WorldWideScience

Sample records for forested mountain side

  1. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  2. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  3. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  4. Mountain coniferous forests, refugia and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zoltán

    2008-05-01

    The boreal coniferous forests form the most extended vegetation zone of the Northern Hemisphere. As opposed to North America, they are disconnected from the mountain coniferous forests in Europe, because of the dominant east-west direction of the mountain chains. Consequently, the mountain forests show some unique characteristic features of glacial survival and postglacial history, as well. The mountain coniferous forests have numerous common floral and faunal elements with the boreal zone. However, the few unique faunal elements of the European mountain coniferous forests can be used to unravel the peculiar patterns and processes of this biome. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Thomas Schmitt and Karola Haubrich (2008) use the relatively common and taxonomically well-studied butterfly, the large ringlet (Erebia euryale) to identify the last glacial refugia and postglacial expansion routes.

  5. Effects of forest expansion on mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Magid, Jakob; Rodeghiero, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Grassland abandonment followed by forest succession is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. We studied the impact of current forest expansion on mountain grassland on changes in physical soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions along a land-use and management gradient...

  6. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Long Trail and Appalachian Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  7. Forest cutting and regeneration methodology on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; SHAOGuo-fan; CHENGao; LIUXin-shuang; GUANZhi-peng; LIYang

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of degenerated forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountain area,which include over-harvest natural forest,typical secondary forest,derived forest,and artificial forest.Forest cutting and regeneration methods that were historically used in the region were summarized.They lnclude diameter-class selective cutting,clearcutting,upbringing selective cutting,and selective sutting.We proposed cutting methods for the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest,spruce-fir forest,and larch forest.The measures for restoring the original mixed forest ecosystems were recommended.

  8. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  9. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  10. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  11. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2004 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2004 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  12. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2000 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2000 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  13. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2003 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2003 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  14. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2001 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2001 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  15. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2000 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2000 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  16. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2001 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2001 data layers includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  17. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2006 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The dataset contains management areas on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) that have similiar management objectives. This dataset displays...

  18. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2004 - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2004 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  19. VT Green Mountain National Forest Mgmt Areas 2003 - boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EnvironMangareas_MAREA2003 data layer includes management area boundaries administered by the Green Mountain National Forest and partner...

  20. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  1. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...... involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy....... Changes in labile soil C were assessed by carbohydrate and thermal analyses of soil samples and fractions. Forest expansion on mountain grasslands caused a decrease in SOC stocks within the mineral soil. The SOC accumulation within the organic layers following forest establishment could not fully...

  2. Problems and relevant strategies on natural forest protection in Changbai Mountain forest area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-cheng

    2003-01-01

    Changbai Mountain forest area is not only is a national timber base but also a green ecological defense for Songliao Plain of NE China. The Natural Forest Protection Project of this area has an important bearing on the social and economic sustainable development of Jilin Province or even the whole forest area in NE China. This paper summarized general conditions of natural forest in Changbai Mountain state-owned forest area and put forward six problems need to be urgently solved and five strategic suggestions on natural forest protection and sustainable management.

  3. Forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO; Guofan(邵国凡); LI; Jing(李静); WU; Gang(吴钢); XIAO; Han(肖寒); ZHAO; Jingzhu(赵景柱)

    2002-01-01

    The forest ecosystem of the Changbai Mountain is the most typical upland temperate forest ecosystem in eastern Asia. It is also of the most primitive vegetation type that came into being through the natural succession of soil and vegetation following volcanic eruption. The forest ecosystem has great importance for maintaining the structures and functions of the watershed ecosystems of the Songhua River, the Yalu River and the Tumen River. We combined physical assessment method(PAM) with the value assessment method(VAM) to evaluate the forest ecosystem services of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain, including eco-tourism, forest by-products, timber, soil and water conservation, air purification, and the recycling of nutritive elements. We also assessed the integrated forest ecosystem service and analyzed its dynamics. The service value provided by the Changbai Mountain forest ecosystem amounts up to RMB 3.38×1012 yuan, of which, water conservation is 66%, water conservation and air purification together make up 80%, while the timber value is only 7%. Therefore, developing the ecosystem services besides timber is the best way to exert the integrated value of the forest ecosystem services of Changbai Mountain.

  4. Past and Future Climate Change Impacts on Mountain Forests on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, C.; Fisher, D. M.; Gavin, D. G.; Temperli, C.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain forest composition and distribution is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift to higher elevations with climate change. However, warmer winters will also lead to an upward shift of the snowline and a decrease in snowpack at lower and intermediate elevations. In the mountain ranges of Western North America, snowpack plays an important role in providing additional moisture during the dry summer months. It is therefore unclear if the projected climate change will lead to a rise of subalpine forest due to a longer growing season or a contraction due to drought stress. Since forest succession processes take place over decades and centuries we use LandClim, a dynamic vegetation model, to assess the impact of climate change on mountain forests on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA). As a reality check we first simulate vegetation dynamics since the last Ice Age and compare model output with paleobotanical data from five natural archives that span the topographic and climatic gradients on the Peninsula. LandClim produces realistic present-day species compositions with respect to elevation and precipitation gradients. Moreover, the simulations of forest dynamics for the last 16,000 years generally agree with the pollen and macrofossil data. We then simulated mountain forests under future climate projections. As a result, our model indicates drastic changes in species composition with a replacement of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) by more drought-resistant species such as subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). On the drier, eastern side of the Peninsula, the model even suggests a lowering of timberline due to insufficient moisture availability in shallow alpine soils. Our results have important implications for ecosystem managers and stress the urgency of climate change mitigation.

  5. Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia

    Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties ...... grasslands, which can be explained by lower accumulation of binding agents of microbial origin. This can have implications for the accumulation of atmospheric CO2 in soil and for the susceptibility of SOC to external disturbances such as management and environmental changes.......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...... involved into long-term stability are largely unknown. The aim of this PhD thesis was to explore changes in: (i) SOC stocks; (ii) physical SOC fractions; and (iii) labile soil carbon components following forest expansion on mountain grasslands. A land-use gradient located in the Southern Alps (Italy...

  6. Geomorphic control on the δ15N of mountain forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Hilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forests are subject to high rates of physical erosion which can export particulate nitrogen from ecosystems. However, the impact of geomorphic processes on nitrogen budgets remains poorly constrained. We have used the elemental and isotopic composition of soil and plant organic matter to investigate nitrogen cycling in the mountain forest of Taiwan, from 24 sites with distinct geomorphic (topographic slope and climatic (precipitation, temperature characteristics. The organic carbon to nitrogen ratio of soil organic matter decreased with soil 14C age, providing constraint on average rates of nitrogen loss using a mass balance model. Model predictions suggest that present day estimates of nitrogen deposition exceed contemporary and historic nitrogen losses. We found ∼6‰ variability in the stable isotopic composition (δ15N of soil and plants which was not related to soil 14C age or climatic conditions. Instead, δ15N was significantly, negatively correlated with topographic slope. Using the mass balance model, we demonstrate that the correlation can be explained by an increase in nitrogen loss by non-fractioning pathways on steeper slopes, where physical erosion most effectively removes particulate nitrogen. Published data from forests on steep slopes are consistent with the correlation. Based on our dataset and these observations, we hypothesise that variable physical erosion rates can significantly influence soil δ15N, and suggest particulate nitrogen export is a major, yet underappreciated, loss term in the nitrogen budget of mountain forests.

  7. Stakeholders’ perception of forest management: a Portuguese mountain case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Marta-Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper aims to test a participatory methodology to draw parallels and paradoxes as to how some forest sector-related entities and local communities view the Montemuro Mountain forest, namely in terms of its characteristics, the offered opportunities, its problems and the likely solutions for its management as well as the role played by stakeholders, which can be replicated in other case studies and can also facilitate the forest policy making process.Area of study: The Natura 2000 Network “Montemuro Mountain” Site in Portugal.Material and methods: This study combined several consultation and citizen participation techniques.Main results: The perceptions shared by the stakeholders are some similar, others not similar and others still quite paradoxical regarding forest characteristics and the opportunities they offer. The study has shown that it is possible to implement and improve citizen participation methodologies. This can be a viable way towards more effective forest management and fire prevention as this may help blunt conflicts of interest in forest space management. However, for participation to be truly effective and representative, a policy regarding training and awareness of the importance of information is necessary.Research highlights: The stakeholder perceptions on forests and forest management are assessed; forest fires and agrarian abandonment are central for territory’s development; depopulation, old age and absenteeism emphasize degradation of forest areas; Conscious citizen participation benefit policymaking and forest management.Abbreviations used: ZIF: Forest Intervention Zones; GAL: Local Follow-up Group; GTFs: Technical Bureaus of Forestry.

  8. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebi, P; Seidl, R; Motta, R; Fuhr, M; Firm, D; Krumm, F; Conedera, M; Ginzler, C; Wohlgemuth, T; Kulakowski, D

    2017-03-15

    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25-115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15-40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more strongly

  9. The upper mountain forest and tree response to climate change in south Siberian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Ranson, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate topographic features of high elevation mountain environments govern spatial distribution and climate-driven dynamics of the forests growing there. The study area included upper mountain forest stands formed by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine(Pinus sibirica Du Tour) (elevation range 1800-2600 m) in the mountains of southern Siberia. We used archive maps, satellite and on-ground data from 1960-2002. Data were normalized to avoid bias caused by uneven distribution of elevation, and slope steepness within the analyzed area. Spatial distribution of forest stands were analyzed with respect to topography based on a DEM. The primary results show that mountain forest spatial patterns are anisotropic with respect to topography. At a given elevation, the majority of forests occupied slopes with greater than mean slope values. As the elevation increased forests shifted to steeper slopes. The forest azimuth distribution orientation changed clockwise with elevation increase (total shift was 120 deg) indicating a combined effect of wind and water stress on the observed forest patterns. Warming caused changes in the forest distribution patterns during the last four decades. The area of closed forests increased 1.5 times, which was attributed to increased stand density and tree migration. The migration rate was 1.5 ± 0.9 m yr^-1 and caused a mean forest line shift of 63 ± 37m. Along with upward migration, downward tree migration onto hill slopes was observed. Changes in tree morphology were also noted as wide-spread transformation of the prostrate forms of Siberian pine and larch into erect forms. An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that the widespread vertical transformation of krummholz began in the mid -1980s. Radial and apical growth increments correlated with increase in air temperature (summer and “cold period”) and CO2 concentration. Regeneration responded to temperature increase of 1 deg C by migration

  10. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that are...

  11. Quality and change analysis of forest resource in typical Changbai Mountain forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUDe-yong; HAOZhan-qing; XlONGZai-ping; WANGDian-zhong; YANGXiu-ying

    2004-01-01

    The utilization and changes of forest resources were studied in the Lishuihe Forest Bureau. Based on remote sensing images in 1985 and 1999, changes of major forest resources were analyzed by statistical and overlap method and classified quantitatively. The results showed that in recent 15 years, logging spots and man-made young forest changed violently, which was due to human activities. Different forest management manners and harvesting intensity played an important role in forest resources change. Dongsheng and Xilinhe tree farms were typical cases of different forest status and management for the Bureau, where forest succession was intervened by either human or natural disturbance. Dongsheng Tree Farm underwent a lighth arvest intensity and maintained a unit stock volume of 536.27 m3. hm-2, as much as that of broadleaf/Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve; Xilinhe Tree Farm underwent an intense harvest and was composed of secondary forests,where mature forests just had a small percentage and the unit stock volume was low. The study was useful to guide future forest management. What's more, problems found in the research were also analyzed and reasonable advice was given to the local forest management.

