.; Toon, S.

    1987-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production.

  10. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  11. A study of laseruler accuracy and precision (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted to investigate Laserruler accuracy and precision. Tests were performed on 0.050 in., 0.100 in., and 0.120 in. gauge block standards. Results showed and accuracy of 3.7 {mu}in. for the 0.12 in. standard, with higher accuracies for the two thinner blocks. The Laserruler precision was 4.83 {mu}in. for the 0.120 in. standard, 3.83 {mu}in. for the 0.100 in. standard, and 4.2 {mu}in. for the 0.050 in. standard.

  12. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    this, there is also a tax on the revenue caused by increase in property value during the ownership period. We analyse how the rotation age in model forest properties with given species composition and initial age structure is affected by these two taxes for a planned generational change every 30 years......In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from......, compared to an unplanned change and a reference model with no tax on heritage or property value increase (or no change of ownership). As the point of departure we apply model properties including 1000 ha of forest and with species compositions representative for different regions in Denmark. This allows us...

  13. Integration of Forestry Industrial Chain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanzhan; LAN; Liqun; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Smile Curve and Michael E. Porter’ value chain model,this paper points out that China’s forestry industry stays at the low end of the value chain for a long time. Raw materials are imported from foreign countries and also sold in foreign countries. Then,the authors analyze characteristics and existing problems of China’s forestry industrial chain. They put forward the development direction of China’s forestry industrial chain with reference to International Paper Company. Finally,they present their recommendations for integration of China’s forestry industrial chain.

  14. Tropical forestry practices for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura-Costa, P. [Innoprise-Face Foundation Rainforest Rehabilitation Project, Lahad Datu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Carbon sequestration through forestry has the potential to play a significant role in ameliorating global environmental problems such as atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases and climate change. This chapter provides an overview of various aspects related to carbon sequestration through forestry. It describes the main concepts of carbon fixation; the trends in global environmental policy are discussed; different forestry practices are listed; and examples of existing projects are given. The paper also discusses issues related to the quantification of carbon sequestration potential of different forestry options. This section was included with the intention of specifically highlighting some problems related to commercial transactions for carbon sequestration. 92 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Masera, O.; Andrasko, K.; Benetiz-Ponce, P.; Boer, R.; Dutschke, M.; Elsiddig, E.; Ford-Robertson, J.; Frumhoff, P.; Karjalainen, T.; Krankina, O.; Kurz, W.A.; Matsumoto, M.; Oyhantcabal, W.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Sanz Sanchec, M.J.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th century, deforestation in the tropics and forest regrowth in the temperate zone and parts of the boreal zone remained the major factors responsible for emissions and removals, respectively. However, the extent to which the carbon loss due to tropical deforestation

  16. Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Masera, O.; Andrasko, K.; Benetiz-Ponce, P.; Boer, R.; Dutschke, M.; Elsiddig, E.; Ford-Robertson, J.; Frumhoff, P.; Karjalainen, T.; Krankina, O.; Kurz, W.A.; Matsumoto, M.; Oyhantcabal, W.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Sanz Sanchec, M.J.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade of the 20th century, deforestation in the tropics and forest regrowth in the temperate zone and parts of the boreal zone remained the major factors responsible for emissions and removals, respectively. However, the extent to which the carbon loss due to tropical deforestation

  17. Adaptation Forestry in Minnesota's Northwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, M.; White, M.; Etterson, J.; Kavajecz, L.; Mead, J.; Handler, S.; Swanston, C.; Hall, K.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration and management goals are shifting in northern Minnesota in light of new information on climate trends. Adaptation forestry encompasses a combination of practices designed to favor native populations and species likely to persist under warmer, drier conditions. The overarching project goal is to increase the adaptive capacity of northern forests such that they continue to sustain a variety of services, including carbon sequestration, fiber production, watershed protection, and wildlife habitat. We are currently testing the feasibility and efficacy of adaptation forestry in the northern Great Lakes region in three common forest types: Boreal-Mixed, Pine, and Hardwoods. 12 sites (2,000 acres total) recently subjected to a range of structural treatments (gap creation, shelterwood, and clear-cut with reserves) were coupled with "adaptation plantings" of species that are likely to thrive under changed climate conditions (e.g., red oak, bur oak, white pine). Seedlings, ~110,000 total, originated from two source locations, one that reflects current adaptation to the climate of northern Minnesota and another from a more southern source in central Minnesota. To date, we have assessed results from two growing seasons by tracking survival, growth and phenological characteristics of planted seedlings. This project is a first step in determining whether adaptation management can be used as a tool to help northern forests transition to an uncertain future. Cooperation with state, federal, and academic partners may ultimately influence the adaptive capacity across millions of acres in the Great Lakes region.

  18. New biotechnologies in Serbian forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Vladislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the results achieved in the laboratory for molecular studies of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment, University of Novi Sad, in the field of biotechnology, mainly in molecular genetics, genomics and functional genomics. Researches are designed to serve as a breeding tool. The aim was to clarify the processes of classical genetics by applying modern methods and enable a qualitative and rapid progress in understanding the processes that occur at the level of genes in the genome of forest plant species and thus help the processes of conservation of valuable taxa at the time of global climate change. The results are presented within various research fields and by type of forest trees that were given priority by importance in forest ecosystems. Studies have in most cases been of applicative character with the aim of solving the major problems in forestry, but also of fundamental nature when they were necessary to elucidate the response of forest species to the induced stress, which is an inevitable component of the time characterized by tolerance and adaptation as keywords. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemima i br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje i IPA - OXIT

  19. Fims, forestry information management system: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This geographic information system has been developed as part of Forestry Canada's Eastern Quebec Forestry Program for woodlot owners in eastern Quebec. The goal was to provide private woodlot operators with a management system that uses the most advanced technology available. This booklet provides an overview of this system, explaining how the system can be used.

  20. Ten-year urban forestry action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    The Ten-year Urban Forestry Action Plan: 2016-2026 was published in September, 2015 (see http://www.urbanforestry.subr.edu/FinalActionPlan_Complete_11_17_15.pdf). This 260 page heavily illustrated document was prepared by the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council (NUCFAC) under leadership and funding from the USDA Forest Service. The Plan's...

  1. Developing Carbon Sequestration Forestry for Mitigating Climate Change: Practice and Management of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    By elaborating the functions and effects of forestry in mitigating climate change, introducing the concepts and significance of forest carbon sink, forestry carbon sequestration, and carbon sequestration forestry, and summarizing the practices of carbon sequestration forestry in China, the paper came up with the outline for strengthening the management of carbon sequestration forestry, i.e. implementing the Climate Change Forestry Action Plan, reinforcing the accounting and monitoring of national forest car...

  2. To sustainability in forestry: the Ukraine's case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: forestry; sustainable development; economy-in-transition; the Ukraine; institutions; multi-functional forest use; timber rotation; afforestation programme; soil erosion; climate change; carbon sequestration; cost-benefit analysis;

  3. Roots of success: cultivating viable community forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2009-05-15

    Is community forestry emerging from the shadows? The evidence shows that locally controlled enterprises can be economically viable, and often build on stronger social and environmental foundations than the big private-sector players. Certainly this is an industry in need of a shakeup. Many forests have become flashpoints where agro-industry, large-scale logging concerns and conservation interests clash, while forest-dependent communities are left out in the cold. Meanwhile, governments – driven by concerns over the climate impacts of deforestation – are having to gear up for legal, sustainable forestry production. Community forestry could be crucial to solving many of these challenges. By building on local core capabilities and developing strategic partnerships, they are forging key new business models that could transform the sector.

  4. Biological processes as indicators of sustainable plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological processes as indicators of sustainable plantation forestry : evidence for sustainable plantation forestry. ... may be useful in the sustainable management of nutrient cycling, yield production, pest outbreaks and water use and quality.

  5. women's involvement in forestry practices as livelihood options in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Department of Forestry and Wild Life Management, Faculty of Agriculture & Agricultural. Technology ... The study evaluates the involvement of women in forestry practices as a means of livelihood in ..... principles and practice, Oxford and IBH.

  6. Short communication: Stocktaking forestry knowledge in Eastern Mediterranean: a glimpse on where do practitioners stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Sattout

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To identify the lines of research initiatives and programmes on forest ecosystem and trees and shed lights on the need of new insights in forestry sector. Area of Study: Eastern Mediterranean countries (i.e. Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey. Materials and Methods: Online assessment through search on Google, Science Direct, Tandfonline, Forestry related journals, PLOS ONE, FAOSTAT, FAO-Agris, Unasylva, and Research Gate. Direct contacts were made with researchers at universities and professionals from international development organisations. Main results: The highest contribution in research is recorded in Turkey, followed by Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. Forest ecosystem functioning was ranked first in the research thematic areas, followed by forest ecosystem management. Research interest focuses on limited genera of coniferous and broadleaf trees. Emerging needs feature the execution of comprehensive national and regional stocktaking exercises to harmonize research agendas; ensuring synergies between international agreements’ goals (e.g. SDGs and national policies instruments (e.g. NBSAPs; alignment of research agendas with national and international related frameworks; revisiting governance structure and regulatory measures and laws in the forestry sector. Research highlights: Insights put in the interface a new outlook on the leadership profile and foundation of interdisciplinary communities of practices. Rethink academic forestry related programmes and transform the approaches adopted to aim for more inclusiveness leading to stronger knowledge and coherent and successful practices in forestry.

  7. Elementary Experiences,Problems and Countermeasures of County Forestry Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaozhi; CHEN; Baomin; FAN; Rong; ZHAO; Youjun; HE; Decheng; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    County forestry economy is a strong power for regional green economic development,and an important way to improve farmers’ income and promote living environment in urban and rural areas. According to the investigation of ten typical counties or cities with forestry industrial advantage,this paper sums up the elementary experiences of county forestry economy,analyzes its prominent problems. Countermeasures are brought forward to improve the development of county forestry economy.

  8. A Hero's Journey: Young Women among Males in Forestry Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follo, Gro

    2002-01-01

    Norwegian girls' experiences in secondary school forestry courses were analyzed in terms of the "hero's journey" archetypal myth. Interviews with 12 girls and 11 boys in forestry courses indicated that girls were capable and fit for practical forestry work, gender attitudes were not a barrier, and girls did not meet opposition from male…

  9. Five Ministries Jointly Issued "The Promotion Program for Forestry Industry"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Forestry Administration, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce, and the State Administration of Taxation have jointly issued "The Promotion Program for Forestry Industry (2010-2012)" on October 29, 2009, as an action program to guide forestry Industry's plan to deal with the financial crisis.

  10. Remote sensing and today's forestry issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayn-Wittgenstein, L.

    1977-01-01

    The actual and the desirable roles of remote sensing in dealing with current forestry issues, such as national forest policy, supply and demand for forest products and competing demands for forest land are discussed. Topics covered include wood shortage, regional timber inventories, forests in tropical and temperate zones, Skylab photography, forest management and protection, available biomass studies, and monitoring.

  11. Short rotation forestry harvesting - systems and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Hartsough; Bryce J. Stokes

    1997-01-01

    Single stem short rotation plantations in the United States are largely dedicated to pulp production, with fuel as a secondary product. There are very limited plantings for fuel production, and others where the primary purpose is treatment of various wastewater's. All production harvesting of single stem plantations is conducted with conventional forestry...

  12. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to ha

  13. Conflict management and participation in community forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    In this paper consideration is first given to how community forestry practitioners have commonly understood the term participation, and why the concept of conflict does not seem to have overlapped with notions of participation. Failure to perceive conflict as inherent in participation is shown to

  14. A guide to forestry investment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietmar W. Rose; Charles R. Blinn; Gary J. Brand

    1988-01-01

    It is often necessary to choose between several forestry projects. This paper provides the background needed to evaluate projects from a financial perspective. The basic steps for preparing a project analysis, suggestions for dealing with uncertainty, and techniques for monitoring a projects are presented.

  15. Urban Forestry and its Relevanceto Tourism Development in Sabah

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEEYF; LIGUNJANGJ; YONGSC

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry is understood to be the management of trees and forests in urban areas. It yields many environmental and material benefits. In Sabah, the environmental services of urban forestry are more important than material products. The potential of practising urban forestry in various zones and under different land ownership is evaluated. As urbanisation has occurred recently in Sabah, urban forestry has only been practised to a limited extent. Tourism is an economic sector which has gained prominence in recent years and has huge growth potential. With the numerous environmental services provided by urban forestry to make urban areas more inhabitable, the increasing tourism activities necessitate intensification of urban forestry activities. The main urban centres contain many tourist attractions, and are also the gateways to many other ecotourist destinations located throughout Sabah. With tourism high on the development agenda in Sabah, urban forestry needs to be promoted so that both locals and visitors can enjoy the numerous social,environmental and economic benefits.

  16. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  17. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  18. Implementing mobile information bussiness solutions in forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Bajželj, Primož

    2013-01-01

    Information technology plays an important role in constant improvement of business processes. Especially with development of mobile devices and corresponding technology it is possible to use technology in contexts where this was impossible before. This diploma work describes a development of a mobile application from its idea to a prototype. It is intended to be used in forestry where it should enable optimization and improvement of business processes. First, requirements, development environ...

  19. Human Transformations of the Swedish Boreal Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, C.

    1996-01-01

    A successful production-oriented forestry has influenced nearly all Swedish boreal forests. Accordingly, the standing volume has increased continuously since official data became available in the 1920s. On the other hand, there is very little natural forest left, except in the sub-alpine area. In the pre-industrial era, probably the most important human impact on the Swedish boreal forests (around two-thirds of the country's productive forest land may be considered as boreal) was the co...

  20. From management to mediation: local forestry management and the forestry crisis in post-socialist Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikeland, Sveinung; Eythorsson, Einar; Ivanova, Lyudmila

    2004-03-01

    The local branches of the Russian Forestry Service, the leskhozy, were known for their efficiency and management skills in the Soviet era and were one of the very few community-based "Soviet-type" institutions to survive the transition. This article examines the role of the leskhozy in the new market economy. Our analysis is based on data from interviews with informants attached to the forestry sector in the Murmansk area. In some cases their knowledge of the leskhozy stretches back to the emergence of the system in 1947. Our principal finding is that the struggle to survive as a federal body in the current legal and economic climate is forcing the leskhozy to relegate sustainable forestry management, presumably their primary raison d'être, to the lower portions of their list of priorities. Several consequences result. There is a heightened incidence of illegal logging, and corruption informs the allocation of forest areas to private interests. Stumpage prices have plummeted as timber from subsidized commercial cutting (ostensibly sanitary cutting or thinning) has flooded the markets. The root cause of these tribulations lies with the market-based harvesting permit system. Its introduction in the 1990s did little to eliminate the self-seeking practices of the old Soviet forestry management hierarchies. In the free market, local forestry managers can turn their dual responsibilities to their own advantage inasmuch as they control the allocation of harvesting permits while at the same time controlling logging practices.

  1. Riparian forestry management and adult stream insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Briers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of coniferous plantation forestry on the biology of upland streams in the UK are firmly established. Whilst benthic communities have been well studied, very little research has considered the impacts of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects, yet the essentially terrestrial adult (reproductive phase may be important in determining the abundance and distribution of larval stages. Riparian vegetation has a potentially strong impact on survival and success of adult stages through alteration of microclimate, habitat structure and potential food sources, in addition to effects carried over from larval stages. Here, current riparian management strategies are analysed in the light of available information on the ecology of adult stream insects. On the whole, management practices appear to favour adult stream insects, although an increase in tree cover in riparian areas could be beneficial, by providing more favourable microclimatic conditions for adults. This conclusion is drawn based on rather limited information, and the need for further research into the effects of riparian forestry management on adult stream insects is highlighted. Keywords: microclimate, plantation, life history, riparian vegetation

  2. The Development Trend and Characteristics of Urban Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry, which rose in the west in the latter half of the 20th century, is a type of forestry serving for city. Its important characteristic is that it makes through its narrow sense, or "urban afforestation", whose objective is to make city green and beautiful, and develops into a forestry system serving for the urban system. The consequence of rapid modern civilization is that skyscrapers concentrate in urban district and green space become narrower, resulting that green

  3. R & D Activities on Urban Forestry in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeilaC.America

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the research and development activities being done on urban forestry in the Philippines. The role that R&D plays in urban forestry is likewise discussed in the introduction. Recommended tree species for urban planting are presented including their characteristics and distribution. Researches related to urban forestry being conducted are listed with a short description of each project. Development activities on urban forestry are likewise discussed. Finally, recommended R&D agenda and researchable areas based on the Philippine Agenda 21 and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) R&D Framework are presented.

  4. Unpacking the impacts of 'participatory' forestry policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison...... of current incomes (2012), as well as review of records and interviews. Results reveal that members have higher total and forest-related incomes than non-members and indicate that impacts derive from labour and market opportunities supported by donor institutions, more than from differential access to forest...

  5. Valorisation of forestry waste by pyrolysis in an auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Neus; Murillo, Ramón; Navarro, María V; López, José M; Rieradevall, Joan; Fowler, G; Aranguren, Ignacio; García, Tomás; Bartrolí, Jordi; Mastral, Ana M

    2011-06-01

    Pyrolysis of forestry waste has been carried out in an auger reactor to study the influence of operational variables on the reactor performance and the properties of the related products. Pine woodchips were used for the first time as raw material and fed continuously into the reactor. Ten experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at: (i) different reaction temperature (1073, 973, 873, 823 and 773 K); (ii) different solid residence time (5, 3, 2 and 1.5 min); and (iii) different biomass flow rate (3.9, 4.8 and 6.9 kg/h). Results show that the greatest yields for liquid production (59%) and optimum product characterisation were obtained at the lowest temperature studied (773 K) and applying solid residence times longer than 2 min. Regarding bio-oil properties, GC/MS qualitative identification show that the most abundant compounds are volatile polar compounds, phenols and benzenediols; and very few differences can be observed among the samples regardless of the pyrolysis operating conditions. On the whole, experimental results demonstrate that complete reaction of forest woodchips can be achieved in an auger reactor in most of the experimental conditions tested. Moreover, this study presents the initial steps for the future scaling up of the auger reactor with the aim of converting it into a mobile plant which will be able to remotely process biomass such as energy crops, forestry and agricultural wastes to obtain bio-oil that, in turn, can be used as energy vector to avoid high transport costs.

  6. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Velichkov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownership distribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1 million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematic issues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversion of coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  7. Stakeholder analysis for coppice forestry in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IvayloVelichkov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the state of coppice forestry in Bulgaria during last 18 years. Stakeholders and their interests and preferences in coppice forests are explored and assessed. Forests restitution process in Bulgaria started in 1997 and has not been finished yet. Nevertheless, significant further changes of the current ownershipdistribution are not expected. By the end of 2007, the state was the biggest coppice forest owner/stakeholder in Bulgaria with 71.3% of all coppice forests being state property. The other two important stakeholders are the municipalities (14.0% and private owners (12.0%. Currently, forest owners' number in Bulgaria exceeds 1million, the average holding area being smaller than 1 ha. Only 150 individual plots are larger than 50 ha. The majority of private owners aim at taking maximum and immediate profit from their recently restituted forest properties. In most cases that reflects in clearcuts. Coppice forests management has been one of the problematicissues of Bulgarian forestry for decades. Despite of forest authorities significant efforts, the area of coppice forests in Bulgaria (1.78 million ha in 2007 remained unchanged for a period of 50 years. The official forest policy is still aimed at conversionof coppice forests into seed ones through different silvicultural methods. That policy is applied to almost all coppice forests regardless of their ownership.

  8. Computer Software for Forestry Technology Curricula. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roy C.; Scobie, Walter R.

    Since microcomputers are being used more and more frequently in the forest products industry in the Pacific Northwest, Green River Community College conducted a project to search for BASIC language computer programs pertaining to forestry, and when possible, to adapt such software for use in teaching forestry technology. The search for applicable…

  9. Forestry and deer in the pine region of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; G. R. Moorhead; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    Forestry and deer affect each other's welfare. Forestry and other land-use practices, particularly farming, affect deer chiefly by modifying the supplies of available food and protective cover. On the other side, an overabundance of deer can overbrowse and eliminate the most palatable and nutritious food species. If these are trees that could be valuable for...

  10. Comparative Study of Forestry Ecological Construction Financing%林业生态建设融资方式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚萍; 张晓辛

    2012-01-01

    通过对比3种可用于林业生态建设的融资模式,即银行专项资金贷款、Private Finance Initiative(PFI)融资、CDM林业碳汇融资各自优劣性,试图找出更完善、更适合林业生态工程建设的融资模式。对国家林业生态系统工程建设融资提供有意义的理论探索以及有价值的对策,为林业这种高持续性、发展性、规模性的产业开辟一条新的融资之路。%In the process of forestry ecological construction, financing problems always exist. This paper compares three financing modes which ean be used in the forestry ecological construction,i, e. Bank special loans,Private Finance Initiative (PFI) financing,CDM forestry carbon financing, and analyses their respective advantages and disadvantages,in order to find out the more perfect and more suitable financing mode for forestry ecological construction. Therefore,this study may open up ~ new financing way for this highly continuous, developing and large--scaled forestry industry, so s to provide a meaningful theoretical exploration and valuable countermeasures for national forest ecosystem construction financing.

  11. Ten Years' Chinese-Canadian Collaboration in Undergraduate Education in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China: Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songliang; Caldwell, Claude; Wei, Liqing; Su, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University-Nova Scotia Agricultural College (FAFU-NSAC) 2 + 2 undergraduate program initiated in 2003 is a model for creative collaboration between China and Canada in undergraduate education. This paper addresses the achievements of the program development and highlights the process for successful curriculum…

  12. Ten Years' Chinese-Canadian Collaboration in Undergraduate Education in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University of China: Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songliang; Caldwell, Claude; Wei, Liqing; Su, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University-Nova Scotia Agricultural College (FAFU-NSAC) 2 + 2 undergraduate program initiated in 2003 is a model for creative collaboration between China and Canada in undergraduate education. This paper addresses the achievements of the program development and highlights the process for successful curriculum…

  13. MELLIPHEROUS TREES MONITORING FROM FĂGET FORESTRY DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forestry mellipherous trees represent one of the most important nectar, pollenand manna source, for bee families developing. This paper presents the results ofa study made by the purpose of seeing in what manner the mellipherous treesbelonging to Faget Forestry Departments ensure maintenance and productionharvesting for bee families from this area. The study was made during the periodof May 2006 and April 2007, on a 19712 hectares area, in which we recorded:forestry mellipherous trees identification, the surface occupied by each specie andthe blooming period, data that we used to calculate the amount of honey that canbe obtained and the number of bee families that can be kept in the area,respectively. Analyzing the data, we concluded that forestry mellipherous treesfrom Faget Forestry Departments can ensure in normal conditions, maintenanceand production harvesting for 3800 bee families.

  14. Global forestry emission projections and abatement costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, H.; Gusti, M.; Mosnier, A.; Havlik, P.; Obersteiner, M.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we present forestry emission projections and associated Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs) for individual countries, based on economic, social and policy drivers. The activities cover deforestation, afforestation, and forestry management. The global model tools G4M and GLOBIOM, developed at IIASA, are applied. GLOBIOM uses global scenarios of population, diet, GDP and energy demand to inform G4M about future land and commodity prices and demand for bioenergy and timber. G4M projects emissions from afforestation, deforestation and management of existing forests. Mitigation measures are simulated by introducing a carbon tax. Mitigation activities like reducing deforestation or enhancing afforestation are not independent of each other. In contrast to existing forestry mitigation cost curves the presented MACCs are not developed for individual activities but total forest land management which makes the estimated potentials more realistic. In the assumed baseline gross deforestation drops globally from about 12 Mha in 2005 to below 10 Mha after 2015 and reach 0.5 Mha in 2050. Afforestation rates remain fairly constant at about 7 Mha annually. Although we observe a net area increase of global forest area after 2015 net emissions from deforestation and afforestation are positive until 2045 as the newly afforested areas accumulate carbon rather slowly. About 200 Mt CO2 per year in 2030 in Annex1 countries could be mitigated at a carbon price of 50 USD. The potential for forest management improvement is very similar. Above 200 USD the potential is clearly constrained for both options. In Non-Annex1 countries avoided deforestation can achieve about 1200 Mt CO2 per year at a price of 50 USD. The potential is less constrained compared to the potential in Annex1 countries, achieving a potential of 1800 Mt CO2 annually in 2030 at a price of 1000 USD. The potential from additional afforestation is rather limited due to high baseline afforestation rates assumed

  15. Evaluating Community Forestry Processes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath

    With the overall objective to evaluate outcomes of decentralized forest governance in Nepal, particularly focusing on assessing forest conditions as well as the role of community forestry in household economies, this research was carried out in 10 community forests of Tanahun district of western...... Nepal. The fieldwork consisted of five components: forest measurement including boundary survey, household survey of 304 households, key informant interviews, counting and identification of farm trees, and focus group discussions. Different types of airborne analogue aerial photographs, satellite...... of supplying firewood and especially fodder for the rural households. Land holdings, livestock holdings, firewood consumption, and education level were positively related to the number of trees on a household’s farm land while distance to the forest and the use of alternative energy sources were negatively...

  16. Public Perception of Forestry Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavours to assess public perceptions about the importance of forests for young people in the age group of 21-35 years in Malaysia based on 1,503 reliably answered interviews. Overall patterns show that timber production and environment protection are very important attributes among this age group. The interviews indicated high awareness of negative environmental impacts of deforestation, with high levels of concern over higher temperatures, air pollution and loss of clean water sources. Large-scale deforestation (e.g., for industrial oil palm plantations and political interference appeared to be more context-dependent, with most respondents considering it to have on overall negative impact on sustainable forestry in Malaysia. Increasing information accessibility, awareness and experience in the forest of the young people could ultimately result in positive processes.

  17. Bullying within the Forestry Organizations of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksoy, Devlet; Bayramoğlu, Mahmut Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Today, many studies are conducted in order to determine bullying behaviors and to resolve conflicts with the purpose of increasing and maintaining organizational success in developed countries. According to these studies, bullying cases are more common in public institutions when compared to other sectors. In public institutions, bullying generally occurs when successful workers are discouraged and/or harassed by their managers, thus leaving them feeling distressed and dissatisfied with their jobs. The present study examines whether forest engineers working in the seven geographical regions of Turkey are exposed to bullying behaviors, the level of any bullying, and whether there are any regional differences (N = 835). Through statistical analysis, a significant relationship was determined between bullying and demographic characteristics. The results of the present study were evaluated along with the results of other studies, and some suggestions were made in order to prevent bullying behaviors in forestry organizations. PMID:23853543

  18. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  19. Social Science in Forestry Curricula: A Case Study of Colombia Forestry Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Farleidy Villarraga-Flórez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest management depends greatly on complex social interactions. To understand the underlying human causes of deforestation and to plan forest management, it is of great importance to incorporate social science in the study of forestry. There is insufficient information about the incorporation of social sciences in undergraduate forestry programs. Foresters are well prepared in ecology, silviculture, forest measurements, and operational topics such as logging, but their knowledge of basic elements of social sciences is limited. This study explored the extent to which tertiary forestry education programs in Colombia include social science. It also examined students’ perceptions of social sciences courses in the curriculum. About 10% of course credits are in economics, administration, and foreign language, courses on social science are listed as optional. A high percentage of current sophomore (fifth semester, junior, and senior students do not have clear knowledge of basic social research methods, although a majority have used social science techniques at some point in their academic careers.

  20. Quantitative Classification of Forestry Division in Ceheng County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; ZHAO; Yong; LIU; Longde; LIU; Jihui; SUN; Yongshun; GU

    2013-01-01

    To determine the main functions of regional forest and focus of forestry construction to form the regional forestry economy with characteristics and ecological service system pattern with obvious advantages,we select some indicators on Ceheng County in Guizhou Province, such as natural geography,socio-economic conditions,ecological environment and forests status. Using the quantitative classification method combining factor analysis and system clustering,we conduct quantitative county level forestry division. The results show that first using factor analysis to establish factor analysis model,and then using a handful of factors loading large amounts of information to carry out system clustering,is an effective quantitative classification method of forestry division,which can not only overcome the weakness of previous division mainly focusing on qualitative analysis,but also eliminate the correlation between indicators in the conventional classification methods; through the factor analysis of 30 indicators influencing the forestry development of each township in Ceheng County,the factor analysis model is established,6 factors loading 89. 94 5% of information amount are used to conduct system clustering on 14 townships in Ceheng County,and finally Ceheng County can be divided into five zones. This study not only enriches the theory of forestry division,but also provides reference for the forestry planning in Guizhou and division of related industries.

  1. Impact Assessment of Climate Change on Forestry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Forestry and forest ecosystem are highly sensitive to climate change.At present,studies about the responses of forests to climate change in China are more focused on physical influences of climate change.This paper firstly divided the key impact factors of climate change on forest and forestry developing into direct factors and indirect factors,and then made an assessment on climate change affecting future forestry development from the aspect of forest products and ecological services.On this basis,the adap...

  2. Study on Construction of Forestry Socialized Service Systems Based on Barnard's Organizational Structure Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Can-fu; CHENG Xiao-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Construction of forestry socialized service systems is the important content for reform of collective forestry tenure systems.Based on the necessity, possibility and problem of construction of forestry socialized service system, according to Barnard's Organizational Structure theory, the path and countermeasure of forestry socialized service system in China are discussed.

  3. A Perspective of Urban Forestry Policy and Management Methodologies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Youjun; LI Zhiyong; HARE Richard

    2006-01-01

    Urban forestry provides the way to resolve the ecological and environmental problems of urbanization. Recently, how to make appropriate urban forestry policy and implement the corresponding management methodologies has become one of hot topics in the research of urban forestry. In this paper, Chinese urban forestry policies were introduced, the common themes of urban forestry planning, for example. Green Structure Planning had been identified, different urban forestry management strategies were suggested primarily in China under the guidance of European urban forestry management methodologies. Additionally, partnership and public involvement, as the main working methods of urban forestry, were analyzed in detail. The aims of this paper is to examine current practices related to urban forestry policy and management, to improve the urban forestry sustainable management ability for policy makers, managers, beneficiaries, user-groups, communities, and to improve the ecological and environmental quality in urban and suburban areas in China.

  4. Multi-sectoral Participatory Urban Forestry Development in Philippines' Metropolitan Manila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONOSOLeonitoAcosta

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan Manila, the capital region of the Philippines, initiated urban forestry projects to showcase its environmental benefits. Metro Manila was once a part of a tropical mangrove forest dominated by small trees locally called nilad (Scyphiphora hydrophyllaceae). The fast-paced urbanization transformed the original ecosystem into a bustling metropolis subjected to environmental decay. The establishment of urban forestry is one of the interventions sought by the government to mitigate the environmental conditions.Thus, the concept of participatory urban forestry was formalized in 1988 by the national government.However, it was during the early years of the 1970s that the idea of exerting collective effort in greening Metro Manila started through the Green Revolution, with the primary motive of uplifting the economic condition of the people rather than on ecological enhancement. The project was forced on the people to plant vegetables and fruit trees with less emphasis on forest trees species. Although the project was not successful,the government realized that the citizenry could be a great partner for a collective worthwhile undertaking.

  5. Remote sensing in forestry: Application to the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A.; Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of satellite remote sensing in forestry is reviewed with emphasis on studies performed for the Brazilian Amazon Region. Timber identification, deforestation, and pasture degradation after deforestation are discussed.

  6. ACCOUNTING FACTS IN THE FIELD OF ROMANIAN FORESTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin-Constantin Deaconu; Nicolae Todea; Liliana Marcela Cioara (Durgheu)

    2009-01-01

    Within the article we tackle aspects concerning the forestry activity undertaken bycertain entities in Romania. We present some practical applications concerning the sale offirewood, standing timber and logs, because every sale category has certain accountingcharacteristics.

  7. Forest management educational needs in South African forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These issues impact forestry skills, jobs and education. ... The most important skills lacking in future foresters were people and business management skills. The survey results confirm that, although forest managers still need a core technical ...

  8. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment - Vol 2, No 1 (2010) ... Diversity and Abundance of Fish Species in Gbedikere Lake, Bassa, Kogi State · EMAIL ... Fadama Users Group Characteristics that Influence Facilitators' Role ...

  9. Some Thoughts on the Establishment of Forestry Science and Technology Evaluation System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of China’s forestry science and technology evaluation system is an important guarantee measure to improve the level of forestry science and technology management and promote forestry science and technology advancement. Based on the analysis of the current condition of forestry science and technology evaluation in China, the paper presents the suggestions to establish and improve forestry science and technology system, including the change in evaluation subject, the standardization of evalu...

  10. Forestry entrepreneurs` environmental know-how; Metsaeyrittaejien ympaeristoeosaaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyytiaeinen, J. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The TTS-Institute`s Department of Forestry looked into the subject of environmental know-how of forestry entrepreneurs by means of a questionnaire study conducted in Etelae-Karjala, south-eastern Finland. This study is part of a pilot project called (SME Entrepreneurs` Environmental Know-How in the Forestry Sector: Development and Training) financed by the European Social Fund. The implementation of the project is the shared responsibility of Tmi JukkaNet, TTS-Institute and the Finnish Association of Machine Con- tractors. The TTS-Institute`s Department of Forestry mailed questionnaire forms to 138 entrepreneurs at the beginning of the year. The objective was to obtain information on the companies` planning of their future, operating culture, quality of operations, learning, their knowledge of the environmental guidelines, and general attitude concerning matters connected to the environment. The response percentage was 50 %. The responses were divided as follows: forestry contracting 22 (32 %), agricultural practitioners 30 (43 %), and others 17 (25 %). Most of all, the entrepreneurs were found to turn to trade journals as sources of information. Environmental training had been obtained by every third person during the previous year. Sixty four percent of all the respondents had not taken part in any environmental training during the previous year. Of those engaged in forestry contracting, 71 % had been exposed to training; the corresponding figure for agricultural entrepreneurs was 27 %. Entrepreneurs co-operate in environmental matters most of all with their customers and landowners. Co-operation with the environmental organisations was most inadequate. Agricultural entrepreneurs cooperated with environmental authorities more than their colleagues engaged in forestry contracting. Quality systems connected to care of the environment were rare. Only two contractors, two practitioners of farm forestry and one value-added converter of wood had a quality system

  11. Prevalence of Lyme disease among forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Paweł Kocbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of Lyme disease, established diagnosis based on medical history and clinical symptoms, serology, duration of exposure in the workplace and occupational disease certification among forestry workers in selected districts of the Warmia and Mazury region. Material and Methods: The study consisted of annual screening of 332 employees in 6 forest districts under the supervision of the Health Center Medica in Ostróda. Serological tests were performed in all serum samples and IgG and IgM antibodies were determined by ELISA test. Positive results were confirmed by Western-blot test. Diagnosis was made based on medical history and clinical symptoms. Results were presented by the division of selected forest districts, gender, duration of exposure in the workplace and genospecies of spirochete Borrelia responsible for the disease development. Results: Lyme disease incidence was found in all selected forest districts. Positive results in Western-blot test were determined in 120 people (63.1% of all the surveyed. However, after taking a detailed medical history of the patients Lyme disease was diagnosed in 91 people which makes 27.4% of all the examined. Among patients with diagnosed disease, IgG antibodies were found in 76 people, IgM in 25 people, while both IgM and IgG in 10 people. There was also variation in the involvement of genospecies generating the disease; spirochete B. afzeli – 46% for IgG antibodies, whereas spirochete B. burgdorferi – 50% of all cases for IgM antibodies. At the same time the relationship between the extended duration of occupational exposure to tick bites and the increased incidence of Lyme disease was confirmed, indicating the group of workers employed for at least 25 years. Conclusions: Forestry districts of the Warmia and Mazury region, creates extremely dangerous occupational conditions because of exposure to tick bites. At the same time the duration of

  12. Discussion on Diversified Development of Forestry Cooperation Organizations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey results in several places of Fujian Province, the paper summed up the main types of forestry cooperation organizations in China’s collective forest regions, and analyzed their characteristics in terms of basic nature, property arrangement, distribution methods and closeness of cooperation. The essential trend of diversified development of forestry cooperation organizations was discussed, with the analysis on how the diversification get reflected from the aspects of organizational structu...

  13. Current possibilities and prospects of using fungicides in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorski Adam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using chemicals in European forestry is extremely limited due to the binding legal regulations and specific conditions concerning the market of plant protection products. This is reflected in the limited availability of active fungicides in forestry. Due to this limitation, practitioners using fungicides in forest nurseries and forest cultivation must have substantial knowledge of the biology of pathogens to ensure satisfactorily effective protection.

  14. Discussion on Status and Functions of China’s Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity and quality of global forest resources are declining continually. Contrarily, the both in China are increasing, which is deeply related to the sustainable forest management and eco-system management in China. With the trend that world community knows more about the important role of forest, more and more functions of forest are recognized. The impact and functions of China's forestry deserve more concern. Based on some experiences in the field of forestry research, the authors ...

  15. Ranking forestry journals using the h-index

    CERN Document Server

    Vanclay, Jerome K

    2007-01-01

    An expert ranking of forestry journals was compared with journal impact factors and h-indices computed from ISI and internet-based data. Citations reported by Google Scholar appear to offer the most efficient way to rank all journals objectively, in a manner consistent with other indicators. A ranking of 180 forestry journals is presented, on the basis of an h-index computed from data supplied by Google Scholar.

  16. Forestry seedlings production by biotechnological methods, the forestry of 21th century in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN CANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest biotechnology on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is an interdisciplinary research dedicated to the development and application of advanced technology for the enhancement of forest regeneration and adaptation. Technical capabilities include Eco physiology, forest ecology, tissue culture and adaptation to climate change mitigation. These techniques are also being used to improve nursery culture regimes, pest’s management by biological fighting, planting regimes and new product development for a variety of broadleaf species (Oaks under ecological stress. Successful regeneration relies on the application of work from many forestry disciplines toward the common goal. At the center of any successful program is the production of high-quality seedlings that have god performance on reforestation site. Performance of an reforestation site depends on seedlings growth potential to be expressed. Seedlings growth potential is influenced by the inherent genetic make-up of source material and the culture used during nursery development. If these attributes can be directed toward improving seedling growth on a reforestation site, then the potential productivity of reforestation/afforestation will be increased. Disciplines that are oriented toward improving these faces of producing high-quality seedlings are the main focus of Forest biotechnology, the main objectives of which have been: (i defining forest species through ecophysiological parameters; (ii developing advanced propagation systems through somatic embryogenesis tissue culture technology; (iii applying ecophysiological assessment techniques in supporting seedling production, improved quality and reforestation site performance. The first results, presented in this paper, have been optimistic, but still the profound studies are needed. The main benefit impacts using biotechnology methods in forestry are: (i a model of sustainable development, (ii maintaining forest biodiversity, (iii

  17. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  18. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  19. [Recent progress in NIR spectroscopy technology and its application to the field of forestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2008-07-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is the most rapidly developing and the most noticeable spectrographic technique in the 80's (the last century). Its developing history and utilization in foreign countries were introduced. The authors mainly summarized the applications of NIRS to the field of forestry. The applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) in fruit quality, timber and seed quality analysis are more active in forestry due to its rapid, timely, less expensive, non-destructive, straightforward analytic characteristics. In the last two decades, non-destructive methods using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to evaluate parameters for estimating maturity were applied to different fruits species to check the ripening status of fruits on trees or to grade fruits in the packing house, to assess fruit quality, such as sugar and acid contents, soluble solids, firmness of fruit, offers great advantages to growers in deciding when to harvest. The near infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) can also be used the nondestructive quantitative assessment of the solid wood density, the moisture condition and the lignin content in bulky wood. The previous results indicated that the utility of NIRS was a selection tool in breeding programs, for example, three kids of persimmon fruits, astringent, non-astringent and half-astringent, were clearly classified by using Near-infrared (NIR) methods, and based on the combination of near infrared technology and multivariate analysis, the genetic, physiological and technical qualities of both temperate and tropical tree species on single seed basis can be characterized. It has already been shown that NIRS can predict the chemical composition of litters. NIRS is also capable of correlating the initial spectral characteristics of the litters with their short- and medium-term decomposability. The stage of decay of decomposing leaves can be predicted by using the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The method is rich in

  20. TOURISM AND FORESTRY COLLABORATION IN BALI-INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The declining interest of the younger generation in forestry education has become a global issue while forestry continues to play an immense role for human lives throughout the world. This decline should be anticipated by higher education institutions by forming a collaboration between forestry education and another, more appealing, education program. For Bali, which has relied on the tourism sector as the main driver of its local economy, collaboration between the tourism sector and forestry sector seems natural. Based on case studies in Bali,the idea of utilizing forest areas for tourism have entered a new phase that is as one of the drivers for foreign domestic tourists to travel to Bali. Several forest areas that have been for tourism include the mangrove forests of Badung regency, Tabanan’s botanical gardens, and West Bali National Park in Jembrana and Buleleng regencies. Collaboration between forestry and tourism is aimed at attracting tourists, absorbing more labor force, and preserving natural resources.