  12. LANDSCAPING RECREATIONAL AREAS FOR WALKING IN A MOUNTAIN FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonin V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the substantiation of recreational zones in the mountain forests for walking tourists. The article contains a functional zoning, design and spatial solution of landscapes of these zones. The aesthetic and recreational value of forests recreational areas increases the implementation of thinning. Implementation of thinning in the territory of the forest zone allocates places for relaxing and walking. This is the basis of functional separation of recreational areas. Coordinates of the objects of recreational areas (inputs and outputs, the center of the composition, toilets, natural monuments, gazebos, crossing trails and wooden sculptures are determined using GPS satnav. We can determine the spatial composition of landscapes with forest vegetation, relief and water space. This allows you to allocate places for sight-seeing platforms. Small architectural forms must be in harmony with the surrounding landscape. Walking paths form the basis recreation areas. Turns and bends of routes for walking must comply with the elements of the landscape. Areas for recreation are usually located along the trail in of water bodies and in places of disclosure prospects. The recreation area is limited to with an enclosure which fits into the forest landscapes. In this case, the fence should not interfere with of migration of small animals (herpetofauna, insectivores, and others. The harmony of landscape elements serves as a criterion of completion of design. In the recreation area fire prevention measures have to be carried out by tenants. Permissible load of tourists to recreation areas is determined by a special technique. Conclusions: there was proposed a new kind of recreation facilities in the mountain forests - the zone for walking tourists. When carrying out forestry works, there will be a minimum of expenses on arrangement of the zone. Negative consequences to the forest environment would also be minimized

  13. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W. L.; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  14. Structural and productivity characteristics of montane beech forests in the area of Radava mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golić Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a typological study of the ecological unit of mountain beech forests in the area of Radava mountain. The aim of this research is to present the basic characteristics of these forests ecosystems through the process of defining forest types. The results will help in defining the forest type and according to the results of this research will create conditions for a more realistic definition of goals in planning the management of these and other forest ecosystems.

  15. 76 FR 22363 - Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... Forest Service Kaibab National Forest, Williams Ranger District; Arizona; Bill Williams Mountain... forested conditions on and surrounding Bill Williams Mountain by reducing hazardous fuels and moving... approximately 4 miles south-southwest of the city of Williams, Arizona. The Proposed Action includes...

  16. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as

  17. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  18. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  19. Forest biomass at Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to accurately estimate the size of the carbon pool and the capacity of the carbon sink in the forested areas of Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,we have established regression equations of organ biomass of eight tree species.We measured and investigated the biomass of different forest stand types based on data from 1259 standard sample plots and 836 standard sample trees.for eight types of forest stands on Xiaolong Mountain,are as follows:Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata 84.05,Pinus tabulaeformis 62.44,Quercus variabilis 81.77,Populus sp.and Betula sp.combined 77.44,Larix sp.69.00,Pinus armandii 70.07,Picea sp.96.49 and Abies sp.98.72.We also looked at other broad-leaved mixed forests.Our study shows that the biomass of a single tree of each tree species is closely related to the diameter at breast height (DBH) and to tree height.The biomass of single trees as well as stand volumes is closely related to average DBH,average tree height and to stand density.

  20. Structural diversity of forest communities on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural diversity of forests on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing,was surveyed by a plotless method combined with branch and leaf coverage estimation in the different layers.New structural indices were constructed,calculated and compared among different communities.On the basis of previous work,structural diversity of forest communities at the stand level was described by a vertical complexity index and a horizontal heterogeneity index.From a correlational analysis among the new indices and other commonly used biodiversity indices,we concluded that the new indices are closely related to a tree height inequality index and the Shannon-Wiener index of the tree and shrub layer,which indicated that the new indices were good at indicating structural diversity in the different forests on Baihuashan Mountain.The results show that,in natural forests,structural diversity of pioneer communities is much lower than in late successive communities.In plantations,structural diversity is determined by the stage of development and tree species.Tending would increase horizontal heterogeneity and decrease vertical complexity.

  1. Forest health monitoring in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Kenya and Tanzania: A baseline report on selected forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif Madoffe; James Mwang' ombe; Barbara O' Connell; Paul Rogers; Gerard Hertel; Joe Mwangi

    2005-01-01

    This status report presents the results of 43 permanent forest health study plots (3871 trees, saplings, and seedlings) established in 2000 and 2001 in parts of three areas of the Eastern Arc Mountains - the Taita Hills in Kenya (Ngangao and Chawia), the East Usambara Mountains (Amani Nature Reserve) and the Uluguru Mountains (Morogoro Teachers College and Kimboza) in...

  2. Temperate mountain forest biodiversity under climate change: compensating negative effects by increasing structural complexity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braunisch, Veronika; Coppes, Joy; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Suchant, Rudi; Zellweger, Florian; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    .... In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management...

  3. Temperate Mountain Forest Biodiversity under Climate Change: Compensating Negative Effects by Increasing Structural Complexity: e97718

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Braunisch; Joy Coppes; Raphaël Arlettaz; Rudi Suchant; Florian Zellweger; Kurt Bollmann

    2014-01-01

    .... In mountain forests, where vertebrate species largely depend on vegetation composition and structure, deteriorating habitat suitability may thus be mitigated or even compensated by habitat management...

  4. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  5. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  6. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes...

  7. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and Old Dry Creek. The... responsible official will decide whether and how to reissue grazing permits in the Cox, Craig, Mill Creek...

  8. Study on the Development of Under-forest Economy in Guangdong Mountain Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; CHEN; Hongou; ZHANG; Qitao; WU

    2015-01-01

    From the origin and connotation of the under-forest economy,this paper analyzed plight of the development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. It discussed benefits of under-forest economy,favorable conditions and development path of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas. Results indicate that developing under-forest economy is an essential path for realizing green growth and coordinated development of Guangdong mountain areas. However,due to terrain,market,management and technology reasons,the under-forest economy is still not fully developed in Guangdong mountain areas. The development path of under-forest economy suitable for Guangdong mountain areas should be based on ecological protection and oriented towards maximizing ecological,economic and social benefits. Guangdong mountain areas have in-born natural and resource advantages,economic pull of development mode and market demand change,and favorable condition of policy encouragement for development of under-forest economy. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development of under-forest economy in Guangdong mountain areas from development mode,industrial distribution and development direction.

  9. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2017-01-01

    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  10. Aluminum availability in forest floor of two acidified mountain watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaåa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina

    2010-05-01

    We measured seasonal variability of soil chemistry in upper organic soil horizons (O and A) in watersheds of two acidified mountain lakes, Plešné (PL) and Čertovo (CT) in Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic). Both the localities are acidified, PL watershed recently undergoes strong changes due to bark beetle infestation followed by forest dieback. Soils were sampled in 6-week period during the years 2008 - 2009. The aim of the study was to investigate changes in Al availability in upper organic soil horizons during year together with changes in nutrient availability and transformations. We observed significant seasonal variability in concentration of water extractable Al (AlH2O) and exchangeable Al (AlEX, determined as 1M KCl extractable). Concentrations of AlH2O, which represents quickly releasable form of Al, varied between 0.5 - 2.7 mg kg-1and 0.5 - 4.4 mg kg-1in the PL - O and PL - A horizons, respectively, and between 0.4 - 1.4 and 0.6 - 3.5 mg kg-1in the CT - O and CT - A horizons, respectively. Concentrations of AlH2O in PL watershed compared to AlH2O concentrations in CT watershed were higher, despite higher soil pH values there. The main peaks of AlH2O concentrations were observed during the winters, while the concentrations were lowest during the springs and the falls. The major part (>90%) of AlH2O was the organically bound Al. Concentrations of AlEX, representing potentially toxic Al form, were approximately 2 - 3 orders of magnitude higher compared to AlH2O concentrations, and were consistently lower in PL watershed. In H2O extracts, we observed dramatic increase of available P concentrations in upper organic horizons in PL watershed after elevated litter fall associated with forest dieback. In parallel we also observed changes in nitrogen chemistry, especially significant increase of NH4-N concentrations in both the horizons. Both the changes in P and N availability in the PL watershed are probably connected with the forest dieback. (For more details

  11. Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Peter V; Miniat, Chelcy F; Elliott, Katherine J; Swank, Wayne T; Brantley, Steven T; Laseter, Stephanie H

    2016-09-01

    Climate change and forest disturbances are threatening the ability of forested mountain watersheds to provide the clean, reliable, and abundant fresh water necessary to support aquatic ecosystems and a growing human population. Here, we used 76 years of water yield, climate, and field plot vegetation measurements in six unmanaged, reference watersheds in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, USA to determine whether water yield has changed over time, and to examine and attribute the causal mechanisms of change. We found that annual water yield increased in some watersheds from 1938 to the mid-1970s by as much as 55%, but this was followed by decreases up to 22% by 2013. Changes in forest evapotranspiration were consistent with, but opposite in direction to the changes in water yield, with decreases in evapotranspiration up to 31% by the mid-1970s followed by increases up to 29% until 2013. Vegetation survey data showed commensurate reductions in forest basal area until the mid-1970s and increases since that time accompanied by a shift in dominance from xerophytic oak and hickory species to several mesophytic species (i.e., mesophication) that use relatively more water. These changes in forest structure and species composition may have decreased water yield by as much as 18% in a given year since the mid-1970s after accounting for climate. Our results suggest that changes in climate and forest structure and species composition in unmanaged forests brought about by disturbance and natural community dynamics over time can result in large changes in water supply.

  12. Forest roadsides harbour less competitive habitats for a relict mountain plant (Pulsatilla vernalis) in lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Katarzyna M.; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Grzyl, Andrzej; Rewicz, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The long-term survival of relict populations depends on the accessibility of appropriate sites (microrefugia). In recent times, due to the mass extinction of rare species that has resulted from the loss of natural habitats, the question is – Are there any human-made sites that can act as refugial habitats? We examined forest roadside populations of the mountain plant Pulsatilla vernalis in the last large lowland refugium in Central Europe. We compared the habitat conditions and community structure of roadsides with P. vernalis against the forest interior. Light availability and bryophyte composition were the main factors that distinguished roadsides. Pulsatilla occurred on sites that had more light than the forest interior, but were also more or less shaded by trees, so more light came as one-side illumination from the road. Roadsides had also a lower coverage of bryophytes that formed large, dense carpets. At the same time, they were characterised by a greater richness of vascular plants and ‘small’ bryophytes, which corresponds to a higher frequency of disturbances. In a warming and more fertile Anthropocene world, competition plays the main role in the transformation of forest communities, which is why relict populations have found refugia in extensively disturbed human-made habitats.

  13. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  14. Bioenergy from Mountain Pine Beetle Timber and Forest Residuals: A Cost Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niquidet, K.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    In light of the large volumes of pine killed in the interior forests of British Columbia (BC) by the mountain pine beetle, many forest sector participants are keen to employ forest biomass as an energy source. To assess the feasibility of a wood biomass-fired power plant in the BC interior, it is ne

  15. Erosion of organic carbon from mountain forest by landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Robert; Meunier, Patrick; Hovius, Niels; Bellingham, Peter; Galy, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Erosion of particulate organic carbon (POC) from mountains is known to occur at very high rates. This is true of both POC from the terrestrial biosphere (vegetation and soil) and that contained in sedimentary rocks of variable geological age. To understand the controls on the carbon transfer from these different reservoirs, and how they might change under evolving tectonic and climatic forcing, it is necessary to examine the mechanisms responsible for erosion of POC in mountains. Here we quantify the role of landslides in the transfer of POC in natural, forested catchments of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand, using remote sensing and measurements of standing biomass density. First, we derive a model to account for variations in biomass density and carbon stock with altitude based on forest plot measurements. This is combined with the probability distribution of landslide area as a function of elevation, derived over the last four decades, to quantify the rate of landslide-driven erosion of biogenic POC. We also quantify the erosion of fossil POC from bedrock using area-volume scaling laws and the organic carbon content of bedrock. Our findings suggest that high fossil and non-fossil POC erosion rates can be sustained by landslides and highlight the importance of landslides for the input of fossil POC to river networks. We also seek to quantify the proportion of the mobilized POC that is delivered directly to the channel thalweg. We find an important fraction of the mobilized carbon remains on hillslopes. The precise role of this transient carbon store within the landscape remains to be assessed, as does the specific nature of the coupling between hillslopes and river channels and its implications for the fate of landslide-mobilized POC.

  16. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  17. Tree species distribution and forest structure along environmental gradients in the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    Eleven groups of three plots stratified by aspect (windward vs. leeward) and topography (ridge, slope, and ravine) and varying in elevation from 880 to about 1,000 metres were used to sample forest structure and species composition within the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Stem density to windward was significantly greater on slopes, andf or all...

  18. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  19. Land Surface Coverage, Main Vegetation and Physical Soil Characteristics of West Side of Lawu Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of catchment area management of a mountain requeres identification the vegetation and condition of the major vegetation. This reserachs purpouse was characterizing major vegetation, coverage and soil properties at 1000 m elevation sea level to the top of Lawu mountain. Survey was started by identification of every vegetation unit followed by taking soil sample that was analyzed in laboratory for identifying the properties. Sampling and identification conducted close by common climbing track line to the top, including Jogorogo and Cemoro Sewu East Java, and Cemoro Kandang and Sukuh Central java. Coverage of vegetation used sattellite immage landsad and was analyzed by Arview software. Results showed that intens and dense forest was 36,22% and the other was rare density forest. Major vegetation of Lawu mountain was Pinus (Pinus merkusii, Cemara (Casuarina equisatifolia, Tanganan (Schleptera sp, Akasia gunung (Acasia decurren, rumput vestuca, Cantigi (Vaccinium sp kayu pasang (Lithocarpus pruinusa and vegetables on agriculture land. Every type of vegetation unit had different soil physycal properties of topsoil, while elevation had effect on soil bulk volume and porocity.

  20. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen emission from different forest soils in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O and N2 emissions from four forest soils on northern slop of Changbai Mountain were measured with acetylene inhibition methods. In incubation experiments, 0.06% and 3% C2H2 were used to inhibit nitrification and denitrification in these soils, respectively. Both nitrification and denitification existed in these soils except tundra soil, where only denitrification was found. The annually averaged rates of nitrification and denitrification in mountain dark brown forest soil were much higher than that in other three soils. In mountain brown coniferous soil, contributions of different processes to gaseous nitrogen emissions were Denitrification N2O > Nitrification N2O > Denitrification N2. The same sequence exists in mountain soddy soil as that in the mountain brown coniferous soil. The sequence in mountain tundra soil was Denitrification N2O > Denitrification N2.

  1. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  2. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  3. Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains ecological province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Riggs; Arthur R. Tiedemann; John G. Cook; et al.

    2000-01-01

    Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more years) foraging by Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus...

  4. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  5. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  6. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  7. Spatiotemporal Analysis of the Controlling Factors of Forest Cover Change in the Romanian Carpathian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Vanonckelen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest cover change is driven by complex processes that depend on political, conservation, and biophysical conditions. At present, mountain areas worldwide are undergoing intense forest cover change. Local-scale studies exist, but policy makers lack reliable and consistent information at the regional scale about long-term trends, controlling factors, and the success of existing policy measures. Long-term forest cover change data based on advanced image preprocessing procedures have recently become available. This study explores the potential of such data for a regional-scale analysis of forest cover change in mountain areas by analyzing forest cover change in the Romanian Carpathian Ecoregion (about 107,000 km2 between 1985 and 2010. It shows that (1 extrapolations from local to regional scale are inaccurate, (2 European forest protection policies have been unsuccessful, and (3 the Romanian Carpathians are greening due to land abandonment in remote areas.

  8. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  9. Assessing relationships between forest structure and soil erosion in mountainous forest using a Cesium-137 tracer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwanghun; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    The fallout radionuclides (FRNs) particularly Cesium-137 are known as a quantitatively reliable means of estimating sediment redistribution rates within agricultural landscapes and forested area. However, fewer studies have done using FRNs in forested areas even though understanding soil redistribution patterns in mountainous forest areas is one of the important issues for forest management. The objective of this study is to figure out key forest structures affecting soil redistribution rate. In this study, we estimated soil loss and gain rate at 50 points with various forest types and topography in steep mountainous forest area in the Experimental Forest of Kangwon National University in Kangwon Province, South Korea by the Cesium-137 tracing technique. The results show the factors related to the topography such as slope and water accumulation have little effect on soil redistribution rate. The shrub and small tree layer affect more on soil redistribution rate. Additionally, the data shows relatively higher erosion rate in Korean Pine tree plantation area (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) than semi-natural deciduous and Quercus forests where shrubs and small trees are more prevalent.

  10. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Watson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biome-averaged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.

  11. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Godzik, B.; Grodzinska, K.; Fraczek, W.; Musselman, R.; Manning, W.; Badea, O.; Popescu, F.; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means {approx}30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O{sub 3} levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means {approx}50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O{sub 3} exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region. - Ozone concentrations in Central and Eastern European mountain ranges are elevated and phytotoxic to sensitive vegetation.

  12. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Slope stability of proposed ski facilities at the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the proposed expansion of ski facilities at Crested Butte Mountain Resort, Gunnison County, Colorado, is in an area underlain by landslide deposits that are on the southeast side of Snodgrass Mountain. Except for localized movement, the landslides do not appear to be moving at present or to have moved in the past several decades. Shallow sliding and debris flows have occurred in similar materials nearby and are likely to occur in the landslide deposits during the 50-100 year life of the proposed facilities. Hazards related to debris flow, shallow slumping, and expansive soils in the deposits can be reduced by appropriate engineering and remedial measures but maintenance for the proposed facility may become costly. Snow making is likely to aggravate the hazards of shallow slumping, deep-seated sliding, and debris flow. Reactivation and deep-seated movement of a 1.6-million-m3 slide at the east side of the deposits would damage or destroy a proposed gondola, ski lift N-3, and related facilities. Moving the gondola and lift off the slide and prohibiting snow making on the slide will protect the gondola and lift and reduce the chances of debris-flow damage to a proposed development near the toe of the slide. Insufficient data are available to assess the current or future stability of the landslides or to evaluate possible mitigation strategies; detailed stability analyses are needed before developing any facilities on the landslide deposits.

  14. Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Heleen A; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria M; Peters, Glen P

    2014-07-01

    Expanding high-elevation and high-latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an empirically based projection of mountain birch forest expansion in south-central Norway under climate change and absence of land use. Climate effects of carbon sequestration and albedo change are compared using four emission metrics. Forest expansion was modeled for a projected 2.6 °C increase in summer temperature in 2100, with associated reduced snow cover. We find that the current (year 2000) forest line of the region is circa 100 m lower than its climatic potential due to land-use history. In the future scenarios, forest cover increased from 12% to 27% between 2000 and 2100, resulting in a 59% increase in biomass carbon storage and an albedo change from 0.46 to 0.30. Forest expansion in 2100 was behind its climatic potential, forest migration rates being the primary limiting factor. In 2100, the warming caused by lower albedo from expanding forest was 10 to 17 times stronger than the cooling effect from carbon sequestration for all emission metrics considered. Reduced snow cover further exacerbated the net warming feedback. The warming effect is considerably stronger than previously reported for boreal forest cover, because of the typically low biomass density in mountain forests and the large changes in albedo of snow-covered tundra areas. The positive climate feedback of high-latitude and high-elevation expanding forests with seasonal snow cover exceeds those of afforestation at lower elevation, and calls for further attention of both modelers and empiricists. The inclusion and upscaling of these climate feedbacks from mountain forests into global models is warranted to assess the potential global impacts.

  15. Stakeholders’ perception of forest management: a Portuguese mountain case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta-Costa, A.; Torres-Manso, F.; Pinto, R.; Tibério, L.; Carneiro, I.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The Natura 2000 Network “Montemuro Mountain” Site in Portugal. Material and methods: This study combined several consultation and citizen participation techniques. Main results: The perceptions shared by the stakeholders are some similar, others not similar and others still quite paradoxical regarding forest characteristics and the opportunities they offer. The study has shown that it is possible to implement and improve citizen participation methodologies. This can be a viable way towards more effective forest management and fire prevention as this may help blunt conflicts of interest in forest space management. However, for participation to be truly effective and representative, a policy regarding training and awareness of the importance of information is necessary. Research highlights: The stakeholder perceptions on forests and forest management are assessed; forest fires and agrarian abandonment are central for territory’s development; depopulation, old age and absenteeism emphasize degradation of forest areas; Conscious citizen participation benefit policymaking and forest management. (Author)

  16. Distribution and physical traits of red wood ant mounds in a managed Rhodope mountains forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikas, Angelos; Karanikola, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Aristotelis C

    2016-07-01

    Red wood ants (RWA) are of great ecological importance for the forest ecosystem. Forestry practices, like clear-cutting, and trampling load, due to tourism, logging, and grazing stock, can greatly affect their colonies, disturbing their microhabitat. RWA in Greek forests have not been investigated so far. We herein report on the distribution and morphological traits of Formica lugubris mounds studied in Elatia forest (Rhodope mountains, Northern Greece), an all-aged managed mixed forest where selective logging practices are performed. Nearby vegetation, slope, canopy cover, shrub density, and distance from the nearest neighboring trees were also recorded. Mound density was shown to be much higher in this Greek forest compared to RWA mounds in other European-managed forests. Furthermore, we recorded a continuous nest establishment, despite forest management disturbances and trampling load. Our study suggests that single-tree selective forestry practices are essential for creating ideal microhabitats for the RWA and, therefore, for maintaining RWA populations.

  17. Environmental management and sustainable development in forested mountain areas of northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper studied the sustainable development through a reasonable management of the social,economic and natural environment in a forested mountain area of northeast China. In order to show the local peopie how to manage their most important forest resource, we analyzed the life-history process of the key species and the influencing factors that were associated with the forest regeneration and sustainability. Pollination and fertilization were mainly affected by weather conditions. Light intensity under the forest canopy was the key factor that controlled seedlings growth and saplings survival. Periodic seeds setting caused the fluctuations of rodents and other related animals in the food chain. Squirrels played a very important role in the forest regeneration, theses animals were the absolutely indispensable components of the forest ecosystem. How to understand the coevolutionary relationships among species in the forest ecosystems was very important for the conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecosystem integrity. In conservation of the natural resources, we studied the social and economic environment of the forested mountain area. It is very hard to effectively protect the forest resources and maintain the normal life of the local people under the regime of the "unified administration and enterprise system". Reforms are needed both in administrative institutions and in enterprise management. In the end, this paper proposed that we should not only protect the trees, the related animals, the ecological habitats, and the whole forest ecosystems, but also consider the human activities and their basic requirements so as to realize a sustainable development in the forested mountain areas.