  1. Degrees Conferred by Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy, 1986-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Richard P.; Sherman, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    Data and statistics on the degrees conferred by U.S. pharmacy schools are presented. This report serves as an indicator of the pharmacy schools' output of pharmacy practitioners. Tables are analyzed by entry level degrees, postbaccalaureate PharmD, graduate degrees, gender, and ethnic minorities. (MLW)

  2. Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data - SCAR - Amundsen Sea - 1986-1987, SDLS CD-ROM vol 23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are stacked multichannel marine seismic reflection data recorded during 1986-87 in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, by the Japan National Oil Corporation....

  3. William H. Taft High School Project HOLA, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ana L.; And Others

    In its fourth year of Title VII funding, Project HOLA at William H. Taft High School served 383 Spanish-speaking students of limited English proficiency from low-income families. The program's goals were to develop English language skills for mainstreaming, to develop an understanding and awareness of American culture and society, to develop…

  4. The 1986/1987 Army Communications Objectives Measurement System. Supplementary Tabulations of Officer Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    ELIGTYPM 1D N~UN 2 ELIGTYP YOUTH’S SAMPLE CELLi oISED ON MAIN 7IT ELIGTYPS 9 rNum 2 ELIGTYP YOUT-i’S SAMPLE CELLf 6AS2ED ON CE.R0 ELIVADOR 112 N~um 2 YESNO...PLOYER I5CCCU*N 214 14jm 2 YZSNO b~ 1d Y CISCUSS COLLzG2 W.T. SC CUNSLV Yaccow 21~ ,1 2 ISU E5~IC~USCCLG DO Y1DC 2~ U Y=S’JO =Eli Y Cscuss CCLL G~ "T...CuqRRENTLY IN MILIT;RlVFA.MNA~ 206 N 1. 2 Y ES N SIt Y M: FAMILY 60ANCH SERVICENAVfYFC;.Sm EG 516 Nim 2 AG; Ezw PE6 GET MONzY FOR EDUCATION: AIR

  5. James Monroe High School Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes, 1986-1987. OEA Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ana L.; And Others

    In its second year of Title VII funding, James Monroe High Schools's Proyecto Nuevos Horizontes (Project New Horizons) served 344 limited-English-speaking recent arrivals from Latin America and the Caribbean, in grades 9 through 12. The program has built on the strengths of the high school's extensive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program,…

  6. Physical Readiness and Lifestyle Habits Among U.S. Navy Personnel During 1986, 1987, and 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-23

    of junk food ’: eat. Yr-- % ean SD N 1 2 3 4 7 Neither agree Disagree Disagree Disagree nor A roe Agree Agree strongly moderately slightly disagree s11g...34 and another 4% as " obese ." This indicates that Navy members on the whole are leaner than similarly aged U. S. civilians. Men performed somewhat...for regular checkups); and there were small improvemcnts in dietary behaviors (e.g., decreased consumption of saturated fats and fried foods , with

  7. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  8. Two prototypes for medium rotation forestry harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Five years old poplar (Populus spp. plantation represents an interesting model of productivity. The most attractive characteristics of this energy crop are the handling flexibility, the high yield of biomass per area unit and the good quality of the chips obtainable. The mechanical harvesting of five-years old poplar plantations requires the use of specialized forest machineries such as harvester, feller, forwarder and chipper. Usually, after felling, the working phases consist of extraction, stacking and chipping. Generally, the last one is carried out in a “static phase”, where the product is taken from staked logs by using a hydraulic arm having a gripper that feed the chipping machine. In order to introduce technological innovations for the medium rotation forestry harvesting, the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’Ingegneria agraria (CRAING of Monterotondo (Rome, Italy has developed a five years poplar cutwindrower and a self-propelled chipper equipped with a pick up system. The prototype of cut-windrower is a semi-trailed machine powered by a 95 kW tractor (at least. It mounts a cutting system and a double pincer with variable positioning. During the cutting phase the plant is grasped by the double pincer which conveys and unloads the stem along the inter-row. The trees are placed parallel to the progress of the tractor, but oriented in the opposite direction. The biomass windrowed is then chipped in a dynamic phase directly from the inter row using the self-propelled chipper equipped with the pick-up head. In the first tests, the cut-windrower has reached an operative working capacity of 0.22 ha h-1, with an operative production of 44 t h-1. On the other hand, the self-propelled chipper has showed an operative working capacity equal to 0.18 ha h-1, and an operative production of 35 t h-1 about. Both machines have shown good quality of the work performed and the results obtained

  9. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  10. Reconceptualizing the social contributions of community forestry as citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a more complete conceptualization of the social contributions of community forestry by employing the concept of citizenship. This conceptualization situates community forestry processes within the broader local development and institutional landscape, which promises a better...... understanding of community forestry's social contributions and role in local development. Looking at citizenship relations available with community forest user groups (CFUG) and local government in Nepal, this research shows that CFUGs offer a democracy refuge to citizens and valued services, yet that local...... government is perceived as more important. The comparison responds to debates on institutional pluralism, namely that the presence of multiple institutions appear not to 'fragment' local representation or service provision. The study also discusses how socio-economic characteristics influence citizenship...

  11. Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavoni, M.; Bosetti, V. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milano (Italy); Sohngen, B. [Ohio State Univ. (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This study examines the role that forestry may play in the context of atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilization. There is widespread research suggesting that biological sequestration of carbon can play an important role for reducing greenhouse gases emissions through activities such as slowing the rate of deforestation, increasing the establishment of forests on old agricultural or degraded lands, and improving the management of existing and future timber. Estimates of the range of potential costs of sequestration are fairly wide, but there is also general consensus that forest sinks can be a valuable mitiation option. However, the nations of the Kyoto Protocol have thus far only haltingly incorporated forestry measures, and the Kyoto process only recently (at the 11th Conference of Parties in 2005) began considering how one of the measures with the largest potential, tropical forest conservation or prevention of deforestation, could be included. This paper investigates the potential contribution of forestry management in meeting a CO{sub 2} stabilization policy of 550 ppmv by 2100. In order to assess the optimal response of the carbon market to forest sequestration, the authors couple two global models. An energy-economy-climate model for the study of climate policies is linked with a detailed forestry model through an iterative procedure to provide the optimal abatement strategy. Results show that forestry is a determinant abatement option and could lead to significantly lower policy costs if included. Linking forestry management to the carbon market has the potential to delay the policy burden, and is expected to reduce the price of carbon of 40% by 2050. Biological sequestration will mostly come from avoided deforestation in tropical forest-rich countries. The inclusion of this mitigation option is demonstrated to crowd out some of the traditional abatement in the energy sector and to lessen induced technological change in clean technologies.

  12. The Role of Public Relations in the Delivery of Forestry Services in Ghana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kofi Ampadu Boateng; Petra Hlaváčková

    2017-01-01

    .... There are, however, few researches relating to public relations and delivery of forestry services. The aim of this study was to examine the role public relations play in the delivery of forestry services with Ghana as case study...

  13. Evolution of China’s Forestry Policies since 1949 and Experience and Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunhong; HU; Junjie; HE

    2013-01-01

    Since 1949,the Chinese Communist Party ( CPC) and government have formulated series of policies to promote construction and development of forestry. The evolution of forestry policies brings constant deepening of understanding of the Party and government about forestry development laws. Forestry policies evolve from emergency and provisional to systematic and overall functions,making them become more scientific,pertinent and prospective. Besides,formulation of forestry policies is gradually influenced by international factors. When formulating forestry policies,it is required to follow forestry development laws,keep pace with time,and make constant improvement in practice,to suit demands of times and social development,and prudently handle the relationship between economic benefits and ecological benefits of forestry.

  14. Raising the Stakes – Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mayers, J

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available forestry Raising the stakes M ayers, Evans and Foy Raising the stakes Impacts of privatisation, certification and partnerships in South African forestry James Mayers Jeremy Evans Tim Foy Raising the stakes Forestry is a good, if risky, business.... Government is privatising its plantations and is pursuing policies aimed at empowering formerly marginalised people. This means that forestry is changing fast. Forest certification is one response to change, and is helping some companies who were already...

  15. Influence of Factor Input on Forestry Economic Growth of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufen XU; Miao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Forestry is a fundamental industry of national economy. In social development of human beings,forestry plays an essential role in expanding employment,realizing rural prosperity and safeguarding ecological safety. This paper firstly introduced current development situations of forestry in Jilin Province. Then,it analyzed influence of factor input on forestry economic growth of Jilin Province by linear regression analysis method. Finally,it came up with pertinent recommendations.

  16. Bolivia (Part II: Management for sustainable forestry in other tropical countries)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Guzman, R.; Dockry, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bolivia started to implement the Forestry Law (# 1700) in 1996. Since then the Bolivian forestry sector has changed significantly from an unplanned and exploitative logging regime to an organized system based on reduced impact logging techniques and management plans elaborated by trained forestry te

  17. 25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... students who are enrolled in secondary schools, tribal or Alaska Native community colleges, and other post... college preparatory course work, an accredited institution which grants bachelor degrees in forestry or... college or university which grants bachelor degrees in forestry or forestry-related curriculums....

  18. Current Status and Development Prospect of Carbon Sequestration Forestry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Carbon sequestration forestry plays an important role in climate change and global warming mitigation, and thus gains more and more attention around the world. The paper introduced the concept, the significance and the status of carbon sequestration forestry in China, discussed existing issues and put forward countermeasures and suggestions to address these issues. Finally, development prospect of carbon sequestration forestry was analyzed.

  19. A Study of Science and Technology Support System for Multifunctional Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis on existing problems in China's forestry science & technology support system and in view of the requirements of multifunctional forestry development for science & technology support, the paper constructed a science & technology support framework for multifunctional forestry, comprising technology innovation, achievements transfer, extension and application, and policy guarantee. Major countermeasures were proposed to consolidate the science & technology support to multifunctional fores...

  20. Self regulation initiative to address the heavy vehicle overloading problem in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available in the timber industry resulted in a pilot project, which was initially funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Forestry South Africa under the DTI’s Sector Partnership Fund (SPF). Forestry Engineering South Africa (FESA) is directing...

  1. Introductory remarks from the National Aboriginal Forestry Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry M. Bombay

    2001-01-01

    On behalf of the National Aboriginal Forestry Association (NAFA), I have appreciated the opportunity to be part of the planning committee for this conference. As an invited speaker, I'd like to pay particular respect to the Anishinabeg people of the Treaty #3 area as it is in their traditional territory where we have chosen to discuss the matter of non-timber...

  2. Property Rights Effects on Farmers’ Management Investment in Forestry Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, Bettina; Dries, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    China’s central government has carried out a series of collectivization and de-collectivization attempts of forest tenure over time, which have led to multiple forest tenure arrangements within provinces. This paper investigates the motivation of farmers to maintain forestry under various forest

  3. 7 CFR 1410.12 - Emergency Forestry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Emergency Forestry Program. (a) In addition to other allowable enrollments, certain non-industrial private...-industrial private forest land, as defined in § 1410.2, in the CRP provided that the private non-industrial... the conservation plan as part of the normal maintenance of the forest land. (f) Offers for...

  4. rethinking forestry and natural resources higher Education in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    factors. It progressively evolved from endeavours dependent on foreign aid to ... Within an ESD perspective, forests are identified as social–ecological .... Resources (WGCFNR) (a key forestry education centre for Ethiopia) as a .... to be sustainable forest management, because this maintains and enhances ...... stakeholders.

  5. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  6. Green Gold. On variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it was joined

  7. Constitution of the forest road evaluation form for Turkish forestry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... wild habitats 5.63%; eligibility for forestry works 2.64% and eligibility for utilization for security 6.45%. The evaluation ... establishment and maintenance of forest road networks. However ..... J. Civil Eng. 33: 58-68. Forman EH ...

  8. Virginia's Link to Education about Forestry (LEAF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, John F.; Gagnon, Jennifer L.; Barrett, Scott; Powell, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Virginia's LEAF Program incorporates educational opportunities with heritage experiences and technology to advance forestry education in the Commonwealth. Statewide heritage-based outdoor classrooms use an integrated outdoor learning system to provide both formal and informal education. Online learning modules are coupled with the classrooms to…

  9. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  10. Governance in Ukrainian forestry: trends, impacts and remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnik, M.; Oskam, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address governance by analysing the relevant institutions and investigating their impact on economic and environmental performance in Ukrainian forestry. The research questions are: how does the transition to a market economy affect the forest institutions and what are the trends,

  11. The role of exotic tree species in Nordic forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Dahl; Lobo, Albin; Myking, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The selection of suitable tree species is a prerequisite for successful forestry, and the use of exotic species as an alternative to native species is often a relevant option. In this paper, we discuss this option in relation to the present and future wood production in Nordic forestry. We revisi...... the expected climate changes, we discuss whether and how the increased use of exotic species can contribute to sustained and increased health and productivity of Nordic forests without jeopardising ecological and social values.......The selection of suitable tree species is a prerequisite for successful forestry, and the use of exotic species as an alternative to native species is often a relevant option. In this paper, we discuss this option in relation to the present and future wood production in Nordic forestry. We revisit...... the vegetation and forest history and its implications for the interest in using exotic species. We review to what extent exotic species can contribute to increased economic returns from forest plantings and the potential negative ecological effects associated with introduction of new species. Considering...

  12. Property Rights Effects on Farmers’ Management Investment in Forestry Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, Bettina; Dries, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    China’s central government has carried out a series of collectivization and de-collectivization attempts of forest tenure over time, which have led to multiple forest tenure arrangements within provinces. This paper investigates the motivation of farmers to maintain forestry under various forest

  13. Credibility of institutions : Forestry, social conflict and titling in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Petrus

    2006-01-01

    In the reform of a forestry sector governed by centralist, socialist principles towards a sector suited to the challenges of the market economy, the Chinese government needs to establish institutions that can be perceived as credible by social actors. In other words, the creation of institutions

  14. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Giller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo. The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but

  15. Development of marketing of ecosystem goods and services in the forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Mishenin

    2013-06-01

    mechanism of the forest management on the ecological and economic foundations.Principles and methodical positions for setting the prices of creation of protective forest plantations, which have the character of ecosystem goods and services and provide the development of appropriate business initiatives and the possibility of formation of the social environmental fund of the forest resources reproduction at the enterprise level, have been investigated in this paper. The upper level of prices for the creation of antierosion and shelterbelt plantings which have the character of ecosystem production has been determined in the range of 19,419 25,748 UAH/ha.Conclusions and directions of further researches. System of environmentally oriented social marketing and its main task of drawing attention of all stakeholders for solving environmental-economic and social problems of effective exploitation, reproduction and preservation of forest resources in conditions of socially responsible forest management have been considered in this article. Functioning the marketing of ecosystem goods and services is closely connected with formation of relevant information and analytical foundation, implementation of communicative policy of forest ecological and economic orientation, formation of management system of ecological-economic knowledge in the forestry.

  16. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Daily, Gretchen C; Friday, James B; Matson, Pamela A; Naylor, Rosamond L; Vitousek, Peter

    2006-06-27

    Innovative financial instruments are being created to reward conservation on private, working lands. Major design challenges remain, however, to make investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services economically attractive and commonplace. From a business perspective, three key financial barriers for advancing conservation land uses must frequently be addressed: high up-front costs, long time periods with no revenue, and high project risk due to long time horizons and uncertainty. We explored ways of overcoming these barriers on grazing lands in Hawaii by realizing a suite of timber and conservation revenue streams associated with their (partial) reforestation. We calculated the financial implications of alternative strategies, focusing on Acacia koa ("koa") forestry because of its high conservation and economic potential. Koa's timber value alone creates a viable investment (mean net present value = $453/acre), but its long time horizon and poor initial cash flow pose formidable challenges for landowners. At present, subsidy payments from a government conservation program targeting benefits for biodiversity, water quality, and soil erosion have the greatest potential to move landowners beyond the tipping point in favor of investments in koa forestry, particularly when combined with future timber harvest (mean net present value = $1,661/acre). Creating financial mechanisms to capture diverse ecosystem service values through time will broaden opportunities for conservation land uses. Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private investors have roles to play in catalyzing this transition by developing new revenue streams that can reach a broad spectrum of landowners.

  17. Forestry and the aquatic environment: studies in an Irish context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, P. S.; O'Halloran, J.

    Research on the interaction between plantation forestry and aquatic environments is essential to develop environmentally compatible and sustainable management further. Given, in Ireland, the generally low levels of atmospheric pollution, its geology and maritime climate, and the unique fauna and flora due to its island history, such studies are important not only in the regional context, but also internationally, as they provide an opportunity to examine the effect of forestry and forest management practices on aquatic systems per se, without the complications of acidification. Here, some of the major findings of forestry and water research in Ireland have been reviewed and compared with those from the UK and elsewhere. Plantation forests do not exacerbate acidification in the south of Ireland (Munster) as a whole so that the influence of forestry on water chemistry is far less important than in other parts of the country (such as Wicklow and Mayo). The main forestry influence on streams in Munster is more likely through physical factors, but their nature is unclear. In a few catchments some negative effects are evident, but in many others apparently positive forest effects occur. In this context, smaller scale catchment-level effects appear to be more important in explaining the various relationships between plantation forests and stream ecology than larger scale regional factors. The management of riparian zones, particularly in forested catchments, is of major importance for the structure and functioning of aquatic communities and further work is needed on best management practices. It is suggested that it is unreasonable to base forest management on national Forest-Fisheries guidelines since regions vary too much and the signal from local conditions is too strong. The approach for environmentally benign, scientifically sound forestry management has to be at the catchment scale. Trees in the right places may be beneficial ecologically but further work is needed

  18. Determinants of participation in community forestry in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Determinants of people's participation in community forestry activities in Tanahun district, Nepal were investigated through a survey of 304 households across ten community forest user groups, key informant interviews, and informal group discussions. Data were analysed through an ordered probit....... In all household wealth categories, a moderate level of participation was by far the most common. Further, the results indicate that users participating more in community forestry activities have extracted higher amounts of firewood, fodder and timber although this relation was not statistically...... model as well as through the marginal effects of socio-economic factors on the probability of households' participation. Of the 12 variables considered in this study, only gender, caste, household size, livestock holding, network, and amount of firewood extraction proved statistically significant...

  19. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrowitz, Katja; Koricheva, Julia; Baker, Susan C; Lindenmayer, David B; Palik, Brian; Rosenvald, Raul; Beese, William; Franklin, Jerry F; Kouki, Jari; Macdonald, Ellen; Messier, Christian; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Gustafsson, Lena

    2014-12-01

    Industrial forestry typically leads to a simplified forest structure and altered species composition. Retention of trees at harvest was introduced about 25 years ago to mitigate negative impacts on biodiversity, mainly from clearcutting, and is now widely practiced in boreal and temperate regions. Despite numerous studies on response of flora and fauna to retention, no comprehensive review has summarized its effects on biodiversity in comparison to clearcuts as well as un-harvested forests. Using a systematic review protocol, we completed a meta-analysis of 78 studies including 944 comparisons of biodiversity between retention cuts and either clearcuts or un-harvested forests, with the main objective of assessing whether retention forestry helps, at least in the short term, to moderate the negative effects of clearcutting on flora and fauna. Retention cuts supported higher richness and a greater abundance of forest species than clearcuts as well as higher richness and abundance of open-habitat species than un-harvested forests. For all species taken together (i.e. forest species, open-habitat species, generalist species and unclassified species), richness was higher in retention cuts than in clearcuts. Retention cuts had negative impacts on some species compared to un-harvested forest, indicating that certain forest-interior species may not survive in retention cuts. Similarly, retention cuts were less suitable for some open-habitat species compared with clearcuts. Positive effects of retention cuts on richness of forest species increased with proportion of retained trees and time since harvest, but there were not enough data to analyse possible threshold effects, that is, levels at which effects on biodiversity diminish. Spatial arrangement of the trees (aggregated vs. dispersed) had no effect on either forest species or open-habitat species, although limited data may have hindered our capacity to identify responses. Results for different comparisons were largely

  20. Urban Forestry Research in Europe-An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive European overview of recent and ongoing research in Europe has been carried out within the framework of COST Action E12 'Urban Forests and Trees', a pan-European research network. This paper presents some of the main findings of a comparative analysis of 20 individual country reports. The analysis shows that research on urban forests and urban trees in Europe has a wide scope and is rather fragmented and uncoordinated. Universities and state research institutes, mostly with a forestry or...

  1. Relationship between climate change and environmental risk's of forestry technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécsinger, Judit; Polgár, András

    2017-04-01

    Environmental risk analysis of the technological aspects of forestry is an important complement to the climate research. Commonly used forestry technologies, like cleaning cutting or final harvest, causes various environmental effects which presents different environmental risks. Based on their material and energy deductions and emissions, they can contribute in different ways to global environmental problems such as climate change. Using environmental risk assessment we explored the newly emerging environmental hazards of the typical forestry technologies due to climate change. These hazards are known in terms of their properties (eg. aridification, toxic load etc), but the spatial appearance is novel. We investigated the possible stressor-response relationships, then estimated the expected exposure. In the risk characterization, we summarized information received in the previous steps. As a result we set up the risk matrices of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak and spruce. In the matrices, the technologies ranked by values of Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) were placed in relation of the average temperature change (dT [° C]) of climate change scenarios. We defined the environmental risks in text form, specifying classes of risks: - I. Class: high risk - II. Class: medium risk - III. Class: low risk. The use of a risk matrix is an important complement to climate change decision-making when selecting the forestry technologies. It serves as a guideline for both foresters and decision makers. Keywords: climate change / environmental risk / risk assessment / forest technology's risk matrix Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by the Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1- 2013-0034 project.

  2. The Kyoto Protocol and forestry practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bov B. Eav; Richard A. Birdsey; Linda S. Heath

    2000-01-01

    Forestry may play an important if not critical role in the ability of the U.S. to meet its greenhouse gas emissions target under the terms of the Kyoto Protocol. Given the low rate of change in the U.S. forest land area, the major anthropogenic influences on the current net forest carbon flux are forest management and protection activities that have resulted in...

  3. Higher Education on Urban Forestry in Europe: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the demands of modern, information-based society, higher education in natural resource management needs to be transformed. Enhanced mobility of students and staff, multi- and transdisciplinary approaches, as well as innovative educational approaches are called for. Moreover, the urban component needs to be better incorporated, as exemplified by the emerging field of urban forestry. This paper relates to the developments in higher education within the context of education on urban forest...

  4. Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Paula García-Fraile; Esther Menéndez; Raúl Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Many rhizospheric bacterial strains possess plant growth-promoting mechanisms. These bacteria can be applied as biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry, enhancing crop yields. Bacterial biofertilizers can improve plant growth through several different mechanisms: (i) the synthesis of plant nutrients or phytohormones, which can be absorbed by plants, (ii) the mobilization of soil compounds, making them available for the plant to be used as nutrients, (iii) the protection of plants under str...

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation in U.S. agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    McCarl, Bruce A; Schneider, U

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper discusses the economic and technical potential for sequestering carbon in the agriculture and forestry (AF) sectors of the United States. The authors apply an agricultural sector model that includes green house gases (ASMGHG) to assess the possibility of mitigating carbon emissions in AF. Although the findings suggest that AF strategies will not be sufficient to abate emissions to the extent required by Kyoto Protocol, incorporating AF mitigation into other ...

  6. Community Forestry and Sustainable Development in Rural Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After analysis on the current situation of international forestry, this paper proposes that integration, coordination and sustainable development will be the general developing trend of forest in China, and commercial forest, ecological forest and community forest should be organically combined with integrative development and sustainable development in rural areas. This paper focuses especially on clarifying the importance of community forest to the social development or rural areas, and emphasizes tha...

  7. Hearing Profile of Brazilian Forestry Workers' Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years, mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years, and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years. The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter, 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed.

  8. Characterization of Woodchips for Energy from Forestry and Agroforestry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Picchio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We set out to determine the particle-size distribution, the fiber, the bark and the leaves content, the heating value, the CNH and the ash content of a wide sample of wood chips, collected from 10 forestry and 10 agroforestry production sources. This sampling focused on two main production types: forestry (Full Tree System—FTS—and logging residues—LR and agroforestry (Short Rotation Coppice—SRC. For the forestry production wood chips from coniferous and broadleaf species were considered. For the agroforestry production wood chips from poplar plantations were examined (different clones with two different harvesting intervals. Overall, we collected 400 samples. Particle size distribution was determined with an automatic screening device on 200 samples. The higher heating value was determined on 200 subsamples using an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The CNH and the ash content was ascertained on another 200 subsamples. FTS and SRC (with three year old sprouts offered the best quality, with high fiber content (71%–80%, favorable particle-size distribution and good energetic parameters. On the contrary, both logging residues and SRC (with two year old sprouts presented a high bark content (18%–27% and occasionally a mediocre particle-size distribution, being often too rich in fines (6%–12%, but the energetic parameters are in the normal range.

  9. Hearing profile of brazilian forestry workers' noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Adriana; Quintiliano, Juliana; Lobato, Diolen; Gonçalves, Claudia; Marques, Jair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Researchers studying the hearing health of forestry workers have revealed the presence of a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in this population and have concluded that the vibration of the equipment, the carbon monoxide released by motors, and pesticides might also contribute to NIHL. Objective To analyze the noise exposure in the Brazilian forestry industry workers and the effects on hearing. Methods The study sample comprised 109 employees of a company that specialized in reforestation. Their participants' mean age was 35.5 years (21 to 54 years), mean tenure at the company was 3.9 years (1 to 13 years), and mean total duration of noise exposure was 12.3 years (1 to 30 years). The existing documentation reporting on the jobs risk analysis was examined, noise level was measured, and pure tone audiometry was performed in all participants. Participants were divided into three groups according to their noise exposure levels in their current job. Results Of the participants who were exposed to noise levels less than 85 dBA (decibels with A-weighting filter), 23.8% had hearing loss, and 5.5% of the participants who were exposed to noise ranging from 85 to 89.9 dBA and 11% of the participants who were exposed to noise greater than 90 dBA had audiogram results suggestive of NIHL. Conclusion The implementation of a hearing loss prevention program tailored to forestry workers is needed.

  10. Forestry impacts on the hidden fungal biodiversity associated with bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Ohlson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have revealed an unexpectedly high, cryptic diversity of fungi associated with boreal forest bryophytes. Forestry practices heavily influence the boreal forest and fundamentally transform the landscape. However, little is known about how bryophyte-associated fungal communities are affected by these large-scale habitat transformations. This study assesses to what degree bryophyte-associated fungal communities are structured across the forest successional stages created by current forestry practices. Shoots of Hylocomium splendens were collected in Picea abies dominated forests of different ages, and their associated fungal communities were surveyed by pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons. Although community richness, diversity and evenness were relatively stable across the forest types and all were consistently dominated by ascomycete taxa, there was a marked shift in fungal community composition between young and old forests. Numerous fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed distinct affinities for different forest ages. Spatial structure was also detected among the sites, suggesting that environmental gradients resulting from the topography of the study area and dispersal limitations may also significantly affect bryophyte-associated fungal community structure. This study confirms that Hylocomium splendens hosts an immense diversity of fungi and demonstrates that this community is structured in part by forest age, and as such is highly influenced by modern forestry practices.

  11. Self regulation initiative in heavy vehicle transport to address road safety, accelerated road deterioration and transport productivity in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available in a national pilot project, which was initially funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Forestry South Africa under the DTI’s Sector Partnership Fund (SPF). The Institute for Commercial Forestry Research (ICFR) is directing...

  12. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  13. Order defining the jurisdiction of the forestry guard, 30 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Order defines the jurisdiction of the Haitian forestry guard in order better to protect the State's hydrographic basins and national forest resources. It provides that the forestry guard is to have the following functions: 1) to oversee in general the application of forestry legislation; 2) to stop all forms of agricultural or forestry exploitation that harm state lands; 3) to confiscate all illicitly exploited forestry resources; 4) to inspect regularly the parts of the forest or parks assigned to its care; and 5) to control the circulation of wood and wood products, documents, and freight. In collaboration with other interested state agencies, the forestry guard is also to prevent forest fires and promote the natural and man-made generation of the forest.

  14. Current situation of Chinese forestry tactics and strategy of sustainable development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation of Chinese forestry and aseries of ecological, environmental, economic, and social problems, this paper emphasized on the importance of forests in social and economic development in China The author pointed out that sustainable development, particularly the sustainable development of forestry, is the inevitable choice to solve the problems of ecological environment and social economics. The objectives, criteria, and strategies of sustaining forestry were also demonstrated and expounded, from the viewpoints of ecology, economics, and sociology.

  15. Diverity evalution and developing strategies of forestry view of scenic spots: taking Lushan as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Haihui; ZHUO Lihuan; MA Jinglin

    2007-01-01

    Diversity indexes of current forestry view, such as dominance degree, fragmentation degree and overcast degree, were evaluated by the software ARCVIEWGIS. And developing strategies to improve diversity were put forward in this paper, that is, combining with the items of forestry tour and enhancing scientific management, and choosing typical trees to change forestry structure on the basis of general conditions of dominance degree, fragmentation degree and overcast degree.

  16. Field trap. Energy forestry is no solution. Aakerfaellan. Energiskog ingen loesning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, O.; Rabinowicz, E.; von Zweigbergk, N.

    1988-01-01

    Swedish agriculture is looking towards energy forestry as a substitutional crop to reduce the uneconomic overproduction of cereals. The economy of using farmland for short rotation forestry are studied in this report. It is argued that much of the motivation for finding alternative crops is due to the desire to keep farmland prices high, and that energy forestry will not give a reasonable economic return, but rather create a new dependence on agricultural subsidies, since energy wood can not compete with coal or gas for power production. Massive introduction of energy forestry on farmland is seen as vehicle for prolonging the problems of agricultural politics into the energy sector and is strongly discouraged.

  17. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  18. The impact of the growth of new plantation forestry on evaporation and streamflow in the Llanbrynmair catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Hudson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual water balances (1983-1995 for the Cwm and Delyn catchments at Llanbrynmair Moor in mid-Wales have been used to quantify the hydrological effects of the land use change in the Cwm from moorland to forestry. Initially, the actual evaporation (precipitation minus streamflow of the Cwm catchment declined rapidly relative to the Delyn, due to the disruption of the vegetation by ploughing the ground in preparation for planting the trees. It then increased, more quickly than expected, to greater levels than for the original moorland since in the early stages of forest growth a dense understorey of dwarf shrubs contributed to both interception and transpiration.

  19. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  20.   Biotechnology in Danish forestry - Christmas trees and Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Find, Jens

    Clonal propagation of elite trees by somatic embryogenesis (SE) can shorten periods needed for breeding of trees, and can ensure a stable production of high quality plants for the forestry sector. SE has special interest as a breeding tool, because it for many species is the preferred basis for d...... methods developed at the University of Copenhagen for SE in nordmanns fir and sitka spruce. Nordmanns fir has special interest in Denmark for production of Christmas trees and sitka spruce has gained renewed interest for production of biofuels.  ...

  1. The role of plantation forestry in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of types of forest plantations and their role in sustainable development, with an emphasis on the definition of artificially established (planted forests and forest plantations. Forest plantations, the most productive part of planted forests, play a significant role in fulfilling the principles of sustainable development. Plantation forestry can provide additional quantities of roundwood and fuelwood (including biomass, additional products in the form of non-timber forest products and additional services in the form of shelterbelts and phytoremediation.

  2. Invasive giant hogweeds in Poland: Risk of burns among forestry workers and plant distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The Caucasian giant hogweeds (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Lever) are aggressive invaders that are successfully spreading in different parts of the world. Exposure of human skin to these plants may lead to phototoxicity and even chemical burns manifested by cutaneous, full-thickness, and long-lasting dermatitis, and in extreme cases, massive skin necrosis. Forestry workers are a group with potentially increased risk of exposure to these plants because of the outdoor nature of their work and their active involvement in managing invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating their level of awareness with regard to the giant hogweeds in Poland. The morphology of the plants, health threats, treatment, and control methods were all considered. We also evaluated the distribution of these plants within forest districts in Poland. For this reason, we surveyed 1563 employees (forest rangers, manual workers, and administration staff) of the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland "State Forests," working in 367 different forest districts. It was initially found that the forestry workers were generally aware of the giant hogweeds' morphology and phototoxicity. More than 20% of the surveyed individuals had been exposed to these plants at least once in their lives, but only less than half of them were aware of proceeding afterward. At the same time, <35% of those surveyed had any knowledge of the control and management of these giant hogweeds. As demonstrated by our study, stands of these species are widely distributed within the Polish forest districts (reported in over 50%). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement an efficient, multistrategic, and long-term approach to both control their spread and protect human health.

  3. Role of bacterial biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many rhizospheric bacterial strains possess plant growth-promoting mechanisms. These bacteria can be applied as biofertilizers in agriculture and forestry, enhancing crop yields. Bacterial biofertilizers can improve plant growth through several different mechanisms: (i the synthesis of plant nutrients or phytohormones, which can be absorbed by plants, (ii the mobilization of soil compounds, making them available for the plant to be used as nutrients, (iii the protection of plants under stressful conditions, thereby counteracting the negative impacts of stress, or (iv defense against plant pathogens, reducing plant diseases or death. Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR have been used worldwide for many years as biofertilizers, contributing to increasing crop yields and soil fertility and hence having the potential to contribute to more sustainable agriculture and forestry. The technologies for the production and application of bacterial inocula are under constant development and improvement and the bacterial-based biofertilizer market is growing steadily. Nevertheless, the production and application of these products is heterogeneous among the different countries in the world. This review summarizes the main bacterial mechanisms for improving crop yields, reviews the existing technologies for the manufacture and application of beneficial bacteria in the field, and recapitulates the status of the microbe-based inoculants in World Markets.

  4. Reviewing on the Development of Forestry Sciences and Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This essay reviews and sums up about the major achievement of forestry sciences-and technology in the past 50 years in China, from 8 fields including hereditary breeding of forest, silviculture, forest ecology, forest management, forest protection, combating desertification, wood sciences and technology, and forestry chemistry and technology.

  5. Evolution and Diversification of Community Forestry Regimes in Babati District, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babili, I.H.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s many tropical countries have promoted community forestry (CF). Gradually, various forms of community forest management regimes were developed in response to decentralization processes in the forest administration or the government administration. The emergence of community forestry r

  6. Effect of urbanization on transformation of forestry in Turkey (Period of 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Atmış

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests and forestry in Turkey have been changing and even transforming in line with social, economic, ecologic and cultural changes in the world and the nation. Especially global and regional developments have been extensively affecting the national forestry policies. Different interpretations were made by different interest groups on the extent of change in forests and forestry in Turkey, but a common opinion could not be reached. There is no consensus on the direction of progress in the forestry in Turkey, and how the relationship between the socio-economic structure and production influence each other. Urbanization is one of the important factors affecting the change and the transformation of forestry in Turkey. In order to be able to lay strong foundations for forestry in Turkey, there is a need for studies that examine the relationship of urbanization and forestry in detail. This study has been carried out with an aim to examine the impact of urbanization on forestry in Turkey. Findings reached as a result of analyses have been assessed under the titles: forest villagers and forest land, rapes of the forest, wood as raw material and production of non-wood forest products, protected areas and recreation, and allocations. In light of this assessment, meaningful positive or negative relationships have surfaced between increase in urban population and aforementioned titles.

  7. Good practice cases in practical applications of agro and forestry side-streams processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, C.M.A.; Lambrecht, E.; Clerkx, A.P.P.M.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Gellynck, X.

    2016-01-01

    Valorisation of biomass sidestreams from agriculture and forestry
    AGRIFORVALOR is an EU funded H2020 project with duration from 01.03.2016-31.08.2018. It comprises 16 partners from 6 European countries.
    AGRIFORVALOR aims to close the research and innovation divide on agriculture and forestry

  8. 29 CFR 780.200 - Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited. 780.200 Section 780.200 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Lumbering Operations § 780.200 Inclusion of forestry or lumbering operations in agriculture is limited...

  9. Improving access to research outcomes for innovation in agriculture and forestry: the VALERIE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechini, Luca; Koenderink, N.J.J.P.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Corre, W.J.; Evert, van F.K.; Ruijter, de F.J.; Willems, D.J.M.; Zandstra, Anneke; Top, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Many excellent results are obtained in agricultural and forestry research projects, but their practical adoption is often limited. The aim of the European project VALERIE is to increase the transfer and application of innovations produced by research in agriculture and forestry, by facilitating

  10. EXPLORING THE ROLE OF FORESTRY SECTOR ON ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF GUNUNGKIDUL DISTRICT IN 1993 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamat Rahmat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the role of forestry sector in the economic system of Gunungkidul district. The Location Quotient (LQ Analysis, Income Multiplier Effect Value, and Klassen Typology Analysis were employed to analyze the role of the forestry sector. The data were regional income of Gunungkidul district and Yogyakarta Province from 1993 to 2008, including the economic crisis period from 1997 to 1998. The result showed that forestry sector was an important sector in economic development of Gunungkidul district. LQ analysis indicated that forestry became a basic sector since pre-economic crisis period until post-economic crisis (1993 - 2008. Prior to the economic crisis, forestry sector generated the highest income multiplier effect value. However, the value dropped during and after the economic crisis. The economic crisis had an influence on the development pattern classification of forestry sector. Before economic crisis, forestry sector was classified as a developed sector (quadrant I with the growth and shared to GDRP in Gunungkidul were higher than that in Yogyakarta Province. Meanwhile, since the economic crisis, forestry sector fell into the lower class as a stagnant sector.

  11. REDD+ and Large-Scale Mining – What Scope for Forestry-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ing companies to engage with the REDD process and include a forestry based component in their legacy. ... term forestry-based mine legacies, and how they may be ... Rehabilitating forests also mitigates climate change ... Overcoming historically poor relations between .... community resistance” Journal of African Stud-.

  12. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egestad, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  13. Research on Temporal-spatial Evolution of Regional Disparity of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methods of the Malmquist index analysis, global spatial autocorrelation analysis and local spatial autocorrelation are used to calculate and analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of the Forestry Total Factor Productivity based on the data from 30 provinces in China from 1997 to 2012 by using the software DEAP2.1, DeoDa, ArcGIS. The results show the following: The Forestry Total Factor Productivity presented obvious fluctuations in temporal patterns but presented stable characteristics in spatial patterns; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity showed the characteristics of discrete distribution from 1997 to 2003 and showed the characteristics of concentrated distribution from 2003 to 2012; The Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China presented obvious binary space structure; The high value agglomeration area gradually had become concentrated in the Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces and low concentration areas were mainly distributed in Gansu, Qinghai, Szechwan and other surrounding provinces. The main reasons for spatial distribution of Forestry Total Factor Productivity in China were the differences of macro-policy on forestry, lacking and changing of investments in forestry science and technology, the difference of forestry resource distribution and unbalanced regional economic development level.

  14. Collision, collusion and muted resistance - constrasting early and later encounters with empire forestry in the Gold Coast, 1874-1957

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wardell, David Andrew

    2006-01-01

    West Africa, Gold Coast, Protectorate of the Northern Territories,empire forestry, colonial forest histories......West Africa, Gold Coast, Protectorate of the Northern Territories,empire forestry, colonial forest histories...

  15. Forest machine contractors in Swedish industrial forestry: Significance and conditions during 1986-1993. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liden, E.

    1995-07-01

    The aim of this review was to come to a general understanding of the phenomenon of contracting in forestry as an occupation and a life-style. This has been accomplished by studies on machine ownership, working conditions, and attrition from forestry, using quantitative methods in combination with qualitative ones, during the period 1986 to 1993. The studies pertained to industrial forestry in Sweden. In 1992/93 70% of all machines used in industrial forestry in Sweden were owned by contractors. Together these machines harvested 59% of the total quantity during the 1992/93 harvesting season. Three categories of contractors were recognized; the single contractor, the partner contractor, and the contractor with employees. It was concluded that being a contractor is more a life-style than an occupation. Very often the whole family is involved in the business. The contractors` willingness to work hard and to do a good job is an asset for forestry.