  18. Turbulence regime near the forest floor of a mixed broad leaved/Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and observation for this study were carried out by using a three-dimensional (u, v, w) Sonic anemometer (IAP-SA 485), at Forest Ecosystem Opened Research Station of Changbai Mountains (128(28'E and 42(24' N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) in August 2001. The basic characteristics of turbulence, such as turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, time scales, and convection state, near the forest floor were analyzed. It is concluded that the airflow near forest floor is characterized by high intermittence and asymmetry, and the active and upward movement takes the leading position. Near forest floor, the vertical turbulence is retained and its time scale and length scale are much less than that of u, v components. The eddy near forest floor shows a flat structure and look like a 'Disk'. Buoyancy plays a leading role in the generation and maintenance of local turbulence

  19. Infiltration characteristics of water in forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Meng LI; Jinhua CHENG; Bo WANG; Weili LU

    2009-01-01

    Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed coniferbroadleaf forest (0.4454)>coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950. We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.

  20. Carbon balance of mountain forests close to timberline - Effect of encroachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Robert; Jandl, Nathalia

    2013-04-01

    Mountain forests are strongly affected by climate change effects. The migration of trees into alpine pastures affects the local carbon budget. The soils are accruing carbon and the tree biomass further enhances the local carbon pool. In a simulation exercise combining a forest growth model and a soil carbon model we followed the temporal trend of the ecosystem carbon pool under different management scenarios and climate scenarios. -- The data evaluation is currently in progress.

  1. Elaeocarpus firdausii (Elaeocarpaceae), a new species from tropical mountain forests of Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambach, Fabian; Coode, Mark; Biagioni, Siria; Culmsee, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Based on ongoing ecological research in mountain forests of Sulawesi, a new species, Elaeocarpus firdausii Brambach, Coode, Biagioni & Culmsee, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from mossy forests at > 2000 m and information provided on the species' distribution, ecology and pollen morphology. Elaeocarpus firdausii is similar to Elaeocarpus luteolignum Coode but differs from the latter in having glabrous terminal buds, leaves with black gland dots, 4-merous, larger flowers, and more numerous stamens.

  2. Elaeocarpus firdausii (Elaeocarpaceae), a new species from tropical mountain forests of Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Brambach, Fabian; Coode,Mark J. E.; Biagioni,Siria; Culmsee, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on ongoing ecological research in mountain forests of Sulawesi, a new species, Elaeocarpus firdausii Brambach, Coode, Biagioni & Culmsee, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from mossy forests at > 2000 m and information provided on the species’ distribution, ecology and pollen morphology. Elaeocarpus firdausii is similar to Elaeocarpus luteolignum Coode but differs from the latter in having glabrous terminal buds, leaves with black gland dots, 4-merous, larger flowers, and m...

  3. A phytosociological study on Betula Platyphylla forests in Daxing’an Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永富; 侯丽君; 魏占才; 宋关玲

    2000-01-01

    For the first time in this paper the forests of Betula platyphylla in Daxing’an Mountains are subdivided by phytosociological methods. Three community types of B. platyphylla forest have been differentiated, e.g., Rhododendron dahuricum-Betula platyphylla community, Corylus heterophylla-Betula platyphylla community and Artemisia stolonifera-Betula platyphylla community. The distributed elevation, stand height, differential species, major composition species of tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer for each community were detail described

  4. Elaeocarpus firdausii (Elaeocarpaceae), a new species from tropical mountain forests of Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambach, Fabian; Coode, Mark; Biagioni, Siria; Culmsee, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on ongoing ecological research in mountain forests of Sulawesi, a new species, Elaeocarpus firdausii Brambach, Coode, Biagioni & Culmsee, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from mossy forests at > 2000 m and information provided on the species’ distribution, ecology and pollen morphology. Elaeocarpus firdausii is similar to Elaeocarpus luteolignum Coode but differs from the latter in having glabrous terminal buds, leaves with black gland dots, 4-merous, larger flowers, and more numerous stamens. PMID:27212877

  5. Study on Redevelopment of Kunming West Mountain Forest Park in the View of Experience Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rumin ZHENG; Shuo ZHEN; Zexiong YANG; Xiping CHENG; Pingge HE

    2016-01-01

    At the background of the experience economy becoming major economic form in place of the service economy,forest experience develops vigorously and becomes a new approach for people alleviating pressure,acquiring knowledge,and relaxation. On the basis of analyzing concept and characteristics of the forest experience,this paper analyzed current situation of forest experience by taking Kunming West Mountain Forest Park as an example. It found there are existing problems in subject image,development methods and degree,professional personnel and concept. In view of these problems,it came up with recommendations including determining subject image,designing special products,accelerating cultivation of professional personnel,and strengthening training of forest experience concept. It is expected to provide reference for multi-functional use theory of China and provide ideas for developing forest experience projects.

  6. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  7. CO2 efflux from different forest soils and impact factors in Dinghu Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cunyu; ZHOU Guoyi; ZHANG Deqiang; WANG Yinghong; LIU Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    CO2 fluxes from soils and related environmental factors were measured in three forest ecosystems of Dinghu Mountain using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique for one year. The seasonal pattern of CO2 flux, contribution of litter on total CO2 flux and the correlations of CO2 flux with soil temperature and soil water content were examined for each type of forest. The results were given as followings: (1) The seasonal patterns of CO2 flux from soil of the three types of forest were similar, with a higher CO2 flux in rainy season than in dry season. The comparative relations of mean annual CO2 fluxes between the three sites were expressed as:monsoon forest > mixed forest > pine forest. (2) CO2 fluxes from litter decomposition in monsoon forest, mixed forest and pine forest accounted for 24.43%, 41.75% and 29.23% of the corresponding total CO2 fluxes from forest floor, respectively. (3) Significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil temperatures at 5 cm depth for the three types of forest, which could be best described by exponential equations. The calculated Q10 values based on soil temperature at 5 cm depth ranged from 1.86 to 3.24. More significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil water content when the annual variation coefficients of soil moisture were higher.

  8. Mountain Ash: Fire, Logging and the Future of Victoria’s Giant Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountain Ash: Fire, Logging and the Future of Victoria's Giant Forests By David Lindenmayer, David Blair, Lachlan McBurney, and Sam Banks. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xii + 173 pp. AU$ 59.95, US$ 46.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30497-4.

  9. A new species of Gulella (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae) from montane forest in the Ndoto Mountains, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowson, B.; Seddon, M.B.; Tattersfield, P.

    2009-01-01

    Gulella mkuu spec. nov. is described from montane forest in the isolated Ndoto Mountains of northern Kenya. Although exceptionally large for the genus, shell, genitalia and radula features suggest it is more closely related to the "G. sellae-ugandensis" complex than to other very large East African

  10. Variation in photosynthetic light-use efficiency in a mountainous tropical rain forest in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Oltchev, A.; June, T.

    2008-01-01

    in remote tropical areas. We used a 16-month continuous CO2 flux and meteorological dataset from a mountainous tropical rain forest in central Sulawesi, Indonesia to derive values of epsilon(Pg). and to investigate the relationship between P-g and Q(abs). Absorption was estimated with a 1D SVAT model from...

  11. Balancing Multiple Objectives Using a Classification-Based Forest Management System in Changbai Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fuqiang; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Dai, Limin; He, Hong S.

    2011-12-01

    Contemporary forest management often consists of multiple objectives, including restoration of human-impacted forested landscapes toward their range of natural variability (RNV) and sustainable levels of timber production. Balancing multiple management objectives is often challenging due to intrinsic conflicts between these objectives and a lack of reference conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of forest restoration efforts. We used a spatially explicit forest landscape model to assess how well a classification-based forest management (CFM) system could achieve multiple objectives in a Korean pine broadleaf mixed forest ecosystem at Changbai Mountain in Northeast China. The CFM system divided the forest landscape into three management areas (Commercial Forest, Special Ecological Welfare Forest, and General Ecological Welfare Forest), each with its own management objectives and prescriptions, but with an overall goal of increasing the ecological and economic sustainability of the entire landscape. The zoning approach adopted in the Chinese CFM system is very similar to the TRIAD approach that is being advocated for managing public forests in Canada. In this study, a natural disturbance scenario and seven harvest scenarios (one identical to the current harvest regime and six alternative scenarios) were simulated to examine how tree species composition, age structure, and timber production at the landscape level can be affected by different strategies under the CFM system. The results indicated that the current forest management regime would not only fail to reach the designated timber production level but also move the forest landscape far away from its RNV. In order to return the currently altered forest landscape to approach its RNV while providing a stable level of timber production over time, harvest intensities should be reduced to a level that is equivalent to the amount of timber removals that would occur under the natural disturbances; and the

  12. Diversity of filamentous fungi in organic layers of two forests in Zijin Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGFu-qiang; TIANXing-Jun; LIZhong-Qi; YANGChang-Lin; CHENBin; HAOJie-jie; ZHUJing

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the cultivable filamentous fungal diversity in organic layers (L, F, and H layers) and A1 layer of two main forest types, Pinus massoniana and Liguidambar formasana mixed forest and Quercus variabilis forest, in Zijin Mountain(32°5' N, 118°48'E), Nanjing, China. A total of 67 taxa comprising 56 Deuteromycetes, 3 Zygomycetes, 5 Ascomycetes and 3 unidentified fungi were recognized from samples from the forest floor of the two forest types. The most abundant group was Deuteromycetes. The dominant genera in both forests were Alternaria sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp., Gliocladium sp. and Trichoderma spp. The fungal diversity was higher in the mixed forest than that in Q. variabilis forest. For both forest types, the maximum fungal diversity was found in layer F and there existed significantly different in fungal diversity between layer F and layer L In the mixed forest, richness of fungi isolated from needle litter (P.massoniana) was lower than that from leaf litter (L. formasana). The richness of fungi from needle litter increased with the increase of forest floor depth, but for leaf litter, the fungal diversity decreased with the depth of forest floor. The co-species of fungi from the two forest types, as well as from two kinds of litters in mixed forest, increased with the depth of the forest floor. The succession of fungi along with the process of decomposition was discussed here. The results also showed that litter quality was a cdtical factor affecting fungal diversity.

  13. Succession Features and Synamic Simulation of Subalpine Forest in the Gongga Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Genwei; LUO Ji

    2004-01-01

    The Gongga Mountain of eastern Tibet Plateau is a representative of the alpine regions with high peaks and deep valleys. Climate change over the last thousand years has controlled the dynamics of glacier and debris flow occurrence, which resulted in substantial changes in the mountainous environment.The authors surveyed the community structure of primary forests in Gongga Mountain and forest succession processes in woodland plots. The changing features in the subalpine environment are discussed in this paper. Tree species and sizes between the glacier shrinking areas and debris flow fans in Hailuogou Valley are compared. The pioneer species that settle in debris flow fans and the glacier shrinking areas are Salix spp. and Populus purdomii.Abies fabri and Picea brachytyla are the climax tree species. The succession process of primary vegetation in Hailuogou (2700 ~ 3200 m) can be divided into four stages:Slash surface (20~ 200 yr)→ Salix-Populusseeding community (10 ~ 30 yr) →Populus-Salixsapling community (30 ~ 100 yr) →Populus-Abiesmixed community (50 ~ 100 yr) →Abies-Picea climaxIn a natural and undisturbed environment, trees compete for light, water and nutrients. Disaster disturbance in mountains is a very important driving factor for regeneration of woody plants. Repeated destruction of forests by glacier movement or debris flows generated additional forest gaps that allow young plants to grow. In this study the Gongga Forest Succession Model (GFSM) was developed for simulation of forest community succession processes on different scales in Gongga Mountain. A soil succession module was added to the GFSM model to simulate soil formation and chemical element change of woodland. In order to represent major features of forests in Southwestern China, many field works has been done to identify ecological parameters of various trees in the subalpine region. On the basis of simulation of tree life history, the GFSM combines forest succession with

  14. The genetic structure of the mountain forest butterfly Erebia euryale unravels the late Pleistocene and postglacial history of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Haubrich, Karola

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe throughout time is not sufficiently understood. One character species of this habitat type is the large ringlet, Erebia euryale well reflecting the extension of this biome today, and the genetic differentiation of this species among and within mountain systems may unravel the late Pleistocene history of this habitat type. We therefore analysed the allozyme pattern of 381 E. euryale individuals from 11 populations in four different European mountain systems (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Rila). All loci analysed were polymorphic. The mean F(ST) over all samples was high (20%). Furthermore, the mean genetic distance among samples was quite high (0.049). We found four different groups well supported by cluster analyses, bootstraps and hierarchical variance analyses: Pyrenees, western Alps, eastern Alps and southeastern Europe (Carpathians and Rila). The genetic diversity of the populations was highest in the southeastern European group and stepwise decreased westwards. Interestingly, the populations from Bulgaria and Romania were almost identical; therefore, we assume that they were not separated by the Danube Valley, at least during the last ice age. On the contrary, the differentiation among the three western Alps populations was considerable. For all these reasons, we assume that (i) the most important refugial area for the coniferous mountain forest biome in Europe has been located in southeastern Europe including at least parts of the Carpathians and the Bulgarian mountains; (ii) important refugial areas for this biome existed at the southeastern edge of the Alps; (iii) fragments of this habitat types survived along the southwestern Alps, but in a more scattered distribution; and (iv) relatively small relicts have persisted somewhere at the foothills of the Pyrenees.

  15. Regeneration pattern of primary forest species across forest-field gradients in the subtropical mountains of Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Shuang; Liu, Wen-Yao; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Cindy Q; Yuan, Chun-Ming

    2010-11-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is now gradually degraded and fragmented, and there is an increase in the amount of habitat edges as a result of long-term human activity. However, the role of edges in the regeneration of primary forest species is poorly understood. After 20 years of the edge creation, we analyzed primary forest species distribution and abundance, and changes in floristic composition, vegetation structure across forest-field gradients in Ailao Mountain, SW China. Our results revealed that there was a higher abundance and richness of primary species, late secondary species and thorny lianas at the distances 0-50 m than at the distances more than 50 m from the edge into the forest exterior. At the distances >50 m, no individuals of dominant canopy trees Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, and L. jingdongensis were found, whereas the abundance of early pioneer shrub species and herbaceous cover was significantly greater. The richness of primary species showed a decrease with increasing distances from the forest edge to the exterior, particularly of medium-seeded primary species showing a drastic decrease. Moreover, no large-seeded primary species occurred at the distances >60 m. This study indicates that the forest edge as a buffer zone may be in favor of primary species regeneration. A dense shrub and herb layer, and seed dispersal may be the major factors limiting the forest regeneration farther from the forest edge. Therefore, to facilitate forest recovery processes, management should give priority to the protection of buffer zones of this forest edge.

  16. On island landscape pattern of forests in Helan Mountain and its cause of formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Hongbing; WANG; Yingming; ZHANG; Qiaoxian

    2006-01-01

    Based on the spatial information techniques such as RS, GIS, and GPS, the forest landscape patterns in the Helan Mountain, western China, were studied. The Landsat 5 TM data were used to classify the forest landscapes through RS digital cartography, and then, the landscape characteristics and landscape pattern were analyzed quantificationally. Furthermore, through spatial data collection and spatial analysis of the main disturbances in this area, the cause of landscape formation was studied. The results showed that the total 1177 forest landscape patches could be classified into 21 landscape types, and the forest landscape in the Helan Mountain was island pattern, which was encircled by deserta as matrix. The values of landscape diversity index and landscape fragmentation index were 2.61 and 0.43, respectively. In this area, the landscape pattern was clearly formed and continuously changed in response to geological processes, climate, activities of organisms, forest fire, desertification, human activities and so on. This landscape pattern had an obviously negative effect on the stability and ecosystem services of forests. So, scientific landscape planning and protection should be adopted to improve the sustainability of forest management in this area.

  17. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  18. [GIS-based forest fire risk zone mapping in Daxing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Xiuzhen

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the Yuying and Fendou forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau in Daxing'an Mountains were chosen as test areas, and their vegetation type, altitude, slop, aspect, and settlement buffer were selected as the main forest fire factors. The circumstances of forest fire risk were quantified by the factor-weights union method with the support of GIS. Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extreme were generated. The none-, low, moderate, high, and extremely high fire risk zones accounted for 0.37%, 0.63%, 38.67%, 58.63% and 1.70%, respectively, which was in corresponding with normal distribution. About 60.33% of the test areas were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones, indicating that the forest fire management task in these areas is super onerous. There was an obvious regional difference in the distribution of forest fire risk zones, being higher in the center and lower around the center, and the difference in fire factors was also obvious. The GIS-based forest fire risk model of test areas strongly cohered with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987, which suggested that the forest fire risk zone mapping had a higher reliability, and could be used as the reference and guidance of forest fire management.

  19. Climate-driven speedup of alpine treeline forest growth in the Tianshan Mountains, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhaohuan; Liu, Hongyan; Wu, Xiuchen; Hao, Qian

    2015-02-01

    Forest growth is sensitive to interannual climatic change in the alpine treeline ecotone (ATE). Whether the alpine treeline ecotone shares a similar pattern of forest growth with lower elevational closed forest belt (CFB) under changing climate remains unclear. Here, we reported an unprecedented acceleration of Picea schrenkiana forest growth since 1960s in the ATE of Tianshan Mountains, northwestern China by a stand-total sampling along six altitudinal transects with three plots in each transect: one from the ATE between the treeline and the forest line, and the other two from the CFB. All the sampled P. schrenkiana forest patches show a higher growth speed after 1960 and, comparatively, forest growth in the CFB has sped up much slower than that in the ATE. The speedup of forest growth at the ATE is mainly accounted for by climate factors, with increasing temperature suggested to be the primary driver. Stronger water deficit as well as more competition within the CFB might have restricted forest growth there more than that within the ATE, implying biotic factors were also significant for the accelerated forest growth in the ATE, which should be excluded from simulations and predictions of warming-induced treeline dynamics.

  20. RS AND GIS-BASED FOREST FIRE RISK ZONE MAPPING IN DA HINGGAN MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-wei; KONG Fan-hua; LI Xiu-zhen

    2004-01-01

    The Da Hinggan Mountains is one of the most important forest areas in China,but forest fire there is also of high frequency.So it is completely necessary to map forest fire risk zones in order to effectively manage and protect the forest resources.Two forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau (53°34′-52°15′N,124°05′- 122°18′E) were chosen as typical areas in this study.Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) play a vital role and can be used effectively to obtain and combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map.Forest fire risk zones were described by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the coverage layers according to their sensitivity to fire,using the ARC/INFO GIS software.Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extremely high were generated automatically in ARC/INFO.The results showed that about 60.33% of the study area were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones,indicating that the forest fire management task in this area is super onerous.The RS and GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be highly compatible with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987.Therefore the forest fire risk zone map can be used for guidance of forest fire management,and as basis for fire prevention strategies.

  1. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  2. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  3. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  4. Soil fractal features of typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Chen; WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi; PAN Yujuan

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the forest soil physical property in the Three Gorges Reservoir areas,the fractal theory was adopted to study the soil fractal features of the four typical forest stands(mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forests,evergreen broadleaved forests,Phyllostachyspubescens forests and evergreen broadleaved shrub forests)in Jinyun Mountain,Chongqing City,and they were compared with arable land.It has been proposed that the model can be used for the analysis of the relationship between the fractal dimensions and the properties of forest soil.The impacts of fractal dimensions on the soil properties were analyzed with the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis.Results showed that the fractal dimension of particle size distribution(PSD),the micro-aggregate size distribution(ASD)and the soil pore size distribution(SPD)can be used as the indices to evaluate the soil structure.In the typical stands of Jinyun Mountain,the fractal dimension of PSD is 2.7-2.9,the ASD is 2.5-2.8,and the SPD is 2.3-2.8.The soil structure of evergreen broadleaved shrub forests performed best in PSD,ASD and SPD,and the soil of P.pubescens forests is the worst.There were some relationships among the PSD,ASD,SPD and some soil properties in the different forests and farmland.The related coefficients are over 0.5.Based on the elasticity analysis and marginal yield analysis,the effect of PSD was more than those of ASD and SPD.Obviously,the further study on the fractal theory application in soil structure and soil properties has important significance.

  5. Impact of forest harvesting on river runoff in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Tijiu; TAN Xiaojing

    2007-01-01

    Using the runoff experiment method in a large basin combined with the contrast experiment in a small watershed,and based on the runoff and forest resources data for the past 35 years,this paper studied the serial changes of river runoff in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains after forest harvesting.The results showed that the river flow increased in the initial ten years after forest harvesting,but decreased gradually with the growth and crown closure of the Larix gmelini plantations.The river flow tended to be the same or even lower than the level before harvesting.The river runoff had a close correlation with annual rainfall,the size of forest harvesting and regeneration.A significant positive correlation was observed between the annual flow and the size of forest harvesting,which resulted in the increase of river runoff after forest harvesting.Forest harvesting could also significantly increase the peak flood and snowmelt runoff.There was a negative correlation between the regenerated forest area and annual flow,and thus,forest regeneration would decrease annual flow.

  6. Quality and Conservation of Riparian Forest in a Mountain Subtropical Basin of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Daiana Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work were to describe the conservation status of riparian forests located in a mountain subtropical basin of Tucumán province, Argentina, and assess how the quality of riparian forests is related with altitude, plant species richness, proportion of exotic species, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS in adjacent rivers. Composition and species richness of riparian forests were studied at 16 sites located along an altitudinal gradient and TSS was determined from water samples collected in each site. In order to evaluate conservation status of riparian forests, we calculated an index of Quality of Yungas Riparian Forests (QBRy. We recorded 90 plant species at all sites, from which 77% were native. QBRy index was mainly associated with altitude and varied from riparian forests with good preservation or slightly disturbed to those with extreme degradation. At lower altitude, forests were more disturbed, more invaded by exotic plant species, and closer to urban and cropped areas. QBRy was not correlated with species richness or TSS. Like other riparian forests of Argentina, plant species invasion increased their degradation; therefore, future studies should focus on native riparian forests conservation and on the management of invasive plant species, which affect their quality.

  7. Landsat-based Analysis of Mountain Forest-tundra Ecotone Response to Climate Trends in Sayan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, Viatcheslav I.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, K. Jon

    2007-01-01

    observations of temperatures Siberia has shown a several degree warming over the past 30 years. It is expected that forest will respond to warming at high latitudes through increased tree growth and northward or upward slope migration. migration. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. Making repeated satellite observations over several decades provides an opportunity to track vegetation response to climate change. Based on Landsat data of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure and an upward tree-line shift in the of the forest-tundra ecotone during the last quarter of the 2oth century,. On-ground observations, supporting these results, also showed regeneration of Siberian pine in the alpine tundra, and the transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal (upright) forms. During this time period sparse stands transformed into closed stands, with existing closed stands increasing in area at a rate of approx. 1 %/yr, and advancing their upper border at a vertical rate of approx. 1.0 m/yr. In addition, the vertical rate of regeneration propagation is approx. 5 m/yr. It was also found that these changes correlated positively with temperature trends

  8. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae) in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligarreto, Gustavo A; Patiño, Maria del Pilar; Magnitskiy, Stanislav V

    2011-06-01

    Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño) in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters). Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter) and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems) morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p mountain forests of Colombia.