  16. An economic evaluation of carbon emission and carbon sequestration for the forestry sector in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, R. [Forest Research Inst., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1995-12-31

    Forestry is an important sector in Malaysia. The long term development of the forestry sector will definitely affect the future amounts of carbon sequestration and emission of the country. This paper evaluates various forestry economic options that contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The analysis shows that, although forest plantation could sequester the highest amount of carbon per unit area, natural forests which are managed for sustainable timber production are the cheapest option for per-unit area carbon sequestrated. In evaluating forest options to address the issues of carbon sequestration and emission, the paper proposes that it should be assessed as an integral part of overall long term forestry development of the country which takes into account the future demands for forestry goods and services, financial resources, technology and human resource development. (Author)

  17. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS ON FORESTRY SPECIAL FUNDS AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Teodor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study, theoretically and practically, presents the accounting system for forestry special purpose funds in Romania. In addition, the main problems Romanian forestry faces nowadays are highlighted in the content, given the legislative changes expected in the near future. Accounting treatments specific to Romanian forestry regarding special funds, namely the conservation and regeneration fund, the accessibility fund, the environmental fund and the improvement fund are governed in the current law, mainly by the Forestry Code in Romania - Law 46/2008 supplemented by other specialized works used within the National Forest Directorate in Romania. Among the specific forestry regulations, special purpose funds are an area of interest in the current economic crisis being presented under several aspects: establishing the Fund, its utility and calculation method, its recording into accounting, or its specific tax implications. The main objective of this paper is to provide both a framework for analysis and presentation of the problems faced by forestry activity in Romania, and the accounting treatments specific to forestry activities, by illustrating the main entries made through financial and accounting documents. Given that we fully realize the environment’s importance in our lives, we understand the very close relationship between the forestry business’ enactment, its financing and its supervision. Special funds are the basis for financing forestry projects. Their study covers a gap in the specialized literature, providing specialists, practitioners and other stakeholders a framework. In the current economic and political context, the forestry problems, environmental issues in general are perceived to be more stringent. The solutions identified as a firm response to the existing problems are therefore of major importance, of which, in this study, we have identified and proposed several solutions. Practical examples have as grounds real data

  18. Impacts of forestry on boreal forests: An ecosystem services perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanmies, Tähti; Triviño, María; Le Tortorec, Eric; Mazziotta, Adriano; Snäll, Tord; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2017-04-22

    Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Here, we present an overview of the environmental impacts of forest management from the perspective of ecosystem services. We show how prevailing forestry practices may have substantial but diverse effects on the various ecosystem services provided by boreal forests. Several aspects of these processes remain poorly known and warrant a greater role in future studies, including the role of community structure. Conflicts among different interests related to boreal forests are most likely to occur, but the concept of ecosystem services may provide a useful framework for identifying and resolving these conflicts.

  19. Model-Based Development of Control Systems for Forestry Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro La Hera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-based methods are used in industry for prototyping concepts based on mathematical models. With our forest industry partners, we have established a model-based workflow for rapid development of motion control systems for forestry cranes. Applying this working method, we can verify control algorithms, both theoretically and practically. This paper is an example of this workflow and presents four topics related to the application of nonlinear control theory. The first topic presents the system of differential equations describing the motion dynamics. The second topic presents nonlinear control laws formulated according to sliding mode control theory. The third topic presents a procedure for model calibration and control tuning that are a prerequisite to realize experimental tests. The fourth topic presents the results of tests performed on an experimental crane specifically equipped for these tasks. Results of these studies show the advantages and disadvantages of these control algorithms, and they highlight their performance in terms of robustness and smoothness.

  20. Vasoconstrictor response to cold in forestry workers: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N; Nielsen, S L

    1988-01-01

    In a five year prospective study of the vasoconstrictor response to cold 37 forestry workers were investigated in 1978 and again in 1983. The subjects were classified into three groups: group A (n = 13): no subjective finger symptoms in 1978 and continued sawing until 1983; group B (n = 12......): no symptoms in 1978 and stopped sawing before 1983; group C (n = 12): vibration induced white finger (VWF) in 1978. A cold provocation test measuring the finger systolic blood pressure with a cuff and strain gauge technique during combined body cooling and finger cooling to 30 degrees, 15 degrees, and 6...... A indicates that a further five years use of anti-vibration chain saws induced an increased hyperreactivity in the vasoconstrictor mechanisms but led to subjective symptoms of VWF in only one subject. The improvement in group C was in accordance with the improvements of subjective finger symptoms...

  1. ENEGY FORESTRY A SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta RUSU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using "grown fuels", as opposed to "fossil fuels" such as coal, natural gas and oil can be a possible solution to the global energy crisis by creating a decentralized power generation network. Wood is among the most efficient sources of bioenergy in terms of quantity of energy released by unit of carbon emitted compared with other energy crops. Research, development and innovation create new opportunities for the process of gathering and transforming the raw material into energy. Innovation should be targeted to deliver sustainability, biodiversity and economic growth. Romanian has a high potential and can develop energy forestry in order to reduce CO2 emissions and ensure an alternative energy solution and an energy reserve. This paper aims to analize the challenges and opportunities the biomass energy industry creates in the context of climate change mitigation which must be seen from an entrepreneurial perspective in Romania.

  2. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems...... imply uneven-aged dynamics, and while a number of numerical studies have analysed specific continuous cover forest ecosystems in search of optimal management regimes, no one has tried to capture key dynamics of continuous cover forestry in simple mathematical models. In this paper we develop a simple...... present results for unrestricted as well as area-restricted versions of the models. We find that land values are unambiguously higher in the continuous cover forest models compared with the even-aged models. Under area restrictions, the optimal rotation age in a continuous cover forest model...

  3. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems...... imply uneven-aged dynamics, and while a number of numerical studies have analysed specific continuous cover forest ecosystems in search of optimal management regimes, no one has tried to capture key dynamics of continuous cover forestry in simple mathematical models. In this paper we develop a simple...... allows for a simple expression for forest value and the derivation of conditions for the optimal rotation age. The model also makes straightforward comparisons with the well-known Faustmann model possible. We present results for unrestricted as well as area-restricted versions of the models. We find...

  4. Extraction of logs in forestry using operations research techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M.; Westerlund, A. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    An important and so far much neglected operative problem in the Swedish forestry is to extract roundwood from actual harvest areas to load points at forest roads. Once at the load point, logging trucks can collect it for further secondary transportation to saw- and pulp- mills. We report on a system being developed which collects geographic information by a global positioning system (GPS) about log piles and actual routing network used by the forwarder. This is stored together with related information in a geographical information system (GIS). Using operations research (OR) techniques we can find high quality routes. This provides the driver with an operative tool in finding routes. We give numerical results from a case study done for a major Swedish forest company 5 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Digital forestry maps representation using web mapping services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klimánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Web Mapping Services (WMS are very useful means for presentation of digital geospatial data in the Internet environment. Typical Open Source example of these services is development environment MapServer, which was originally developed by the University of Minnesota ForNet project in cooperation with NASA and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. MapServer is not a full-featured Geographical Information System (GIS, but provides the core functionality to support a wide variety of web applications. Complex and open information system about forest (and cultural land is presented in real example of MapServer application with data from the Mendel University Training Forest. MapServer is used in effective representing of data for the University Forest staff, students and general public from October 2002. MapServer is usually applied in education process of GIS and Remote Sensing and for sharing of the Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology Departments geospatial data.

  6. Application of tissue culture technology to southern forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C. L.

    Much progress has been made during the past few years in cloning difficult to propagate conifers and hardwoods. The predicted rate of progress during the next decade will increase several fold because of the increased interest and number of researchers now engaged in tissue culture research in America and in various laboratories around the world. The immediate application to forestry practice will depend on developing operable systems of cloning valuable plus tree selections by the thousands in laboratory flasks followed by transferring these plantlets to preformed tublings containing necessary nutrients and mycorrhizal fungi for rapid development in semi-controlled greenhouses prior to field planting. Laboratory screening for mutants, new hybrid combinations, and haploid lines, will be used more and more in the future to develop improved strains or lines of forest trees. The use of these various techniques accompanied by shorter forest rotations will significantly increase the yields of fiber and cellulose in the South within the next couple of decades.

  7. An evaluation of the California Forestry Institute for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Edward Albert

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the California Forestry Institute for Teachers (FIT) environmental education workshop. There were two populations in this study. FIT workshop participants (n = 224) and agricultural education students (n = 72) of teacher completing FIT training (treatment) and students (n = 122) of teachers with no FIT training (control). FIT participants completed and returned a questionnaire designed to determine a profile of FIT workshop participants and to measure frequency and utilization of workshop materials, curriculum integration, barriers, and workshop improvement. Agricultural education students & teachers completed a forestry & environmental education knowledge and attitude assessment. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, correlation and ANOVA were used to determine mean differences between groups. Findings and conclusions. Typical workshop participant was female, 46 years old, taught 16 years, holds a BS degree, works with elementary age students, resides in metropolitan area and does not belong to a conservation-type organization. As a result a of attending FIT, number of outdoor activities increased, number of environmentally-related filed trips increased and the number of lessons incorporating environmental education topics. FIT participants integrate EE into curriculum for a number of reasons. Lack of time and preparation were barriers, which existed that prevent integration of environmental education into their class curriculum. Participants were satisfied with structure of the workshop format and recommended no changes. Five thematic areas emerged as suggested changes in workshop subject content. A significant difference existed between group knowledge scores of agriculture students of teachers with FIT training compared to students of teachers with no FIT training. There were significant differences in scores of FIT-trained students when a comparison was made by place of residence. No significant

  8. Assessment of stress level of forestry experts with academic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landekić, Matija; Martinić, Ivan; Lovrić, Marko; Sporcić, Mario

    2011-12-01

    This paper provides the results of an applied research of forests engineers connected to their risk of mental stress occurrence in everyday work. This paper also has a component of a basic research, in which the adequacy and reliability of applied methodology in this kind of researches is examined. The mental stress induced risk is tested by usage of an e-mail survey which consists out of 23-part ERI (Effort-Reward Imbalance) questionnaire. For the assessment of mental stress exposure level following indicators have been used: 1) ERI--ratio of devoted effort and achieved reward, and 2) overcommitment. These indicators have been analyzed in comparison to the demographic parameters (gender, age) and the complexity of assigned jobs of the interviewees. The interview was applied on a randomly sampled forestry experts employed in public and private sector. The analysis of reliability of the three components of ERI questionnaire has showed satisfactory internal consistency. Descriptive statistics has been done regarding gender and the complexity of assigned jobs. The testing of the "devoted effort/achieved reward" variable (E/R index) has shown a statistically significant difference of the index value between male interviewees on managerial and standard expert positions. The value of E/R index was x > or = 1 at 18.97% of the sampled interviewees, which indicates a divergence between devoted effort and achieved reward, and also points to a possibility of mental stress occurrence risk. Multiple response tables have shown that female interviewees with less than 20 years of professional experience manifest stress related symptoms earlier than their male colleagues with similar professional experience do. Regression analysis has shown a significant correlation of E/R index to gender, internship and overcommitment. This research also assesses the viability of the applied method as an instrument of forestry experts' mental stress level determination.

  9. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  10. Correlative Analysis on Forestry Land and Topography Factors Based on Tianguan Town of Youyang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiyou; XIE; Jianli; HAN

    2013-01-01

    In order to more clearly understand the relevance of the forestry land distribution and the terrain factors,basic information was given in this paper on the reasonable utilization of forest resources in mountainous areas and the ecological environment protection.Based on the registration overlay analysis of high resolution aerial,satellite photograph and 1∶10 000 topographic map by making use of geostatistics of ArcGIS9.3,different photo color referred to different types of vegetation landscape,acquired factor data in small classes of woodland with visual interpretation in small classes of woodland and field research,and the correlation between forestry land and topography factors were discussed.It was shown that:in areas of low elevation and low slope where human beings were highly involved,all sorts of forestry land were distributed,which meant evolution and slope had little effect on forestry land,and that in those areas where human activities were lessened little by little with high elevation and high slope,kinds of forestry land decreased accordingly.Furthermore,the irrigated paddy fields were the main types of forestry land on the elevation of 1 200 m and slope above 35°.Differences among kinds of forestry land were comparatively indistinct from the perspective of slope.

  11. Factors Limiting Formation of Community Forestry Enterprises in the Southern Mixteca Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguilar, José Antonio; Cortina-Villar, Héctor Sergio; García-Barrios, Luis Enrique; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have considered community-based forestry enterprises to be the best option for development of rural Mexican communities with forests. While some of Mexico's rural communities with forests receive significant economic and social benefits from having a community forestry enterprise, the majority have not formed such enterprises. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe factors limiting the formation of community forestry enterprise in rural communities with temperate forests in the Southern Mixteca region of Oaxaca, Mexico. The study involved fieldwork, surveys applied to Community Board members, and maps developed from satellite images in order to calculate the forested surface area. It was found that the majority of Southern Mixteca communities lack the natural and social conditions necessary for developing community forestry enterprise; in this region, commercial forestry is limited due to insufficient precipitation, scarcity of land or timber species, community members' wariness of commercial timber extraction projects, ineffective local governance, lack of capital, and certain cultural beliefs. Only three of the 25 communities surveyed have a community forestry enterprise; however, several communities have developed other ways of profiting from their forests, including pine resin extraction, payment for environmental services (PES), sale of spring water, and ecotourism. We conclude that community forestry enterprise are not the only option for rural communities to generate income from their forests; in recent years a variety of forest-related economic opportunities have arisen which are less demanding of communities' physical and social resources.

  12. Land, Fund and Mechanism: Three Bottlenecks of Chinese Urban Forestry in the 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Deliang; LI jiyue; ZUO Jiafu

    2006-01-01

    Although desirable developments have been achieved since the implementation of the reform-and-opening-up policy, the urban forestry in China is still haunted by the problems of land scarcity, fund shortage and administrative mechanism dysfunction. With a concern of these problems, this paper have made a survey of the current status of the land use in urban areas for the purpose of proposing strategies for urban forestry development in China, and have made an evaluation on the relation between fund and urban forestry with a focus on the means of attracting investment and raising fund. In line with the system of social organizations, of administration, and of management, special concern about the systematic and operational mechanism of urban forestry has been expressed. Based upon the analysis as such, this paper holds that land is the foundation of urban forestry development; fund is the motive force of the sustainable development of urban forestry; mechanism is the guarantee for the urban forestry to develop in a healthy and effective order.

  13. The Future of Professional Forestry Education: Trends and Challenges from the Malaysian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional forestry education schemes are no longer sufficient to train professional foresters to manage the forest resources in a changing world. Even in forest-rich nations such as Malaysia, the challenges faced by forestry education are growing. The declining student enrolment and interests in the field must be stopped, if the field is to remain viable. The roles played by the forest have shifted from purely commercial products exploitation to environmental and social centric. In this context, forestry education will need to be restructured to impart the necessary knowledge and skills to the foresters to enable them to perform up to expectation in the field.

  14. Pocket book for the fuel trade 1986/1987. Compendium of the fuel trade. Shopping guide for fuel traders. Taschenbuch fuer den Brennstoffhandel 1986/1987. Kompendium des Brennstoffhandels, Einkaufsfuehrer fuer den Brennstoffhaendler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temming, D. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    The first chapter of the pocket book contains addresses of the fuel trade sector. The second chapter presents economic data (1981-1984). Further sections deal with competitive, price, and cartel laws, labour and social law, liability problems, motor car ownership, the mineral oil market, the solid fuel market, technical and economic data of the fuel trade, deliveries by rail and by road, taxes, and relevant laws and ordinances. The book is supplemented by a list of names and addresses.

  15. Extension, cooperatives to hold 34th annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program in Virginia Tech's College of Natural Resources and Environment will hold their 34th Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tour Programs starting Oct. 15.

  16. Agricultural and Forestry Reconstruction After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Tsunami, Radioactive, and Reputational Damages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monma, Toshiyuki; Goto, Itsuo; Hayashi, Takahisa; Tachiya, Hidekiyo; Ohsawa, Kanju

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the results of 3 years of agricultural and forestry reconstructive efforts and applied research conducted directly in the affected areas of Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake...

  17. Extension, cooperatives to hold 33rd annual Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Cooperative Extension and the Virginia Forest Landowner Education Program, in collaboration with Virginia's natural resource agencies, companies, and associations, will hold their 33rdth Annual Fall Forestry and Wildlife Field Tours starting Sept. 24.

  18. 29 CFR 780.215 - Meaning of forestry or lumbering operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management of forests, the felling and trimming of timber, the cutting, hauling, and transportation of timber... employees are employed.) Wood working as such is not included in forestry or lumbering operations....

  19. Sustainability of UK forestry: contemporary issues for the protection of freshwaters, a conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper closes the Special Issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences entitled 'Sustainability of UK forestry: contemporary issues for the protection of freshwaters' by presenting conclusions from the contributions together with associated research findings. The volume deals largely with issues of upland water quality and biology in the context of environmental research and management. The studies are linked to an array of issues which affect the sustainability of UK forestry in the context of the protection of freshwaters, freshwater ecosystems and freshwater organisms. These issues include atmospheric and climate driven factors (acidification from atmospheric pollutants, critical loads, climate-change and climate variability, forestry practice and hydrobiogeochemical processing both within-catchments and within-rivers. The findings lie within the context of the science and relate to environmental management. Keywords: water quality, forestry, stream ecology, acidification, critical loads, nutrients

  20. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 8, No 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. ... Assessment of training needs of extension personnel in agricultural research institutes and .... Assessment and classification of hazardous street trees in University of Ibadan Nigeria.

  1. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  2. Climate Change Impacts on US Agriculture and Forestry: Implications of Global Climate Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. Although there have been n...

  3. Techniques for Tracking, Evaluating, and Reporting the Implementation of Nonpoint Source Control Measures - Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to assist state, regional, and local environmental professionals in tracking the implementation of best management practices (BMPs) used to control nonpoint source pollution generated by forestry practices.

  4. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 4, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. ... Effects of four different additives on organoleptic characteristics of Red Sokoto and West ... Profitability Of Marketing African Bread Fruit (Treculia africanaDecne) In Ibadan Metropolis ...

  5. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 11, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. ... L. Sweet) hay on carcass characteristics of red sokoto goats fed maize stover basal diet ... performance of value chain actors in hides and skins processing and marketing in Nigeria ...

  6. Challenges and advances in genetically improving trees for the plantation forestry sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Verryn, SD

    2010-08-30

    Full Text Available This presentation outlines the South African plantation forestry sector and its contributions and improvement in productivity, acquiring genetic diversity, challenges and advances in genetically improving trees as well as transforming the value...

  7. Managing Swedish forestry's impact on mercury in fish: Defining the impact and mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Karin; Lidskog, Rolf; Bishop, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Inputs of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) to the environment have led to accumulation of Hg in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, contributing to fish Hg concentrations well above the European Union standards in large parts of Fennoscandia. Forestry operations have been reported to increase the concentrations and loads of Hg to surface waters by mobilizing Hg from the soil. This summary of available forestry effect studies reveals considerable variation in treatment effects on total Hg (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at different sites, varying from no effect up to manifold concentration increases, especially for the bioavailable MeHg fraction. Since Hg biomagnification depends on trophic structures, forestry impacts on nutrient flows will also influence the Hg in fish. From this, we conclude that recommendations for best management practices in Swedish forestry operations are appropriate from the perspective of mercury contamination. However, the complexity of defining effective policies needs to be recognized.

  8. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences - Vol 6, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. ... Accessing Marketing Information Services And Strategies Adopted By Akwa Ibom State Agricultural ... Effect Of Culture Media On The Plant Growth And Establishment Of Myrianthus ...

  9. Research and Practice of the Construction Mode of the Practical Training Base for Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying; LIU; Junjie; WANG; Xuebin; LI; Jian; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In response to bottlenecks and dilemmas faced by institutions for agricultural and forestry practical training base construction, and based on Agriculture practical training base of Langfang Polytechnic Institute, this article illustrates the effective exploration and practice of the mode and ways for the construction of the practical training base,which provides some useful experience for the construction of the training base in agricultural and forestry institutions.

  10. Scenarios of forestry carbon sequestration measures in the Russian Federation and priorities for action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorin, A.O. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of forestry mitigation strategy under Russian transition economy conditions has many difficulties and specific features. The most important factors are: shortage in funds; absence of well defined legislation, rules and standards; absence of adequate control systems; weak transport infrastructure and export problems. Assessment of economic possibilities, potential, short- and middle-term measures show that strategies have to be focused on improvement and promotion of current carbon sequestration activity. Five baseline forestry scenario (No. 1) and four other scenarios (No. 2 - No. 5) for 2000-2040 were developed. Each scenario covers all forested area but provides separate analysis of 30 `forestry ecoregions`. Three types of forestry management were included in scenarios: clear-cut logging and reforestation (by scenarios No. 2 and No. 3); selective logging and thinning (No. 4); measures to prevent and manage fires (No. 5). The baseline scenario results in a constant net-sink of about 150 MtC/yr. An increase in clear-cut logging on the basis of current forestry practice will cause a rapid drop of net-sink. Implementation of a modest increase in clear-cut logging with active forest fire and selective logging measures could provide with a slight increase of net-sink. Consideration of scenarios helps identify regional forestry priorities for Russian Climate Change Action Plan. The priorities by region include: European-Ural: (1) creation of economy mechanism to increase forestry effectiveness on the same cutting areas, (2) assistance to natural reforestation. Central and North-East Siberia: promotion of forest fire protection system. South Siberia and Primorie and Priamurie: limit of clear-cut logging and creation market situation for better forestry efficiency. The proposed Joint Implementation Vologda reforestation project which is being considered now by special bodies of the USA and the Russian Federation is in good agreement with these priorities.

  11. Constraint Analysis and Countermeasures for China s Forestry Scientific and Technological Achievements Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the constraint factors of forestry scientific and technological achievements transformation and explores the countermeasures and measures to promote the transformation. It points out that to achieve maximum return from investment funds in forestry research, it shall improve the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, enhance independent innovation capability, and greatly enhance the supply capacity of scientific and technological achievements, so as to provide endles...

  12. Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Renzi, S.; Martini, A.; Binazzi, A.; Marinaccio, A; Vonesch, N.; D'Amico, W.; Moro, T.; Fiorentini, C; Ciufolini, M. G.; Visca, P.; Tomao, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was evaluated in a group of forestry rangers in the Lazio region of Italy. One hundred and forty-five forestry rangers and 282 blood donors were examined by two-tiered serological tests for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus. Information on occupation, residence, tick bites, outdoor leisure activities and other risk factors was obtained. The prevalence of IgG/IgM antibodies to B. bur...

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis on Forest Certification for Forest Management and Forestry Industry Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on the summarization of forest certification development to analyze and describe how forest certification promotes and pushes the setup of forest resources management model, forest management level and collective forest tenure reform. In terms of breaking green trade barrier, upgrading international competitiveness of forest products, facilitating forestry enterprise growth, etc, it elaborated the role of forest certification in promoting forestry industry development. The authors also ma...

  14. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel; Yinesor, Guzide [Marmara University-Goztepe Campus, Faculty of Engineering - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34722 Kuyubasi Kadikoy Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells. (author)

  15. An Estimation of the Effects of China's Priority Forestry Programs on Farmers' Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Lu, Jinzhi; Yin, Runsheng

    2010-03-01

    In the late 1990s, the Chinese government initiated some new programs and consolidated other existing ones of ecological restoration and resource development in its forest sector, and renamed them as “Priority Forestry Programs,” or PFPs. They include the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP), the Desertification Combating Program around Beijing and Tianjin (DCBT), the Shelterbelt Development Program (SBDP), and the Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program (WCNR). In addition to improving the environmental and resource conditions, a frequently reiterated goal of these PFPs is to increase rural households’ income, therefore discussing why looking at rural household income impacts might be an important part of forest program evaluation. Thus, an interesting and important question is: How has implementing the PFPs affected the farmers’ income and poverty status? This article addresses this question using a fixed-effects model and a panel dataset that covers 1968 households in four provinces for ten consecutive years (1995-2004). The empirical evidence indicates that their effects are mixed. The SLCP, the SBDP, and the NFPP have made positive impact and, by far, the SLCP has the largest effect. But the WCNR and the DCBT still have not had a pronounced overall effect due to their short time span of execution, even though they may have exerted certain influence at the margin. Notably, the impact of the WCNR, if any, is negative.

  16. A Case Study Report for Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC:Analysis of Urban Forestry Policy in Hangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan; Pauleit

    2008-01-01

    Hangzhou is a typical city on the establishment of urban forest in China, so it was identified as a case study site in Urban Forestry Policy Project Co-funded by EC. The name of the project is "Developing Policy Formulation and Implementation Tools for Providing Support for Ecological Forest Management in China’s Urban and Peri-Urban Areas". Experts from the project team have conducted a field survey on urban forestry policy in Hangzhou for one week. Through the field survey and the workshop, the experts un...

  17. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasability of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report, 1986-1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Flagg, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, a multi-year project to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids was established. The system is based upon a miniaturized passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed and is divided into laboratory studies, field studies, and systems development. All studies were conducted using a glass-encapsulated tag implanted into the body cavity of test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle. Laboratory studies with juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, showed that retention of glass-encapsulated PIT tags was 99-100% in fish weighing 3 g (mean weight) or larger. No adverse tissue response to the tag was noted. The survival of fish 5 g (mean weight) or larger was usually greater than 99%. However, fish ranging in weight from 2 to 4 g, or fish undergoing a physiological change such as smoltification may have a low mortality (usually less than 5.0%) after tagging. The mortality rate in the smaller fish was dependent upon tagging skill whereas mortality in smolting fish seemed dependent upon the level of stress. Growth comparisons between tagged and control fish indicated PIT-tagged fish had a slightly depressed growth rate at some measurement periods. The operational life of glass-encapsulated PIT tags implanted in fish was good, with 100% of the tags operating after 401 days. No tags were rejected from the fish during the observation period.

  18. Training and Organization of the US Army Reserve Components: A Reference Text for Total Trainers, 1986-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-15

    trained individual reservists and retired personnel to enable the Army to successfully wage war. c. Administer the USAR Active Guard/Reserve (AGR) and...tna lir iz trainin] :rogrim far aircrews of both the Air Force an] Air be ; ve, irTes. T’e, r,9 llti n:] .xpre] the minimun training requirements in

  19. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasability of a New Fish Tagging System : Annual Report, 1986-1987.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, Earl F.; Flagg, T.A.

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, a multi-year project to evaluate the technical and biological feasibility of adapting a new identification system to salmonids was established. The system is based upon a miniaturized passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag. This report discusses the work completed and is divided into laboratory studies, field studies, and systems development. All studies were conducted using a glass-encapsulated tag implanted into the body cavity of test fish via a 12-gauge hypodermic needle. Laboratory studies with juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, showed that retention of glass-encapsulated PIT tags was 99-100% in fish weighing 3 g (mean weight) or larger. No adverse tissue response to the tag was noted. The survival of fish 5 g (mean weight) or larger was usually greater than 99%. However, fish ranging in weight from 2 to 4 g, or fish undergoing a physiological change such as smoltification may have a low mortality (usually less than 5.0%) after tagging. The mortality rate in the smaller fish was dependent upon tagging skill whereas mortality in smolting fish seemed dependent upon the level of stress. Growth comparisons between tagged and control fish indicated PIT-tagged fish had a slightly depressed growth rate at some measurement periods. The operational life of glass-encapsulated PIT tags implanted in fish was good, with 100% of the tags operating after 401 days. No tags were rejected from the fish during the observation period.

  20. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications Program: Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Literature Evaluation and Assessment, 1986-1987 Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    and electric fields downwind of HVDC transmission lines. Vernon Chartier of the Bonneville Power Administration presented their work measuring the...phase-advances. Torpor remained essentially unaffected. Dr. Walter R. Rogers of the Department of Bioengineering, Southwest Research Institute...Bracken, Inc. (Portland, OR ) and V.L. Chartier (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA) reported preliminary data on the measurements of

  1. Essays on the Economics of Forestry-Based Carbon Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez-Ponce, P.C.

    2005-07-01

    This thesis is a collection of articles that deal with the economics of carbon sequestration in forests. It pays special attention to the comparison of forestry alternatives for carbon sequestration, carbon supply curves at regional and global levels and the impact of risk on payments for ecosystem services. Case-studies in Ecuador and Latin America contribute to a better understanding of these issues. Policy implications of this research are: (1) Natural regeneration of secondary forests is a cost-efficient activity for carbon sequestration in the humid tropics and should be included as part of the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. (2) Country-risk is a relevant factor to be considered in climate change mitigation assessments. When accounting for country risk - associated with political, economic and financial risks - the potential carbon sequestration at a global level is reduced by more than half. (3) Potential carbon sequestration through afforestation ranges from 5% to 25% of the emission reduction targets of different policy scenarios for stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, and therefore is relevant in a global context. (4) Farm-level decisions are influenced by risks associated to price and yield volatility of land-use alternatives. Efficient conservation policies that aim at enhancing carbon sequestration, biodiversity and other environmental services should look at both net revenues and risks. Combining payments for conservation with risk-hedging strategies is a policy option to be considered by conservation agencies worldwide.

  2. Effect of mechanization level on manpower needs in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High work consumption in forest operations is above all the result of the character and task realization mode in works undertaken in forestry. Development of mechanization in forest management activities allows to considerably decrease manpower needs. In the present study, there were analyzed the possibilities of reduction of work consumption by improving the mechanization level of forest works. The method was developed to consider the following assessments: 1 variant W1 - basic option comprising factual work consumption values in works carried out on the area administered by the Regional Directorate of State Forests (RDLP; 2 W2 - showing the effect of 25% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 3 W3 - showing the effect of 50% upgrade of works to a higher level of mechanization; 4 W4 - comprising analogous calculations to those in variant W1 , but work consumption upgrading was 75%. Simulation calculations revealed considerable differences in needs for labor of different categories of forest workers. On the other hand, with increasing mechanization level, there increase the demands concerning worker qualifications, e.g. a harvester operator must be trained for about 2 years, and the training has to include both simulator exercises (first using software and next - harvester simulator and field work under supervision to gain sufficient experience. The introduction of higher levels of mechanization into forest operations, and hence considerable reduction of jobs for unqualified workers who are replaced by qualified employees, can help decreasing work consumption in forest operations.

  3. Leadership and Bullying in the Forestry Organization of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut M. Bayramoğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that the importance of executive-employee relationships is continuously increasing in today’s professional life in addition to the importance of leadership types of managers along with the efficiency of employees as well as the sufficiency of these people in their social relations. Communication of employees with one another and with their manager, along with their social relations, is among the most important factors that sustain an organization. Bullying is a kind of psychological terror that takes place in the form of repeated attacks among workers, as well as by the manager on the employees, aiming to instill stress, job dissatisfaction, and exhaustion on the employees. It has been put forth especially by recent studies that the leadership styles of the managers are highly influential on bullying. The study was carried out with 1189 forest engineers working at 25 different Regional Directorates of Forestry in Turkey. The status of engineers subject to bullying in addition to the effects of leadership types on bullying was determined as a result of the statistical analyses carried out. The results of the study were evaluated comprehensively in comparison with other studies in the relevant literature, thus developing suggestions for preventing bullying behaviors that vary across leadership types.

  4. EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL INTENSITY OF EXPORTS IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the fastest growing sectors in the domestic industry is the forestry, which has contributed significantly to economic development, job creation, income taxes, putting Brazil in a prominent position in the world market. This paper analyzes the evolution of the technological intensity of 12 main products exported by the sector, from 2000 to 2011. For that, utilizes an indicator called PRODY, which allows classifying different products according to their technological intensity or income content and considers the GDP per capita of exporting countries of each product, weighted by its revealed comparative advantage. It can be seen by the results, a continuous growth in all products' technology indicators and their decomposition into income effects, comparative advantage and joint effects, allowed to verify the main causes of this growth. Products with lower PRODY values are those that presented a higher evolution during the period studied. Products of higher processing, and those from pulp and paper industry, had greater technological advances, thanks to a joint effect, while the ones of lower processing, had a technological improvement due to the increase in GDP per capita in exporting countries. Sawn wood was the standout product, being the only one who proved to be dependent of comparative advantage effect, confirming that this industry has been reinventing itself and incorporating, in fact, more technology. This study revealed the importance of technological intensification to generate comparative advantage and be able to stand against international competition.

  5. SWOT strategies for forestry logistics in six European regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčík Miroslav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents findings from a comparative analysis of three major topical fields of interest notably supply chain management, technological progress and mass flux analysis in six European forest regions of the IN2WOOD project (FP7 RoK 2010-2012. The study identifies matching strengths and weaknesses and summarizes cross-regional priorities. Based on this information, a set of the region’s strategies was compiled in view of the general objective to optimise logistics. Four different strategy types were proposed: SO-strategy (internal strengths were used to realise external opportunities, WO-strategy (reducing internal weakness to realise external opportunities, ST-strategy (internal strengths were used to minimise external threats and WT-strategy (reducing the internal weaknesses to avoid external threats. Main common strategies for forestry logistics are: developing clear concepts for the implementation of ICT applications for difficult terrain like GPS-maps in mountainous regions, increasing the possibility of co-operations between the actors involved and developing a detailed mass flux analyses as a basis for SCM concepts.

  6. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Oldal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV and Puumala (PUUV viruses. Material and Methods: For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107 in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains, 3.1% (10/321 in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248 in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159 in the North Hungarian Mountains. Conclusions: Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  7. The global potential for carbon capture and storage from forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yuanming; Eskeland, Gunnar S; Giske, Jarl; Hansen, Jan-Petter

    2016-12-01

    Discussions about limiting anthropogenic emissions of CO[Formula: see text] often focus on transition to renewable energy sources and on carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO[Formula: see text]. The potential contributions from forests, forest products and other low-tech strategies are less frequently discussed. Here we develop a new simulation model to assess the global carbon content in forests and apply the model to study active annual carbon harvest 100 years into the future. The numerical experiments show that under a hypothetical scenario of globally sustainable forestry the world's forests could provide a large carbon sink, about one gigatonne per year, due to enhancement of carbon stock in tree biomass. In addition, a large amount of wood, 11.5 GT of carbon per year, could be extracted for reducing CO[Formula: see text] emissions by substitution of wood for fossil fuels. The results of this study indicate that carbon harvest from forests and carbon storage in living forests have a significant potential for CCS on a global scale.

  8. FORESTRY RESOURCES – RESOURCE BASE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN AGRIBUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Piwowar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available  The main aim of this paper was to present the possibilities of usage of wood and non-wood forest resources in agribusiness. For the purposes of this paper a broad research on the literature of the subject in natural, medical and agrarian scien ces related to the potential of usage of forest resources has been conducted. This article presents also analyses on the amount and worth of purchase of selected elements of forest ecosystem in Poland. As the research shows, the value of purchase of forest fruit between 2008 and 2012 in Poland increased more than three times and the purchase of mushrooms increased almost two times. Altogether between 2008 and 2012 56,212 tons of forest fruits and 24,507 of mushrooms were purchased. The amount of purchase of forestry products in Poland is characterized by a signifi cant spatial differentiation. Analyses of spatial differentiation of the purchase of mushroom purchase in Poland between 2008 and 2012 showed that the majority of volume in this period came from suppliers located in Wielkopolskie voivodeship. 

  9. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in the forestry sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author addresses questions on how the forestry sector can make a contribution to the general problem of greenhouse gases in the environment. Primarily this is in the form of carbon conservation and sequestering. There is a potential land area for conservation and sequestration estimated to be 700 Mha. The total carbon that could be sequestered and conserved globally by 2050 on this land is 60 - 87 GtC. Slowing deforestation, assisting regeneration, forestation and agroforestry are the primary mitigation measures for carbon conservation and sequestration. For long term success, enforcement to halt deforestation has to be accompained by economic and/or other benefits to the deforesters that equal or exceed their current remuneration. Making plantations a significant fuel for utility electricity generation will require higher biomass yields and thermal efficiency matching that of conventional plants. Significant reduction of global carbon emissions requires national governments to institute measures that provide local, national, economic and other benefits while conserving and sequestering carbon.

  10. Re-engineering of the forest stand database: case study of Bilahe Forestry Bureau, Inner Mongolia of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen-bo; ZHENG Jiao

    2008-01-01

    The forest stand database of Bilahe Forestry Bureau, Inner Mongolia of China was taken as an example to demonstrate the whole process of building a temporal geodatabase by means of reengineering. The process was composed of establishing a conceptual data model from the initial database, constructing a logical database by means of mapping, and building a temporal geodatabase with the help of Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool and Unified Markup Language (UML). The results showed that as the reengineered forest stand geodatabase was dynamic, it could easily store the historical data and answer time related questions by Structured Query Language (SQL), meanwhile, it maintains the integrity of database and eliminates the redundancy.

  11. Structural Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Financing of Forestry Enterprises Based on Interpretive Structural Modeling(ISM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen; WANG; Weiping; LIU; Xiaomin; JIANG

    2015-01-01

    Through the collection of related literature,we point out the six major factors influencing China’s forestry enterprises’ financing: insufficient national support; regulations and institutional environmental factors; narrow channels of financing; inappropriate existing mortgagebacked approach; forestry production characteristics; forestry enterprises’ defects. Then,we use interpretive structural modeling( ISM) from System Engineering to analyze the structure of the six factors and set up ladder-type structure. We put three factors including forestry production characteristics,shortcomings of forestry enterprises and regulatory,institutional and environmental factors as basic factors and put other three factors as important factors. From the perspective of the government and enterprises,we put forward some personal advices and ideas based on the basic factors and important factors to ease the financing difficulties of forestry enterprises.

  12. Introduction to Urban and Community Forestry in the United States of America: History, Accomplishments, Issues and Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Yadong; Zhang Zhiqiang

    2003-01-01

    The urban and community forestry movement in the United States has matured over the last 20 years from managing street trees, to understanding the benefits of trees in urban ecosystems, and now to managing urban green infrastructure. This paper introduced the history, development, and major accomplishments of the urban and community forestry movement, highlighted the economic, ecological, environmental, and social values of forests and trees to communities, and discussed issues and trends of the urban and community forestry program in the United States.

  13. A Study of Afforestation Subsidy for Multi-purpose Forestry Development under Global Climate Change:Overseas Experiments and Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change poses new opportunities and challenges for forestry development, and therefore developing multiple-purpose forestry is an important measure to strengthen forestry response to climate change. At present, plantation in China ranks the world first in area, but with relatively low productivity. Constantly expanding forest area and improving forest management for enhancing multiple functions and purposes of plantations are the key measures to upgrade plantation capacity to mitigate and adap...

  14. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  15. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Estimating forest carbon dynamics in South Korea from 1954 to 2050 - coupling global forestry model and forest soil carbon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongyeol; Kim, Moonil; Lakyda, Ivan; Pietsch, Stephan; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Kraxner, Florian; Forsell, Nicklas; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    There have been demands on reporting national forest carbon (C) inventories to mitigate global climate change. Global forestry models estimate growth of stem volume and C at various spatial and temporal scales but they do not consider dead organic matter (DOM) C. In this study, we simulated national forest C dynamics in South Korea with a calibrated global forestry model (G4M model) and a module of DOM C dynamics in Korean forest C model (FBDC model). 3890 simulation units (1-16 km2) were established in entire South Korea. Growth functions of stem for major tree species (Pinus densiflora, P. rigida, Larix kaempferi, Quercus variabilis, Q. mongolica, and Q. acutissima) were estimated by internal mechanism of G4M model and Korean yield tables. C dynamics in DOMs were determined by balance between input and output (decomposition) of DOMs in the FBDC model. Annual input of DOM was estimated by multiplying C stock of biomass compartment with turnover rate. Decomposition of DOM was estimated by C stock of DOM, mean air temperature, and decay rate. C stock in each C pool was initialized by spin-up process with consideration of severe deforestation by Japanese exploitation and Korean War. No disturbance was included in the simulation process. Total forest C stock (Tg C) and mean C density (Mg C ha-1) decreased from 657.9 and 112.1 in 1954 to 607.2 and 103.4 in 1973. Especially, C stock in mineral soil decreased at a rate of 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 during the period due to suppression of regeneration. However, total forest C stock (Tg C) and mean C density (Mg C ha-1) gradually increased from 607.0 and 103.4 in 1974 to 1240.7 and 211.3 in 2015 due to the national reforestation program since 1973. After the reforestation program, Korean forests became C sinks. Model estimates were also verified by comparison of these estimates and national forest inventory data (2006-2010). High similarity between the model estimates and the inventory data showed a reliability of down

  17. Farming and forestry land use changes in China and their driving forces from 1900 to 1980

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE; Quansheng; DAI; Junhu

    2005-01-01

    A variety of agricultural and forestry land use materials, especially those in the first half of 20th century, were collected. According to land use change in this period, the whole country is demarcated into seven regions, Northeast China, North China, Northwest and Loess Plateau, Southeast and Coastal Region, Southwest China, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, in proper order by using Cluster Analysis. The farming and forestry land use change in these regions were analyzed. The results show that the total cultivated land areas increased in this period, especially in the 1950s and 1960s the cultivated land area increased more significantly, but differed in different regions, and the most rapid increasing rate was 2.63 percent a year. On the other hand, the forestry land area was increasing in most parts of this period, especially after 1949. But in most regions, the decrease of forestry land area at the end of 1970s is also very obvious. It is regarded that the population increase, food production, natural disasters and some related government policies were among the main driving factors for farming and forestry land use change.