  9. Differential Responses of Neotropical Mountain Forests to Climate Change during the Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Olvera Vargas, M.

    2013-05-01

    The long-term perspective in the conservation of mountain ecosystems using palaeoecological and paleoclimatological techniques are providing with crucial information for the understanding of the temporal range and variability of ecological pattern and processes. This perception is contributing with means to anticipate future conditions of these ecosystems, especially their response to climate change. Neotropical mountain forests, created by a particular geological and climatic history in the Americas, represent one of the most distinctive ecosystems in the tropics which are constantly subject to disturbances included climate change. Mexico due to its geographical location between the convergence of temperate and tropical elements, its diverse physiography and climatic heterogeneity, contains neotropical ecosystems with high biodiversity and endemicity whose structure and taxonomical composition have changed along centurial to millennial scales. Different neotropical forests expand along the mountain chains of Mexico with particular responses along spatial and temporal scales. Therefore in order to capture these scales at fine resolution, sedimentary sequences from forest hollows were retrieved from three forest at different altitudes within 10 km; Pine forest (PF), Transitional forest (TF) and Cloud forest (CF). Ordination techniques were used to relate changes in vegetation with the environment every ~60 years. The three forests experience the effect of the dry stage ~AD 800-1200 related to the Medieval Warm Period reported for several regions of the world. CF contracted, PF expanded while the TF evolved from CF to a community dominated by dry-resistant epiphytes. Dry periods in PF and TF overlapped with the increase in fire occurrences while a dissimilar pattern took place in CF. Maize, Asteraceae and Poaceae were higher during dry intervals while epiphytes decreased. A humid period ~1200-1450 AD was associated with an expansion and a high taxa turnover in CF

  10. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voronin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  11. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  12. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Reger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture, protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, severe soil loss may ensue. To help prioritize management interventions, we developed a geographic information system-based model for assessing sensitivity to site degradation and applied it to 4 test areas in the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria and Bavaria. The model consists of (1 analysis of site conditions and forest stand structures that could increase sensitivity to degradation, (2 evaluation of the sensitivity of sites and stands, and (3 evaluation and mapping of mountain forests' sensitivity to degradation. Site conditions were modeled using regression algorithms with data on site parameters from pointwise soil and vegetation surveys as responses and areawide geodata on climate, relief, and substrate as predictors. The resulting predictor–response relationships were applied to test areas. Stand structure was detected from airborne laser scanning data. Site and stand parameters were evaluated according to their sensitivity to site degradation. Sensitivities of sites and stands were summarized in intermediate-scale sensitivity maps. High sensitivity was identified in 3 test areas with pure limestone and dolomite as the prevailing sensitivity level. Moderately sensitive forests dominate in the final test area, Grünstein, where the bedrock in some strata contains larger amounts of siliceous components (marl, mudstone, and moraines; degraded and slightly sensitive forests were rare or nonexistent in all 4 test areas. Providing a comprehensive overview

  13. Biomass distribution patterns of ecotones between forest and swamp in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper studied the biomass distribution patterns of Larix olgensis/swamp ecotones and Betula platyphlla/swamp ecotones in Changbai Mountain so as to provide theory foundation for the management of these nature resources, by setting up sample belts, investigating initial data along the environmental gradients change, and establishing regression models. By means of regression models, the biomass of communities, layers, tree species and organs was calculated. In this system, it was found that the community biomass increased gradually along the environmental gradients change from swamp to forest in Changbai Mountain. Furthermore, the ecotoneal biomass distributed mainly over tree layer. The tree biomass distributed mainly in two or three dominate tree species.

  14. Methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes in mountainous terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypka, Przemysław; Starzak, Rafał; Owsiak, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes is one of the main factors influencing the water balance between the atmosphere, tree stands and the soil. It also has a major impact on site productivity, spatial arrangement of vegetation structure as well as forest succession. This paper presents a methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching tree stands in a small mountain valley. Measurements taken in three inter-forest meadows unambiguously showed the relationship between the amount of solar insolation and the shading effect caused mainly by the contour of surrounding tree stands. Therefore, appropriate knowledge of elevation, aspect and tilt angles of the analysed planes had to be taken into consideration during modelling. At critical times, especially in winter, the diffuse and reflected components of solar radiation only reached some of the sites studied as the beam component of solar radiation was totally blocked by the densely forested mountain slopes in the neighbourhood. The cross-section contours and elevation angles of all obstructions are estimated from a digital surface model including both digital elevation model and the height of tree stands. All the parameters in a simplified, empirical model of the solar insolation reaching a given horizontal surface within the research valley are dependent on the sky view factor ( SVF). The presented simplified, empirical model and its parameterisation scheme should be easily adaptable to different complex terrains or mountain valleys characterised by diverse geometry or spatial orientation. The model was developed and validated ( R 2 = 0.92 , σ = 0.54) based on measurements taken at research sites located in the Silesian Beskid Mountain Range. A thorough understanding of the factors determining the amount of solar radiation reaching woodlands ought to considerably expand the knowledge of the water exchange balance within forest complexes as well as the estimation of site productivity.

  15. Methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes in mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypka, Przemysław; Starzak, Rafał; Owsiak, Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Solar radiation reaching densely forested slopes is one of the main factors influencing the water balance between the atmosphere, tree stands and the soil. It also has a major impact on site productivity, spatial arrangement of vegetation structure as well as forest succession. This paper presents a methodology to estimate variations in solar radiation reaching tree stands in a small mountain valley. Measurements taken in three inter-forest meadows unambiguously showed the relationship between the amount of solar insolation and the shading effect caused mainly by the contour of surrounding tree stands. Therefore, appropriate knowledge of elevation, aspect and tilt angles of the analysed planes had to be taken into consideration during modelling. At critical times, especially in winter, the diffuse and reflected components of solar radiation only reached some of the sites studied as the beam component of solar radiation was totally blocked by the densely forested mountain slopes in the neighbourhood. The cross-section contours and elevation angles of all obstructions are estimated from a digital surface model including both digital elevation model and the height of tree stands. All the parameters in a simplified, empirical model of the solar insolation reaching a given horizontal surface within the research valley are dependent on the sky view factor (SVF). The presented simplified, empirical model and its parameterisation scheme should be easily adaptable to different complex terrains or mountain valleys characterised by diverse geometry or spatial orientation. The model was developed and validated (R (2) = 0.92 , σ = 0.54) based on measurements taken at research sites located in the Silesian Beskid Mountain Range. A thorough understanding of the factors determining the amount of solar radiation reaching woodlands ought to considerably expand the knowledge of the water exchange balance within forest complexes as well as the estimation of site

  16. Forest harvesting influence on slope erosion in Baikal Basin Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuchin, A. A.; Borisov, A. N.; Burenina, T. A.

    2009-04-01

    Post-logging recovery of forest water protection and erosion prevention functions can occur different ways on slopes and in big river catchments. While erosion decreases several times during only three to five years after logging on slopes, as compared to its immediate post-logging rate, water silt load in big rivers can remain high for decades after forest logging in their catchments. Among other factors, this can be attributable to erosion of timber transportation roads and skidding trails, which become extremely eroded 10-15 years following forest logging. One should not underestimate a probable sediment load increase resulting from post-logging channel runoff changes. Disregarding this increase leads to contradictory conclusions about post-logging recovery of forest water protecting capability. Investigating this issue requires to clearly determine the type of the forest site of interest (a certain slope, an elementary or a complex catchments) and to consider the experience gained so far in estimating erosion rate changes depending on changing forest areas of continents. Therefore, hierarchical river catchments ranking should be recognized effective and useful for forest hydrology. This approach will allow systematizing the existing information and facilitating the development of fruitful analysis of water protection and erosion prevention functions of forest in areas of different ranks. This study used an approach that enabled a single-model description of the rate of soil erosion previously estimated by different models for areas of various ranks, from a micro slope to elementary catchments. An elementary catchments is defined as the smallest drainage area characterized by uniform surface, ground, and vegetation structures and having a single well-pronounced channel, with hydro network being practically absent. Using runoff slope length as the argument and introducing a dummy variable that describes specific investigation methodologies ensured high generality

  17. Hydrological effects of forest litter and soil in the Simianshan Mountains in Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Liangyi; ZHU Jinzhao

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary study of the hydrological effects of forest litter and soils in the Simianshan Mountains was carried out.Results indicate that the annual accumulation of different forest litters is about 6.80-20.21 t/hm2 and the maximum water carrying capacity ranges from 1.8 to 4.6 mm.Among them the water carrying abilities of the litter of Lithocarpus glabra and natural deciduous forests are larger than that of Pinus massoniana.A power function relationship exists between the accumulated water-carrying volume and time.An investigation of the physical properties shows that forest soils,to a depth of 1 m,have a powerful water-carrying ability,varying from 7.84 to 18.87 mm.Non-linear regression analysis shows that the soil infiltration rate is significantly correlated with time.

  18. Draft genome of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major forest pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana L; Jackman, Shaun D; Nguyen, Anh; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Janes, Jasmine K; Zhao, Yongjun; Pandoh, Pawan; Moore, Richard; Sperling, Felix A H; Huber, Dezene P W; Birol, Inanc; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2013-03-27

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is the most serious insect pest of western North American pine forests. A recent outbreak destroyed more than 15 million hectares of pine forests, with major environmental effects on forest health, and economic effects on the forest industry. The outbreak has in part been driven by climate change, and will contribute to increased carbon emissions through decaying forests. We developed a genome sequence resource for the mountain pine beetle to better understand the unique aspects of this insect's biology. A draft de novo genome sequence was assembled from paired-end, short-read sequences from an individual field-collected male pupa, and scaffolded using mate-paired, short-read genomic sequences from pooled field-collected pupae, paired-end short-insert whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing reads of mRNA from adult beetle tissues, and paired-end Sanger EST sequences from various life stages. We describe the cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, and plant cell wall-degrading enzyme gene families important to the survival of the mountain pine beetle in its harsh and nutrient-poor host environment, and examine genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism variation. A horizontally transferred bacterial sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase was evident in the genome, and its tissue-specific transcription suggests a functional role for this beetle. Despite Coleoptera being the largest insect order with over 400,000 described species, including many agricultural and forest pest species, this is only the second genome sequence reported in Coleoptera, and will provide an important resource for the Curculionoidea and other insects.

  19. Forest health status in the Carpahian Mountains over the period 1997-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16x16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition. - About 1/3 of the Carpathian forest trees are damaged by natural stressors and air pollution.

  20. The Research of Forest Soil Organic Carbon Accumulation in Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In subtropical to warm temperate transitional zone of the Dabie Mountains hinterland forest topsoil as the research object this text,through the different levels of soil bulk density,organic carbon content of the determination of analytical studies in the area of forest surface soil organic carbon density.Because of the ecological role of small environment,the study area within the soil bulk density increased with depth,surface soil porosity,and bulk density from top to bottom in 0.8.All measuring points ar...

  1. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession.

  2. The attractiveness of forests: Preferences and perceptions in a mountain community in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela De Meo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the perception and preferences of local communities is a fundamental aspect to increase the social sustainability and to reduce the conflicts between forest users. The knowledge of people’s perception of forest resources is important for decision makers, when implementing management strategies and this is particularly relevant in mountainous area, characterized by a strong link between local communities and forest. The paper focuses on the analysis of people’s perception and preferences regarding the recreational value of forests. The research has been carried out by means of a case study, the Municipality of Trento, located in the Centre East sector of the Italian Alps. This area was chosen on the grounds of its geographical location and of the historical links that exist between local communities and forest resources. The sample included 1,000 randomly selected families and the method of investigation used was a structured selfreported questionnaire. The data were processed taking into account the relationship between people’s perception and the main social characteristics of respondents (gender and age; this allowed statistical differences among groups to be highlighted. Forest attractiveness has been investigated considering: (i forest accessibility, (ii forest stand characteristics, (iii visitor facilities and infrastructures. The results show that people prefer the open mixed forests with an irregular structure and some visitor facilities such as paths and refreshment points. Besides, people like to have facilities in the forests, but at the same time would like these forests to be little frequented by other visitors, in order to have a greater feeling of naturalness.