  18. The Japanese programme to relaunch the forestry sector: matching pragmatism with sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favero M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Large forest areas mostly located in mountainous areas, extreme fragmentation of the forest ownership, inadequate forest road network and large wood imports despite the available domestic potential supply are important factors making the Japanese forest sector weak and poorly competitive. The analysis of the recent policies outlined by the Japanese Government to develop the forest sector can be very interesting, since the Italian forest sector faces similar problems and potentials. The purpose of this paper is to present the main policies contained in the “Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan”, developed in 2009 as a part of the national Plan for the development of a New Growth Strategy. By considering the Forestry Revitalization Plan a key- element in the national economic growth strategy, the Japanese Government assigns to the forestry sector a fundamental role in achieving the well-being of the entire nation. The Forest and Forestry Revitalization Plan considers as a priority the improvement of the domestic wood demand and, at the same time, the enhancement of the domestic timber supply, through concrete policies aimed to both national and regional goals. Thanks to a parallelism with the Italian Strategic Plan for Forests and Forestry and with the Wood Chain Sector Plan, this paper highlights the strengths of the Japanese Plan and particularly, among the others, its practice settings embedded into a strong and broader ideological framework that inspires the national Plan for the development of a New Growth Strategy.

  19. Examining Volunteer Motivations and Recruitment Strategies For Engagement in Urban Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Moskell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experiences and consequences of volunteerism at multiple levels (individual, interpersonal, organizational, societal. An understanding of volunteer motivations can aid practitioners in the development and implementation of participatory urban forestry programs that are attractive to stakeholders. We conducted a survey of volunteers who participated in a MillionTreesNYC volunteer planting event and a focus group of urban forestry practitioners. Survey results reveal that volunteers have varied motivations and a limited knowledge of the community level impacts of trees. Results from the focus group reveal that providing education about the benefits of trees and maintaining long-term communication with volunteers are frequently used strategies for engagement. However, the public’s lack of knowledge about urban forestry and an inability to connect to audiences are practitioner-identified challenges for recruiting stakeholders to participate in their programs.

  20. The Swedish energy forestry research programme at the Department of Short Rotation Forestry, SUAS, Uppsala. Summary report prepared for the evaluation of the short-rotation forestry research 1993-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledin, S.; Christersson, L. [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The overall aim of the Department of Short Rotation Forestry is to carry out research for development of basic, theoretical and practical knowledge in the related disciplines of biology, ecology and cultivation techniques in order to reach a high and sustainable production of woody biomass for energy purposes using environmentally acceptable methods. This report gives summaries of nine research programs within the Department, and the reports were prepared for the evaluation of the research during the period 1993-1996. The projects are: 1. Competition in short rotation forests (Theo Verwijst); 2. Carbon allocation as a function of nutrient and water availability (Lars Rytter, Tom Ericsson); 3. States and fluxes of water and carbon dioxide in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Anders Lindroth); 4. Root dynamics of fast growing deciduous trees (Rose-Marie Rytter); 5. Accumulation and mobilization of root reserves in coppice growth (Lisa Sennerby-Forsse, Lars Bollmark, Yuehua von Fircks); 6. Effects of nutrient supply on frost resistance in fast growing Salix clones (Heinrich von Fircks); 7. Optimizing water and nutrients in poplar and willow plantations for maximum growth (Sune Elowson); 8. Soil biology in relation to energy forestry (Ulf Granhall); and 9. Plant protection in short rotation forestry against fungi and bacteria (Mauritz Ramstedt)

  1. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  2. Rule making in community forestry institutions. The difference women make

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Bina [Institute of Economic Growth, University of Delhi (India)

    2009-06-15

    Forest use rules determine what products are extracted from community governed forests, in what quantity, by what methods, and by whom. The nature of rules and the process by which they are formulated (e.g. who participates in formulating them) can impinge critically on institutional sustainability (given their potential impact on the commitment and incentive to protect), and on equity and conservation outcomes. This is well recognized in the substantial literature on institutions governing common pool resources (CPRs). It is also well recognized, although in relation to other types of institutions, such as legislatures and village councils, that there can be notable differences in women's and men's policy priorities. Yet there is surprisingly little existing work on, or statistical testing of, potential gender differences in rule making in institutions managing natural resources such as forests. This paper, based on the author's primary data for India and Nepal, seeks to fill this conceptual and empirical gap. It examines why we might expect women to favour different rules from men, and statistically tests whether the gender composition of the executive committees (ECs) - the main decision-making bodies of community forestry institutions (CFIs) in South Asia - makes a difference to the strictness of forest use rules. This is analyzed both by specifying a strictness index which aggregates rules across products and by examining rules for selected products, and both for all sample districts together and for each district separately. Gender is found to make a significant difference to the rules specified but not always in the expected direction. Given their substantial and daily dependence on local forests, especially for firewood and fodder, rural women may normally be expected to veer toward lenient rules of extraction. In fact, groups with more EC women and especially with all-women ECs tend to make stricter rules than other groups in most of the

  3. Strategic Research of Xinjiang Forestry and Fruit Industry Based on "Smile Curve"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on theory of "Smile Curve",this paper analyzes industrial composition and current development situation of Xinjiang forestry and fruit industry.The "Smile Curve" theory indicates that research development and marketing sections have advantages of high added value,while processing and manufacturing sections have lower profitability.In line with these situations,strategic countermeasures are put forward for improving competitive power and increasing values of Xinjiang forestry and fruit industry.Countermeasures include seeking balance of ecological,social and economic benefits,and guiding investment in science and technology;energetically developing refined and deep processing through building industrial bases by leading enterprises;energetically developing informationization and logistics construction and catching major points of forestry and fruit industrial construction;stressing regional characteristics and implementing independent brand strategy from the "Green" concept.

  4. A comparative perspective of urban forestry in Belgrade, Serbia and Freiburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guduric, Ivana; Tomicevic, Jelena; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    space in urban development. Looking through the lens of urban forestry, this paper compares the status, planning and management of urban woodland in the Serbian capital of Belgrade with the German city of Freiburg. Holding up the difficult situation in Belgrade to the good-practice case of Freiburg...... allows the identification of status, problems and potentials for development. Both cases of urban forestry were analysed by a series of methods, including expert interviews, on-site observations, and analysis of documents, literature and maps. Results indicate that in Belgrade institutions and policies...... of urban woodland management have being much less developed than in Freiburg. Furthermore, Belgrade faces various problems that need to be solved, e.g. in terms of developing the policy framework for urban forestry and the need to promote political awareness about its importance. Important lessons can...

  5. Financial and non-financial reporting in Romanian entities operating in agriculture, forestry, and fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MOCANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increased interest for sustainability issues, entities that operate in the areas agriculture, forestry and fishery are exposed to a variety of ecological challenges. Moreover, such fields are generally of strategic importance for a country’s economy, which also increases their exposure to public debate. The present study aims to provide a detailed and accurate description of the financial and non-financial information made available by listed Romanian entities operating in agriculture, forestry and fishery. The research goes beyond the mere description of the content of shareholders’ reports. Its purpose is to assess the financial performance and stability of selected companies and to investigate the relationships between the financial well-being of such companies and the extent to which they disclose non-financial information. The sample consists of companies which operate in the business of fields agriculture, forestry or fishery and are listed at the Bucharest Stock Exchange in Romania.

  6. Educational Reform in Management Courses of Agricultural & Forestry Higher Vocational Schools from the Perspective of Microblog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liuhe; JIN

    2014-01-01

    At present there are many socialized microblog platforms.With powerful mobility,real-time information,fragment of information dissemination,and innovation of interaction,the microblog has become a socialized interaction mode in recent years.Since microblog is very popular with students of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,with the rising and development of network education,the microblog as a new information platform will be used by more and more teachers in education.From the perspective of microblog,this paper studied educational reform in management courses of agricultural and forestry higher vocational schools,in the hope of providing certain reference and help for current education practice of agricultural and forestry management courses.

  7. Special Issue On Estimation Of Baselines And Leakage In CarbonMitigation Forestry Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2006-06-01

    There is a growing acceptance that the environmentalbenefits of forests extend beyond traditional ecological benefits andinclude the mitigation of climate change. Interest in forestry mitigationactivities has led to the inclusion of forestry practices at the projectlevel in international agreements. Climate change activities place newdemands on participating institutions to set baselines, establishadditionality, determine leakage, ensure permanence, and monitor andverify a project's greenhouse gas benefits. These issues are common toboth forestry and other types of mitigation projects. They demandempirical evidence to establish conditions under which such projects canprovide sustained long term global benefits. This Special Issue reportson papers that experiment with a range of approaches based on empiricalevidence for the setting of baselines and estimation of leakage inprojects in developing Asia and Latin America.

  8. Forestry research to support the transition towards a bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermaria Corona

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is dedicated to the celebration of the 92nd anniversary of the Forestry Research Centre of the Italian Agricultural Research Council. The Centre originated in 1922 as Royal Experimental Station of Silviculture, joined to the Chair of Silviculture of the Royal Institution for Upper Education in Forestry of Firenze (Italy. Aldo Pavari, eminent scientist and teacher at the University of Firenze, was the first director from 1922 up to his death in 1960. On the year 1967, the Experimental Station was reorganized as Experimental Institute for Silviculture with head offices in Arezzo and local branches in Firenze, Isernia and Cosenza. From 1972 to 1995 the position of director was held by Riccardo Morandini, who defined new goals and reformed both inner structure and research programme, renewing the experimental approach to forest sciences. Since 1999, the Experimental Institute for Silviculture has become the current Forestry Research Centre.

  9. Developments in the Romanian Forestry and its Linkages with other Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the forestry sector in the last two decades in Romania has been significantly influenced by the post 1989 political and economic changes, forest restitution and the European Union accession process. Based on the analysis of forestry statistics, legislation and institutional changes this paper underlines the main developments in the forestry sector in the last twenty years and the linkages with other sectors that had an impact on its development. The significant change in forest ownership (based on which 45% of the Romanian forest is nowadays in non-state hands, the unprecedented re-organisation of the forest sector through the institutional separation of the regulatory, control and forest management functions, the changes in forest administration (including the establishment of more than 110 private forest districts and the full privatisation of the wood harvesting and processing sector complemented by foreign investments have shaped the forest sector development in a context in which the forest resource remained almost unchanged. Major developments have been recorded in the establishment and management of large protected areas as National Forest Administration Romsilva is currently administrating 22 national and nature parks. Both positive and negative interactions of forestry with environmental protection, wood processing, agriculture, rural development, road infrastructure and tourism sectors have also impacted the evolution of the forest sector. Development policy options recommended by authors include among others the strengthening of the public authority responsible for forestry, reorganisation of the state forest administration and supporting the access of forest owners to the national and EU funding and compensation schemes for forestry.

  10. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  11. Public and Private Regulation of the Forestry Sector: The Cases of The United States and Canada : Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loos, H.Z.A.; Alimov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and compares public and private forestry regulation practices in Canada and the United States. The analyses focuses on industry layout, sustainability policies and new and alternative forms of environmental governance. It concludes with an eye towards Russia, its public forestry

  12. Introduction of Action Plan of Forestry Sustainable Development of Qinzhou-Fangchenggang area, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Guanngxi Autonomous Region is an important tropical forestry region in south of China. The main purpose of this research supported by FAO is to generate action plan for sustainable forestry development of this region. Through two-year broad and deep investigation, the programme of the action plant has been made, which includes 12 fields, 38 projects, with duration of 5 years.

  13. The future orientation of foresters: An exploratory research among Dutch foresters into the prerequisite for strategic planning in forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Schanz, H.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of strategic planning as an instrument to cope with the uncertain future has been long recognized, especially in forestry which is characterized by its relationship with the distant future. Surprisingly, the question to what extent the future is indeed considered in forestry decision-

  14. Co-Relational Study of Achievement in Mathematics and Students' Academic Performance at the Federal College of Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appah, O. R.; Ojo, M. O.; Adegbite, R. A.; Adeniyi, O. S.; Oluwatayo, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics serves as a strong reinforcement to most of the courses being offered at the Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. The knowledge gained from mathematics is expected to be applied to the courses offered in the College of Forestry. This study investigated the relationship between the students' score in mathematics and…

  15. Effects of continuous cover forestry on soil moisture pattern - Beginning steps of a Hungarian study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicz, Péter; Bartha, Dénes; Brolly, Gábor; Csáfordi, Péter; Csiszár, Ágnes; Eredics, Attila; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Király, Géza; Kollár, Tamás; Korda, Márton; Kucsara, Mihály; Nótári, Krisztina; Kornél Szegedi, Balázs; Tiborcz, Viktor; Zagyvai, Gergely; Zagyvai-Kiss, Katalin Anita

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays Hungarian foresters encounter a new challenge. The traditional management practices do not meet anymore with the demand of the civil society. The good old clearcut is no more a supported technology in forest regeneration. The transition to the continuous cover forestry induces much higher spatial variability compared to the even aged, more or less homogeneous, monoculture stands. The gap cutting is one of the proposed key methods in the Hungarian forestry. There is an active discussion among forest professionals how to determine the optimal gap size to maintain ideal conditions for the seedlings. Among other open questions for example how the surrounding trees modify the moisture pattern of the forest floor in the gap? In the early steps of a multidisciplinary project we established four research plots to study the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in the forest gap and the surrounding undisturbed stand. Each plot is located in oak (Quercus spp.) stands. Natural regeneration of oak stands is more problematic in our climate compared to the beech (Fagus sylvatica) which is located in the more humid or semi-humid areas of our country. All plots are located in the western part of Hungary: close to Sopron, Bejcgyertyános, Vép and Vajszló settlements. The last plot is an extensive research area, which is located in the riparian zone of a tributary of Feketevíz River. We monitor here the close-to-surface groundwater level fluctuation with pressure transducers. With a diurnal fluctuation based method it is possible to quantify the evapotranspiration differences between the gap and the stand. In two of the remaining stands (Bejcgyertyános and Vép) the gaps were opened in 2010. The monitoring of soil moisture began in 2013. A mobile sensor is used to monitor soil-moisture in a regular grid. The spatial variability of soil-moisture time-series shows a characteristic pattern during the growing-season. The plot in Sopron was established in 2013

  16. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    . Ridges usually emitted N2O, whilst N2O emissions from hollows and ditches were very low. As much as 25% of the total GHG flux resulted from large intermittent emissions from the ditches following rainfall. Addition of green needles from the brash immediately increased soil respiration and reduced CH4 emission in comparison to controls. To upscale our high-frequency 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements at the different topographic features to the field scale, we collected high resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flights. We will compare results using this upscaling technique to GHG emissions simultaneously measured by eddy covariance with the 'SkyLine' system in the predominant footprint. This detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of GHG emissions in an upland forest after felling and their drivers, and development of robust upscaling techniques can provide important tools to improve GHG flux models and to design appropriate management practices in upland forestry to mitigate GHG emissions following clearfell.

  17. New Forestry Principles from Ecosystem Analysis of Pacific Northwest Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F J; Franklin, J F

    1992-08-01

    Forest management practices on Federal lands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have been the center of intense controversy. Conflicting value systems, new information, and new perspectives have fueled the debate over the balance between timber production and preservation of natural ecosystems. In this paper we consider examples from three aspects of forest management: (1) management of forest stands, (2) management of the patchwork of forest stands at the landscape scale, and (3) management of streams and riparian networks. In each of these cases we examine: management practices and perspectives of the recent past, findings from ecosystem research that are leading to change in those practices, resulting changes in management practices, and future research directions. We also suggest a path for future change, including systems for managing in the face of uncertainty. Results of research in natural and managed forest and stream ecosystems have been pivotal in reassessment and redesign of management practices to provide a broader range of management options for society to consider. Results of studies of natural disturbance processes and their effects are used as reference points for management systems intending to sustain biological diversity and ecosystem productivity. Stand management practices, for example, are being modified to retain some live trees and greater amounts of dead woody debris, both standing and down, in areas that would instead be clear-cut under intensive plantation forestry practices. The motivations for these modified practices are to sustain biological diversity, including key wildlife species, and to maintain soil productivity. Models of alternative forest-cutting patterns at a landscape scale are being used to examine their effects on ecosystem structure and function. One result of this analysis has been to shift from the previous system of dispersing cutting units to a system involving greater aggregation of units using designs to

  18. Resolving Canada-US Trade Disputes in Agriculture and Forestry: Lessons from Lumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggs, J.; Laaksonen-Craig, S.; Niquidet, K.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Prominent trade disputes between Canada and the United States involve agriculture and forestry, with lack of transparency caused by Canadian non-market institutions a source of US objections. We examine lessons from the lumber dispute to shed light on US objections to the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB).

  19. Effect of Current-Use Valuation on Forestry Investment Returns in Selected Virginia Counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter D. Gayer; Harry L. Haney; Clifford A. Hickman

    1987-01-01

    Results from three Virginia counties indicate that if forest properties are taxed on the basis of their value for continued timber growing as opposed to their fair market value, forestry investment returns will be increased. Where development pressures were insignificant, real returns roseby less than $40 per acre when measured in terms of Net Present Value (NPV) and...

  20. Post-utilitarian forestry: What's place got to do with it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Place ideas take a more holistic and embedded view of socio-ecological reality and have begun to influence many aspects of resource management, from ecosystem management to community-based collaboration. The flux we might call post-utilitarian forestry can be understood as a renegotiation of a long-standing dialectic tension in Western thought between universalist and...

  1. The conservation message of the rehabilitated facilities of the International Institute of Tropical Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel Lugo; J. Rullan

    2015-01-01

    Over a period of about 20 years, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) and its collaborators developed and implemented a facilities plan that included both new and restored facilities. Among the restored facilities, the historic Headquarters Building received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certificate, and was...

  2. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan F. Fox

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  3. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  4. Smallholder participation in large forestry programs: The camellia program in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Bluemling, B.; Dries, L.K.E.; Feng, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many forestry projects have been implemented in developing countries. In China, a variety of large-scale afforestation and reforestation programmes have been carried out with multiple objectives, such as livelihood improvement and carbon sequestration. As in many developing countrie

  5. Climate Adaptation in Swedish Forestry: Exploring the Debate and Policy Process, 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ulmanen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how climate change adaptation concerns were integrated into the Swedish forestry debate and policy process during the period of 1990–2012, and draws lessons on barriers and opportunities identified in this process. Using a framework focusing on “advocacy coalitions”, we analyze how the adaptation debate in the forestry sector evolved over the period; who the main advocates for and against adaptation were; and which main arguments and processes affected the debate and policy. The results show that academics advocating climate change adaptation, aided by outside influences, such as political pressure for adaptation responses and the negative impacts of the 2005 storm Gudrun, contributed to an increased general awareness and understanding of adaptation issues amongst forestry stakeholders. Nonetheless, the strong dominance of actors arguing for increased forest production and the limited number and relatively poor organization of adaptation advocates have acted as barriers to mainstreaming adaptation concerns into forestry policy and practice. The dominant coalitions and their values have also determined the direction of debate and policy. The main conclusions for policymakers aiming to further this integration process are the importance of stimulating adaptation coalitions and the value of creating arenas for multiple stakeholder learning about adaptation.

  6. Providing habitat for native mammals through understory enhancement in forestry plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Javier A; Grez, Audrey A; Estades, Cristián F

    2013-10-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) expects forestry plantations to contribute to biodiversity conservation. A well-developed understory in forestry plantations might serve as a surrogate habitat for native species and mitigate the negative effect of plantations on species richness. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by removing the understory in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations in central Chile and assessing changes in species richness and abundance of medium-sized mammals. Frequency of occurrence of mammals, including kodkods (Leopardus guigna), culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus), lesser grisons (Conepatus chinga), and Southern pudu deer (Pudu puda), was low in forest stands with little to no understory relative to stands with well-developed undergrowth vegetation. After removing the understory, their frequency of occurrence decreased significantly, whereas in control stands, where understory was not removed, their frequency did not change. This result strongly supports the idea that facilitating the development of undergrowth vegetation may turn forestry stands into secondary habitats as opposed to their containing no habitat for native mammals. This forestry practice could contribute to conservation of biological diversity as it pertains to CBD targets.

  7. The Scope for Reducing Emissions from Forestry and Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Wunder

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from agriculture, forestry, and other land uses is considered an essential ingredient of an effective strategy to mitigate global warming. Required changes in land use and forestry, however, often imply foregoing returns from locally more attractive resource use strategies. We assess and compare the prospects of mitigating climate change through emission reductions from forestry and agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon. We use official statistics, literature, and case study material from both old and new colonization frontiers to identify the scope for emission reductions, in terms of potential additionality, opportunity costs, technological complexity, transaction costs, and risks of economic and environmental spillover effects. Our findings point to a comparative advantage in the Brazilian Amazon of forest conservation-based over land-use modifying mitigation options, especially in terms of higher potential additionality in emission reductions. Low-cost mitigation options do exist also in use-modifying agriculture and forestry, but tend to be technologically complex thus requiring more costly intervention schemes. Our review points to a series of regional development deficits that may come to hamper attempts to tap into the large-scale climate change mitigation potential often associated with the Amazon. Low-hanging fruits for mitigation do exist, but must be carefully identified based on the performance indicators we discuss.

  8. Determination of Customers' Demand and Expectations in the Auction Sales of Artvin Regional Directorate of Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Öztürk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sales of auctions were evaluated according to customers' demand and expectations in Artvin Regional Directorate of Forestry. For this purpose, face-to-face survey was conducted with 50 participating in auction sales. As a result, some of the findings and recommendations were made to increase the effectiveness of marketing activities for decision makers.

  9. Farmers’ Agro forestry in Pakistan, Farmers’ Role-Trends and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer Hussain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to identify the beliefs that underlie farmers’ decisions to engage in agro-forestry, defined as intension to plant trees in the farms. The less proportion of forest land and perpetual degradation of existing forest plantation are confronting serious threats to the sustainability of forest plantation in Pakistan. Agro forestry has been identified the most feasible solution; especially in irrigated areas of Punjab. The application of theory of planned behavior during the survey of 64 farmers in three different ecological zones showed/depicted that farmers’ willingness to plant trees on their fields is a result of their attitudes towards the advantages and disadvantages of trees, their perception of the opinions of salient referents and factors those encourage and discourage farm level tree planting. Farmers’ viewed farm forestry as economically beneficial and environment friendly. Tree planting was being perceived as increasing income, providing wood for fuel and furniture, controlling pollution and providing shade for human and animals. Farmers viewed the hindrance in agriculture operations and the harboring of insects pests and diseases as negative impacts of tree planting; however, they were outweighed by their perceptions of positive impacts. Tree growing decisions of the farmers were influenced by the opinions of the family, owners/tenants, fellow-farmers. Farm forestry programs are more likely to be successful, if they acknowledge and address the factors, which underlie farmers’ reasons for planting or not planting trees.

  10. Global Climate Change: Some Implications, Opportunities, and Challenges for US Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marland, G.

    1991-06-01

    It is widely agreed that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth`s atmosphere is increasing, that this increase is a consequence of man`s activities, and that there is significant risk that this will lead to changes in the earth`s climate. The question is now being discussed what, if anything, we should be doing to minimize and/or adapt to changes in climate. Virtually every statement on this matter; from the US Office of Technology Assessment, to the National Academy of Science, to the Nairobi Declaration on Climatic Change, includes some recommendation for planting and protecting forests. In fact, forestry is intimately involved in the climate change debate for several reasons: changing climate patterns will affect existing forests, tropical deforestation is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, reforestation projects could remove additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and there is renewed interest in wood-based or other renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. Part of the enthusiasm for forestry-related strategies in a greenhouse context is the perception that forests not only provide greenhouse benefits but also serve other desirable social objectives. This discussion will explore the current range of thinking in this area and try to stimulate additional thinking on the rationality of the forestry-based approaches and the challenges posed for US forestry.

  11. Planting for the Future: Forestry for Human Needs. Worldwatch Paper 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckholm, Erik

    Forestry planning is essential if the global trend toward deforestation is to be reversed. World forest trends, although often based on inaccurate or misleading information put out by national governments, indicate that the area of land covered with closed forests has decreased from about 25% in 1950 to about 20% in the 1970s. Major causes of…

  12. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from 32.7 billion to 54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  13. Research Review of Post-Evaluation for Comprehensive Benefits of Forestry Ecological Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarized the meaning of post-evaluation for comprehensive benefits of forestry ecological programs, discussed and reviewed its development process in terms of content, indicators and methodologies, and finally presented its development trend from the perspectives of theoretical research, methodological research and application research.

  14. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  15. Climate change impacts on US agriculture and forestry: benefits of global climate stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert H.; Cai, Yongxia; Thomson, Allison; Zhang, Xuesong; Jones, Russell; McCarl, Bruce A.; Crimmins, Allison; Martinich, Jeremy; Cole, Jefferson; Ohrel, Sara; DeAngelo, Benjamin; McFarland, James; Strzepek, Kenneth; Boehlert, Brent

    2015-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, higher temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and other climate change impacts have already begun to affect US agriculture and forestry, with impacts expected to become more substantial in the future. There have been numerous studies of climate change impacts on agriculture or forestry, but relatively little research examining the long-term net impacts of a stabilization scenario relative to a case with unabated climate change. We provide an analysis of the potential benefits of global climate change mitigation for US agriculture and forestry through 2100, accounting for landowner decisions regarding land use, crop mix, and management practices. The analytic approach involves a combination of climate models, a crop process model (EPIC), a dynamic vegetation model used for forests (MC1), and an economic model of the US forestry and agricultural sector (FASOM-GHG). We find substantial impacts on productivity, commodity markets, and consumer and producer welfare for the stabilization scenario relative to unabated climate change, though the magnitude and direction of impacts vary across regions and commodities. Although there is variability in welfare impacts across climate simulations, we find positive net benefits from stabilization in all cases, with cumulative impacts ranging from $32.7 billion to $54.5 billion over the period 2015-2100. Our estimates contribute to the literature on potential benefits of GHG mitigation and can help inform policy decisions weighing alternative mitigation and adaptation actions.

  16. Agro-forestry practices and sustainable agriculture in yam producing communities of Niger state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamu L.O.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of farmland burden in terms of land degradation, bulky nature of and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers as well as time constraint in the formation of organic fertilizers, there is the need to shift to agro-forestry practices. The practice will make room for arable crop production and forest/tree crop production. Four autonomous communities were studied in Niger State Nigeria. The communities are generally known for yam production. One hundred and twenty farmers were randomly selected for the study in Koro, Gwari, Kadara and Kambari communities. Thirty yam farmers were selected in each community using random sampling technique. One hundred and twenty farmers were studied in all. Results were analysed using simple percentages and pie charts. Results show that there is a high level of consciousness of agro-forestry among the farmers. Shrubs such as Gliricidia sepium and Cajanus cajan are common and they make a cumulative percentage of 35.0% of tree species used for agro- forestry practices. Fruit trees such as Citrus species make a cumulative percentage of 31.0% while other tree species used includes but not exclusive to Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea and Terminalia species. It is recommended that youths and young farmers in the communities be more involved in agro-forestry practices of this nature for a sustainable practice to be ensured.

  17. Private sector community forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape – Lambazi case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sisitka, L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This Umzimkulu case study forms part of a broader investigation into community – private sector forestry partnerships in the Eastern Cape. This provincial study in turn, contributes to one of the three major research themes of a wider national...

  18. Study of Subtropical Forestry Index Retrieval Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Hemispherical Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve gap fraction, leaf inclination angle, and leaf area index (LAI of subtropical forestry canopy, here we acquired forestry detailed information by means of hemispherical photography, terrestrial laser scanning, and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer. Meanwhile, we presented a series of image processing and computer graphics algorithms that include image and point cloud data (PCD segmentation methods for branch and leaf classification and PCD features, such as normal vector, tangent plane extraction, and hemispherical projection method for PCD coordinate transformation. In addition, various forestry mathematical models were proposed to deduce forestry canopy indexes based on the radiation transfer model of Beer-Lambert law. Through the comparison of the experimental results on many plot samples, the terrestrial laser scanner- (TLS- based index estimation method obtains results similar to digital hemispherical photograph (HP and LAI-2200 plant canopy analyzer taken of the same stands and used for validation. It indicates that the TLS-based algorithm is able to capture the variability in LAI of forest stands with a range of densities, and there is a high chance to enhance TLS as a calibration tool for other devices.

  19. Paulownia trials - future hope for social forestry. [P. fortune; P. taiwaniana, P. kawakamii, P. tomentosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neelay, V.R.; Sah, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Paulownia, a member of Serophulariacae, is a naturalized asiatic genus. Paulownia species are hardy and grow substantially faster on even poor soils. This property characterises it as an ideal species for Social Forestry. The present investigation comprised the study of four species of Paulownia namely P. fortunei. P. taiwaniana. P. kawakamii and P. tomentosa. 3 references.

  20. Focus on Agriculture and Forestry Benefits of Reducing Climate Change Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this focus issue is to present the methods and results of modeling exercises that estimate the impacts of climate change on agriculture and forestry under a consistent set of climate projections that represent futures with and without global-scale GHG mitigation....

  1. Forestry best management practices and sediment control at skidder stream crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura R. Wear; W. Michael Aust; M. Chad Bolding; Brian D. Strahm; Andrew C. Dolloff

    2015-01-01

    Stream crossings for skid trails have high sediment delivery ratios. Forestry Best Management Practices (BMPs) have proven to be effective for erosion control, but few studies have quantified the impact of various levels of BMPs on sedimentation. In this study, three skid-trail stream-crossing BMP treatments were installed on nine operational stream crossings (three...

  2. Financial incentive programs' influence in promoting sustainable forestry in the northern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Jacobson; Thomas J. Straka; John L. Greene; Michael A. Kilgore; Steven E. Daniels

    2009-01-01

    Selected forestry officials in each of the 20 northern states were surveyed concerning their opinions on the public and private financial incentive programs available to nonindustrial private forest owners in their state. The officials were asked to name and describe the programs and to assess forest owners' awareness of each one, its appeal among the owners aware...

  3. Classification of forest management approaches: a new conceptual framework and its applicability to European forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncker, P.S.; Barreiro, S.M.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Lind, T.; Mason, B.; Ambrozy, S.; Spiecker, H.

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different forest management practices is a crucial step in short, medium, and long-term decision making in forestry and when setting up measures to support a regional or national forest policy. Some conditions such as biogeographically determined site factors, exposure to major di

  4. Carbon accounting and cost estimation in forestry projects using CO2Fix V.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, T.A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon and financial accounting of projects in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector is a topic of hot debate. Large uncertainty remains concerning the carbon dynamics, the way they should be accounted and the cost efficiency of the projects. Part of the uncertainty can be alleviated by

  5. Designing an accompanying ecosystem to foster entrepreneurship among agronomic and forestry engineering students. Opinion and commitment of university lecturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Medina, L.; Fernández-Ahumada, E.; Lara-Vélez, P.; Taguas, E. V.; Gallardo-Cobos, R.; del Campillo, M. C.; Guerrero-Ginel, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Higher School of Agronomic and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba, a collective project conceived as an 'ecosystem to support and accompany entrepreneurs' has been proposed. The approach aims to spread and consolidate the entrepreneurial spirit and to respond to the demands of possible stakeholders involved in the whole process of training, as well as the subsequent integration of graduates into the labour market. Putting into practice this initiative, which involves multiple actors, is a complex and difficult task. For this reason, prior to its implementation, the authors considered it necessary to listen to main stakeholders' opinions and evaluate their degree of commitment and the requirements they consider important for the viability and sustainability of the initiative. This paper focuses on the faculty's opinions, gathered by means of a survey conducted with the entire faculty (N = 128, response rate = 45%) and semi-structured interviews held with 20 members of the School board. The results suggest that there is a general consensus on the suitability of this collective project and that there is a core of teachers willing to get involved. Evidently, guidelines need to be produced to facilitate taking on such tasks. However, the main drawbacks are related with the conflict between formal requirements of professor professional profile and the steps needed to establish the ecosystem.

  6. 由娑罗林实践论孟加拉国社会化林业的可持续发展%On sustainable development of social forestry in Bangladesh:case of SAL forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新宇; 李吉跃; 李怒云; 刘道平

    2011-01-01

    为顺应国际林业发展大势,孟加拉国决定本国林业发展由传统型向可持续型转变.于是,1981年该国在亚洲发展银行(ADB)和联合国发展计划(UNDP)的支持下开展了第一项社会化林业工程,主要是娑罗林种植地区(之后该国在为这些地区开展林业社会化工程至今).这些工程最重要的目标就是由当地社区积极参与,用可持续的方法保护、管理、发展森林.不少有关孟加拉国林业社会化的文献重点在于评估管理的标准程度,但都未着眼于研究社会化林业各参与方应如何活动才是可持续发展,因此本文的目标就是以前人娑罗林可持续发展的研究为例,分析孟加拉国参与社会化林业的的各方力量,汲取经验教训,希望能为林业可持续发展提供有益的借鉴.%There is a growing consensus amongst key forest decision-makers in Bangladesh that traditional forestry is needed to make the transition to more sustainable forestry, which is likely to involve local people in forest management. As a result, the government has initiated a social forestry program from 1981 with the assistance of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) loan and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) grant and operated mainly in Sal forest areas( there were following programs in these areas till nowdays). The most important objective of this program is to protect, manage, and develop forests in a sustainable way by involving local communities. Although several studies have focused on the management issues of social forestry, none of these studies has evaluated the indicators of sustainable social forestry. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the criteria of sustainable development of social forestry in Bangladesh.

  7. Restoring State Control Over Forest Resources Through Administrative Procedures: Evidence From a Community Forestry Programme in Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Maryudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, community forestry has emerged as a means to reform power constellations with regard to forest governance. Through community forestry, the central state promised to devolve several forest rights to local communities and encouraged them to get involved in decision making processes and the implementation of forest activities. However, experience in some countries indicates that the implementation of community forestry programmes is rarely followed by genuine power devolution to local forest users. Instead, these programmes may even serve as a means to retain or restore the central state’s control over forests. Using a case study of a community forestry programme implemented in Java, Indonesia, by a state forest company, this paper argues that the implementation of community forestry is also driven by the state’s interests to regain control over the forests. Research in eight villages in Central Java province reveals that the community forestry programmes are carefully structured according to numerous administrative procedures and estab- lish a mode of control through a bureaucratic design. ----- In den letzten Jahren hat sich community forestry als Mittel zur Reform von Machtkonstellationen in Bezug auf die Verwaltung von Wäldern herausgebildet. Der Zentralstaat versprach durch community forestry bestimmte Waldrechte an lokale Communities abzugeben und ermutigte sie, sich an Entscheidungsprozessen und der Implementierung von Forstaktivitäten zu beteiligen. Erfahrungen in einigen Ländern zeigen jedoch, dass die Implementierung von community forestry-Programmen selten mit einem tatsächlichen Machttransfer an lokale ForstnutzerInnen einhergeht, sondern diese Programme sogar als Mittel zur Rückgewinnung von zentralstaatlicher Kontrolle über Wälder dienen können. Anhand eines Fallbeispiels eines community forestry-Programms, das in Java, Indonesien, von einem staatlichen Forstunternehmen implementiert wird, argumentiere ich

  8. Research on Institutional Innovation of Non-public Forestry%中国非公有制林业制度创新框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚顺波

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the form and the mechanism of non-public forestry's institution obstacles by classical economics, institution economics, legal economics and economic theories of modern forestry. Regarding the proprietary institution as the core, and cost-income as the main clew£-it defines the concept and category of non-public forestry subsidy and compensation. And according to the relaxed control and efficiency principle of market economy£-this paper establishes a set of institution that accords with the development of non-public forestry, offers both theoretical supports and decision making references to remove institution obstacles of non-public forestry, and coordinates the policies of non-public forestry with those of the public-owned forestry.

  9. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  10. Developing Mechanism of Rubber-tea-chicken Agro-forestry Model in Tropical Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Qingyan; Miao Zewei; Wang Zhaoqian

    2012-01-01

    As a typical tropical agro-forestry ecosystem in Wenchang, Hainan Province, China, rational mechanisms of the rubber-tea-chicken eco-agricultural model were studied with the Solow technological level index, stability indicator, harmonizing coefficient, grey corretation coefficient and production dominance. This study focused on rational hierarchical structure, the limiting factors and optimal strategies of the model development based on model structure, resource conditions and external market demands. Results showed that rational mechanism of the rubber-tea-chicken ecosystem model mainly included technological contributions, leverage function of dominance component (livestock husbandry), stability of the model structure and harmony of its components, the model dominant product's market demand and government's supporting policies. The contributions of fund, technology, information and talent resources played an important role in improving sustainability and productivity of the agro-forestry model.

  11. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-01-01

    to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics......Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute......, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa...

  12. “Foreign” forestry companies: possible changes and nuisances of the wood product market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatta G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a major change has been taking place in forestry companies involved in coppice logging in the province of Forlì-Cesena (northern Apennines, Italy. Entrepreneurs of foreign origin who live and work in Italy, though having the legal head office and the tax domicile in a different EU country (particularly Romania, entered the local market of coppice logging. Such “foreign” companies may benefit of significant tax advantages at different stages (stand purchase, forest exploitation, sale of wood products, creating serious difficulties to the national forestry companies and representing a possible nuisance to the local market of wood products. Possible actions aimed at contrasting such situation are discussed.

  13. [Occupational risk by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa in the forestry workers of Verona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M; Lazzarini, G L; Goio, I; Schinella, S; Romeo, L; Perbellini, L

    2012-01-01

    Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a lepidopteran living in the Mediterranean countries whose mature larvae have microscopic hairs that can be released and carried far from the source. The hairs are responsible of urticating symptoms on the exposed areas although systemic manifestation might be involved. The study involved 94 forestry workers (92 M, 2 F) of the Regional Forest Service of Verona and the objective was to determine the prevalence of skin and respiratory disorders due to exposure to this insect. 21 chainsaw operators and 2 labourers experienced symptoms on exposed skin areas; 3 of them reported also ocular and respiratory symptoms. The chainsaw operators resulted most at risk whereas individual already suffering from others allergies do not seem to be affected. The results highlight the importance of risk assessment to Thaumetopoea pityocampa in forestry workers and the need for instruments to assess the allergic sensitization in medical surveillance.

  14. Combating Climate Change: What Will China's Forestry Industry Do?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohui Yang (Inst. of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Silvicultural Lab of State Forestry Administration, Yiheyuanhou, Haidian District, Beijing (China)); Xiaoping Wang (Beijing Forestry Carbon Administration, Shuangquan Building, Xicheng District, Beijing (China)); Nuyun Li (Forestry Carbon Management Office, State Forestry Administration, Hepingli, Dongcheng District, Beijing (China))

    2010-07-15

    China's afforestation and reforestation activities have, to an extent, offset the negative impacts of deforestation in the world. In China, between 1980 and 2005, approximately 3.06 billion tons of CO{sub 2} was sequestered by afforestation activities, 1.62 tons of CO{sub 2} was sequestered by forest management, and CO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 0.43 ton due to a decrease in deforestation. China's forestry industry has started to implement the development strategy to mitigate climate change. It is expected that with appropriate forestry management China can contribute to a 40 to 45% reduction in greenhouse gas emission intensity by 2020

  15. Review of forestry practices in caribou habitat in southeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Stevenson

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in southeastern British Columbia feed mainly on arboreal lichens in winter. Some modified forestry practices that have been used or proposed for caribou ranges are reviewed. Partial cutting results in the retention of some forage lichens. Partial cutting and small patch harvesting may improve lichen growth on the remaining trees. Retention of advanced regeneration and some residual trees may improve lichen growth in the remaining stand. Extension of the rotation age increases the amount of harvestable forest useful to caribou at any one time. Progressive cutting minimizes road access to caribou ranges, and may be combined with partial cutting. Most forestry practices intended to maintain lichen production will result in increased human activity in caribou ranges, unless road access is controlled. The management strategy selected depends on site conditions and on the relative importance assigned to the impact of habitat alteration and human activity on caribou.