  3. [Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Picea asperata in Xin Jiashan Forest of Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Rong; Geng, Zengchao; Huang, Jian; He, Wenxiang; Hou, Lin; She, Diao; Zhao, Jun; Shang, Jie

    2015-07-04

    To study the diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Picea asperata in Xin Jiashan Forest of Qinling Mountains. This method combined the field investigation, morphological and molecular biology to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. There were 37 different ectomycorrhizal fungi under 14 genera of 10 families on spruce in Xin Jiashan Forest of Qinling Mountains, 34 types belonged to Basidiomycetes, 1 to Ascomycete and 2 to unknown species. Among these identified ectomycorrhizal fungi types, Inocybe sp. was the dominant group; Russula nauseosa was the most dominant species; Hygrophorus sp., Tomentella coerulea, Inocybe sp. 1, Helotiaceae sp. and Lactarius deterrimus were common species; and the rest species were rare species. The large number but relatively rare species of dominant family and the small number but relatively more species of rare family survived in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Picea asperata. For the extreme degradation in arid area of western ecological system, identifing some rare family for further development and utilization had very important practical significance.

  4. The ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-kui Zhang; Rui Gao; De-qiang Dou; Ting-guo Kang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest, called "Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen" (LXSS) in China′s Pharmacopoeia. In recent years, it has been quickly propelled to plant at a large scale. Objective: To study the profiles of ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of LXSS. Materials and Methods: The contents of ginsenosides and carbohydrates, such as soluble sugar, polysaccharide, pectin, and starch in LXSS, were determined. All the above components were profiled, and the correlations betwee...

  5. Smog Nitrogen and the Rapid Acidification of Forest Soil, San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report the rapid acidification of forest soils in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. After 30 years, soil to a depth of 25 cm has decreased from a pH (measured in 0.01 M CaCl2) of 4.8 to 3.1. At the 50-cm depth, it has changed from a pH of 4.8 to 4.2. We attribute this rapid cha...

  6. Water holding effect of subalpine dark coniferous forest soil in Gongga Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Zhi-hua; LU Zhao-hua; GUAN Wen-bin

    2003-01-01

    Because of the distinction of soil property and humus content, soil water content is not ideal to indicate whether it is suitable to the growth of plant. Mainly based on the PF-a numerical value denoting the water regime of soil and connected with the growth of plant, the study combined the moisture percentage of soil with PF to research in quantity the interrelation between the moisture percentage and PF in different succession phases of subalpine dark coniferous forest in Gongga Mountain. The results showed that: (1) In the same PF value, the moisture percentage in humus horizon increased gradually with the development of the succession of the dark coniferous forest; The moisture percentage of over-mature forest was the highest and>mature forest>half-mature forest>young growth forest; (2) With the increase of soil depth, the soil bulk density increased and the moisture percentage decreased, but the difference in the percentage of moisture was not notable in different succession phases. (3) In different succession series, the vegetation affected the soil water characteristics by increasing the soil organic matter, improving the soil construction, receding the soil bulk density and enhancing the soil porosity; (4) The humus horizon of the dark coniferous forest soil has the highest water holding capability in this region.

  7. Forest health status in the Carpathian Mountains over the period 1997-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, Ovidiu; Tanase, Mihai; Georgeta, Jianu; Anisoara, Lazar; Peiov, Agata; Uhlirova, Hana; Pajtik, Josef; Wawrzoniak, Jerzy; Shparyk, Yuri

    2004-07-01

    The results of forest health status assessments in the Carpathian Mountains from the monitoring networks developed by the European Union Scheme on the Protection of Forest Against Atmospheric Pollution (EU Scheme) and International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP-Forests), have led to a better understanding of the impact of air pollution and other stressors on forests at the regional scale. During the period 1997-2001, forests in the Carpathian Mountains were severely affected by air pollution and natural stresses with 29.7-34.9% of the trees included in defoliation classes 2-4. The broadleaves were slightly healthier than the conifers, and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species. Norway spruce (Picea abies) has poor health status, with 42.9-46.6% of the trees damaged (2-4% defoliation classes). Silver fir (Abies alba) damage was also high, with 46.0-50.9% in defoliation classes 2-4. Pines (primarily Pinus sylvestris) were the least affected of the conifers, with 24.9-33.8% in defoliation classes 2-4. The results from the transnational networks (16 x 16 km) show that the Carpathian forests are slightly more damaged than the average for the entire Europe. The correlative studies performed in individual European countries show the relationships between air pollution stressors with trends in defoliation and a possible effect of natural stresses at each site. More specific, effects of tree age, drought, ozone and acid deposition critical level exceedances were demonstrated to affect crown condition.

  8. Habitat fragmentation impacts on biodiversity of evergreen broadleaved forests in Jinyun Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ming; ZHONG Zhangcheng; LIU Jinchun

    2007-01-01

    The plant communities and their microclimates were surveyed and observed,and the soil fertilities were determined in six plots of evergreen broadleaved forests of different sizes and similar slope aspects on Jinyun Mountains of Chongqing in China from April to October,2003.The relationships of biotic and abiotic factors were analyzed using the Simpson,Shannon-Wiener,and Hill diversity indices,and stepwise multilinear regression analyses techniques.The results showed that compared with continuous evergreen broadleaved forests,five fragmentations had a lower species diversity index,and different life forms showed differences in diversity index.With the decrease in patch areas,the daily differences in air temperature (△Ta),ground surface temperature (△Ts),daily differences in relative humidity (△RH),maximum wind velocity (Vmax),differences in photosynthetic available radiation (△PAR)(at noon)of both edges and interiors,all tended to increase.Maximum wind velocity (Vmax)and photo effective radiation in forest edges were higher than those in interior forest,which presented a stronger temperature-gained edge effect.In all the fragmentations of evergreen broadleaved forests,the depth of the edge effect was the nearest from interior forest in the biggest patch (about 15 meters away from interior forest),while the depth of the edge effect was the farthest from interior forest in the smallest patch (about 25 meters away from interior forest).With regard to the water conservation function,soil water content improved along with increasing species diversity.Some of the nutritional function substances of soil increased with increasing species diversity.The elements of microclimate,such as Ta,△Ta,△Ts,ARH,Vmax,and PAR,changed along with the extent of fragmented forest.

  9. The status of our scientific understanding of lodgepole pine and mountain pine beetles - a focus on forest ecology and fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Gregory H. Aplet; Michael G. Babler; William L. Baker; Barbara Bentz; Michael Harrington; Brad C. Hawkes; Laurie Stroh Huckaby; Michael J. Jenkins; Daniel M. Kashian; Robert E. Keane; Dominik Kulakowski; Ward McCaughey; Charles McHugh; Jose Negron; John Popp; William H. Romme; Wayne Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Daniel Tinker; Thomas T. Veblen

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle populations have reached outbreak levels in lodgepole pine forests throughout North America. The geographic focus of this report centers on the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming. The epidemic extends much more widely, however, from the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the United States to the northern Rocky Mountains...

  10. Tropical forests are not flat: how mountains affect herbivore diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Dyer, Lee A; Brehm, Gunnar; Connahs, Heidi; Forkner, Rebecca E; Walla, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    Ecologists debate whether tropical insect diversity is better explained by higher plant diversity or by host plant species specialization. However, plant-herbivore studies are primarily based in lowland rainforests (RF) thus excluding topographical effects on biodiversity. We examined turnover in Eois (Geometridae) communities across elevation by studying elevational transects in Costa Rica and Ecuador. We found four distinct Eois communities existing across the elevational gradients. Herbivore diversity was highest in montane forests (MF), whereas host plant diversity was highest in lowland RF. This was correlated with higher specialization and species richness of Eois/host plant species we found in MF. Based on these relationships, Neotropical Eois richness was estimated to range from 313 (only lowland RF considered) to 2034 (considering variation with elevation). We conclude that tropical herbivore diversity and diet breadth covary significantly with elevation and urge the inclusion of montane ecosystems in host specialization and arthropod diversity estimates. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  12. Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA (United States)]. E-mail: abytnerowicz@fs.fed.us; Badea, Ovidiu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Flaviu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Simeria (Romania); Musselman, Robert [USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tanase, Mihai [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Barbu, Ioan [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Fraczek, Witold [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA (United States); Gembasu, Nicolae [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Surdu, Aurelia [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Danescu, Florin [Forest Research and Management Institute, Bucharest (Romania); Postelnicu, Daniela [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania); Cenusa, Radu [Forest Research and Management Institute, Campulung Moldovenecs (Romania); Vasile, Cristian [ESRI Romania, Bucharest (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    In the Retezat Mountains concentrations of O{sub 3}, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in summer season 2000-2002 were low and below toxicity levels for forest trees. While NH{sub 3} concentrations were low in 2000, the 2001 and 2002 concentrations were elevated indicating possibility for increased N deposition to forest stands. More than 90% of the rain events were acidic with pH values <5.5, contributing to increased acidity of soils. Crown condition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was good, however, defoliation described as >25% of foliage injured increased from 9.1% in 2000 to 16.1% in 2002. Drought that occurred in the southern Carpathians between fall 2000 and summer 2002 and frequent acidic rainfalls could cause the observed decline of forest condition. Both Norway spruce and European beech with higher defoliation had lower annual radial increments compared to the trees with low defoliation. Ambient O{sub 3} levels found in the Retezat did not affect crown condition of Norway spruce or European beech. - Retezat Mountains are characterized by relatively clean air, acidic precipitation, and healthy, well growing forests.

  13. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  14. Biomass and carbon dynamics of a tropical mountain rain forest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biometric inventories for 25 years,from 1983 to 2005,indicated that the Jianfengling tropical mountain rain forest in Hainan,China,was either a source or a modest sink of carbon.Overall,this forest was a small carbon sink with an accumulation rate of(0.56±0.22) Mg C ha-1yr-1,integrated from the long-term measurement data of two plots(P9201 and P8302).These findings were similar to those for African and American rain forests((0.62±0.23) Mg C ha-1yr-1).The carbon density varied between(201.43±29.38) Mg C ha-1 and(229.16±39.2) Mg C ha-1,and averaged(214.17±32.42) Mg C ha-1 for plot P9201.Plot P8302,however,varied between(223.95±45.92) Mg C ha-1 and(254.85±48.86) Mg C ha-1,and averaged(243.35±47.64) Mg C ha-1.Quadratic relationships were found between the strength of carbon sequestration and heavy rainstorms and dry months.Precipitation and evapotranspiration are two major factors controlling carbon sequestration in the tropical mountain rain forest.

  15. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo Sutomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from  result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali

  16. Forest Plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, J.C.; Dupouey, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    reflecting the confounding influence of forest stand dynamics. Location: Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland). Methods: We assessed changes in plant community composition by surveying 154 Abies alba forest vegetation relevés (550-1,350 m a.s.l.) in 1989 and 2007. Over this period, temperatures increased...