  16. An Empirical Study of Unsystematic Risk Factors in the Capital Asset Pricing Model: the Case of Russian Forestry Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara NAZAROVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to consider the Capital Asset Pricing Model, to determine its most disputable points, to identify concepts defining and supplementing the points of the model. The article ends with an example of calculation of the cost of equity for a company of a forestry sector of Russia.The originality of the research is based on the assessment of the effects of non-systematic risks on investment projects in the forestry sector in Russia.

  17. Review of Present Collection and Research on Forestry Contracts of Qing Dynasty in Jinping County, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Wenjia; Wang Ningwei; Dong Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Forestry contracts of the Qing Dynasty in Jinping County, southwest China's Guizhou Province, are a unique historical legacy of China. It came into being with the development of society and economy of Jinping. Research on these contracts is becoming widespread domestically and abroad as well. This paper is intended to make a review of the collection and research of forestry contracts in Jinping according to the chronological sequence.

  18. Multi-objective optimization and performance evaluation of active, semi-active and passive suspensions for forestry machines

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The development of forestry machines is currently heading towards new solutions that reduce their impact on the environment and in particular on the soft forest soil in which the machines operate. The terrain conditions that forestry machines encounter in their regular duties can be very rough, and if the vehicle-ground interaction is not properly controlled cumulative damage can progressively aggravate these conditions and potentially render a route or a zone impracticable, apart from causin...

  19. Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services. An analysis of Mexico's carbon forestry programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbera, Esteve; Brown, Katrina [School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom)]|[Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research (United Kingdom); Soberanis, Carmen Gonzalez [Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This article proposes a multi-dimensional framework for understanding the development and effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes, framed around the notions of institutional design, performance and interplay. The framework is applied in the context of Mexico's Programme of Payments for Carbon, Biodiversity and Agro-forestry Services (PSA-CABSA), with an emphasis on its carbon component. The analysis shows that PSA-CABSA was promoted by civil society and its rules have been subject to continuous modifications over time. In the case of the carbon component, changes have been due to an original misunderstanding of how carbon projects should be designed, implemented, and carbon traded in actual markets. From a performance point of view, the paper shows that the programme has been well received by rural communities, and carbon payments have contributed to increase household income and to enhance forest management practices and organisational skills. The paper also highlights sources of institutional interplay with local institutions and international climate policy, and it reveals the importance of capacity and scale issues in securing an effective and fair implementation of PES. The conclusion provides some policy recommendations for the future development of PES initiatives in Mexico and elsewhere. (author)

  20. Statistical modeling and design in forestry : The case of single tree models

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Forest quantification methods have evolved from a simple graphical approach to complex regression models with stochastic structural components. Currently, mixed effects models methodology is receiving attention in the forestry literature. However, the review work (Paper I) indicates a tendency to overlook appropriate covariance structures in the NLME modeling process. A nonlinear mixed effects modeling process is demonstrated in Paper II using Cupressus lustanica tree merchantable volume data...

  1. An Empirical Estimation of Effects of Priority Forestry Programs on Farmers’ Incomes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China has launched six Priority Forestry Programs (PFPs) since 1998, i.e. the Natural Forest Protection Program, the Cropland Conversion to Forest and Grassland Program, Sandification Control Program for the Vicinity of Beijing & Tianjin , Wildlife Conservation and Nature Reserve Development Program, Forest Industrial Base Development Program and Shelterbelt Development Programs for regions such as Three North and the Yangtze River Catchments. The Government of China has made different policies for these PF...

  2. Jonkershoek research catchments: history and impacts on commercial forestry in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chapman, A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available : History and Impacts on Commercial Forestry in South Africa Arthur Chapman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Stellenbosch South Africa achapman@csir.co.za Presentation on 19 September 2007 to a Field Day of the International... Plantation Certification Symposium 2007 “Impact of Certification on Plantation Forestry” 18 – 21 September 2007 Department of Forest and Wood Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa September 2007 Introduction By the 1850s...

  3. The Determinants of Firm-Level Export Intensity in New Zealand Agriculture and Forestry ,

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Iyer

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of firm level export intensity in New Zealand’s agriculture and forestry over the period 2000-06. Applying a random effects model, it is uncovered that export intensity is driven by firm productivity and export market diversification. Firm size is found to have a negative effect on export intensity. Sector characteristics do not have an empirically discernible influence.

  4. Community-company partnerships in forestry in South Africa – An examination of trends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojwang, A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry Joint Venture - The Risks Risks Affected Party Mitigated Factors Fire Both Fire Protection planning, Community vigilance, insurance Livestock damage Both Community pressure, JV agreement NECF defaults Community JV agreement, Low risk... supplies and proceeds commensurate with shares -Develop fire protection plans -Facilitate transfer of skills in management and administration to the CPA -Develop local infrastructure -Liase with donors -Expose external funding to communities...

  5. PetroChina Inks Bio-Fuel Deal with the State Forestry Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yunqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 11 January 2007, Beijing - PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina) signed a framework agreement with the State Forestry Administration (SFA) on the development of forest bio-fuel and officially kicked off the construction of the first batch of forest bio-fuel tree breeding bases in Yunnan and Sichuan, marking a substantial step forward in the cooperation of forest bio-fuel development between the two parties.

  6. Comparative study of rural labor in forestry, seeds and fruit growing (Argentina 2008-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Trpin; Andrea Mastrángelo

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on case studies done among 2008-2011, on rural labor in concentrated investments. Economic sectors studied were fruticulture in Rio Negro Upper Valley, forestry in Misiones NW, and transgenic corn seeds in Buenos Aires North. Methodology was multisited ethnography searching on different actors’ point of view. Techniques applied were in field deep interviews and participant observation. Secondary analysis by comparative method shown in this paper allows us to point out thre...

  7. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Lovelli; Nicola Moretti; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Luigi Todaro; Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality) of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) have been...

  8. Continuous cover forestry as part of sustainable forest management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Cover forestry (CCF) is not a commonly recognized term in the USA, but the concept and objectives of CCF to “manage forests to provide structurally, visually and biologically diverse ecosystems and deliver multiple benefits to people” is an idea that resonates with both forest managers and the public in the USA. The concept of CCF (often referred to as...

  9. Policies, Actions and Effects for China s Forestry Response to Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is a great concern of various countries, the public and science community, and forest plays an important role in mitigating climate change. The paper made a comprehensive analysis regarding the policy selections of China to promote forestry response to the global climate change, and elaborated the concrete actions and achievements in this regard. Policy selections include: 1) Reinforce tree planting and afforestation, increase the forested area and enhance the capacity of carbon sequestration...

  10. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic-nose (e-nose instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  11. Political parties and forestry relations in Turkey’s general elections in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Atmış

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Political parties have important roles in the political decision making process on identifying the demand for public goods and services. In this context, political parties have significant impacts on identification and implementation of forestry policies. Their election manifestos/declarations have statements on forests and forestry, which are important sources of information for those parties' forestry policies. In this study, election manifestos of 11 parties that participated in the general elections that took place on June 7, 2015 and November 1, 2015 in Turkey were studied. Data were analysed with “Document Analyses” and “Content Analyses”, then evaluated under eight titles. As a result of these assessments, the conclusion was that; there are significant differences between the parties' approaches to forests: some of them consider the forest not as an entity but as a source of income, developing populist discourses that are sure to appeal to the general public, through ambitious or impossible promises. It can also be said that the political parties fail to base their views on forests on reliable data.

  12. Diverse applications of electronic-nose technologies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D

    2013-02-08

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems.

  13. A comparative analysis of strategic plans of forestry faculties in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçil Yurdakul Erol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning, with a future-focused approach, contributes to realizing to higher education institutes’ functions, such as directing change and being pioneer to society in a systematic and sustainable way. However, it is inevitable for higher education institutes to have different priorities and roles besides their joint functions. Strategic plans are effective tools in terms of explaining these differences and to make them perceived by related stakeholders. Thus a similar approach is valid for forestry faculties which are increasing in numbers and serve diverse functions in our country. In this context, the aims of this study are to evaluate similarities and differences in statements of mission and vision and make a comparative assessment of future-oriented goals, targets and strategies of forestry faculties. According to findings of content analysis there are no significant differences between the statements of mission and vision. Moreover, it has pointed out that the emphasized factors in these statements are not reflected to the goals, targets and strategies in the same proportion. As a result, it is clear that the mission and vision statements of forestry faculties need to be prepared in order to emphasize their unique characteristics and differences. Furthermore, it is essential to determine focused goals, targets and strategies that are the main tools of realizing these statements.

  14. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition algorithms, and progress in material science and systems integration methods, have led to significant benefits to both industries. Electronic noses have been used in a variety of commercial agricultural-related industries, including the agricultural sectors of agronomy, biochemical processing, botany, cell culture, plant cultivar selections, environmental monitoring, horticulture, pesticide detection, plant physiology and pathology. Applications in forestry include uses in chemotaxonomy, log tracking, wood and paper processing, forest management, forest health protection, and waste management. These aroma-detection applications have improved plant-based product attributes, quality, uniformity, and consistency in ways that have increased the efficiency and effectiveness of production and manufacturing processes. This paper provides a comprehensive review and summary of a broad range of electronic-nose technologies and applications, developed specifically for the agriculture and forestry industries over the past thirty years, which have offered solutions that have greatly improved worldwide agricultural and agroforestry production systems. PMID:23396191

  15. Biodiversity and sectoral responsibility in the development of Swedish Forestry Policy, 1988-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Terrence

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 the Swedish parliament deregulated national forestry policy and established an environmental goal in parallel with the previous, long-standing goal of high wood production. This paper shows how the change occurred in the context of major changes in Swedish environmental policy during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Within a short time, new environmental legislation and the introduction of legal protection for small forest and agricultural habitats of high ecological value reoriented national forestry policy, away from an overriding focus on wood production to an increased awareness of nature conservation and biodiversity preservation. Reflecting a major compromise with the state, forest owners have gained greater freedom to manage their land, but must also improve environmental conditions while achieving high wood production, a policy known as 'freedom under responsibility'. The paper explains how both the parliament and industry supported increased nature conservation and biodiversity to maintain forest health and support the forestry industry, by favouring responsible resource use and not simply protection from human influence.

  16. Future tendencies of climate indicators important for adaptation and mitigation strategies in forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galos, Borbala; Hänsler, Andreas; Gulyas, Krisztina; Bidlo, Andras; Czimber, Kornel

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is expected to have severe impacts in the forestry sector, especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where forests are vulnerable and sensitive to the increasing probability and severity of climatic extremes, especially to droughts. For providing information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options for the Carpathian basin, a GIS-supported Decision Support System is under development. This study focuses on the future tendencies of climate indicators that determine the distribution, growth, health status and production of forests as well as the potential pests and diseases. For the analyses the climate database of the Decision Support System has been applied, which contains daily time series for precipitation and temperature means and extremes as well as derived climate indices for 1961-2100. For the future time period, simulation results of 12 regional climate models are included (www.ensembles-eu.org) based on the A1B emission scenario. The main results can be summarized as follows: · The projected change of the climate indices (e.g. total number of hot days, frost days, dry days, consecutive dry periods) and forestry indices (e.g. Ellenberg climate quotient, Forestry aridity index; Tolerance index for beech) indicates the warming and drying of the growing season towards the end of the 21st century. These can have severe consequences on the ecosystem services of forests. · The climatic suitable area of the native tree species is projected to move northwards and upwards in the mountains, respectively. For beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) this shift would mean the drastic shrink of the distribution area in the analyzed region. · The characteristic climate conditions that are expected in the Carpathian basin in the second half of the century, are now located southeastern from the case study region. In this way, the potential future provenance regions can be determined. Results provide input for the climate

  17. Strategic and legal framework in forestry and related sectors: Climate change mitigation in European Union and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of forests in mitigating and adapting to climate changes is recognized and widely accepted. Therefore, it becomes a subject of universal interest and support. However, in the national strategies relating to climate change, the importance of the forestry sector in mitigating these changes is quite often not discussed in detail. In addition, the problem of climate change is not fully represented and included in national forestry policies. The aim of this research was to determine the compliance and differences of strategic and legislative frameworks in forestry and related sectors, relating to climate change mitigation in the EU and Serbia. At the EU level, there are two strategies and a policy framework, and in Serbia, eight sectoral strategies, referring and discussing the climate change mitigation through forestry. At the same time, these issues are highlighted as the primary objective, only in the Climate and Energy Package of the EU and the Forestry Development Strategy in Serbia. In terms of legislative framework in Serbia, two laws have climate change mitigation through forestry as the primary objective, while for the analyzed relevant EU legislation, this is a secondary objective. In Serbia, only the Forest law has a direct impact on climate change mitigation through forestry, while at EU level, there is no regulation, directive or communication, with the same direct influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studies of climate changes and their impact on the environment-monitoring impacts, adaptation and mitigation, podprojekat, 43007/16-III: Socio-economic development, mitigation and adaptation to climate change

  18. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types  preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained  in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.Keywords: agro-forestry, preferences, adoption, NPV

  19. Integration of Forest Fuel Handling in the Ordinary Forestry. Studies on Forestry, Technology and Economy of Forest Fuel Production in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars [Regional Forestry Board of Vaermland-Oerebro, Karlstad (Sweden); Budrys, Renatas [Lithuanian Forest Research Inst. (Lithuania)

    2002-07-01

    During the year 2000, The Swedish Forest Administration and Forest Department, Ministry of Environment in Lithuania, started a bilateral co-operation project, named: 'Swedish Lithuanian Wood Fuel Development Project', financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The project was divided into 2 phases. The first phase objectives were to make a feasibility study in the eastern part of Lithuania and to identify the present conditions for the utilization of wood fuel within seven state forest enterprises and to define a demonstration and experimental area for the phase 2. The purpose of this work was to find solutions for creating horizontal and vertical integration in the handling of forest fuels in ordinary forestry and supply systems. The aim would be to give specific recommendations on which methods are the most suitable and profitable and on what type of equipment to use for various conditions and by the means of demonstrations to show how to integrate the positive results into the ordinary forestry activities. Different kinds of activities have been carried out to ensure capacity building and development on other levels within the system. 3 activity groups were established and have been working side by side with the appointed team leaders for each activity group from the institutions leading in the specific area within the forest sector in Lithuania. Swedish specialists from the Swedish Forest Administration were involved into the project and the activity groups as well. Lithuanian Forest Research Institute was involved into the project with research support. Additional to the project a mobile drum wood chipper was purchased from Sweden. 3 separate investigations have been conducted, one by Kaunas Univ. of Tech. on the analysis and estimation of material balance in Lithuania saw milling industry, another by Forest Economy Centre on wood fuel produced in industry in Lithuania and the third one by Lithuanian Energy Institute and AF international on Bio fuel

  20. The overview of German forestry and its guiding experiences%德国林业概况及其可借鉴的经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟少伟; 杨逸廷; 何贤勤

    2014-01-01

    Though the overseas investigation,training and communication in Germany,the comprehensive understanding and acknowledge in German forestry,hereinto introduce German forestry in different aspects of forestry resources status and rights,the government’s support and help in forestry,and forestry economy and management system were measured. Through the comparison between German forestry and Hunan Forestry,to make the conclusion about some forestry devel-opment experiences which could be learned from,such as “Close-to-nature”forest management concept,efficient and comprehensive utilization of timber,advanced forestry mechanization,forestry road and community forestry,the high quality of foresters,developed forestry laws and system,and solid forestry education and training,And“Close-to-nature”forestry in the future Hunan forestry were discussed,in order to explore the development potential in Hunan forestry, which has strong reference function and practical guiding significance in realizing the great goal of“Green Hunan”.%通过对德国林业的考察和培训、交流,对德国林业有了进一步的了解,从森林资源现状、权属、政府对森林的扶持与帮助、林业经济及管理体系等方面介绍了德国林业;通过德国林业与我省林业的比较,总结了近自然林业经营理念、木材的高效综合利用、先进的林业机械化、林区道路和社区林业、高素质的林务官、健全的林业法律和制度体系、扎实的林业教育与培训等可借鉴的林业发展经验,并对近自然林业在未来湖南林业上的应用进行了一些探讨,对挖掘湖南林业发展潜力,实现绿色湖南建设目标具有借鉴意义。

  1. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    associated with biomass usage, an understanding of forest management trends including harvesting and fuel processing methods, and the carbon profile of utilizing forest based woody biomass for the emerging biomass markets. Each of the tasks and subtasks have provided an increased level of understanding to support new directives, policies and adaptation of existing regulations within Massachusetts. The project has provided the essential information to allow state policymakers and regulators to address emerging markets, while ensuring forest sustainability and understanding the complex science on CO2 accounting and impacts as a result of biomass harvesting for power generation. The public at large and electricity ratepayers in Massachusetts will all benefit from the information garnered through this project. This is a result of the state’s interest to provide financial incentives to only biomass projects that demonstrate an acceptable carbon profile, an efficient use of the constrained supply of fuel, and the harvest of biomass to ensure forest sustainability. The goals of the Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative as proposed in 2006 were identified as: increase the diversity of the Massachusetts energy mix through biomass; promote economic development in the rural economy through forest industry job creation; help fulfill the state’s energy and climate commitments under the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard and Climate Protection Plan; assist the development of a biomass fuel supply infrastructure to support energy project demands; provide education and outreach to the public on the benefits and impacts of bioenergy; improve the theory and practice of sustainable forestry in the Commonwealth. Completed project activities summarized below will demonstrate the effectiveness of the project in meeting the above goals. In addition, as discussed above, Massachusetts DOER needed to make some modifications to its work plan and objectives during the term of this

  2. Analysis of Factors Influencing Motivation of Villagers' Participation in Activities of Social Forestry (The Case Study of West Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to analyze factors influencing motivation of villagers' participation in activities of social forestry. The statistical population includes all villagers living in villages, which locate in the west Mazandaran of Iran and had been covered by local forestry cooperative. A sample of 110 villagers were selected by the use of proportional random sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the content validity was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to measure reliability of index measuring level of motivation of villagers' participation in activities of social forestry that its extent was 0.84 and showed that mentioned variable had high reliability. The data were analyzed by the use of descriptive and inferential statistics such as extent of mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings revealed that level of literacy, using level of mass communication media, level of participation in extension-education courses, social interaction and attitude toward participatory activities positively and significantly (p<0.01 correlated with the level of motivation of villagers' participation in activities of social forestry. The result of multiple regression showed that variables consisting: attitude toward participatory activities, using level of mass communication media, level of literacy and social interaction could explain 39.7% of the variation in the level of motivation of villagers' participation in activities of social forestry.

  3. Sales of Forestry-Related Specialty License Plates in the Southern United States: A County Level Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Tanger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, specialty license plates have become an increasingly popular way to raise awareness and show support for a myriad of issues with which the plate is linked. Several states and various organizations that provide forestry education have developed forestry license plates. Vehicle owners can purchase the plates to show their support towards forestry by buying the forestry license plates, which generates revenue for the provider organization. Using county-level data from five states in the Southeastern United States, a statistical model was developed to examine explanatory factors of forestry-based specialty license plate sales in 2014. Using linear count regression modeling, we observed that the significant predictor variables of plate sales were income per capita, population density, the percentage of acres that are forested in the county, acres of forest in the county that are privately owned, percentage of people who are 65 or older, and presence of the forest industry in the county. Plate sales were positively correlated with the presence of the forest industry in the county.

  4. Changing Forestry Policy by Integrating Water Aspects into Forest/Vegetation Restoration in Dryland Areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; Mike Bonell; Karl-Heinz Feger; YU Pengtao; XIONG Wei; XU Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Restoration forestry (forest rehabilitation) or re-vegetation is one effective measure to solve environmental problems, notably soil erosion. It may be further stimulated by the Clean Development Mechanism for carbon sequestration. However, there is an intensive and on-going debate about the adverse effects arising from afforestation in dryland areas, such as soil drying up which may cause further damage to the success of forest restoration, and the water yield reduction from watershed which may harm the regional development. On other hand, some preliminary studies showed a possibility that these adverse effects may be diminished more or less by properly designing the system structure and spatial distribution of forest/vegetation in a watershed. However, it is urgent to develop an evidence-based and sustainable new forestry policy for harmonizing forest-water interrelation. As a leading country in afforestation, China is beginning to develop a more trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral forestry policy for harmonizing forestry development with water management. The main points of the changing new forestry policy should include: (1) Establishing a regional development strategy focusing on harmonized forest-water relations; (2) Taking forest-water interactions as an important part of evaluation; (3) Reducing the 'eco-water' quota of forests through technical advancement; (4) Developing and extending water-adaptive forest management practices; (S) Strengthening forest ecohydrological research and decision support ability.

  5. Carbon Monitoring Costs and their Effect on Incentives to Sequester Carbon through Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacho, O.J.; Wise, R.M. [Graduate School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2350 (Australia); MacDicken, K.G. [P.T. Riau Andalan Pulp and Paper, PO Box 1080 Pekanbaru, Propinsi Riau (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    Technically, forestry projects have the potential to contribute significantly to the mitigation of global warming, but many such projects may not be economically attractive at current estimates of carbon (C) prices. Forest C is, in a sense, a new commodity that must be measured to acceptable standards for the commodity to exist. This will require that credible C measuring and monitoring procedures be in place. The amount of sequestered C that can be claimed by a project is normally estimated based on sampling a number of small plots, and the precision of this estimate depends on the number of plots sampled and on the spatial variability of the site. Measuring C can be expensive and hence it is important to select an efficient C-monitoring strategy to make projects competitive in the C market. This paper presents a method to determine whether a forestry project will benefit from C trading, and to find the optimal management strategy in terms of forest cycle length and C-monitoring strategy A model of an Acacia mangium plantation in southern Sumatra, Indonesia is used to show that forestry projects can be economically attractive under a range of conditions, provided that the project is large enough to absorb fixed costs. Modeling results indicate that between 15 and 38 Mg of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) per hectare can be captured by the simulated plantation under optimal management, with optimality defined as maximizing the present value of profits obtained from timber and C. The optimal cycle length ranged from 12 to 16 years and the optimal number of sample plots ranged from 0 to 30. Costs of C monitoring (in present-value terms) were estimated to be between 0.45 (Mg C)-1 to 2.11 (Mg C)-1 depending on the spatial variability of biomass, the variable costs of C monitoring and the discount rate.

  6. An integrated assessment of the potential of agricultural and forestry residues for energy production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ji [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Zhang, Aiping [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Lam, Shu Kee [Crop and Soil Sciences Section, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, the University of Melbourne, Melbourne Vic. 3010 Australia; Zhang, Xuesong [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing MI 48824 USA; Thomson, Allison M. [Field to Market, The Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture, 777 N Capitol St. NE Suite 803 Washington DC 20002 USA; Lin, Erda [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 China; Jiang, Kejun [Energy Research Institute (ERI), Beijing 100038 China; Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Kyle, Page G. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Yu, Sha [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and University of Maryland, College Park MD 20740 USA; Zhou, Yuyu [Department of Geological & Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50011 USA; Zhou, Sheng [Institutes of Energy, Environment and Economy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China

    2016-01-05

    Biomass has been widely recognized as an important energy source with high potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while minimizing environmental pollution. In this study, we employ the Global Change Assessment Model to estimate the potential of agricultural and forestry residue biomass for energy production in China. Potential availability of residue biomass as an energy source was analyzed for the 21st century under different climate policy scenarios. Currently, the amount of total annual residue biomass, averaged over 2003-2007, is around 15519PJ in China, consisting of 10818PJ from agriculture residues (70%) and 4701PJ forestry residues (30%). We estimate that 12693PJ of the total biomass is available for energy production, with 66% derived from agricultural residue and 34% from forestry residue. Most of the available residue is from south central China (3347PJ), east China (2862PJ) and south-west China (2229PJ), which combined exceeds 66% of the total national biomass. Under the reference scenario without carbon tax, the potential availability of residue biomass for energy production is projected to be 3380PJ by 2050 and 4108PJ by 2095, respectively. When carbon tax is imposed, biomass availability increases substantially. For the CCS 450ppm scenario, availability of biomass increases to 9002PJ (2050) and 11524PJ (2095), respectively. For the 450ppm scenario without CCS, 9183 (2050) and 11150PJ (2095) residue biomass, respectively, is projected to be available. Moreover, the implementation of CCS will have a little impact on the supply of residue biomass after 2035. Our results suggest that residue biomass has the potential to be an important component in China's sustainable energy production portfolio. As a low carbon emission energy source, climate change policies that involve carbon tariff and CCS technology promote the use of residue biomass for energy production in a low carbon-constrained world.

  7. Environmental and economic evaluations of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Sobek, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    Agricultural and forestry residues have been converted to energy for centuries. The technologies employed range from straightforward approaches such as combustion to produce heat to more involved approaches such as pyrolysis of the residues to produce medium-Btu synthetic gas, charcoal, and oil. Thus there is no one technology that can be characterized as the best or most promising for conversion of agricultural and forestry residues into energy. Therefore, to accurately assess the potential of agricultural and forestry residues as energy resources, an array of current conversion options should be addressed. Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems ae examined. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  8. Evaluation of economic impact of climatic change on agro-forestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Gallerani

    Full Text Available Climate change has a strong influence on agro-forestry systems. Present estimations evisage that changes in climate patterns and extreme events connected to climate change will have greater impacts in the future. This paper seeks to illustrate the articulation of the problems concerning the economic evaluation of climate change, with particularly attention to open problems and future lines of research. Research on this topic, though using methods and approaches consolidated in the disciplines of resource economics and evaluation, still have several open problems, particularly in the field of multidisciplinary studies of the man-environmental relations, policy evaluation and development of decision support systems for decision makers.

  9. Ecotoxicity and biodegradability in soil and aqueous media of lubricants used in forestry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecutti, Christine; Agius, Dominique

    2008-11-01

    The work presented in this article focuses on the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids used in forestry. Migration and biodegradability of three biolubricants and a mineral lubricant were monitored in two forest soils and in a liquid medium. These studies proved that biolubricants were easily degradable products and showed ultimate biodegradability rates significantly higher than those of the fluid of mineral origin, specially in a soil environment. This superiority was even greater when fluid behaviour was observed after 1000h of use. Ecotoxicity test enabled the classification and comparison of biolubricants and showed that toxicity levels of the biolubricants were never high however, even after use, as compared to petroleum-based fluid.

  10. Organizational dynamics of an information system: case study from the forestry sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajiv Kumar Garg; Jitendra Kumar Das; Mohit Gera

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Department in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India developed Forest Management Information System (FMIS) for achieving organizational goals of improved financial and human resource management, improvement in the management of forests and wildlife, and for achieving responsive administration. This paper, based on field research, presents an assessment of the dynamics of FMIS in organizational context for a better understanding of such systems in forestry organizations. The paper also investigates the success of FMIS in assisting decision makers in achieving organizational goals. Based on the knowledge developed during the course of the study,key learning elements have been highlighted for the benefit of the stakeholders in information systems in forest sector.

  11. Application of Pheno-Geographical Research Results in Forestry of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Vidyakin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main results of pheno-geographical research of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. population-chorologic structure in the Russian plain, in the Southern Trans-Urals. It also suggests possible practical uses of these results in forestry of Russia. It is recommended to use the maps showing the spatial arrangement outline obtained during the research in developing seed zoning of the species. A system of silvicultural-economic measures aiming at restoring genetic variation and evolutionary-genetic processes in populations is discussed.

  12. CDIO Based Optimization of Urban Planning Personnel Training Courses in Forestry Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; SUN; Jun; ZHANG; Jun; DONG; Bing; CHANG

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing existing course system of urban planning discipline,this paper came up with a framework for optimization of urban planning personnel training mode and course system,oriented towards training practical engineering personnel and based on CDIO engineering education and teaching platform. Then it made empirical study on setting of the urban planning discipline in Northeast Forestry University. It proposed changing the original "3 + 2" course system,exploring and optimizing the course system,improving teaching effect of urban planning personnel training courses,and raising planning and design ability of students.

  13. Modeling and validation of directional reflectance for heterogeneous agro-forestry scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelu, Z.; Jing, L.; Qinhuo, L.; Huete, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is a common natural phenomenon but is seldom considered in current radiative transfer models for predicting the surface reflectance. This paper developed an explicit analytical Radiative Transfer model for heterogeneous Agro-Forestry scenarios (RTAF) by dividing the scenario into non-boundary regions and boundary regions. The scattering contribution of the non-boundary regions that are treated as homogeneous canopies can be estimated from the SAILH model, whereas that of the boundary regions with lengths, widths, canopy heights, and orientations of the field patches, is calculated based on the bidirectional gap probability by considering the interactions and mutual shadowing effects among different patches. The hot spot factor is extended for heterogeneous scenarios, the Hapke model for soil anisotropy is incorporated, and the contributions of the direct and diffuse radiation are separately calculated. The multi-angular airborne observations and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model simulations were used for validating and evaluating the RTAF model over an agro-forestry scenario in Heihe River Basin, China. It indicates that the RTAF model can accurately simulate the hemispherical-directional reflectance factors (HDRFs) of the heterogeneous agro-forestry scenario, with an RMSE of 0.0016 and 0.0179 in the red and near-infrared (NIR) bands, respectively. The RTAF model was compared with two widely used models, the dominant cover type (DCT) model and the spectral linear mixture (SLM) model, which either neglected the interactions and mutual shadowing effects between the shelterbets and crops, or did not account for the contribution of the shelterbets. Results suggest that the boundary effect can significantly influence the angular distribution of the HDRFs, and consequently enlarged the HDRF variations between the backward and forward directions in the principle plane. The RTAF model reduced the maximum relative error from 25

  14. Interpolation of meteorological data by kriging method for use in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation is a suitable method of computing the values of a spatial variable at the location which is impossible for measurement, based on the data obtained by the measurement of the same variable at the predetermined locations (e.g. weather stations. In this paper, temperature and rainfall values at 39 weather stations in Serbia and neighbouring countries were interpolated aiming at the research in forestry. The study results are presented in the form of an interactive map of Serbia, which allows a fast and simple determination of the analyzed variable at any point within its territory, which is presented by the example of 27 forest sites.

  15. Low carbon development and poverty alleviation. Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funder, M.; Fjalland, J.; Munk Ravnborg, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a desk study on 'Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation'. The main objective of the study is to identify options for combining low carbon development pathways with poverty reduction and economic growth in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), as part of efforts to target development assistance to address both poverty and global warming problems. The report discusses the pros and cons of climate change mitigation measures that also support poverty alleviation and economic development within the energy, agriculture and forestry sectors. It concludes with a series of recommendations for development cooperation.

  16. Goals of marketing management at forestry enterprises and conditions of their efficient implementation in modern economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Pavlishchuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to substantiate mission and goals of marketing management at forestry enterprises and conditions of efficient implementation in market economy taking into account objective necessity of ecological social development. The results of the analysis. Scientific and practical significance of research results is to justify approaches to improving marketing management of forestry enterprises that contribute to its adaptation to market conditions, avoiding obstacles to development of market transformation processes in forestry sector, and practical measures that are important in the context of concept of ecological social development. Mission and goals of forestry enterprises are considered in connection with international and national approaches to protection, conservation, restoration and use of forest resources. The main international approaches to implementing marketing activities of commodity, price, distribution and communication policy of enterprises, are considered. The main ones are: decisions on sustainable use, conservation and protection of forest resources should consider a comprehensive assessment of economic value, as well as non-economic value of forest goods and services; ensure coherence at the international level on economic, environmental, trade and other policies is an important element in increasing efficiency of their implementation at the national level; international trade of forest products should be based on open and transparent mechanisms to multilaterally agreed procedures and non-discriminatory rules; having regard to adverse environmental, economic, social and political consequences of illegal logging, international and national efforts and cooperation to prevent and effectively combat illegal logging and trafficking illegally harvested timber on forest products markets are essential; it is necessary to eliminate tariff barriers to markets and ensure appropriate prices for

  17. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  18. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized.

  19. 林业育苗技术及管理研究%Forestry Eeedling Technology and management research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春辉

    2015-01-01

    培养好的树苗不仅能使农民们在一定基础上增加收入,还能优化环境,因此林业育苗技术越来越重要。随着我国科技水平的发展,如何更好地发展林业成为了社会关注的热点。本文将对林业育苗的技术和管理问题做相应的分析。%Develop good trees not only make sure farmers are based on the increase in revenue, but also to improve the environment, so the forestry nursery technology is increasingly important. With the development of science and technology level, how to better develop community forestry has become the focus of attention. Technical and management issues paper will forestry nursery analysis accordingly.

  20. Issues of provisions in the Specification of the Essential Terms of Contract (SIWZ in tenders for realization of forestry works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błuszkowska Urszula

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to analyse the provisions included in the Specifications of the Essential Terms of Contract in tenders for forestry works. The subject of the analysis was tender documentation of a selected Regional Directorate of State Forests. An attention was given to a number of inconsistencies, and non-specific and unjustified requirements. The presence of significant differences in the manner of defining requirements in the examined forest districts was emphasised. In opinion of the authors, the differences observed are unjustified and without any doubt impede the creation of tender documentation by representatives of forestry work companies. The summary of the analysis consists of, among others, a few guidelines on the manner of defining the requirements for forestry work companies and the need to unify the SIWZ provisions at the level of Regional Directorate of State Forests.

  1. Adoption of Agro-forestry Patterns and Crop Systems Around Register 19 Forest Park, Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wulandari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To return the ecological function of Wan Abdul Rachman Forest Park, it must be involved the role of buffer zone communities living around the forest by optimizing the cultivated land with applying agro-forestry based on socio-economic conditions in the community, such as community preferences and adoption of agro-forestry patterns. Under these conditions it is necessary to hold a study concerning to the level of community preference to the type of plants and the level of adoption, as well as the NPV analysis of the 3 patterns of agro-forestry which are applied by the majority of community around the forest park. Results of the study revealed that there were 3 dominant plant types preferred by the community in the forest park, namely: coffee (30.8%, cacao (35.8%, and rubber (17.4%. Based on these crops, there were 3 agro-forestry patterns practiced by the majority of community in their cultivated land. They were: (1 coffee-cacao-wooden plants, and fruits (47%, (2 rubber-coffee-wooden plants, and fruit (35%, and (3 rubber-cacao-wooden plants, and fruit (18%. The highest personal and social NPVs obtained in the agro-forestry pattern of rubber-coffee-wooded plants, and fruits were IDR4.589.627.36 and IDR6.454.806.01, respectively. To ensure the sustainability of the program, the development of communities living around the forest together with a program of community empowerment in the block of utilization and social forestry in the forest park are recommended to continue, based on the Regional Regulation (PerDa Number. 3/2012.

  2. Agriculture: Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about environmental requirements relating to timber tracts, tree farms, forest nurseries, and related activities, such as reforestation services and the gathering of gums, barks, balsam needles, and other forest products.

  3. Methodological Issues In Forestry Mitigation Projects: A CaseStudy Of Kolar District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Murthy, I.K.; Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Sahana, C.A.; Srivathsa, K.G.; Khan, H.

    2007-06-01

    There is a need to assess climate change mitigationopportunities in forest sector in India in the context of methodologicalissues such as additionality, permanence, leakage, measurement andbaseline development in formulating forestry mitigation projects. A casestudy of forestry mitigation project in semi-arid community grazing landsand farmlands in Kolar district of Karnataka, was undertaken with regardto baseline and project scenariodevelopment, estimation of carbon stockchange in the project, leakage estimation and assessment ofcost-effectiveness of mitigation projects. Further, the transaction coststo develop project, and environmental and socio-economic impact ofmitigation project was assessed.The study shows the feasibility ofestablishing baselines and project C-stock changes. Since the area haslow or insignificant biomass, leakage is not an issue. The overallmitigation potential in Kolar for a total area of 14,000 ha under variousmitigation options is 278,380 tC at a rate of 20 tC/ha for the period2005-2035, which is approximately 0.67 tC/ha/yr inclusive of harvestregimes under short rotation and long rotation mitigation options. Thetransaction cost for baseline establishment is less than a rupee/tC andfor project scenario development is about Rs. 1.5-3.75/tC. The projectenhances biodiversity and the socio-economic impact is alsosignificant.

  4. GIS-based analysis of forest degradations in Baihe Forestry Bureau, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Limin; Guofan Shao; XU Dong; WANG Hui; BAI Jianwei

    2006-01-01

    Forests in the Changbai Mountains are important timber sources for economic development of the society and provide ecological services in northeast China. In order to strengthen forest resource management, this paper analyzed management-induced changes in forest structure, tree species composition and forest landscape pattern from 1987 to 2000 for Baihe Forestry Bureau in Jilin Province based on digitized forest parcel maps and forest survey data. The results suggested that the area of Mature, High-Stocking, and Close-Canopy Forests decreased by 31.4%, 55.9% and 10.7% respectively; volume of Mixed Forest, the native forest vegetation type, decreased by 17.8%;the number of patches increased tremendously but the mean patch density decreased sharply for Mature, High-Stocking, Close-Canopy, and Mixed Forests. All the changes in forest structure, species composition, and landscape pattern indicated severe degradations going on with the forests in Baihe Forestry Bureau. Because of the effect of degradation to forest services, restoring forest resources and protecting biodiversity has become urgently important. The strategies of sustainable forest management need to be worked out and implemented.

  5. Assessing Douglas-Fir Seedling Establishment Using Two Modified Forestry Reclamation Approaches in the Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Forestry Reclamation Approach uses uncompacted, mounded spoils to reforest mined-land and has been successful in hardwood forests in the Appalachian region. A surface coalmine reclamation site in the Pacific Northwest was used to compare the site’s standard reclamation approach (Reference with a modified version of the Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA along with a modified FRA treatment that also incorporated an amendment of bottom ash from the coal burning power plant on-site (FRA + Ash. Survival and growth were followed for three growing seasons in bareroot and container Douglas-fir seedlings. Soil characteristics and understory cover were also assessed. Considerable variation in microsite characteristics was observed in the study area. Container seedlings did not improve survival compared to bareroot seedlings. In the soil reclamation treatments, seedling survival was significantly higher in FRA + Ash treatments compared to FRA and Reference treatments at the end of the second growing season. Survival declined in each year of the study, but the order of treatment effectiveness did not change. Relativized growth increment was significantly higher in the FRA treatment compared to both the Reference and FRA + Ash treatments during the third growing season. Understory cover was established after three years, but varied substantially across the study area.

  6. Forestry Expansion during the Last Decades in the Paraiba do Sul Basin - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriello, F.; Rezende, F. S.; Neves, O. M. S.; Rodriguez, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    from 1986 to 2010. In this region is situated the most important and largest extension of reminiscent of Mata Atlântica Biome reminiscent. This biome has been one the most exploited Brazilian biome since 1500, when Brazilian colonization begun. To achieve this goal, we use the GIS "SPRING" and images from Landsat 5 Satellite, TM sensor from 1986, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010, distributed by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research - INPE. The non-supervised-classification was applied to images in order to produce land use and land cover maps. After that, we intersect each classification for each date with the precedent date, so we can analyze the paths of each land use change, focusing forestry expansion in native's Mata Atlântica areas. The results show that eucalyptus plantations in the region have expanded mostly over fragments of Mata Atlântica. About 99.389 hectares of Mata Atlântica were transformed into forestry in 25 years, an average rate of 4000 ha per year. Clear-cut was largest between 1990 and 1995, when 22810 hectares of rain forest were cut, and between 1995 and 2000, when 21430 hectares were cut.

  7. Quality of Pellets Made from Agricultural and Forestry Crops in Costa Rican Tropical Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pellets may be produced with different types of agriculture or forestry crops in Costa Rica. This work evaluated the energy, physical, and mechanical properties of pellets fabricated from 12 types of agricultural and forestry crops (Ananas cumosos, Arundo donax, Coffea arabica, Cupressus lusitanica, empty fruit bunch and oil palm mesocarp fiber of the fruit of Elaeis guineensis, Gynerium sagittatum, Pennisetum purpureum, Phyllostachys aurea, Saccharum officinarum, Sorghum bicolor, and Tectona grandis, and similarities among these crops were established by multivariate principal component analysis. High variation was found in the pellet properties. The energy evaluation revealed that C. lusitanica and P. aurea are the crops with the best qualities for fuel use because of their high calorific values (from 16807 kJ/kg and 19919 kJ/kg, respectively and low ash content (1.03% and 3.39%, respectively. As for physical properties, most crops exhibited values within the range noted by several authors and standards. All 12 pellet crops displayed high durability (from 72.12% to 92.98% and compression force (from 295.18 N to 691.86 N. Moreover, the evaluation of crop similarities allowed the determination of four group combinations. Within these groups, C. lusitanica, P. aurea, and G. sagittatum had similar energy qualities and the best caloric characteristics.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  9. Socio-Entropy System Approach for Analyzing of Social Forestry Management in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismalia Afriani Hasbullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Socio-entropy system approach (SESA as used as a comprehensive tool to identify any kind of social shortcoming that might have constrained achievement of government policy on social-forestry. The study objectives were to observe all critical factors on the program implementation of social forestry and to analyze any intervening variables relevant to socio-psychological, socio-ecological, socio-economic, and socio-cultural shortcomings (being called here as socio-entropies that would have been most crucial to the required policy modification. Samples were taken by purposive sampling and intensively interviewed using questionnaire. Data was analysed using structural equation modeling. The study found out that the socio-psychological entropy which apparently needs to comprehend basically relates to 3-intervening variables of self-esteem, individual compassion, and non-formal education. Likewise from the socio-ecological stand point, what need to be controled better were the spirit of owning more land plots, and the geo-morphological position of owned land plots. Meanwhile socio-economic entropy seemed to appear as consequences of people efforts in gaining more income due to hedonistic temptation and lack of knowledge about the type of environmentally sound livelihoods. Finally, the crucial factors of socio-cultural entropy were the faded away adat-law, weakening social norms, and absence of inter-ethnic but more closed, and traditional networking.

  10. Participation in social forestry re-examined: a case-study from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A; Begum, S A

    1997-08-01

    Bangladesh has enthusiastically launched social forestry projects that make grandiose promises of seeking local community involvement and participation in the management of forest resources. This study examines the functioning of the Chandra Agroforestry Research and Demonstration Project to evaluate the actual extent and nature of popular participation it entails. After discussing the project and its locale, the methodology of the study is described as an analysis of qualitative and quantitative data collected in the period February-August 1994. The theoretical framework was based on a modified version of Zaman's framework that uses prevalence and opportunity as the indicators of participation. Analysis of prevalence indicators reveals that professional foresters make all major decisions for the project without consulting the farmers involved. The government also has sole responsibility for monitoring and evaluating the project, and the farmers are skeptical that the government will allow them to profit from the benefits arising from the project. Analysis of opportunity indicators shows that the project is not decentralized, cooperative and collaborative linkages have not been made, project flexibility has been sacrificed to bureaucracy, and the incentives promised to the farmers have not materialized. It is concluded that the participation of local residents in the Chandra project has been insignificant but that the project has succeeded in reducing 1) the historical distrust and conflict between forestry officials and local farmers, 2) encroachment on government lands, and 3) the rate of deforestation. In addition, the project has given participating farmers a sense of security.

  11. Forestry of Serbia - achievement of Millenium Goals in the era of climate change and globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review presenting research results on the forest ecosystems of Serbia that are carried out at the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment (University of Novi Sad, Serbia in the context of climate change and globalisation. The review displays results of the long-term monitoring of the forest ecosystems, where the data were obtained at the permanent experimental trials of IPC-Forests (level 2 and the iLTER's network. All findings are systematically divided according to the research disciplines and the most important tree species (poplar, willow, oak, wild cherry and European beech. Also the aspects of social sciences are included (meaning evaluating forest institutions in the first place. This review is meant to contribute inputs to the ongoing discussion about the achievement of the Millenium Goals of Sustainable Development in the context of Serbian forestry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002: Biosenzing tehnologije i globalni system za kontinuirano istraživanje i integrisano upravljanje ekosistemimai br. III 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje -Unapređenje gajenja nizijskih šuma i FP7 - STREPOW; FP7 - RoK-FoR; FP7 - EXPEER i IPA - OXIT

  12. Communities, property rights and forest decentralisation in Kenya: Early lessons from participatory forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephine Mogoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of participatory forestry management (PFM in Kenya has led to the formation of community forest associations (CFAs. Data collected from 12 forests over a decade indicate that most associations are confederating to manage shared forests through the Forests Act of 2005. Emerging findings indicate that associations are responsible for diverse management activities in forest protection, monitoring, and management, yet access to decision-making, revenue streams, and overall resource control rights are vested in the Kenya Forestry Service. Still, this is an improvement as CFAs perform most governance functions autonomously, including the crafting of resource harvesting rules, the choice of leadership, and conflict resolution. In order to balance community incentives with the burdens and responsibilities they bear, rights to revenue streams generated from forest resources must be shared with communities to ensure continued commitment to the PFM process. Furthermore, the viability of CFAs is threatened by power struggles, leadership wrangles, and the splintering of groups. Negotiation support to moderate conflicting interests, and strengthen internal conflict resolution and governance is necessary.

  13. Case Study on the Development of Forestry Cooperative Organization after the Collective Forest Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the problems of forestry cooperative organization after the collective forest reform in China, this study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization in Jiashang village of Shaowu City, which is an important part of the northwest green industry zone in Fujian Province. Chinese farmers have their own use right of forest land after China’s collective forest reform. Cooperation requirement of forest production is increasing after the clarification of the use right. Paper by collecting the second-hand data, training the farmers in participatory interview and discussing with staff members of forestry bureau, many problems have been founded. This study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization. According to the study, the main problems of the cooperative development are lack of motivations, requirement, operating capability, proper environment for legal operation and policy guarantee. Based on these problems, this study gives some suggestions such as Providing Fundamental Legal System Guarantee, Policy Guidance, Providing Sound Developing Conditions and Gradual Guiding the sound Development of Cooperatives to improve the development of forest cooperatives in collective forest area.

  14. National Forestry Research Plan and Strategic Plan of the Agricultural Science and Technology Program (Colciencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Baquero Parra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to share the national research priorities in agriculture and forestry areas with the scientific community, based on the lines of research identified by the Agricultural Science and Technology Program for the 2010-2019 Strategic Plans by Colciencias. The Strategic Agriculture Plan has determined that the research priorities are Colombia to manage the supply chain, nutrition, rural poverty, quality and innocuousness, as well as the slow production transformation: cost of opportunity and insufficient, decontextualized research. Each of the aforementioned problems is briefly described in the document. As far as the National Plan of Forestry Research is concerned, the following three main topics were suggested: to strengthen a national genetic improvement of tree species that contribute to productivity and the increase of environmental services; to identify and characterize areas, species and potential products for reforestation programs; and to identify species, arrangements and densities that optimize the goods that may be obtained from a forest plantation and its environmental services for the top priority social and agro-ecological conditions of the country. The information regarding the two National Strategic Plans is expected to be disclosed during the first semester of 2011, so that the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (Colciencias can support the research projects that meet the expectations of the identified priorities.

  15. Community Forestry as Perceived by Local People Around Cross River National Park, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The prior identification of local people's preferences for conservation-development projects will help gear nature-conservation strategies toward the needs of different groups of local people. This will help policy-makers in designing a more acceptable and effective conservation strategy. This article reports a study of local perceptions of a community forestry project that aims to help improve the design as well as local acceptance of the project. The data originated from personal interviews conducted in communities around Okwangwo Division of the Cross River National Park in southeast Nigeria and were analysed using ordered logit and binary logit models. The results showed that >50% of the respondents were satisfied with the community forestry project. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by education, age, gender, and willingness to contribute money to tourism as well as the contributions of cocoa, banana, and afang ( Gnetum africanum) to the respondents' income. The results from this study have important implications for nature conservation in Nigeria and potentially other conservation contexts across the developing world.

  16. A survey of safety issues in tree-climbing applications for forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Longo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Topping, trimming, consolidation, securing and felling are very common operations in arboriculture, in city park as well as in forests. In case of very large trees, these operations are often not possible from ground level using ladders or Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs because of excessive height or uneven/inaccessible terrain. In past years, different people start applying techniques, materials and procedures normally used in mountaineering and caving, to climb trees and these techniques start to be applied to forestry management operations; these techniques are now worldwide used. Work activities at height, as tree-climbing for forestry management purpose, are regulated in Italy by Legislative Decree 81/08 about safety in the workplace, as this activity expose operators to fall from height and many other risks. Moreover, as this activity involves the use of specific tools, operators must be trained (with periodic refreshment and tools must been periodically checked by authorised operators. The objective of this work is to present and synthesise regulations and some technical aspects in order to allow operators to better understand different issues and general principles related to this activity.

  17. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  18. Soil Reclamation for Agriculture and Forestry after Open-Cast Lignite Mining in Lusatia, Germany: Challenges and Chances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mining activities leave raw and partly artificial soils on dumps and tips. A prior objective of land reclamation in such areas is to restore and cultivate new soils which will fulfil their functions as a habitat for plants and animals and as a regulator in the cycling of matter and water in the landscape as well as a production site for agriculture or forestry. This paper gives an overview on major challenges and principles of soil reclamation for agriculture and forestry, reporting some results of research...

  19. Modeling the Heterogeneous Effects of GHG Mitigation Policies on Global Agriculture and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, A.; Henderson, B.; Hertel, T. W.; Rose, S. K.; Sohngen, B.

    2010-12-01

    Agriculture and forestry are envisioned as potentially key sectors for climate change mitigation policy, yet the depth of analysis of mitigation options and their economic consequences remains remarkably shallow in comparison to that for industrial mitigation. Farming and land use change - much of it induced by agriculture -account for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Any serious attempt to curtail these emissions will involve changes in the way farming is conducted, as well as placing limits on agricultural expansion into areas currently under more carbon-intensive land cover. However, agriculture and forestry are extremely heterogeneous, both in the technology and intensity of production, as well as in the GHG emissions intensity of these activities. And these differences, in turn, give rise to significant changes in the distribution of agricultural production, trade and consumption in the wake of mitigation policies. This paper assesses such distributional impacts via a global economic analysis undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP model. The paper builds on a global general equilibrium GTAP-AEZ-GHG model (Golub et al., 2009). This is a unified modeling framework that links the agricultural, forestry, food processing and other sectors through land, and other factor markets and international trade, and incorporates different land-types, land uses and related CO2 and non-CO2 GHG emissions and sequestration. The economic data underlying this work is the global GTAP data base aggregated up to 19 regions and 29 sectors. The model incorporates mitigation cost curves for different regions and sectors based on information from the US-EPA. The forestry component of the model is calibrated to the results of the state of the art partial equilibrium global forestry model of Sohngen and Mendelson (2007). Forest carbon sequestration at both the extensive and intensive margins are modeled separately to better isolate land competition between

  20. Analysis of Farmers’ Needs for Forestry Information and Technology in Yunnan’s Hot Zone: Based on Empirical Survey in Menglian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongfei; SHI; Yanhui; PEI; Fan; ZHANG; Wenzhong; YANG; Yongpeng; LI; Jianxin; CAO; Lei; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Lack of public forestry information and techniques has restricted the development of forestry management and the income increase of rural farmers in hot region of Yunnan province. Therefore it is necessary to provide forestry information and techniques to rural areas so as to compensate for the information gap between urban and rural areas. Based on the survey about farmer demand for information and technique in Menglian County,the paper analyzed the supply methods and demand characteristics of forestry information and techniques. The results showed that the farmers had very strong demands for forestry information and techniques with diversified trend. But the farmers got the information with backward method and single service supply approach,and it lacked effective expression mechanism for their demands.

  1. 林业产业化发展的现状研究%A Research on Development Status of Industrialized Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯飞飞

    2015-01-01

    当前,实现林业的产业化,有效解决林业在产业化的过程中出现的问题是当务之急。文章就目前我国林业产业化的发展模式和林业产业化发展的制约因素进行了概括,并提出了林业产业化的发展思路。%At present,to achieve theindustrialization of forestry ,it is urgent to effectively solve the problems encountered in the process of industrialization of forestry . This paper summarized present development model of forestry industrialization and factors restricting the industrialization of forestry, and put forward development ideas for the industrialization of forestry.

  2. Carbon balance of a fertile forestry-drained peatland in southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohila, Annalea; Korkiakoski, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Minkkinen, Kari; Penttilä, Timo; Ojanen, Paavo; Launiainen, Samuli; Laurila, Tuomas

    2016-04-01

    Forestry on peatlands is a significant land use form and has been economically important during the last decades particularly in the Nordic countries. While nutrient-poor forests are generally able to maintain their carbon sink status even after drainage, the peat soil at the fertile sites is typically considered as a large carbon dioxide (CO2) source. This means that despite of high timber production capacity, the fertile peatland forests gradually lose their peat carbon store. In addition, many of the nutrient-rich sites emit considerable amount of nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. While the current estimates of the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of forestry-drained peatlands are largely based on soil inventories or on data combining soil GHG fluxes and tree growth litter input measurements and modelling, only few studies have utilized the high-resolution, continuous eddy covariance (EC) data to address the short-term dynamics of the net CO2 fluxes covering both the soil, forest floor vegetation and the trees. Hence, little is known about the factors which control the year-to-year variation in fluxes. Here we present a 5-year dataset of CO2 fluxes measured with the EC method above a nutrient-rich forestry-drained peatland in southern Finland. The site, drained in the beginning of 1970's, is a well growing pine forest with some spruces and birches, the tree volume and carbon fixation rate equaling 8.0 kg C m-2 and 0.273 kg C m-2 yr-1, respectively. The average summer-time water level depth is -50 cm. By combining the gap-filled half-hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data, the tree growth measurements, and the measurements on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses and soil methane (CH4) exchange, we will in this presentation estimate the total annual loss of peat carbon of this fertile peatland forest. In addition, using the N2O flux data we will estimate the contribution of different gases to the total GHG balance. Factors controlling the carbon balance and

  3. Atmospheric deposition at four forestry sites in the Alpine Region of Trentino- South Tyrol, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano MINERBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino-South Tyrol Region is located in the southern part of the Alpine Chain. The territory is largely mountainous with crystalline rock formations dominant in the north and limestone in the south-east. Most of the land is open to the climatic and atmospheric influence of the River Po, via the mainly N-S oriented valley of the River Adige. The forestry authorities of the region have since the 80s been making an annual assessment of forest decline, particularly as regards parasite attacks, defoliation and crown discoloration, and have found the situation to be better than in most other parts of Europe. The region's forest protection policy is administered by the two provinces of Bolzano/Bozen and Trento in the framework of the European convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (UN-ECE LRTAP; each province operates two forestry sampling permanent plots. The sites are all constituted according to the standard recommendations, and are located in the central part of the region along the Adige Valley, where most of population live and where most of the agriculture and industry is. Two of the areas are in coniferous stands of the typical Alpine forest, mainly composed of Norway spruce; the other two are located in deciduous stands (both high forest and coppice and are closer to the urban centres than the first two. Concentration and deposition values for the main ionic components in bulk, wet, throughfall, stemflow and soil water are given separately for the four monitoring sites, with reference to the period 1996- 1999. The major acidifying component in atmospheric precipitation is still sulphate, but as other investigations confirm, the relative importance of the nitrate input is increasing all the time. The effect of these changes is probably positive for terrestrial ecosystems in the short term because of the decrease in total acidifying input and the increase in inorganic fertilisation. The absence of major "forest" damage

  4. Greenhouse gas flux measurements in a forestry-drained peatland indicate a large carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lohila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Drainage for forestry purposes increases the depth of the oxic peat layer and leads to increased growth of shrubs and trees. Concurrently, the production and uptake of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O change: due to the accelerated decomposition of peat in the presence of oxygen, drained peatlands are generally considered to lose peat carbon (C. We measured CO2 exchange with the eddy covariance (EC method above a drained nutrient-poor peatland forest in southern Finland for 16 months in 2004–2005. The site, classified as a dwarf-shrub pine bog, had been ditched about 35 years earlier. CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured at 2–5-week intervals with the chamber technique. Drainage had resulted in a relatively little change in the water table level, being on average 40 cm below the ground in 2005. The annual net ecosystem exchange was −870 ± 100 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 in the calendar year 2005, indicating net CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. The site was a small sink of CH4 (−0.12 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 and a small source of N2O (0.10 g N2O m−2 yr−1. Photosynthesis was detected throughout the year when the air temperature exceeded −3 °C. As the annual accumulation of C in the above and below ground tree biomass (175 ± 35 g C m−2 was significantly lower than the accumulation observed by the flux measurement (240 ± 30 g C m−2, about 65 g C m−2 yr−1 was likely to have accumulated as organic matter into the peat soil. This is a higher average accumulation rate than previously reported for natural northern peatlands, and the first time C accumulation has been shown by EC measurements to occur in a forestry-drained peatland. Our results suggest that forestry

  5. Danske skolebørns BMI målt i perioden 1986/1987-1996/1997 sammenlignet med danske målinger fra 1971/1972

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tove Anne-Grete; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A global epidemic in overweight and obesity in children has been postulated. There is a lack of consensus over definitions however, and national standards of BMI centiles have been published in various countries. This has made results on the prevalence of overweight difficult...... from the age of 8 years in boys and 7 years in girls. The prevalence in overweight and obesity has increased. For 14-16-year-old boys, the average BMI was related to the educational level of the mother (negatively). DISCUSSION: The highest BMI centiles had especially increased. The proportion...

  6. Sea level response to the 1986-1987 El Niño-Southern Oscillation Event in the western Pacific in the vicinity of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, K. R.; Godfrey, J. S.; Meyers, G.; Bailey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Sea levels at the Papua New Guinea coast responded to the 1986-87 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event much as would be expected for points on the inshore edge of a western boundary current driven by remote sea level disturbances. The first empirical orthogonal function of sea level in the region accounts for 60% of the variance, and shows a clear western boundary current signal. Sea level observations from tide gauges and estimates from adjacent expendable bathythermographs (XBTs) are in good agreement, so XBT data are used to supplement sea level results; specifically, we obtain an estimate of the western boundary current as a function of depth. The anomalous transport through Vitiaz Strait varied by about 15 Sv during the event, with possibly more following the eastern New Ireland coast. The western boundary current response appears to be located entirely equatorward of the inflow feeding it, as expected from linear theory. The boundary current followed the Trobriand Island ridge, rather than the main Papua New Guinea coastline, and appears to bifurcate along southern New Britain. A maximum response to the ENSO occurred south of New Ireland, where steric sea level appeared to vary by up to 45 cm due to the ENSO event; this may be an inertial feature.

  7. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  8. Property Rights Effects of Farmers' Management Investment in Forestry Projects : The Case of Camellia in Jiangxi, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jia; Bluemling, B.; Dries, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    China’s central government has carried out a series of collectivization and de-collectivization attempts of forest tenure over time, which have led to multiple forest tenure arrangements within provinces. This paper investigates the motivation of farmers to maintain forestry under various forest ten

  9. An Empirical Study of Unsystematic Risk Factors in the Capital Asset Pricing Model: the Case of Russian Forestry Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazarova, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    ... risks for the Russian forestry sector. The practical application of the research is the development of tools to assess the non-systematic risks arising during the project implementation in the forest-based sector of Russia, which enables to assess those risks for logging and sawmill woodworking enterprises.

  10. Validating One-on-One GPS Instruction Methodology for Natural Resource Area Assessments Using Forestry Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students pursuing a Bachelor of Science in Forestry (BSF) at Stephen F. Austin State University (SFA) attend an intensive 6-week residential hands-on instruction in applied field methods. The intensive 6-week instruction includes learning how to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) with a Garmin eTrex HCx GPS unit to accurately…

  11. How (Un)Certain Is the Future in Forestry? A Comparative Assessment of Uncertainty in the Forest and Agricultural Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.; Schanz, H.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors have stated that, because of the long time horizons underlying forestry processes, the forest sector encounters far more uncertainty than is experienced by any other industrial or agricultural production processes, especially regarding the long future. To gain more insight into the e

  12. Application of IOT in intelligent forestry%物联网在智慧林业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史川石

    2013-01-01

    在传统的生态林业向智慧林业转变的过程中,物联网将起到不可替代的作用。文中分析了物联网在林业发展过程中的作用和前景,对物联网在林业资源监测、林业资源保护和重点工程监管等方面的应用进行了分析,以期为今后物联网在智慧林业方面的发展提供一些技术依据。%IOT will play an irreplaceable role in traditional ecological forestry transfer to intelligent forestry. The effect and prospect of IOT in forestry development is analyzed, along with the application of IOT in forest resource monitoring, protection and important protections supervision. Hope to provide the technical base for the development of intelligent forestry in the future.

  13. Coping with the long term : an empirical analysis of time perspectives, time orientations, and temporal uncertainty in forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty is an unavoidable fact of every decision. In forestry, the problem of uncertainty is, however, exacerbated by the long time horizons involved. Rotation periods for oak and beech, for example, are up to 150-200 years. And even spruce, which is considered to be a fast-growing tree species,

  14. Coping with the long term : an empirical analysis of time perspectives, time orientations, and temporal uncertainty in forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty is an unavoidable fact of every decision. In forestry, the problem of uncertainty is, however, exacerbated by the long time horizons involved. Rotation periods for oak and beech, for example, are up to 150-200 years. And even spruce, which is considered to be a fast-growing tree species,

  15. A synopsis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) under the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakech Accords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Bird, N.; Johns, T.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The complexities inherent in land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities have led to contentious and prolonged debates about the merits of their inclusion in the 2008–2012 first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Yet the inclusion of these activities played a key role in

  16. Assessment of Geographic Information System (GIS Skills Employed by Graduates from Three Forestry Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Merry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the current use of geographic information systems (GIS by forestry program graduates employed in the United States who graduated from university in the past five years. The purpose was to understand what geospatial processes and databases are typically used by field foresters. A survey was designed and sent to recent forestry graduates from Mississippi State University, Oregon State University, and the University of Georgia, with 30% of those surveyed choosing to participate. The majority of forestry graduates surveyed use GIS at least once a week, and the most frequently employed tasks included editing tabular data, adjusting polygon boundaries, buffering and splitting polygons, and querying for spatial and tabular information. Very few overlay or advance spatial analysis tools were noted as used in regular work efforts. Most respondents use digital aerial photographs as reference, along with satellite images. LiDAR is increasingly being used by these foresters, but to a lesser extent. ArcMap and Google Earth were noted as the most commonly used software packages. Most foresters rely on an organization’s technical support staff for assistance. The study results can be used as a guide for academic programs in their efforts to provide timely and effective knowledge on geospatial topics to forestry undergraduate students.

  17. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry —Proceedings of the 2015 National Silviculture Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin; Marilyn A. Buford

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue of the Journal of Forestry presents the Proceedings of the 2015 National Silviculture Workshop (NSW), which was held as one of the concurrent sessions of the 2015 National Society of American Foresters (SAF) Convention in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Sponsors for the session included the D-2 Silviculture Working Group and two US Department of Agriculture...

  18. The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stille, L.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Wicke, B.; Singh, R.; Singh, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the

  19. The economic performance of four (agro-) forestry systems on alkaline soils in the state of Haryana in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stille, L.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Wicke, B.; Singh, R.; Singh, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the economic performance of four (agro-) forestry plantations on alkaline soils in semi-arid conditions in the North Indian state of Haryana. The plantations were located in the villages of Gudha, Kohand, Nain and Sutana. The plantations varied with respect to the p

  20. A synopsis of land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) under the Kyoto Protocol and Marrakech Accords

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlamadinger, B.; Bird, N.; Johns, T.; Skutsch, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The complexities inherent in land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities have led to contentious and prolonged debates about the merits of their inclusion in the 2008–2012 first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Yet the inclusion of these activities played a key role in agreeme

  1. IEA Bioenergy Tasks 30/31 : country report for the Netherlands : Biomass production for energy from sustainable forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.J.; Spijker, J.H.; Elbersen, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    This country report provides information on the biomass production from sustainable forestry in the Netherlands. In chapter 2, Policy on bioenergy in the Netherlands, some information is summarized on bioenergy production in the Netherlands, developments in the policy of the Dutch government on

  2. Property Rights Effects of Farmers' Management Investment in Forestry Projects : The Case of Camellia in Jiangxi, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jia; Bluemling, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32937379X; Dries, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    China’s central government has carried out a series of collectivization and de-collectivization attempts of forest tenure over time, which have led to multiple forest tenure arrangements within provinces. This paper investigates the motivation of farmers to maintain forestry under various forest

  3. Opportunities and Challenges for Terrestrial Carbon Offsetting and Marketing, with Some Implications for Forestry in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nijnik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Climate change and its mitigation have become increasingly high profile issues since the late 1990s, with the potential of forestry in carbon sequestration a particular focus. The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of socio-economic considerations in this area. Opportunities for forestry to sequester carbon and the role of terrestrial carbon uptake credits in climate change negotiations are addressed, together with the feasibility of bringing terrestrial carbon offsets into the regulatory emission trading scheme. The paper discusses whether or not significant carbon offsetting and trading will occur on a large scale in the UK or internationally. Material and Methods: The paper reviews the literature on the socio-economic aspects of climate change mitigation via forestry (including the authors’ research on this topic to assess the potential for carbon offsetting and trading, and the likely scale of action. Results and Conclusion: We conclude that the development of appropriate socio-economic framework conditions (e.g. policies, tenure rights, including forest carbon ownership, and markets and incentives for creating and trading terrestrial carbon credits are important in mitigating climate change through forestry projects, and we make suggestions for future research that would be required to support such developments.

  4. 林业新闻采写技巧研究%Interviews and Writing Skills of Forestry News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇

    2013-01-01

    伴随着林业事业的又好又快发展,林业新闻采写,在林业改革发展中起着越来越重要的舆论引导作用,在新闻事业中的地位越来越凸显。其采写技巧,是常说常新、不断完善的过程。此话题研究,有助于新闻媒体更好地融入林业改革发展,有助于新闻事业更好更快发展。%With the fast development of the cause of forestry, interviews and writing skills of forestry news play an increasingly important role of guiding public opinion in the forestry reform and development, become increasingly prominent in journalism. Skills of interviews and writing are the process of often saying new and constantly improving. This topic of research can help integrate media better integration into forestry reform and development, contribute to better and faster development of journalism.

  5. Comparison of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP Models in Forestry Capability Evaluation (Case Study: Behbahan City Fringe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rahimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The area of Zagros forests is continuously in danger of destruction. Therefore, the remaining forests should be carefully managed based on ecological capability evaluation. In fact, land evaluation includes prediction or assessment of land quality for a special land use with regard to production, vulnerability and management requirements. In this research, we studied the ecological capability of Behbahan city fringe for forestry land use. After the basic studies were completed and the thematic maps such as soil criteria, climate, physiography, vegetation and bedrock were prepared, the fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods of Fuzzy AHP Buckley and ANP were used to standardize and determine the weights of criteria. Finally, the ecological model of the region’s capability was generated to prioritize forestry land use and prepare the final map of evaluation using WLC model in seven classes. The results showed that in ANP method, 55.58% of the area is suitable for forestry land use which is more consistent with the reality, while in the Fuzzy AHP method, 95.23% of the area was found suitable. Finally, it was concluded that the ANP method shows more flexibility and ability to determine suitable areas for forestry land use in the study area.

  6. CONFLICTING ROLE OF LAND OFFICE AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT: A COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION REGARDING TO FOREST OFFENCES PREVENTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Azizan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article study the discrepancy between theory and practice, especially the roles play by Land Office and Forestry Department in term of overlapping of power and penalties between Land Office and Forestry Department especially the forest on the state land leading to susceptibility in monitoring and enforcement system. The whole empirical works took place in the Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia namely as Negeri Sembilan. The total area of permanent reserved forest in that state is 155,531 hectares including the Permanent Reserved Forest Johol which was selected as the case study in this research. An exploratory research design was adopted in this research. Therefore, in-depth interviews have been done with officers from the Land Office and Forestry Department regarding their role and powers in monitoring and enforcement system to combat forest offences in Permanent Reserved Forest Johol. While data collected was analyzed using the descriptive analysis method. Content analysis was used to identify the similarities and dissimilarities of acts that empower Land Office and Forestry Department to taking action against forest offences. Theoretically, there are overlapping powers occurs between Land Office and Forestry Department identified in National Land Code 1965 and National Forestry Act 1984 in terms of arrestment of the forest offenders and seized their equipment. However, penalties imposed by both acts are very different. Practically, both authorities have divided their responsibility and power accordingly to avoid overlapping. Issues and challenges that faced by them have been found and most of them are similar. There should be an amendment to the acts in terms of the penalty imposed by both authorities. The penalty stated in both acts should be synchronized or the related sections be removed if the authorities do not implement it practically to avoid overlapping and conflicting of action imposed between two acts. Keywords: state land

  7. Organization of professional and applied physical training and applied specifically oriented undergraduate students of forestry professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martirosova T.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the use of facilities are examined professionally-applied physical preparation of students. The necessity of more rapid and high-quality mastering of certain labour abilities and skills, increase of the labour productivity, prophylaxis of professional diseases is marked. It is marked that forms and facilities of physical education of students of forestry specialities are determined features professionally-labour to activity of this industry. Employments of the special applied orientation are plugged in itself: theoretical employments, practical employments, sports and fitness measures, individual independent professionally-applied physical exercises, special applied types of sport. The features of forming professionally of important qualities of future specialist are certain in the process of physical education in the institute of higher.

  8. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  9. International evaluation of Swedish research projects in the field of short rotation forestry for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, W.M. [N.I. Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Armagh (Ireland); Isebrands, J. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Namkoong, G. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Tahvanainen, J. [Univ. of Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to inform NUTEK of the scientific quality of the research projects, as seen in an international context. The projects were therefore the main elements considered in the evaluation. The main basis of the evaluation was the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to NUTEK`s aims in the application of industrial research and development. The present report is based on the information contained in the written reports submitted by the grant holders, site visits and discussions between the grant holders and the Committee. The report first gives an overview and general recommendations concerning the overall programme in the field of Short Rotation Forestry for Energy. Thereafter, the 16 projects are evaluated separately

  10. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  11. Energy Efficiency of a Greenhouse for the Conservation of Forestry Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity conservation is one of the most interesting and crucial problems in forestry world. Currently, the conservation methods are based on two phases: the conservation of seeds at low temperatures and the multiplication of vegetable material. This latter operation can be successfully developed in properly designed greenhouses. The aim of this paper is to define a type of greenhouse which is particularly suitable for plant material propagation in order to preserve forest biodiversity in the area of the Central Italy. Some general parameters were first defined for a correct planning of the structure, such as: the shape of the section, volume, cover material, systems for heating and cooling, and those for the control of the internal microclimate parameters (light, air temperature, and relative humidity. Considering the construction characteristics and the climatic conditions of the place, the internal microclimatic conditions have been later determined by the useful implementation in TRNSYS in order to analyse the energy efficiency of the greenhouse.

  12. Mitigation options in forestry, land-use change and biomass burning in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.L. [Univ. of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are described in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land an in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries. (au) 13 refs.

  13. Linking Mitigation and Adaptation in Carbon Forestry Projects: Evidence from Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Corbera, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Committed action to deal with climate change requires reducing greenhouse gas emissions, i.e., mitigation, as well as dealing with its ensuing consequences, i.e., adaptation. To date, most policies and projects have promoted mitigation and adaptation separately, and they have very rarely considered...... integrating these two objectives. In this article, we develop a multi-dimensional framework to explore the extent to which climate mitigation forestry projects bring adaptation concerns into their design and implementation phases, using three Belizean projects as case-study material. We demonstrate...... that linking mitigation and adaptation has not been possible, because the mandate of forest carbon markets does not incorporate adaptation concerns. The projects’ contribution to forest ecosystems’ adaptation, for instance, by reducing human encroachments and by increasing ecosystem connectivity, has been...

  14. Comparative study of rural labor in forestry, seeds and fruit growing (Argentina 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Trpin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on case studies done among 2008-2011, on rural labor in concentrated investments. Economic sectors studied were fruticulture in Rio Negro Upper Valley, forestry in Misiones NW, and transgenic corn seeds in Buenos Aires North. Methodology was multisited ethnography searching on different actors’ point of view. Techniques applied were in field deep interviews and participant observation. Secondary analysis by comparative method shown in this paper allows us to point out three continuity issues:Enterprises strategy to discern between “production and “services", reduces classic employment positions. The environmentalization of labor relationship happens by means of quality management and total quality proceedings. This relationship link work (understood as “well done job" with productivity growth. There are different territories one related with production, the other with work and workers dwelling.

  15. A NEW PROCEDURE FOR FORESTRY DATABASE UPDATING WITH GIS AND REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. T. de Carvalho

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an automated, simple and flexibleprocedure for updating raster-based forestry database. Four modules compose the procedure:(1 location of changed sites, (2 quantification of changed area, (3 identification of the newland cover, and (4 database updating. Firstly, a difference image is decomposed with wavelettransforms in order to extract changed sites. Secondly, segmentation is performed on thedifference image. Thirdly, each changed pixel or each segmented region is assigned to theland cover class with the highest probability of membership. Then, the output is used toupdate the GIS layer where changes took place. This procedure was less sensitive togeometric and radiometric misregistration, and less dependent on ground truth, whencompared with post classification comparison and direct multidate classification.

  16. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; ZHANG; Zhijian; CAI; Yu; XIE

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult.Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation.When market factors become the main obstacle,it is necessary to introduce companies,relax constraints of forest management and build the right market atmosphere.According to unequal status of company and forest farmers,develop the cooperation model of " company + cooperation organization + farmers".In certain circumstances,especially there are several companies vicious competition,the intervention of association can play a coordinating role.

  17. Birds Species of Rallidae Family in Forestry and Environment Research and Development Institute of Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Irawati Dwi Arini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine species and conservation status of Rallidae family in Forestry and Environment Research and Development Institute of Manado; also the prospect of its development. This study may provide a source of data and information on the diversity of certain bird species. Observations conducted in June 2015 included the species of birds in Rallidae family found around the BP2LHK Manado. Data were analyzed descriptively in the forms of figures and tables. Results showed that there were three species within this family found in BP2LHK Manado. Those were isabelline bush-hen (Amaurornis isabellina, buff-banded rail (Gallirallus philippensis, and Barred Rail (Gallirallus torquatus. All three species are not protected in Indonesia and IUCN categorized them as Least Concern (LC. Isabelline bush-hen is endemic to the island of Sulawesi, while buff-banded rail and barred rail have a wide distribution. Weris has a good prospect to be domesticated.

  18. Discussion on Forestry Sustainable Development in the Yellow River Delta Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qixiang; ZHANG Jianfeng

    2006-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is one of the biggest deltas that have not been developed in the world.During the turn of the centuries, YRD development is listed in the two major projects in the new century by Shandong provincial government.According to the plan, YRD will become an important energy, chemical and agricultural production base in 15-20 years.In view of its location and natural conditions, so far there exist a lot of environmental problems in YRD.Thus the principle of economic development coordinating with environmental protection must be implemented during YRD development.Forestation is one of the vital measures to cope with environment degradation.Therefore, strategies of forestry development and techniques of tree planting in different land use types are discussed in the paper based on site classification with specific problems involved .

  19. LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL PATTERN OF TROPICAL AGRO-FORESTRY EFFORTS AT EDUCATIONAL FOREST LANDSCAPE OF MOUNT WALAT, SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imawan Wahyu Hidayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The process of urbanization has changed the face of the landscape, not only in urban environments, but it also has expanded the areas around it. The changes in land use are increasing not only occurs in areas formerly categorized a semi-intensive, such as agricultural lands, but also in extensive and protection areas. However, in some periphery still characterizes the function of a good environment; especially in rural areas the changes that occurred were limited to their own needs (subsistence, as in Mount Walat, Sukabumi. This study aims to identify and analyze the tropical agro-forestry efforts and to provide landscape ecological pattern in order to preserve the environment and social culture. The method used in this study was a site survey method with focusing on the biophysical condition of the site and analysis of reports or other sources regarding the management processes undertaken. Mount Walat ± 359 Ha area of forest is guided by land use pattern that is divided into four characters, i.e., forest ecosystem, opened forest, ownership land, and countrified. Its area of ± 70 Ha was managed as agro-forestry land. The form of tropical agro-forestry in the country side around the site consists of yard and mixture garden, while in the arable land is a mixture garden. In order to prevent of destruction, then the manager invites Hegarmanah villagers to cooperate in maintaining its sustainability by allowing land to cultivated in Mount Walat agro-forestry, with the terms agreed by both parties, without damaging the forest ecosystem. The study was suggested that the community structures and developmental pathways which arised across a gradient of disturbance frequencies can provide models for alternative agro-forestry solutions. Addressing multiple objectives and sustainability in a complex biophysical and socioeconomic system ought to be a challenging and exciting enterprises.

  20. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37% of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90%) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  1. Risk of occupational infections caused by Borrelia burgdorferi among forestry workers and farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the work was to analyze the incidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi in forestry workers and farmers, major groups occupationally exposed to tick bites. Material and Methods: The study group included 275 workers (171 foresters and 104 farmers. The control group consisted of 45 people, who have not been occupationally exposed to tick bites. The screening Elisa and Wb tests for the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were performed in all subjects of the study and control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi2 test. Results: The positive results denoting the presence of anti-Borrelia IgM/IgG antibodies were found in 55% of farmers and 28% of foresters occupationally exposed to Lyme borreliosis and coming from the area of South Podlasie Lowland and Lublin Polesie. The differences between the forestry workers and the control group (p ≤ 0.00001 and between farmers and the control group (p ≤ 0.001 were statistically significant. The species, such as B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis, which have not yet been reported in Poland, are significant etiologic agents of Lyme disease. Conclusion: The risk of occupational exposure to the B. burgdorferi infection is high for foresters and farmers, and the infection with spirochetes is frequently confirmed on the basis of positive results of the Wb test. The presence of specific antibodies against protein antigens of B. spielmanii and B. bavariensis suggest that these bacteria can cause Lyme disease both independently and in participation with other Borrelia species, which influences the development of the clinical manifestations of infection. Med Pr 2014;65(1:109–117

  2. Addressing Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Together: A Global Assessment of Agriculture and Forestry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsager, Rico; Locatelli, Bruno; Chazarin, Florie

    2016-02-01

    Adaptation and mitigation share the ultimate purpose of reducing climate change impacts. However, they tend to be considered separately in projects and policies because of their different objectives and scales. Agriculture and forestry are related to both adaptation and mitigation: they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and removals, are vulnerable to climate variations, and form part of adaptive strategies for rural livelihoods. We assessed how climate change project design documents (PDDs) considered a joint contribution to adaptation and mitigation in forestry and agriculture in the tropics, by analyzing 201 PDDs from adaptation funds, mitigation instruments, and project standards [e.g., climate community and biodiversity (CCB)]. We analyzed whether PDDs established for one goal reported an explicit contribution to the other (i.e., whether mitigation PDDs contributed to adaptation and vice versa). We also examined whether the proposed activities or expected outcomes allowed for potential contributions to the two goals. Despite the separation between the two goals in international and national institutions, 37 % of the PDDs explicitly mentioned a contribution to the other objective, although only half of those substantiated it. In addition, most adaptation (90 %) and all mitigation PDDs could potentially report a contribution to at least partially to the other goal. Some adaptation project developers were interested in mitigation for the prospect of carbon funding, whereas mitigation project developers integrated adaptation to achieve greater long-term sustainability or to attain CCB certification. International and national institutions can provide incentives for projects to harness synergies and avoid trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation.

  3. [Temporal and spatial variation of mercury in water of agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the three Gorges Reservoir Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Wang, Ya; Mu, Zhi-jian; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of mercury (Hg) in four different sources of stream (aquaculture wastewater, bare land, forestry land and agro-forestry land) and well water of an agro-forestry and livestock compound watershed in the Three Gorge Reservoir region was studied during the period from March 2013 to March 2014. The total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged 9.95-15.26 ng x L(-1) with an average of (11.95 +/- 1.87) ng x L(-1), and the THg concentration decreased in the order of bare land > aquaculture wastewater> forestry land > agro-forestry land > well water. The total methylmercury (TMeHg) concentrations ranged 0.120-0.441 ng x L(-1) with an average of (0.232 +/- 0.099) ng x L(-1), and the TMeHg concentration decreased in the order of aquaculture wastewater > agro-forestry land > forestry land > bare land > well water. THg and TMeHg in well water were both dominated by the dissolved fraction, whereas for other sources of stream, the particulate phase accounted for the major fraction of THg and TMeHg. The THg concentrations in winter and spring were significant higher than those in summer and fall, however, no obvious seasonal trend of TMeHg distribution was observed. Comprehensive analysis showed human activities and weather conditions such as air temperature and precipitation etc. were the main reasons for the difference of temporal and spatial distribution of THg and TMeHg.

  4. Vibration-induced multifocal neuropathy in forestry workers: electrophysiological findings in relation to vibration exposure and finger circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, M; Giannini, F; Rossi, S

    2000-11-01

    To investigate neural conduction in the upper limbs of symptomatic forestry workers with and without exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. A further aim was to assess the possible relationships between vibration exposure, nerve conduction and finger circulation in the forestry workers who used chain saws. A detailed neurophysiological investigation was performed on the upper extremities of 20 chain saw workers, 20 forestry operators with heavy manual work but without vibration exposure, and 20 healthy male controls. All subjects were screened to exclude polyneuropathy. Measurements of sensory and motor nerve conduction (velocity and amplitude) were obtained bilaterally from the median, ulnar and radial nerves. To assess peripheral vascular function, the forestry workers underwent a cold test with plethysmographic measurement of finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP). In the chain saw operators, vibration exposure was evaluated according to the International Standard ISO 5349. Indices of daily vibration exposure and lifetime cumulative vibration dose were estimated for each chain saw operator. Sensory nerve conduction in several segments of the median and radial nerves was significantly reduced in the chain saw operators compared with that in the workers doing heavy manual work and the controls. The neurophysiological pattern more frequently observed in the chain saw operators was a multifocal nerve conduction impairment to several neural segments with predominant involvement of sensory rather than motor fibres. Sensory nerve conduction velocities in the hands of the chain saw operators were inversely related to both daily and lifetime cumulative vibration exposures. In the vibration-exposed forestry workers, neither were sensori-motor complaints associated with vascular symptoms (finger whiteness) nor were electrophysiological data related to cold-induced changes in FSBP. Exposure to hand-transmitted vibration, in addition to ergonomic stress factors, can

  5. Research activities related to the role of forests and forestry in climate change mitigation in Austria. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests and forestry play important roles in Austria with its close to 50/ forest cover. This paper provides details about the Austrian forest carbon inventory, discusses briefly the sources and sinks accounted under the land use, land use change and forestry articles of the Kyoto Protocol, and presents an integrated carbon model (Austrian C-Balance Model that was developed to include not only the forest sector, but other sectors that are greenhouse-gas relevant. Improvements in forest management practices are seen as important possibilities of increasing the carbon sink strength of Austrian forests, but also of pursuing other goals such as increased biodiversity and resistance to future climate-change impacts. This paper presents a process model and a carbon accounting model that are applicable for evaluating carbon impacts of changes in forest management.

  6. The potential of Vachellia kosiensis (Acacia kosiensis) as a dryland forestry species in terms of its water use, growth rates and resultant water-use efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available to population and economic growth, minimal available land for expanding traditional commercial forestry operations, and known streamflow reduction impacts associated with introduced plantation tree species. However, little is known about the water use...

  7. Proceedings of the fourth international workshop on the genetics of host-parasite interactions in forestry: Disease and insect resistance in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Alvin D. Yanchuk; John T. Kliejunas; Katharine M. Palmieri; Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel

    2012-01-01

    Individual papers are available at http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr240/The Fourth International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry: Disease and Insect Resistance in Forest Trees...

  8. Cooperative Agreement Between the United States Department of the Interior and the State of Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Forestry

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An agreement for assistance with forest fire detection, suppression and presuppression services on wildlife refuge lands by the Florida Division of Forestry. The...

  9. The Comparison of Innovations in Slovakian Forestry between 2002 and 2010 - a Shift to Multifunctionality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Sarvašová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Innovations play an important role in multifunctional forestry due to changing demands for forest goods and services. The multifunctionality can be a result of a joint provision of several outputs from individual forest holding or specialized forest activities. The goal of this paper is to make a comparative analysis from data obtained in two surveys in 2002 and 2010 related to innovations in forest enterprises. The main focus was on ownership, size, and management strategy of forest. Materials and Methods: The paper presents the results of two surveys on innovation in the years 2002 and 2010 with more than 250 representatives - owners/managers of Slovak forest enterprises. The questionnaire in 2002 was sent out by regular mail in the random sample of 1072 forest owners and managers. The response rate was 25 % (in total 279 respondents. The response rate in 2010 was 37 %, and the number of valid responses was 254. The willingness of forest managers to implement innovation was evaluated in the context of different sizes of forest holdings, management strategies and property conditions. Log linear statistics models (Pearson Chi-square were applied using the software Statistica for data analysis and Microsoft Excel to present the results. Results: This paper presents the development of innovations in order to reach the multifunctionality on the case of Slovakian forestry. Product innovations have doubled from 17 % in 2002 to 34 % in 2010. Large-sized holdings are significantly (p < 0.01 more engaged in innovation and are offering new products. The highest overall innovation activity is revealed in the state-owned enterprises, intermediary in the municipal forests, and the lowest in the private holdings. Forest managers who realized the benefits of innovation were “profit increasing” oriented. Forest managers who did not realize the benefits of implementing innovations preferred conservative management goals - the capital

  10. Innovative aspects for teaching the Geology and Climatology course in Agricultural and Forestry Engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campillo, M. C.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Sánchez-Alcalá, I.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, A. R.; Alburquerque, J. A.; Castro, M. A.; Rey, M. A.; Barrón, V.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Courses of the first year at Engineering are typically basic to understanding other subjects and in many cases less attractive for students. In order to innovate and incorporate some aims of the Bologna process, here we present the development of the course of Geology and Climatology given the first year of Agricultural and Forestry degrees at the University of Córdoba. Temporal distribution of activities was as follows: a) to the whole group: 35% of master class, 5% of conferences and 10% of field trip, b) to the medium group (<30 students) 20% of seminars and c) to the small group (<15 students) 25% laboratory and field practical class, and 5% final oral presentation of individual work. Students were assigned the performance of a professional work: characterization of the geology and climatology of an area that will need to know for the courses in the coming years (for example soil science, crop sciences and environmental sciences). Students have to a) complete a literature review of all work done to date, b) use and study the geological map (1:50000) published by the Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), visit the study area in which they had to pick up rocks and subsequently to characterize them, and c) obtain meteorological data from the Spanish Agency of Meteorology (AEMET) (minimum 30 years of precipitation, 15 years of temperatures and 10 years of other variables) for a complete characterization of the climate. The assessment system for students included: attend classes, participation in practicals and excursions, carry out exercices, oral presentation of the report and a final written test. Key factors that favored student participation and interest in the course were: a) the small number of students in classes dedicated to the practicals and seminars and the continuous advice from teachers, and b) the personal choice by the student of the work area, usually close to their origin and in many cases from family property. All of this has served to students, who

  11. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  12. Efeitos multiplicadores da economia florestal brasileira Multiplier effects of the Brazilian forestry economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Renato Valverde

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata da importância do setor florestal para o desenvolvimento socioeconômico brasileiro por meio dos modelos econômicos de equilíbrio geral multissetoriais, através das análises das matrizes de insumo-produto (MIP e de contabilidade social (MCS. As principais fontes dos dados foram as Tabelas de Insumo-Produto (TIP do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, além de informações obtidas no Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES, no Banco Central (BACEN e na Secretaria da Receita Federal (SRF, referentes ao ano de 1995. Observou-se que tão importante quanto contribuir para a geração e formação do PIB, de emprego, impostos, salários e balança comercial é o poder que um setor produtivo tem a mais que o outro de multiplicar estes indicadores quando uma unidade monetária é gasta a mais pelos consumidores finais na demanda por produtos deste determinado setor. Os resultados indicaram que o setor florestal é um dos setores da economia brasileira que apresentou os maiores efeitos multiplicadores para os indicadores socioeconômicos, sendo superiores aos de outros como o da indústria automobilística, de equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos, de máquinas e equipamentos e de produtos químicos e petróleo.This study evaluated the important role the forestry sector plays in the Brazilian economic development by means of the multisector general economic equilibrium models, through the analyses of the Input-Output Matrix (IOM and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM. The main sources were the Input-Output Tables (IOT from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, the National Bank of Economic and Social Development (BNDES, from the Brazilian Central Bank (BACEN and the Brazilian Federal Revenue Office (SRF, for 1995. It was observed that the extra power a productive sector has over another to multiply GDP, jobs, taxes, salaries and trade balance, is as important as

  13. Research Needs for Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negra, C.; Lovejoy, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Ashton, R.; Havemann, T.; Eaton, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved management of terrestrial carbon in agriculture, forestry, and other land use sectors is a necessary part of climate change mitigation. It is likely that governments will agree in Copenhagen in December 2009 to incentives for improved management of some forms of terrestrial carbon, including maintaining existing terrestrial carbon (e.g., avoiding deforestation) and creating new terrestrial carbon (e.g., afforestation, soil management). To translate incentives into changes in land management and terrestrial carbon stocks, a robust technical and scientific information base is required. All terrestrial carbon pools (and other greenhouse gases from the terrestrial system) that interact with the atmosphere at timescales less than centuries, and all land uses, have documented mitigation potential, however, most activity has focused on above-ground forest biomass. Despite research advances in understanding emissions reduction and sequestration associated with different land management techniques, there has not yet been broad-scale implementation of land-based mitigation activity in croplands, peatlands, grasslands and other land uses. To maximize long-term global terrestrial carbon volumes, further development of relevant data, methodologies and technologies are needed to complement policy and financial incentives. The Terrestrial Carbon Group, in partnership with UN-REDD agencies, the World Bank and CGIAR institutions, is reviewing literature, convening leading experts and surveying key research institutions to develop a Roadmap for Terrestrial Carbon: Research Needs for Implementation of Carbon Management in Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses. This work will summarize the existing knowledge base for emissions reductions and sequestration through land management as well as the current availability of tools and methods for measurement and monitoring of terrestrial carbon. Preliminary findings indicate a number of areas for future work. Enhanced information

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from short-rotation forestry on a drained and rewetted fen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaipfer, Martina; Fuertes Sánchez, Alicia; Drösler, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    More than 95 % of German peatlands have been drained, primarily for agricultural and forestry use. They constitute a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHG) with emissions of approximately 47 million tons per year. Propelled by the German energy turnaround farmers have increasingly converted their cropland to short rotation forestry (SRF), amongst them some who are cultivating drained peatland. In this study GHG emissions from alder and poplar short rotation plantations with differing groundwater levels near Rosenheim, Bavaria, were monitored over the course of three-and-a-half years. Moreover, the effect of ploughing for SRF establishment was investigated as well. Understorey GHG fluxes were measured using closed-chamber approaches. Gas samples were enclosed in vials every second week and analysed for their CH4 and N2O concentrations by gas chromatography at a laboratory. On-site measurements of CO2 fluxes were carried out over the course of a day every three to four weeks with a dynamic closed-chamber technique. Allometric methods were employed to estimate carbon sequestration into trees. Sheet piling was installed around a set of measurement sites in December 2014 to accentuate the difference between the sites with high and low water tables. As a result the water level around those sites rose from an average of -36.1 ± 6.1 cm in 2013 and 2014 to -20.8 ± 3.7 cm in 2015. The water table outside the sheet piling showed values of -61.8 ± 5.7 cm and -72.1 ± 6.2 cm in those years, respectively. First results suggest a limited effect of ploughing for SRF establishment on understorey GHG emissions. However, there seems to be a distinct impact on tree productivity. CO2 fluxes in the understorey seem to be strongly influenced by water table, but also land management (mulching of understorey vegetation to reduce weed competition for trees during the first year and for pest control in subsequent years) and shading of the understorey vegetation by trees. There is a

  15. INDIA's FIRST FORESTRY (A & R) PROJECT UNDER CDM AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S.Haque; K.G.Karmakar [NABARD, Bandra Kurla Complex, Maharashtra (India)

    2008-09-30

    NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) is an apex financial institution and provides credit for promotion of sustainable agriculture, small- scale industries, cottage & village industries for integrated rural development. Forestry is one of the important activities in rural areas and NABARD has promoted several projects under its Farm Forestry / Agroforestry programs. For the first time in India, a CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) project on Afforestation and Reforestation ( A & R ) is being implemented in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh States by J.K.Paper Mills. The districts are: Kalahandi, Koraput and Rayagada in Orissa and Srikakulum, Vijianagram and Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. The World Bank has agreed to purchase the CER ( Certified Emission Reduction) @ $ 4.05, although the prevailing price of a CER is around $ 11. As this was the first project from not only India, but also S.E.Asia, the rate offered was low. The Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement ( ERPA ) was signed with the World Bank on 8 May 2007. The total area of the plantation is 3500 hectare of wastelands belonging to 2166 poor, tribal farmers. Each farmer has a maximum of 2 ha land under the project. The tree species planted are: Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones, Casuarina equisetifolia and Leucaena leucocephala seedlings. The benefits to the project will be in the form of wood and CERs besides of course the ecological and environmental benefits. In fact, as a part of it's activities, it conceptualized the present project to ensure both local and global benefits through CDM of UNFCCC and submitted the Project Idea Note (PIN) 'Improving rural livelihoods through carbon sequestration by adopting environment friendly technology based Agroforestry (Reforestation) Practices,' in 2003 to the Bio-carbon Fund established by the World Bank. NABARD is trying to bring the project under its Natural Resource Management ( NRM ) fold so that the small tribal farmers can

  16. The Contribution of Agriculture, Forestry and other Land Use activities to Global Warming, 1990-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Salvatore, Mirella; Ferrara, Alessandro F; House, Jo; Federici, Sandro; Rossi, Simone; Biancalani, Riccardo; Condor Golec, Rocio D; Jacobs, Heather; Flammini, Alessandro; Prosperi, Paolo; Cardenas-Galindo, Paola; Schmidhuber, Josef; Sanz Sanchez, Maria J; Srivastava, Nalin; Smith, Pete

    2015-01-10

    We refine the information available through the IPCC AR5 with regard to recent trends in global GHG emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU), including global emission updates to 2012. Using all three available AFOLU datasets employed for analysis in the IPCC AR5, rather than just one as done in the IPCC AR5 WGIII Summary for Policy Makers, our analyses point to a down-revision of global AFOLU shares of total anthropogenic emissions, while providing important additional information on subsectoral trends. Our findings confirm that the share of AFOLU emissions to the anthropogenic total declined over time. They indicate a decadal average of 28.7 ± 1.5% in the 1990s and 23.6 ± 2.1% in the 2000s and an annual value of 21.2 ± 1.5% in 2010. The IPCC AR5 had indicated a 24% share in 2010. In contrast to previous decades, when emissions from land use (land use, land use change and forestry, including deforestation) were significantly larger than those from agriculture (crop and livestock production), in 2010 agriculture was the larger component, contributing 11.2 ± 0.4% of total GHG emissions, compared to 10.0 ± 1.2% of the land use sector. Deforestation was responsible for only 8% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010, compared to 12% in the 1990s. Since 2010, the last year assessed by the IPCC AR5, new FAO estimates indicate that land use emissions have remained stable, at about 4.8 Gt CO2 eq yr(-1) in 2012. Emissions minus removals have also remained stable, at 3.2 Gt CO2 eq yr(-1) in 2012. By contrast, agriculture emissions have continued to grow, at roughly 1% annually, and remained larger than the land use sector, reaching 5.4 Gt CO2 eq yr(-1) in 2012. These results are useful to further inform the current climate policy debate on land use, suggesting that more efforts and resources should be directed to further explore options for mitigation in agriculture, much in line with the large efforts devoted to REDD+ in the

  17. Technical potentials of biomass for energy services from current agriculture and forestry in selected countries in Europe, The Americas and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Felby, Claus

    This report is a survey on the technical potential of biomass from current agriculture and forestry in the regions; Europe incl. Russia and Ukraine, USA, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, China and India. The report provides projections for agricultural residue production assuming availability...... in agriculture and forestry. Furthermore the results also show that in some regions the yield from existing agriculture can be significantly increased by simply applying other agricultural practice and technology....

  18. CASS软件林业制图功能模块的设计与实现%Design and implementation of drawing function module for CASS in forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹恒; 冯仲科; 张茜

    2012-01-01

    为提高林业制图的快捷性与高效性,该文依据林业制图标准规范,建立林业图示符号库,并利用AutoCAD二次开发技术ObjectARX、C++语言对CASS软件开发集成林业制图功能模块,使其成为具有区划、填充、注记、属性编辑、查询、面积量测、面积平差、图幅整饰、打印输出为一体的林业制图软件,重点解决了数字林业制图在图形管理与可视化表达两方面很好结合的问题,满足林业制图快速、高效、简洁等要求,为数字林业制图探索一条新道路.%In order to improve the rapidity and efficiency of forestry mapping, icon and symbol library of forestry was established according to the standard specification of forestry mapping. Furthermore, by making use of AutoCAD secondary development technology ObjectARX and C++ language, the CASS software was developed to integrate with forestry mapping function including zoning, filling, annotation, property editing, query, area measurement, area adjustment, maps finishing, print output as a whole to be a forestry mapping software. The combination of graphics management and visualization in digital forestry mapping to satisfy the requirements of forestry mapping on high speed, activity and concision explore a new way for digital forestry mapping.

  19. Structural change and diversi cation of agriculture, forestry and animal production in the Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileuza Vital Galeano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This is paper analyzes the changes in the agriculture, animal production, and forestry in the Espírito Santo state between the years 2006 and 2014 concerning in the composition of the production value of this sector. The diversity index and structural change index were used. e results of the diversi cation index showed a improvement in the index, however, the structural index of change has indicated that the changes were still little signicant.

  20. Airborne Laser Scanning - the Status and Perspectives for the Application in the South-East European Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Balenović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Over the last twenty years airborne laser scanning (ALS technology, also referred to as LiDAR, has been established in a many disciplines as a fully automated and highly efficient method of collecting spatial data. In Croatia, as well as in most countries of the South-East Europe (SEE with the exception of Slovenia, the research on the application of ALS in forestry has not yet been conducted. Also, regional scientific and professional literature dealing with ALS application is scarce. Therefore, the main goal of this review paper is to present the ALS technology to the forestry community of SEE and to provide an overview of its potential application in forest inventory. The primary focus is given to discrete return ALS systems. Conclusions and Future Research Streams: Results presented in this paper show that the ALS technology has a significant potential for application in forest inventory. Moreover, the two-phase forest inventory based on the combination of ALS and field measurements has become a quite common operational method. Due to the expected advancement of the ALS technology, it may be presumed that ALS will have an even more important role in forestry in the future. Therefore, researches on application of ALS technology in SEE forestry are needed, primarily focusing to question of “if” and “to what extent” the ALS technology can improve the existing terrestrial method of forest inventory. Besides the application in the classical forest inventory, the option to apply it for estimation of the biomass, carbon stock, combustible matter, etc, should also be further investigated.

  1. Ergonomic analysis for the assessment of the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorder in forestry operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk to run into a Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD is very high when operating in the primary sector. As a matter of fact the professional illnesses related to the WMSD in Italy are increasing. Nowadays the assessment of the WMSD in the primary sector is performed mainly in the agricultural sector, considering different agronomical activities; for the forestry sector, only few documents reported an ergonomic evaluation. The lack of available information on this topic in the forestry sector, as well as the similarity with the agricultural sector, drives the interest to the assessment of the conditions that expose workers to WMSD risks in forestry operations. Four different assessment approaches were applied in this study. These tools permitted to classify which are the exposures and if there is the presence of WMSD risk for forest operators. The approaches are respectively the OCRA checklist and the RNLE equation, both recognized as ISO standards, as well as OWAS and REBA, recommended by ISO standards. The first approach focusses on the risk due to repetitive and stressed movements, while the second evaluates the risk of injures due to the manual movement of loads. Meanwhile OWAS and REBA detect the possibility of injures due to wrong postures during the work. These approaches were applied for the cutting operations with chainsaw. Since the evaluation requires high levels of attention and also because it was necessary to gain a good level of safety for the surveyor, a digital camera was used to film the operative activities. Then, the movies were analysed in office. Aim of the research is to analyse if it is possible to apply the approaches suggested by ISO standards in order to assess the most dangerous activities that, when not properly carried out, could be the cause of WMSD in forestry operations. The study showed that during the use of the chainsaw the index of risk of professional injures was overpassed several times

  2. 森工转型与企业利润%The Transformation of Forestry Industry and Enterprise Profit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于林春; 刘永忠

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, after a full cessation of major state-owned commercial forest harvesting, has brought great challenges of survival and development to forestry enterprises, how to profit in transition for forest enterprises, with the national synchronized into the perspective of a well-off society, combined with the business transformation profit in practice, to explore the ways of forest industry development. Analysis of forestry enterprise transformation and obtain profits of successful cases, summed up the restrictive factors and the main way of the forestry enterprises forestry enterprise transformation to obtain profits, and put forward policy support in this process state should give.%从全面停止国有重点林区商业性采伐后,给森工企业生存和发展带来了重大挑战,森工企业如何在转型中获取利润,与全国同步进入小康社会角度出发,结合企业转型获取利润的实践,探索森工企业发展的途径。分析森工企业转型获取利润的成功案例,总结出森工企业森工企业转型获取利润的制约因素和主要途径,并提出在这一过程中国家应给予的政策支持。

  3. Community tenure rights and REDD+: a review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Donal Yeang

    2012-01-01

    "Tenure rights over land, forest, and carbon have become a contentious issue within REDD+ implementation across the tropics because local communities could be excluded from REDD+ benefits if land tenure or use and access rights are not clear. This study aims to understand and assess tenure arrangements under the first REDD+ demonstration project in Cambodia, the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project. In particular, the study explores the following questions: (1) How are tenure right...

  4. 林业信息术语标准化研究%Research on standadization for Terminology of forestry information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书剑; 彭道黎

    2011-01-01

    In order to guarantee the forest information construction and management work run smoothly,the research on standardization for terminology of forestry information is necessary. Based on the guiding principle of concise, economic, accurate, efficient and timing, using scientific system methods, and according to the standard strictly, we formulate the terminology standards which can cover the main terms and key technique of forestry information. Finally, a scientific, practical, authoritative and extensible standard for terminology of forestry information is developed. Despite some limitations of this standard,with the deepening of research and practice, its functionality and extensibility is hound to be improved to better serve the construction of forestry information.%为保障林业信息化建设与管理工作的顺利进行,需要优先对林业信息术语进行标准化研究.制定过程中以简洁经济、准确得体、与时俱进为指导性原则,用科学、系统的方法严格按照编制流程制定能覆盖林业信息化主要内容和关键技术的术语标准,最后形成一部科学、权威、实用、可扩充的林业信息术语标准.尽管本标准存在一定的局限性,但随着研究和实践的深入,其功能性和延伸性势必会得到完善,从而更好地为林业信息化建设服务.

  5. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  6. Improving the OSH Knowledge of Indonesian Forestry Workers by Using Safety Game Application: tree Felling Supervisors and Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the possibility to improve the possession of OSH knowledge of Indonesian forestry workers, especially of both supervisor and operators who carried heavy responsibilities as executors of any forestry program. To meet the demand of both respondent groups, a prototype of a board - education game develop in 2015 called "the feeling Safety game: Supervisor" was up-graded and modified. data derived from questionnaires, direct observation, in-depth interviews, and logical assumption, provided information on the recent perception of OSH knowledge, the success of the education game implementation, and factors that led to the success of the implementation. the fact that all respondents in this research were overrated their OSH knowledge reflected serious problems in the field of OSH in the forestry work in Indonesia. It was satisfying to know that the safety game showed a very optimistic result, as the OSH knowledge of the workers were significantly improved aftter only 2-6 game repetitions. Another factor that led to the success of the implementation of the game was the performance of OSH agent who played a role as facilitator during the game. however, a strong management commitment develop based on a local-based OSH management system, remained as an important requirement for the creation of a safe work behaviour change and healthy workplace.

  7. A New Agro/Forestry Residues Co-Firing Model in a Large Pulverized Coal Furnace: Technical and Economic Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shien Hui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing biomass co-firing technologies and the known innate drawbacks of dedicated biomass firing, including slagging, corrosion and the dependence on fuel, a new model of agro/forestry residue pellets/shreds and coal co-fired in a large Pulverized Coal (PC furnace was proposed, and the corresponding technical and economic assessments were performed by co-firing testing in a 300 MW PC furnace and discounted cash flow technique. The developed model is more dependent on injection co-firing and combined with co-milling co-firing. Co-firing not only reduces CO2 emission, but also does not significantly affect the fly ash use in cement industry, construction industry and agriculture. Moreover, economic assessments show that in comparison with dedicated firing in grate furnace, agro/forestry residues and coal co-firing in a large PC furnace is highly economic. Otherwise, when the co-firing ratio was below 5 wt%, the boiler co-firing efficiency was 0.05%–0.31% higher than that of dedicated PC combustion, and boiler efficiencies were about 0.2% higher with agro/forestry residues co-firing in the bottom and top burner systems than that in a middle burner system.

  8. Timber Regulation and Value Chain in Community-Based Timber Enterprise and Smallholder Forestry in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Pulhin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reform has no doubt attained significant gains in promoting social justice and equity in the forest sector, through legal recognition of the communities’ property rights over forest lands in many developing countries. This includes the right to harvest and market trees that the communities planted. Along these lines, the Philippines’ community-based forest management (CBFM and smallholder forestry have the potential to meet the country’s wood demand and contribute to its poverty alleviation goal. Realities on the ground, however, make this lofty aspiration seems too far-fetched. Formal and informal barriers along the timber value chain restrict the growth and obstruct opportunities for community-based timber enterprises (CBTEs and smallholder forestry. Using the case of CBFM and smallholder forestry in the Visayas and Mindanao Islands in the Philippines, respectively, this paper examines the hurdles posed by regulations and informal practices, such as restrictive policies and increased transaction costs, through a segment analysis of the timber value chain. It argues that failure to address these barriers would lead to the decline of CBTEs and smallholder enterprises, thus undermining the merits of the forest tenure reform.

  9. Intensive Forestry as Progress or Decay? An Analysis of the Debate about Forest Fertilization in Sweden, 1960–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lindkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid-1960s, fertilization (with nitrogen had a breakthrough as a promising forest management method in Swedish company owned forests. The activity grew and peaked during the 1970s but then lost ground and stabilized at a low level in the 1990s and early 2000s. Over the last five years, however, interest in fertilizing Swedish forests has increased again. In this article both the forestry industry’s, and the environmental movement’s, attitudes toward forest fertilization over time are investigated. Furthermore, conflicting persistent ideas about nature and future, i.e., “figures of thought”, within interest groups, representing forestry and the environmental movement respectively, are identified and analyzed in relation to the debate on fertilization. The analysis reveals mainly three figures of thought that have influenced this debate during the period, “the idea of progress”, “the idea of decay” and “the idea of the great chain of being”. The study thus sheds light on how the relationship between forestry and the environmental movement has evolved from the 1960s until today and uncovers thought patterns that have stood, and continue to stand, in opposition to one another.

  10. A framework for monitoring and evaluating carbon mitigation by farm forestry projects. Example of a demonstration project in Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico); Tipper, R. [Institute of Ecology and Resource Management, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Taylor, J. [Union de Credito `Pajal Ya Kac Tic`, Chiapas (Mexico)

    1997-10-01

    In Mexico an estimated 4.5 x 10{sup 6} ha are available for farm forestry, while up to 6.1 x 10{sup 6} ha could be saved from deforestation by making shifting agriculture more productive and sustainable. Various farm forestry systems are technically, socially, and economically viable, including live fences, coffee with shade trees, plantations, tree enrichment of fallows, and taungya, with a C-sequestration potential varying from 17.6 to 176.3 Mg C ha{sup -1}. A self-reporting system with on-site spot checks is presented for the monitoring and evaluation (M and E), and will be tested in a farm forestry C-sequestration pilot project, to begin in Chiapas, Mexico, in 1997. The M and E procedure will facilitate the collection of field data at low cost, help ensure that the system continue to address the needs of farmers, and give farmers an understanding of the value of the service that they are providing. 4 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs.

  11. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Congestion is a major problem in most cities and the problem is growing (Quiroga, 2000) (Faghri & Hamad, 2002). When the congestion level is increased the drivers notice this as delays in the traffic (Taylor, Woolley, & Zito, 2000), i.e., the travel time for the individual driver is simply...... increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  12. [Carbon storage of forest stands in Shandong Province estimated by forestry inventory data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Mei; Yang, Chuan-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Nian; Ge, Li-Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Based on the 7th forestry inventory data of Shandong Province, this paper estimated the carbon storage and carbon density of forest stands, and analyzed their distribution characteristics according to dominant tree species, age groups and forest category using the volume-derived biomass method and average-biomass method. In 2007, the total carbon storage of the forest stands was 25. 27 Tg, of which the coniferous forests, mixed conifer broad-leaved forests, and broad-leaved forests accounted for 8.6%, 2.0% and 89.4%, respectively. The carbon storage of forest age groups followed the sequence of young forests > middle-aged forests > mature forests > near-mature forests > over-mature forests. The carbon storage of young forests and middle-aged forests accounted for 69.3% of the total carbon storage. Timber forest, non-timber product forest and protection forests accounted for 37.1%, 36.3% and 24.8% of the total carbon storage, respectively. The average carbon density of forest stands in Shandong Province was 10.59 t x hm(-2), which was lower than the national average level. This phenomenon was attributed to the imperfect structure of forest types and age groups, i. e., the notably higher percentage of timber forests and non-timber product forest and the excessively higher percentage of young forests and middle-aged forest than mature forests.

  13. FORESTRY COMPANY SATISFACTION TOWARDS ONLINE INFORMATION SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREST PRODUCT MANAGEMENT (SI-PUHH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangatas Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim 1 to analyze gaps that occurs between perception and expectations of the company implementation of SI-PUHH Online, 2 to analyze the level of satisfaction of the company implementation of SI-PUHH Online 3 Formulate a strategy to improve the quality of service implementation PUHH Information System Online. Analysis of the data used is the Importance Performance Analysis (IPA and the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI. The results showed that there are five attributes that considered important in determining customer satisfaction. These five attributes are: 1 System Online has a server that is up to date with internet bandwidth that is large so it is not easy down and can be accessed quickly; 2 response rapid administrator/operator; 3 accurate data in accordance with entrian company; 4 There is a backup server; and 5 Officer SI-Online PUHH always willing to help. The fifth attribute is an attribute that has a high level of importance, but in its implementation or performance is still unsatisfactory. Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI on the implementation of this SIPUHH Online amounted to 72,07%, meaning that customers "satisfied" on the performance of services carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, but must maintain and improve the performance SERVQUAL PUHH Information System Online is to be able to satisfy the users company PUHH Information System Online.Keywords: SI-PUHH Online, SERVQUAL, IPA, CSI

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes of Forestry Students on Nature and Protected Areas in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Efthimiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study and academic training of citizens in issues of forest and protected areas shapes the environmentally friendly attitudes to graduates. Attitudes include public beliefs and assessments of ecosystem management activities. In education it is necessary to redefine our values and ethical norms and obligations towards man and the natural environment. The field of study and gender have an impact on environmental attitudes and behaviors of students. The protected areas are subject to ample scientific research and have educational interest. The purpose of this research is to measure attitudes on Protected Areas (PA of Forestry students in Greece. The questionnaire used as a research tool, based on the scale FVS (Forest Values Scale which is suitably adapted for PA. Based on the results of this survey it was found that the majority of the sampled students showing more biocentric attitude to Protected Areas which is largely due to the subject of their studies. With regard to gender on the positive attitude towards the environment was found to be statistically significant in favor of women. Students largely support positive environmental attitudes and found that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge about protected areas and the attitude towards the environment.

  15. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  16. Impact of Community Forestry Policy on Farmers in Rinjani Protected Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryke Nandini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know: (1 the economic conditions of the community forestry (HKm farmersseen from the income and the poverty level; (2 the social conditions of the HKm farmersseen from the education level and the behavior changes; and (3 the change of social economic conditions of the HKm farmers in 2008-2015. This researchis conducted from April to July in 2015 and located in four HKm groups of Rinjani protected forest area (RTK I. The data collection is conducted by the interviews with questionnaireto 102 HKm farmers using the Slovin’s formula with 10% of significant degree.This is implemented in descriptive analysis. The research result shows that: (1 the average income of the HKm farmers is Rp1,739,677 per month/ha and 59.8% of farmers are above the poverty line; (2 the farmers are increasingly aware of education (there are only 5.9% members of farmer’s family who are uneducated and the lack offirewood utilization (there are only 23.5% farmers who are still using the firewood; and (3 in the period of 2008 to 2015 the average income of the farmers per month increases at 52,03%; the poverty level decreases at 46.5%, and there is a behavior change in whichthe dependence on the forest resources in the form of firewood decreases

  17. Possibilities of using price analysis in decision making on the use of harvester technology in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Bartoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of harvester technology is understood as a fully mechanized harvesting technology for the purpose of timber logging, which means timber handling, extraction and forwarding or skidding. This complete harvesting technology consists of two different assignments of accommodated, specialized logging machines – harvester and forwarder.This timber harvesting technology currently represents a state-of-the-art technology in logging and transport of timber in forestry. This is because the efficiency of the “harvester and forwarder” combination is several times higher than that of the commonly used technology of “power saw and tractor” (Lukáč, T., 2005. Other important elements that prevail with harvester technologies are a not negligible and high degree of labour hygiene as well as a significant decrease of environmental load in­fluen­cing the environment.This paper analyzes prices of works related to timber harvesting and skidding in the selected forest stands of concerned workplaces.

  18. Usage of Geoprocessing Services in Precision Forestry for Wood Volume Calculation and Wind Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mikita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the idea of a precision forestry tool for optimizing clearcut size and shape within the process of forest recovery and its publishing in the form of a web processing service for forest owners on the Internet. The designed tool titled COWRAS (Clearcut Optimization and Wind Risk Assessment is developed for optimization of clearcuts (their location, shape, size, and orientation with subsequent wind risk assessment. The tool primarily works with airborne LiDAR data previously processed to the form of a digital surface model (DSM and a digital elevation model (DEM. In the first step, the growing stock on the planned clearcut determined by its location and area in feature class is calculated (by the method of individual tree detection. Subsequently tree heights from canopy height model (CHM are extracted and then diameters at breast height (DBH and wood volume using the regressions are calculated. Information about wood volume of each tree in the clearcut is exported and summarized in a table. In the next step, all trees in the clearcut are removed and a new DSM without trees in the clearcut is generated. This canopy model subsequently serves as an input for evaluation of wind risk damage by the MAXTOPEX tool (Mikita et al., 2012. In the final raster, predisposition of uncovered forest stand edges (around the clearcut to wind risk is calculated based on this analysis. The entire tool works in the background of ArcGIS server as a spatial decision support system for foresters.

  19. Development and Climate Change in Uruguay. Focus on Coastal Zones, Agriculture and Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawala, S.; Moehner, A.; Gagnon-Lebrun, F. [OECD Environment Directorate, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD, Paris (France); Van Aalst, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Smith, J.; Hagenstad, M. [Stratus Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Baethgen, W.E.; Martino, D.L. [Carbosur Consulting, Montevideo (Uruguay); Lorenzo, E. [Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental IMFIA, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2004-07-01

    This document is an output from the OECD Development and Climate Change project, an activity jointly overseen by the EPOC Working Party on Global and Structural Policies (WPGSP), and the DAC Network on Environment and Development Co-operation (ENVIRONET). The overall objective of the project is to provide guidance on how to mainstream responses to climate change within economic development planning and assistance policies, with natural resource management as an overarching theme. This report presents the integrated case study for Tanzania carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. This report presents the integrated case study for Uruguay carried out under an OECD project on Development and Climate Change. The report is structured around a three-tiered framework. First, recent climate trends and climate change scenarios for Uruguay are assessed and key sectoral impacts are identified and ranked along multiple indicators to establish priorities for adaptation. Second, donor portfolios are analyzed to examine the proportion of development assistance activities affected by climate risks. A desk analysis of donor strategies and project documents as well as national plans is conducted to assess the degree of attention to climate change concerns in development planning and assistance. Third, an in-depth analysis is conducted for adaptation in coastal zones as well as for mainstreaming carbonsequestration within the agriculture and forestry sectors.

  20. Carbon storage change in a partially forestry-drained boreal mire determined through peat column inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkanen, A.; Tahvanainen, T.; Simola, H. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland). Dept. pf Biology; Turunen, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2013-09-01

    To study the impact of forestry drainage on peat carbon storage, we cored paired quantitative peat samples from undrained and drained sides of an eccentric bog. Five pairs of 0 to {<=} 100-cm-deep surface-peat cores, and a pair of profiles representing the full peat deposit provided stratigraphic evidence of marked loss of surface peat due to drainage. For the drained side cores, we found a relative subsidence of 25-37 cm of the surface, and a loss of about 10 kg{sub DW}{sup m-2}, corresponding to 131 {+-} 28 g C m{sup -2} a{sup -1} (mean {+-} SE) for the post-drainage period. Similar peat loss was also found in the full deposit profiles, thus lending credibility to the whole-column inventory approach, even though the decrease (9 kg{sub DW} m{sup -2}) was relatively small in comparison with the total carbon storage (233 and 224 kg{sub DW} m{sup -2} for the undrained and drained sides, respectively). (orig.)

  1. Knowledge Co-production at the Research-Practice Interface: Embedded Case Studies from Urban Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lindsay K.; Svendsen, Erika S.; Roman, Lara A.

    2016-06-01

    Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the field of urban forestry in the United States. These cases were selected to span a range of geographic scales and topical scopes; all three are examples of urban researcher-practitioner networks in which the authors are situated to comment on reflexively. The three cases resemble institutional structures described in the knowledge co-production literature, including participatory research, a hybrid organization of scientists and managers, and a community of practice. We find that trust, embeddedness, new approaches by both practitioners and researchers, and blending of roles all serve to recognize multiple forms of capability, expertise, and ways of knowing. We discuss the impacts of knowledge co-production and the ways in which hybrid institutional forms can enable its occurrence.

  2. Implementation of Forestry Best Management Practices on Biomass and Conventional Harvesting Operations in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Barrett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Logging residues are often utilized as a Best Management Practice (BMP for stabilizing bare soil on forest harvesting operations. As utilization of woody biomass increases, concern has developed regarding availability of residues for implementing BMPs. The Virginia Department of Forestry (VDOF inspects all logging operations in Virginia and randomly selects a portion of harvests for more intensive audits. The VDOF BMP audit process intensively evaluates implementation of BMPs in seven categories (84 specific BMPs on 240 sites per year. This research analyzed three years of audit data (2010–2012 to quantify differences in BMP implementation between biomass and conventional harvesting operations. Among 720 audited tracts, 97 were biomass harvests, with 88 occurring in the Piedmont region. Only the streamside management zone (SMZ category had significant implementation percentage differences between biomass (83.1% and conventional harvests (91.4% (p = 0.0007 in the Piedmont. Specific areas where biomass harvesting operations had lower implementation were generally not related to a lack of residues available for implementing BMPs, but rather were from a lack of appropriate SMZs, overharvesting within SMZs, or inadequate construction of roads, skid trails, and stream crossings. Existing BMP recommendations already address these areas and better implementation would have negated these issues.

  3. Knowledge Co-production at the Research-Practice Interface: Embedded Case Studies from Urban Forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lindsay K; Svendsen, Erika S; Roman, Lara A

    2016-06-01

    Cities are increasingly engaging in sustainability efforts and investment in green infrastructure, including large-scale urban tree planting campaigns. In this context, researchers and practitioners are working jointly to develop applicable knowledge for planning and managing the urban forest. This paper presents three case studies of knowledge co-production in the field of urban forestry in the United States. These cases were selected to span a range of geographic scales and topical scopes; all three are examples of urban researcher-practitioner networks in which the authors are situated to comment on reflexively. The three cases resemble institutional structures described in the knowledge co-production literature, including participatory research, a hybrid organization of scientists and managers, and a community of practice. We find that trust, embeddedness, new approaches by both practitioners and researchers, and blending of roles all serve to recognize multiple forms of capability, expertise, and ways of knowing. We discuss the impacts of knowledge co-production and the ways in which hybrid institutional forms can enable its occurrence.

  4. Consequences of More Intensive Forestry for the Sustainable Management of Forest Soils and Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ring

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Additions of nutrients, faster growing tree varieties, more intense harvest practices, and a changing climate all have the potential to increase forest production in Sweden, thereby mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and fossil fuel substitution. However, the effects of management strategies for increased biomass production on soil resources and water quality at landscape scales are inadequately understood. Key knowledge gaps also remain regarding the sustainability of shorter rotation periods and more intensive biomass harvests. This includes effects of fertilization on the long-term weathering and supply of base cations and the consequences of changing mineral availability for future forest production. Furthermore, because soils and surface waters are closely connected, management efforts in the terrestrial landscape will potentially have consequences for water quality and the ecology of streams, rivers, and lakes. Here, we review and discuss some of the most pertinent questions related to how increased forest biomass production in Sweden could affect soils and surface waters, and how contemporary forestry goals can be met while minimizing the loss of other ecosystem services. We suggest that the development of management plans to promote the sustainable use of soil resources and water quality, while maximizing biomass production, will require a holistic ecosystem approach that is placed within a broader landscape perspective.

  5. From Green to REDD-Ready to Trade: Discussion On REDD In Nepal's Community Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra Aryal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission increases at an early stage of industrial expansion as a transition from overdependence on agriculture. Such industrial transformation is heavily dependent on energy-intensive technologies. Moreover, the degree of environmental awareness is very low in developing countries. According to the Environmental Performance Index 2012, Nepal is among the strongest performer. A new international carbon trade mechanism, called ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation’ (REDD, has been proposed to curb global Greenhouse Gases (GHGs emissions. Carbon trade entails the idea that industrialized countries pay developing countries to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Nepal’s community forestry can reap benefits by participating in REDD, but it requires addressing a range of issues and challenges to mitigate underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately this type of program would encourage local people for conservation and sustainable use of forest resources.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12181International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 101-111  

  6. The physical, economic and policy drivers of land conversion to forestry in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Vincent; O'Donoghue, Cathal; Ryan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is fundamentally a product of the interaction of physical land characteristics, economic considerations and agricultural and environmental policies. Researchers are increasingly combining physical and socio-economic spatial data to investigate the drivers of land-use change in relation to policy and economic developments. Focusing on Ireland, this study develops a panel data set of annual afforestation over 2811 small-area boundaries between 1993 and 2007 from vector and raster data sources. Soil type and other physical characteristics are combined with the net returns of converting agricultural land to forestry, based on the micro-simulation of individual farm incomes, to investigate land conversion. A spatial econometric approach is adopted to model the data and a range of physical, economic and policy factors are identified as having a significant effect on afforestation rates. In addition to the financial returns, the availability and quality of land and the implementation of environmental protection policies are identified as important factors in land conversion. The implications of these factors for the goal of forest expansion are discussed in relation to conflicting current and future land use policies.

  7. PRIORITY INVESTMENT PROJECTS IN FOREST DEVELOPMENT AS AN INSTITUTION FOR INTENSIFICATION OF RUSSIA'S FORESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochaeva T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of the development of forestry in the Russian Federation under the implementation of the Forest Code of 2006 are discovered, the goals of forming the institutional environment for forests use, conservation, protection and reproduction at the present stage are defined. The activities in the field of conservation, protection and reproduction of forests in the country in the period from 2007 to 2013 are characterized by a decrease in the volume of work and activities. A steady upward trend in the loss of forest resources from forest fires was outlined. The state policy of the Russian Federation in the area of use, conservation, protection and reproduction of forests is aimed at conservation and augmentation of forests, maximum satisfaction of the needs for high quality products and useful properties of forests. The achievements of stated objectives were provided by solving of a number of tasks, including the increase in efficiency of the forest sector management and intensification of the use and reproduction of forests, which have the priority meaning. The authors determined the institutional model of public-private partnership in the forest sector of the Russian economy recognizing the need to develop flexible institutions for interaction between government and business in the use, conservation, protection and reproduction of forests as an integral part of intensive economic model. The article proposes a conceptual scheme of efficiency assessment for investment projects in forest development and target functions for data subjects of investment projects: the federation, the region, the business and local community

  8. Practice and Use of Tree Species in Urban Forestry in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUDCHAWANSutthisrisilapa

    2005-01-01

    Urban forestry is now increasingly practiced in Thailand. This has gained impetus because of gradual deterioration of visual amenity and environmental quality in many of the rapidly developing urban centers. Various urban beautification programs are being implemented to rehabilitate blighted landscape,polluted atmosphere and deteriorating weather conditions, as well as to maintain a clean, healthy and pleasant environment so as to ensure a better quality of life. Planting of suitable trees for shade, climatic amelioration and aesthetic values form the principal activity under these beautification programs. It is regarded as not only an important component of socio-economic development but also contributive to the restoration of the urban ecosystem. The responsibility of the implementation of most of these programs falls to the Bangkok Metropolitan, Administration, Provincial and District Municipalities. The Royal Forest Department plays the supporting role of supplying seedlings of the species required for planting and providing technical advice on the growing of these trees. In this paper tree species commonly planted in urban and populated areas in Thailand are identified. It is envisaged that with the vast amount of flora available in Thailand and through the integrated efforts of all agencies involved, this program will achieve the target of beautifying the cities and towns of Thailand.

  9. Deconstructing responses of dragonfly species richness to area, nutrients, water plant diversity and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Merja; Sorjanen, Aili-Maria; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2011-06-01

    Understanding large-scale variation in species richness in relation to area, energy, habitat heterogeneity and anthropogenic disturbance has been a major task in ecology. Ultimately, variation in species richness results from variation in individual species occupancies. We studied whether the individual species occupancy patterns are determined by the same candidate factors as total species richness. We sampled 26 boreal forest ponds for dragonflies (Odonata) and studied the effects of shoreline length, water vascular plant species density (WVPSD), availability of nutrients, intensity of forestry, amount of Sphagnum peat cover and pH on dragonfly species richness and individual dragonfly species. WVPSD and pH had a strong positive effect on species richness. Removal of six dragonfly species experiencing strongest responses to WVPSD cancelled the relationship between species richness and WVPSD. By contrast, removal of nine least observed species did not affect the relationship between WVPSD and species richness. Thus, our results showed that relatively common species responding strongly to WVPSD shaped the observed species richness pattern whereas the effect of least observed, often rare, species was negligible. Also, our results support the view that, despite of the great impact of energy on species richness at large spatial scales, habitat heterogeneity can still have an effect on species richness in smaller scales, even overriding the effects of area.

  10. A bio-indicator for the evaluation of quality forestry and landscape fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappers EF

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A bio-indicator for the evaluation of quality forestry and landscape fragmentation. Intensive agricultural practices, as well as tourism development, summer fires, urbanization and air pollution represent a serious threat for many woodlands in Mediterranean Europe. Tawny owls, Strix aluco, is a valuable indicator of habitat quality and shows high sensitivity to wood fragmentation. Assessing the association between Tawny owls and their habitat may provide useful tools for conservation and management of forested habitats. Populations of woodland birds are influenced by forest characteristics, wood proportion being a key factor explaining breeding density and regularity in nest spacing. Populations of the Tawny Owl reach their highest densities in old deciduous forests. The distribution of territories remains almost constant for many years, and the period during which any particular wood maintains suitable conditions for nesting depends on factors like tree species and management, especially on the timing and extent of thinning. To assure the maintenance of good habitat quality in most woodlands, regulation of water diversion, prevention of summer fires, and a general reduction of human activities inside forests seem to be useful conservation tools.

  11. Zoonotic occupational diseases in forestry workers – Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Richard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Forestry workers and other people who come into close contact with wild animals, such as hunters, natural science researchers, game managers or mushroom/berry pickers, are at risk of contracting bacterial, parasitological or viral zoonotic diseases. Synthetic data on the incidence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases in both animals and humans in European forests do not exist. It is therefore difficult to promote appropriate preventive measures among workers or people who come into direct or indirect contact with forest animals. [b]Objectives.[/b] The objectives of this review are to synthesise existing knowledge on the prevalence of the three predominant bacterial zoonotic diseases in Europe, i.e. Lyme borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis, in order to draw up recommendations for occupational or public health. [b]Methods[/b]. 88 papers published between 1995–2013 (33 on Lyme borreliosis, 30 on tularemia and 25 on leptospirosis were analyzed. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The prevalences of these three zoonotic diseases are not negligible and information targeting the public is needed. Moreover, the results highlight the lack of standardised surveys among different European countries. It was also noted that epidemiological data on leptospirosis are very scarce

  12. Possible role of Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry in future climate regimes. An inventory of some options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trines, E.P. [Treeness Consult, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2004-11-15

    The Netherlands hold the presidency of the European Union from July 1st until the end of 2004, which is the eve of the next negotiation round under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol (KP). At the moment of finalising this report it is very likely that the KP will indeed enter into force with the approval of the Russian Duma on the 22nd of October, 2004, and the signature of President Putin on 5 November 2004. A KP that has entered into force will drive the political momentum to combat climate change into a new era where the effectiveness and adequacy of the agreements will be reviewed in the years to come. But already before these recent developments the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality took the initiative to start the debate or considerations on the role of land use, landuse change and forestry (LULUCF) in a future climate regime which led to this option paper and a workshop for the EU LULUCF Experts, held on 21-22 October 2004, in Baarn, the Netherlands. The aim of the workshop was to advance discussions on this subject and possibly to prepare a draft work programme to come to an initial EU position on future regimes with respect to LULUCF. This document supported the October workshop in presenting the options under discussion now and the possible implications of choosing a particular option. After the workshop it has been updated with some relevant considerations that were discussed at the workshop. The main objectives of this paper are to present an overview of the current state of thinking with respect to the possible roles of LULUCF in future climate regimes and review several technical aspects and political dimensions of each of these options. Although the objectives of a climate regime, per definition, would contain some sort of commitment, be it quantifiable or qualitative or in combination, this report deals specifically with the role of LULUCF in relation to other sectors under the

  13. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  14. Evaluation on the Business Performance of Forestry Listing Corporation in China%中国林业上市公司经营绩效评价∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林榅荷

    2015-01-01

    运用因子分析法对中国14家林业上市公司进行经营绩效评价,研究结果表明:中国林业上市公司经营绩效差距较大,且在盈利能力、偿债水平、营运水平和发展能力4个方面发展不均衡,并根据分析结果提出了通过电子商务提升林业企业经营绩效;促进科企、科农对接,推进林业科技成果的转化和应用;充分开发林业资源,延长林业生态文化产业链;加大政策扶持力度,改善林业弱质性等对策建议。%After using factor analysis to evaluate the business performance of 14 forestry listing Corpo-ration in China, the research results show that the gap among business performance of forestry listing Corporation in China is relatively large, and the development is not balanced among four aspects of profitability, debt service level, operational level and development ability. According to the results of analysis, it puts forward countermeasure suggestions on improving the performance of the forestry busi-ness through the electronic commerce, and promoting the abutment of science, technology enterprises and agriculture, promoting the transformation and application of forestry scientific result, fully develo-ping forestry resources, extending the cultural industry chain of forestry ecology, promoting policy support and weakness of forestry industry.

  15. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O declínio da morbi-mortalidade pelas gastroenterites é, em boa parte, responsável pela queda da mortalidade infantil e da mortalidade por doenças infecciosas nos países do terceiro mundo. Esse agravo ainda se destaca, nesses países, como importante problema de saúde pública, especialmente, entre os menores de 5 anos. OBJETIVOS: Descrever aspectos do comportamento das gastroenterites entre crianças menores de 5 anos, residentes em 5 bairros do Município de São Paulo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudou-se uma amostra probabilística (N = 468 de crianças menores de 5 anos, residentes em 5 áreas do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, acompanhada durante um ano, por meio de entrevistas mensais. RESULTADOS: Durante o acompanhamento foram identificados 139 episódios de diarréia, com uma duração média de 5,5 dias, 10% dos casos prolongaram-se por 15 dias ou mais. Em 20% dos episódios havia ao menos outra pessoa na família com diarréia. A incidência foi de 2,78 casos por 100 crianças/mês, sendo mais elevada nos menores de 2 anos. Em 46,1% dos episódios de gastroenterite as crianças não demandaram assistência médica tendo sido tratadas pelas próprias mães, ou não receberam qualquer tratamento; em 51,8% dos episódios o atendimento foi feito em serviços de assistência primária à saúde e somente 2,1% dos casos necessitaram tratamento hospitalar. Nenhuma criança evoluiu para óbito. Entre as medidas terapêuticas mais utilizadas estão a reidratação oral (25,2% e a antibioticoterapia associada à reidratação oral (11,5%; em somente 2 casos foi feita reidratação endovenosa. Alguns fatores socioeconômicos e antecedentes pessoais mostraram-se associados à ocorrência de diarréias, entre eles, as condições da habitação, saneamento básico e renda familiar "per capita" e história pregressa de diarréias freqüentes. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados obtidos parecem refletir a tendência de diminuição da morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per capita and prior history of frequent gastroenteritis were associated with a higher incidence of gastroenteritis. DISCUSSION: The results seen to reflect the tendency of morbi-mortality by gastroenteritis to decrease in S. Paulo county during the 1980's when hospital treatment of diarrhea presented a considerable reduction. This tendency must be observed closely, because it will influence the changes to be mode in the kind of demand for medical care.

  16. Eco-Physiologic studies an important tool for the adaptation of forestry to global changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASAN CANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the dominant land use in Albania, occupying almost 1.5 million hectares [11], but c.a. 70% of the forest area belong coppices and shrub forests, as the results of unsustainable practices, intensive cutting and overgrazing. Forest ecosystems serve many ecological roles, including regulation of the planet's carbon and water cycles. Forests are also important components of economic systems. Research in the Forest Ecophysiology studies on the Faculty of Forestry Sciences is intended to produce biological knowledge that can be used to better manage forest resources for sustainable production of economic and non-economic values and aims to improve the understanding of past and current dynamics of Mediterranean and temperate forests. The overarching goal is to quantify the influence of genetics, climate, environmental stresses, and forest management inputs on forest productivity and carbon sequestration, and to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying these responses.Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models. This paper discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. The study trays to show a clear relationship between temperature and water relations and other factors affecting forest plant germination and growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists [10]. Actually the

  17. Greenhouse gas flux measurements in a forestry-drained peatland indicate a large carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lohila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drainage for forestry purposes changes the conditions in the peat and leads to increased growth of shrubs and trees. Concurrently, the production and uptake of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are likely to change: due to the accelerated decomposition of oxic peat, drained peatlands are generally considered to loose peat carbon (C. We measured CO2 exchange with the eddy covariance (EC method above a drained nutrient-poor peatland forest in Southern Finland for 16 months in 2004–2005. The site, classified as a dwarf-shrub pine bog, had been ditched about 35 years earlier. CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured at 2–5 week intervals with the chamber technique. Drainage had resulted in a relatively little change in the water table level, being on average 40 cm below the ground in 2005. The annual net ecosystem exchange was −870 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 in the calendar year 2005, varying from −810 to −900 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 during the 16 month period under investigation. The site was a small sink of CH4 (−0.12 g CH4 m−2 yr−1 and a small source of N2O (0.10 g N2O m−2 yr−1. Photosynthesis was detected throughout the year when the air temperature exceeded −3 °C. As the annual accumulation of C in the above and below ground tree biomass (550 g CO2 m−2 was significantly less than the net exchange of CO2, about 300 g CO2 m−2 yr−1 (~80 g C m−2 was likely to have accumulated as organic matter into the peat soil. This is a higher average accumulation rate than previously reported for natural northern peatlands, and the first time C accumulation has been shown, by EC measurements, to occur in a drained

  18. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  19. Climate Change Mitigation Activities in the Philippine Forestry Sector. Application of the COMAP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, Rodel D.; Pulhin, Florencia B. [Environmental Forestry Programme (ENFOR), College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, 4031 Laguna (Philippines)

    2001-07-01

    The forest sector in the Philippines has the potential to be a major sink for carbon (C). The present study was conducted to evaluate potential forestry mitigation options in the Philippines using the Comprehensive Mitigation Assessment Process (COMAP) model. The baseline scenario (BAU) assumes that current trends continue up to the year 2030 ('business-as-usual'). Two mitigation scenarios were evaluated: high scenario (HS) and low scenario (LS). The former is patterned largely from the government's forest master plan while the latter assumes a 50% lower success rate of the master plan. The results of the analyses show that by 2030, the total C stock of the Philippine forest sector in the baseline scenario decreases to 814 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, down by 37% compared to the 1990 level. The C stocks of the HS and LS mitigation scenarios were 22% and 18% higher than the BAU, respectively. Of the mitigation options assessed, long rotation plantations and forest protection activities produce the greatest C gain (199 and 104 x 10{sup 6} Mg, respectively under HS). The not present value (NPV) of benefits is highest in the bioenergy option with $24.48 per Mg C (excluding opportunity costs) at a real discount rate of 12%. However, the investment and life cycle costs are also highest using bioenergy. The study also estimated potential investments needed under the mitigation scenarios. The investment requirement for the LS amounts to $263 x 10{sup 6} while for the HS it is $748 x 10{sup 6}. Finally, policy issues and decisions that may be useful for the Philippines to evaluate LULUCF mitigation options under the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol, are identified and discussed. 30 refs.

  20. Role of storms and forestry practices in sedimentation in an Oregon Coast Range Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Richardson, K.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Contemporary harvesting practices have been shown to reduce sediment transport rates relative to historic practices; however, it is not well understood how these practices interact with climate to influence sediment flux and source. We are currently studying sedimentation rates in Loon Lake, in the Oregon Coast Range. The watershed of Loon Lake is 80% privately owned, and is therefore an ideal system for examining the effect of policy affected management shifts on water quality and sediment transport. We analyzed one 690cm core that represents about 1500yrs of sedimentation in the lake. We measured accumulation by layer thickness and character by proxies of elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, and bulk density. Radionuclides and radiocarbon dates provide an age model with depth downcore. Our preliminary results show that there is some evidence that the sedimentation rate in the lake decreased around the time of passing of the Oregon Forest Practices Act when climate is taken into account; pre-OFPA, the estimated mean sedimentation rate was 1.0 cm/year, and post-OFPA, the estimated mean sedimentation rate was 0.76 cm/year. Both of these sedimentation rates appear to be different than pre-European settlement period which averaged about 0.40 cm/year; however, this conclusion is preliminary. In general, it seems there is some evidence that the Best Management Practices instituted with OFPA are associated with lower sedimentation rates. In our presentation we will discuss the role of forestry and climate in changing these sedimentation rates and compare these modern sedimentation rates with sedimentation in the pre-settlement period.

  1. Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Lundmark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  2. Research and innovation in sustainable forestry: lessons learnt to inform the policy making community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Buttoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From an already rich experience of cooperation between scientists and policy makers in the framework of international research institutions such as the International union of forest research organizations (IUFRO, the Center for international forest research (CIFOR and the European Forest Institute (EFI, as well as through the promotion and development of EU research projects and programs, some lessons can be drawn considering the possible role of scientists at the science-policy interface. Today, on the example of the global change - and especially the climatic changes that policy makers are demanding about-, most of the researches to be carried out have to answer social questions the solutions of which require the support of science. This is especially the case in the forestry field, which is characterized by the particularly long term of cycles and the great number of stakeholders interested in. Whilst decision making processes are complex systems, science is not the only source of knowledge useful for taking decisions, so that in a democratic context, research results have to be confronted to other lessons learnt (for instance from technical expertise, or from traditional knowledge in order to get accountability in terms of instrumentation. In scientific terms, it should certainly lead to multi-disciplinary approaches of the multifunctionality of forest and related techniques to be implemented. But this does not mean that research activities have to be assessed only against their instrumentality. However, research and public decision-making are very contrasting spheres, where the principles and professional types of behavior are basically different. This situation calls for a need for a clear separation of the respective roles. In addition, all scientific developments should not be driven from practical needs of decision-makers, since theoretical questions may indirectly build up the future reality. 

  3. 地理信息系统在贵州省龙里林场森林资源保护中的运用探讨%Application of GIS in Forestry Resources Prote-ction in Longli Forestry Farm of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小祥

    2015-01-01

    According to the problems of deforest reclaimed on national forestry farm, taking Longli Forestry Farm of Guizhou Province for example, applica-tion of GIS in forestry resources protec-tion was put forward for protecting na-tional forestry farm resources.%针对国有林场被毁林开垦、不断蚕食的问题,以贵州省龙里林场为例,从技术的角度进行探讨,提出采用地理信息系统进行处理的工作思路和解决方法,以更好的保护国有森林资源。

  4. Thinking on Perfect Forestry Investment and Financing System%完善林业投融资体制的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬璐璐; 覃斌; 宝忠寿

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the development status of the domestic and international forestry investment and financing system, and depth discusses the main problems in the reform of the forestry investment and financing. Including five aspects, the relative lack of forestry investment funds, narrow channels of forestry financing, forestry production characteristics weakens the power of the forestry investment, social discrimination of the existence of non-public forestry business entities; forestry capital markets are not perfect. And put forward recommendations to improve forestry financing systems from the government and the market. At the government level, proposed recommendations to strengthen public finances, promote financial institutions lending, establish the pluralistic financing system, clear the legal status of non-public forestry, and establish a sound policy insurance system. At the market level, to give full play to the role of market regulation, strengthen communication and collaboration between the forestry sector and the financial sector. The government's organizational advantages combined with financing advantages of financial institutions, to mobilize and gather investment of natural persons, legal persons and other organizations, establish an effective credit mechanism, in order to better expand the forestry investment and financing channels, to solve the problem of shortage of forestry development funds from the Market approach.%从国内外林业投融资体制的发展现状入手,深入探讨目前林业投融资改革存在的主要问题,包括林业投入资金相对不足、林业融资渠道窄、林业生产特点弱化林业投资的动力、存在对非公有制林业经营主体的社会歧视、林业资本市场不健全五个方面的问题。并从政府和市场角度提出完善林业融资体制的建议。在政府层面,提出强化公共财政、促进金融机构放贷、建立多元化的融资体系、明确非公有制

  5. The Performance of Forestry Human Resources in Licensing Forest Utilization, The Lease of Forest Area, and The Release of Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtjahjawilasa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance assesment includes the quantity and quality measurements of individual or group works within organization in carrying out duties and functions. It is based on norms, standard operational procedure (SOP, and specified criteria in an organization. Factors affecting quality and quantity of individual performance in an organization are skills, experience, ability, competence, willingness, energy, technology, leadership, compensation, clarity of purpose, and security. This study aims to identify and analyze the performance of forestry human resources (HR related to licensing forest utilization, releasing forest area, and leasing forest area. The results of the study are: (1 the performance of forestry HR in licensing forest utilization was relatively still poor; (2 the structure (rules, norms, cultural cognitive of forestry HR was unclear and is not well developed; and (3 the culture of learning organization, including personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and system thinking is still insufficient and needs to be developed at the ministerial, provincial, and district/city levels. Some suggestions for improving the performance of forestry HR are: (1 establishing an appraisal team/task force of forestry HR performance; (2 developing commitment for high quality service at the bureaucratic elites and their highest level networks; and (3 considering the development of one stop licensing supported by online system to promote transparency and public accountability.

  6. A Brief Discussion on Development of Forestry Circular Economy in Nothern Fujian%闽北地区林业循环经济的发展思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施政

    2015-01-01

    As a key forest zone in fujian province,the forestry economy in northern Fujian has its unique advantages. Under the situation that global environment is deteriorating, resource crisis is increasingly aggravating,the development of forestry circular economy has become an inevitable trend,and forestry circular economy is a new economic mode to achieve sustainable development of forestry circular economy.This paper simply described the connotation and characteristics of the circular economy theory and the background resulting in forestry circular economy in nothern Fujian, put forward the de-veloping mode of circular economy system in nothern Fujian and the mian problems needing to be solve.%作为福建省重点林区,林业经济在闽北地区有其得天独厚的优势。发展林业循环经济已成为必然的趋势,林业循环经济是实现可持续发展的一种新的经济模式。文章简单叙述了循环经济理论的内涵和特点及闽北地区林业循环经济的产生背景,提出了闽北林业循环经济体系的发展模式以及需要重点解决的问题。

  7. Discussion on the connotation and level of forestry circular economy%试论林业循环经济的内涵与层次

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧玉玲

    2016-01-01

    Combined with the function of the development of forestry circular economy, the key directions of forestry circular economy research in China were determined. According to the principle of “3R” to be followed in the current circular economy, the connotation of forestry circular economy is put forward. And some reflections on the current forestry circular economy were put forward according to the cycle of industrial ecological chain among enterprises, the cycle of single forestry enterprise and the large circle of social level.%结合林业循环经济发展的作用,确定我国林业循环经济研究的重点方向。根据当前循环经济所要遵循的“3R”原则,提出了林业循环经济的内涵,并根据企业间产业生态链的循环、单个林业企业的循环以及社会层次上的大循环角度,从这三个循环经济层次对当前的林业循环经济提出一些想法。

  8. The importance of socio-ecological system dynamics in understanding adaptation to global change in the forestry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor; Brown, Calum; Holzhauer, Sascha; Vulturius, Gregor; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation is necessary to cope with or take advantage of the effects of climate change on socio-ecological systems. This is especially important in the forestry sector, which is sensitive to the ecological and economic impacts of climate change, and where the adaptive decisions of owners play out over long periods of time. Relatively little is known about how successful these decisions are likely to be in meeting demands for ecosystem services in an uncertain future. We explore adaptation to global change in the forestry sector using CRAFTY-Sweden; an agent-based model that represents large-scale land-use dynamics, based on the demand and supply of ecosystem services. Future impacts and adaptation within the Swedish forestry sector were simulated for scenarios of socio-economic change (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) and climatic change (Representative Concentration Pathways, for three climate models), between 2010 and 2100. Substantial differences were found in the competitiveness and coping ability of land owners implementing different management strategies through time. Generally, multi-objective management was found to provide the best basis for adaptation. Across large regions, however, a combination of management strategies was better at meeting ecosystem service demands. Results also show that adaptive capacity evolves through time in response to external (global) drivers and interactions between individual actors. This suggests that process-based models are more appropriate for the study of autonomous adaptation and future adaptive and coping capacities than models based on indicators, discrete time snapshots or exogenous proxies. Nevertheless, a combination of planned and autonomous adaptation by institutions and forest owners is likely to be more successful than either group acting alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The sensitivity of predicted carbon sequestered by a sustainable forestry management project -- An example from the Sierra Gorda Queretana, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, D.N. [Woodrising Consulting Inc., Erin, Ontario (Canada); Ruiz Corzo, M.I. [grupo Ecologico Sierra Gorda, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    Joint Implementation (JI) projects that capture carbon through sequestration are believed by investors to be more risky than other projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This is because of their long lifetime, complicated nature, numerous poorly defined input parameters and perceived high costs of monitoring. Whereas the first factors are true, sensitivity analysis can help reduce these costs by focusing one`s attention on the important parameters. Secondly, sensitivity analysis can be used to improve program design. And finally, one can also create a distribution of possible outcomes for the project. The carbon flux model proposed by Schlamadinger and Marland (1) is used to calculate the amount of carbon sequestered by a forest management project. Using simple sensitivity analysis, the model has been extended to create tornado diagrams and probability distributions. Analysis of these data have led to focusing on estimates of important variables, an understanding of the time-value of money and the possibility of project redesign by the operating Non Government Organization (NGO). The project used in this discussion is a forestry management program supervised by Grupo Ecologico Sierra Gorda, A.C.. Their goal is to create a sustainable forestry practice in the Sierra Gorda Queretana, Mexico. It is a 25 year project involving replanting a 1,000 ha/year for seven years and natural reforestation of a further 1,000 ha/year of marginal farmland for seven years. These two components of the project sequester 1.1 million tonnes of carbon and bring $260 million to the region. A forestry protection program sequesters a further 0.8 million tonnes of carbon at marginal cost. The project is anomalous for a sequestration project in that it makes money and has a 20.5% rate of return.

  11. Forestry Development in Portugal and Its Implications to China%葡萄牙林业发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谱; 何友均; 陈绍志; 徐斌

    2012-01-01

    Forest resources, laws and regulations, administration and institutions, forest management, forest protection, forest products trade, research and education in forestry in Portugal were synthesized in this paper. Some issues on the impacts of climate change to forestry development, forest fire and the risk of forest product market were also analyzed. Based on the current status of forestry development in Portugal, some implications to China' s sustainable forestry development were suggested: (1) Optimizing classified forest management system, defining some forests as multi -functional forests in appropriate regions, and implemen- ting adaptive forest management and policy instruments to commercial forests, ecological forests and multi - functional forests respectively. (2) Building strategic reserve bases for timber forests and especially valuable large - diameter timber forests in order to reduce the degree of dependence on forest products and maintain the national forest safety. (3) Supporting and developing forest farmer cooperatives to improve efficiency of forest management.%介绍葡萄牙森林资源、林业政策法规、林业机构和管理体制、森林经营、森林保护、林产品贸易、林业科研教育现状,分析其林业发展存在的主要问题,在此基础上提出对我国林业发展的3点建议:1)在完善分类经营管理体系的基础上,划分出适当区域和适当比例的森林作为多功能森林,并且按照相应的经营管理体系对公益林、商品林和多功能林进行管理;2)为了降低林产品对外依存度,维护木材安全,大力发展用材林特别是珍贵用材林战略储备基地建设;3)大力培育林农合作组织,提高森林经营管理效率。

  12. Strengthen the Sustainable Development of Forestry Management%加强林业管理的可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹传鹏; 赵文婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the role of forest management and sustainable development, and expounds the strategy of sustainable development of forestry management, put an emphasis on the supervision and management of cutting area and strengthen the protection and management of resources.%文章介绍了林业管理及可持续发展的作用,并阐述了林业管理可持续发展的策略研究,提出重视伐区监督管理工作和加强资源的保护与管理工作。

  13. Mechanism of cross-sectoral coordination between nature protection and forestry in the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvašová, Zuzana; Sálka, Jaroslav; Dobšinská, Zuzana

    2013-09-01

    Nature protection as a policy sector is not isolated and is directly or indirectly influenced by many other sectors (e.g. forestry, water management, rural development, energy, etc.). These policy sectors are neither completely segmented nor unaffected by the decisions taken in other policy sectors. Policy formulation in nature protection is therefore also influenced by different sectors. For that reason it is inevitable to stress the need for inter-sectoral coordination to assure their policy coherence. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism and modes of cross-sectoral coordination and to analyze the relevant actors and their interaction, using the case of the Natura 2000 formulation process in Slovakia. The European Union (EU) set up an ecological network of special protected areas, known as Natura 2000 to ensure biodiversity by conserving natural habitats and wild fauna and flora in the territory of the Member States. An optimized nature protection must therefore carefully consider existing limits and crossdisciplinary relationships at the EU, national and regional levels. The relations between forestry and biodiversity protection are analyzed using the advocacy coalition framework (ACF). The ACF is used for analyzing how two coalitions, in this case ecological and forest owners' coalitions, advocate or pursue their beliefs from the nature protection and forestry policy field. The whole process is illustrated at the regional scale on the case study of Natura 2000 sites formulation in the Slovak Republic. For better reliability and validity of research, a combination of various empiric research methods was used, supported by existing theories. So called triangulation of sociological research or triangulation of methods consists of mutual results testing of individual methodological steps through identifying corresponding political-science theories, assessing their formal points using primary and secondary document analysis and assessing their

  14. Towards an integrated scientific approach for carbon accounting in forestry. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjalainen T.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the COST E21-Action ""Contribution of Forests and Forestry to Mitigate Greenhouse Effects"", emphasis is put on the quantification of carbon storage in the forest ecosystems and on the understanding of linkages between human activities and climate change, particularly the role of forests and forestry. COST E21 integrates natural, socio-economic as well as methodological aspects relevant for reporting under the unitéd Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, as well as decision-making at the European level in the context of carbon mitigation in forest ecosystems. This Action is a pioneering attempt to co-ordinate research: to exchange experience and knowledge towards standardised greenhouse gas inventory accounting for forests over Europe. It will match, within four years (1999-2003, both scientific and political agendas. This paper gives a background presentation of the COST E21-Action, its work plan and its clearing house. It finally gives the outline of country specific information to the COST E21 as presented in this issue in a standard format.

  15. Emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture, land-use change, and forestry in the Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, B P

    1995-01-01

    The Gambia has successfully completed a national greenhouse gas emissions inventory based on the results of a study funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) Country Case Study Program. The concepts of multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and interdisciplinary collaboration were most useful in the preparation of this inventory. New data were gathered during the study period, some through regional collaboration with institutions such as Environment and Development in the Third World (ENDA-TM) Energy Program and the Ecological Monitoring Center in Dakar, Senegal, and some through national surveys and the use of remote sensing techniques, as in the Bushfires Survey. Most of the data collected are used in this paper. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (IPCC/OECD/IEA) methodology is used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions. Many of the default data in the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology have also been used. Overall results indicate that in the biomass sectors (agriculture, forestry, and land-use change) carbon dioxide (CO2) is emitted most, with a total of 1.7 Tg. This is followed by methane (CH4), 22.3 Gg; carbon monoxide (CO), 18.7 Gg; nitrogen oxides (NOx), 0.3 Gg; and nitrous oxide (N2O), 0.014 Gg. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was used as an index to describe the relative effects of the various gases reported here. Based on the emissions in The Gambia in 1993, it was found that CO2 will contribute 75%, CH4 about 24.5%, and N2O 0.2% of the warming expected in the 100-year period beginning in 1993. The results in this analysis are limited by the shortcomings of the IPCC/OECD/IEA methodology and scarce national data. Because the methodology was developed outside of the developing world, most of its emissions factors and coefficients were developed and tested in environments that are very different from The Gambia. This is likely

  16. Can a bog drained for forestry be a stronger carbon sink than a natural bog forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, J.; Schmid, H. P.; Drösler, M.; Werle, P.

    2014-07-01

    This study compares the CO2 exchange of a natural bog forest, and of a bog drained for forestry in the pre-Alpine region of southern Germany. The sites are separated by only 10 km, they share the same soil formation history and are exposed to the same climate and weather conditions. In contrast, they differ in land use history: at the Schechenfilz site a natural bog-pine forest (Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata) grows on an undisturbed, about 5 m thick peat layer; at Mooseurach a planted spruce forest (Picea abies) grows on drained and degraded peat (3.4 m). The net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) at both sites has been investigated for 2 years (July 2010-June 2012), using the eddy covariance technique. Our results indicate that the drained, forested bog at Mooseurach is a much stronger carbon dioxide sink (-130 ± 31 and -300 ± 66 g C m-2 a-1 in the first and second year, respectively) than the natural bog forest at Schechenfilz (-53 ± 28 and -73 ± 38 g C m-2 a-1). The strong net CO2 uptake can be explained by the high gross primary productivity of the 44-year old spruces that over-compensates the two-times stronger ecosystem respiration at the drained site. The larger productivity of the spruces can be clearly attributed to the larger plant area index (PAI) of the spruce site. However, even though current flux measurements indicate strong CO2 uptake of the drained spruce forest, the site is a strong net CO2 source when the whole life-cycle since forest planting is considered. It is important to access this result in terms of the long-term biome balance. To do so, we used historical data to estimate the difference between carbon fixation by the spruces and the carbon loss from the peat due to drainage since forest planting. This rough estimate indicates a strong carbon release of +134 t C ha-1 within the last 44 years. Thus, the spruces would need to grow for another 100 years at about the current rate, to compensate the potential peat loss of the former years. In

  17. Changes in soil quality following poplar short-rotation forestry under different cutting cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Di Bene

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the change of energy concept induced by global warming and fossil fuel depletion together with the advances in agriculture towards a multifunctional and a more sustainable use of rural areas promoted the development of biomass crops. In this regard, Populus is largely utilised in short-rotation forestry (SRF, as it is known to be a fast-growing tree, producing large yields and having a high energy potential. Most studies focused on economic-productive and energetic aspects of Populus plantations, whereas their impact on soil quality and health have been poorly investigated. In this study, the main soil chemical parameters, microbial biomass and activity were assessed aiming at evaluating the impact of Populus SRF under one, two and three-year cutting cycles (T1, T2 and T3 in comparison with an intensive food cropping system (wheat-soybean rotation, WS. In addition, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungal inoculum potential was measured using root colonisation (RC and number of entry points (EP. In the 0-10 cm soil depth, pH, phosphorus (P, total nitrogen (N and soil organic carbon (SOC were significantly affected by the management. In comparison with WS, Populus SRF treatments produced significant pH decreases together with N and SOC increases, these last ones ranging from 11 to 34% and from 21 to 57%, respectively. Under T3 soil pH decreased of 0.25 units, while P, N and SOC increased of 10, 34 and 57%, respectively, in comparison with WS. Microbial biomass and soil respiration under SRF showed also mean increases of 71 and 17%, respectively. Under SRF treatments, Lolium perenne, commonly observed in all field plots, was more than twofold colonised by AM fungi in comparison with WS, while the number of EP, observed on Lactuca sativa used as a test plant, showed values ranging from 8 to 21 times higher. The present study shows the potential of a Populus SRF to improve soil chemical, biochemical and biological quality parameters in

  18. Key economic aspects of forestry development in the area of the Kolubara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kolubara district covers the north western part of Serbia. A total of 62,330 ha or 25.3% of the Kolubara district is forest covered. Out of the total forest area, app. 18.7% are state owned, and 81.3% are private forests. The average annual volume of wood that is exported from the forests of the Kolubara district is 60,000 m³ of hardwood and 670 m³ of softwood. In the total volume of harvested timber, beech as a species participates on average with 60%. The aim of the research is to determine the amount of the purchase, marketing/ placement and price of wood and non-wood forest products (NWFPs in the municipalities of Valjevo, Ub and Lajkovac. The purpose of this research is to investigate and determine the possibilities for the development of forestry, as well as small and medium-sized enterprises, which are directed towards the use of wood and NWFPs in the are of Kolubara. The subjects of research are: companies that do business in this area, the quantities that are purchased and marketed, the prices at which the products are implemented, as well as strategic documents of local self-government, which are important for economic analysis. The research was conducted in the territory of the Kolubara District, and covers 6 companies. Decreasing trends in the placement of technical wood with an average growth rate of -20% and stacked wood with an average growth rate of -12% of private forests as well as the declining trend in placements of beech logs for cutting first class with an average growth rate of -10% indicate that the wood stocks in forests is each year less and that they must be taken appropriate steps to correct the situation. The inadequate utilization of roe deer, as a resource, point percentages of realized shooting plans and projected revenues. However, it is present growth trends of shooting, with an average growth rate of 8% and placement of roe deer meat, with an average growth rate of 9.9%.

  19. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  20. Pathogenic and Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) Bacteria causing Dieback of Willows in Short Rotation Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Pajand

    2005-03-01

    To find out whether bacteria isolated from diseased plant parts can be the main causal agent for the dieback appearing in Salix energy forestry plantations in Sweden during the last few years, and if the joint effects of bacteria and frost injury are synergistic, extensive sampling of shoots from diseased Salix plants was performed. We performed several laboratory and greenhouse investigations and used evaluation techniques on the functions of the Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) bacteria. We carried out a comparison between spring and autumn bacterial communities isolated from within (endophytically) and surface (epiphytically) plant tissues of Salix viminalis. Seasonal variation of bacteria in willow clones with different levels of frost sensitivity and symptoms of bacterial damage was also investigated. We further focussed on possible effect of fertilisation and nutrient availability on the bacterial community in relation to plant dieback in Estonian willow plantations. The identification and detection of INA bacteria which cause damage in combination with frost to willow (Salix spp) plants in late fall, winter and spring was performed using BIOLOG MicroPlate, biochemical tests, selective INA primers and 16S rDNA analysis. To distinguish the character for differentiation between these bacteria morphologically and with respect to growing ability different culture media were used. We studied the temperature, at which ice nucleation occurred for individual bacteria, estimated the population of INA bacteria, effect of growth limiting factors, and evaluated the effect of chemical and physical agents for disruption and possible inhibition of INA among individual bacterial strains. The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on INA is discussed. We demonstrate that among the bacterial isolates recovered from the willow plantations, there were many that were capable of ice nucleation at temperatures between -2 and -10 deg C, many that were capable of inducing a