  17. Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Forest Ecosystem in Upper Reaches of the Yangtze River -Case Study on Gongga Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The deforestation on large scale in the upper reaches of Yangtze River has caused serious problems of ecosystem and environment. Restoration of the degenerated forest ecosystems is one of the main research fields. Taking Gongga Mountain as an example, degeneration features and existing problems of forest ecosystems are analyzed in this paper, and the measures are also proposed.

  18. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  19. Complex mountain terrain and disturbance history drive variation in forest aboveground live carbon density in the western Oregon Cascades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zald, Harold S J; Spies, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Pabst, Robert J; Olsen, Keith A; Steel, E Ashley

    2016-04-15

    Forest carbon (C) density varies tremendously across space due to the inherent heterogeneity of forest ecosystems. Variation of forest C density is especially pronounced in mountainous terrain, where environmental gradients are compressed and vary at multiple spatial scales. Additionally, the influence of environmental gradients may vary with forest age and developmental stage, an important consideration as forest landscapes often have a diversity of stand ages from past management and other disturbance agents. Quantifying forest C density and its underlying environmental determinants in mountain terrain has remained challenging because many available data sources lack the spatial grain and ecological resolution needed at both stand and landscape scales. The objective of this study was to determine if environmental factors influencing aboveground live carbon (ALC) density differed between young versus old forests. We integrated aerial light detection and ranging (lidar) data with 702 field plots to map forest ALC density at a grain of 25 m across the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, a 6369 ha watershed in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon, USA. We used linear regressions, random forest ensemble learning (RF) and sequential autoregressive modeling (SAR) to reveal how mapped forest ALC density was related to climate, topography, soils, and past disturbance history (timber harvesting and wildfires). ALC increased with stand age in young managed forests, with much greater variation of ALC in relation to years since wildfire in old unmanaged forests. Timber harvesting was the most important driver of ALC across the entire watershed, despite occurring on only 23% of the landscape. More variation in forest ALC density was explained in models of young managed forests than in models of old unmanaged forests. Besides stand age, ALC density in young managed forests was driven by factors influencing site productivity, whereas variation in ALC density in old unmanaged forests

  20. Effects of Bamboo Fargesia murielae on Plant Diversity in Fir Forest on Mountain Shennongjia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhaohua; Manfred Denich; Thomas Borsch

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous flowering caused a gregarious dieback of umbrella bamboo (Fargesia murielae) all over the world in 1993-2000. Mountain Shennongjia in Central China's Hubei Province is the only native home of umbrella bamboo, where it dominates the understorey of the farges fir (Abies fargesii) forest between 2 400 and 3 100 m, covering the ground for more than one century before a periodically flowering death. Data from 20 quadrats along a vegetation sequence revealed that the density, coverage, and height of umbrella bamboo negatively affected the species richness, diversity, and evenness of vascular plants in the forest. Local climax community of fir-bamboo was the poorest in species diversity, while the bamboo-free communities (i.e. shrubs and meadows) were bearing a higher species diversity. The simultaneous dieback of umbrella bamboo is an ecological release, which can periodically promote the plant diversity in the fir forest.

  1. Modeling diameter distribution of the broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shunzhong; DAI Limin; LIU Guohua; YUAN Jianqiong; ZHANG Hengmin; WANG Qingli

    2006-01-01

    The broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest is a native vegetation in the Changbai Mountains, northeast China. The probability density functions including the normal, negative exponential, Weibull and finite mixture distribution, were used to describe the diameter distributions of the species groups and entire forest stand. There is a strong correlation between parameters and mean DBH except the shape parameters in the mixture distribution. The diameter classes of species and entire forest stand showed not negative exponential but normal and "S" distribution. The mixture function was better than normal and Weibull to describe the model distribution. The location parameter had an effect on the estimated frequency in the first diameter class, when the estimated location parameter was bigger than the lower limit of the first diameter class.

  2. Seasonal Water Availability and Mountain Forest Dynamics in the Southwestern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Parajuli, K.; Telewski, F.; Shuttleworth, W. J.

    2007-05-01

    Water availability in the semi arid United States varies seasonally, annually, and on multi-year cycles, affecting mountain forest carbon exchange directly by influencing primary production and respiration and indirectly through drought, forest fires and insect infestation. Explicitly quantifying the carbon-water relationship in mountain island ecosystems depends largely on understanding both the temporal distribution of water availability and the response of the vegetation to seasonal inputs. Understanding how ecosystems, particularly those which are positioned along sensitive vegetation ecotones and steep transitional climate zones, function and respond to perturbations in climatic conditions is critical to our understanding of the expected range of changes that are possible with changes to our climate. What are the possible responses in ecosystem composition, diversity and biotic feedbacks, not only to changes in the amount of precipitation, but also shifts in its' seasonal pattern, frequency distribution and intensity? Southern Arizona provides a natural laboratory with an annual bimodal precipitation pattern, steep transitional climatic zones, sensitive ecotones, with clear demarcation resulting from large elevation and precipitation gradients and high water limiting conditions with extreme climate variability. This presentation highlights the seasonal carbon-water relationship of a coniferous mountain island forest in the Santa Catalina Mountains of Southern Arizona. Hydro-micrometeorological observations from an eddy covariance flux tower made over five years encompass periods of severe multi-year drought punctuated by strong El Nino winter seasons. Distinct seasonal water use efficiency and carbon assimilation highlights the unique dynamics of this ecosystem and provide part of the fundamental reasons for the observed northward migration of semi-arid coniferous species.

  3. Human-Induced Disturbance Alters Pollinator Communities in Tropical Mountain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schleuning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forest ecosystems in the Andes are threatened by deforestation. Increasing fire frequencies lead to fire-degraded habitats that are often characterized by a persistent fern-dominated vegetation. Little is known about the consequences of these drastic changes in habitat conditions for pollinator communities. In a rapid diversity assessment, we collected individuals of two major groups of insect pollinators (bees and butterflies/moths with pan traps and compared pollinator diversities in a spatial block design between forest interior, forest edge and adjacent fire-degraded habitats at eight sites in the Bolivian Andes. We found that bee species richness and abundance were significantly higher in fire-degraded habitats than in forest habitats, whereas species richness and abundance of butterflies/moths increased towards the forests interior. Species turnover between forest and fire-degraded habitats was very high for both pollinator groups and was reflected by an increase in the body size of bee species and a decrease in the body size of butterfly/moth species in fire-degraded habitats. We conclude that deforestation by frequent fires has profound impacts on the diversity and composition of pollinator communities. Our tentative findings suggest shifts towards bee-dominated pollinator communities in fire-degraded habitats that may have important feedbacks on the regenerating communities of insect-pollinated plant species.

  4. Viable contribution of Tibetan sacred mountains in southwestern China to forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Li, Sheng; Wang, Dajun; Lu, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan sacred mountains (TSMs) cover a large area and may represent a landscape-scale conservation opportunity. We compared the conservation value of forests in these mountains with the conservation value of government-established nature reserves and unmanaged open-access areas in Danba County, southwestern China. We used Landsat satellite images to map forest cover and to estimate forest loss in 1974-1989, 1989-1999, and 1999-2013. The TSMs (n = 41) and nature reserves (n = 4) accounted for 21.6% and 29.7% of the county's land area, respectively. Remaining land was open-access areas (i.e., areas without any restrictions on resource use) (56.2%) and farmlands (2.2%). Within the elevation range suitable for forests, forest cover did not differ significantly between nature reserves (58.8%) and open-access areas (58.4%), but was significantly higher in TSMs (65.5%) after controlling for environmental factors such as aspect, slope, and elevation. The TSMs of great cultural importance had higher forest cover, but patrols by monastery staff were not necessarily associated with increased forest cover. The annual deforestation rate in nonsacred areas almost tripled in 1989-1999 (111.4 ha/year) relative to 1974-1989 (40.4 ha/year), whereas the rate in TSMs decreased in the later period (19.7 ha/year vs. 17.2 ha/year). The reduced forest loss in TSMs in 1989-1999 was possibly due to the renaissance of TSM worship and strengthened management by the local Buddhist community since late 1980s. The annual deforestation rate in Danba decreased dramatically to 4.4 ha/year in 1999-2013, which coincided with the implementation of a national ban on logging in 1998. As the only form of protected area across the Tibetan region during much of its history, TSMs have positively contributed to conserving forest at a landscape scale. Conservation of TSM forests largely relied on the strength of local religious institutions. Integrating community-based conservation of TSMs within the

  5. Challenges and approaches to projecting changes in forest distributions in complex mountain landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Molotch, N. P.; Meromy, L.; Moyes, A. B.; Conlisk, E.; Castanha, C.

    2015-12-01

    The extent and density of forest trees in mountain landscapes is a first order control on watershed function, affecting patterns of snow accumulation, timing of snowmelt, and amount and quality of run-off, through alterations of surface energy and water fluxes and wind. Climate change is increasingly affecting the density and distribution of mature forests through changes to disturbance regimes, increases in physiological stress and increases in mortality due to warmer temperatures. In addition, climate change is likely altering patterns of regeneration and driving establishment of trees in high elevation meadows and alpine tundra. Though hard to detect in current forestry datasets, changes in tree establishment are critical to the future of forests. Experimental approaches, such as our climate warming experiment in the Colorado Front Range, can provide valuable data regarding seedling sensitivity to climate variability and change across important landscape positions. We've found that warming enhances negative effects of water stress across forest, treeline and alpine sites, reducing recruitment in the absence of additional summer moisture. At the lowest elevation, reductions with warming have reduced Engelmann spruce recruitment to zero. Species differ in their responses to warming in the alpine, but together confirm the importance of seed dispersal to upward forest shifts. The presence of trees or other vegetation can facilitate tree establishment by modifying microclimates, especially at and above treeline. Ultimately, these ecological and demographic processes govern the timescales of tree and forest responses to climate variability and change. For the long-lived species that dominate high elevation watersheds, these processes can take decades or centuries to play out, meaning many tree populations are and will continue to be out of equilibrium with a rapidly changing climate. Projecting changes in tree distributions and abundances across mountain landscapes

  6. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  7. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzińska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlányi, Július; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Within the framework of the project "Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains" 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m(2) circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O(3) level in these areas. Typical damage by O(3) in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are distributed.

  8. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  9. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  10. Influence of soil organic matter contents on soil water characteristics of forests on east slope of Gongga Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hua; WANG Zhen-jian; LIU Zi-ting; HUANG Ai-min; TANG Qing-xin; He Yu-rong

    2007-01-01

    By testing soil organic matter (SOM) contents, soil water contents (SWC) within low suctions, and saturated infiltration rates of samples taken from east slope of Gongga Mountain of China, the enhancive effects of SOM contents on SWC within low suctions and saturated infiltration rates were quantified. The simulated functions might be applied on regional experience forest-hydrology model. The improving function of protecting forest floor and increasing SOM contents on forest ecosystem hydrological effects were also embodied.

  11. Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzinska, Krystyna; Godzik, Barbara; Fraczek, Witold; Badea, Ovidiu; Oszlanyi, Julius; Postelnicu, Daniela; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    Vegetation and land use maps of forested mountain areas in central Europe are presented. - Within the framework of the project 'Effects of forest health on biodiversity with emphasis on air pollution in the Carpathian Mountains' 26 permanent study sites were established in the vicinity of the ozone monitoring sites. The study sites were located on the NW-SE transect through the Western (12 sites), Eastern (11 sites) and Southern (3 sites) Carpathians in forest ecosystems typical of each area. Some of the forest monitoring sites were located in national parks, biosphere reserves and areas of protected landscape. Each permanent site of 0.7 ha area consisted of 5 small 500m{sup 2} circular plots, arranged in the form of a cross, i.e. four placed on the cardinal points (N, E, S, W) and one in the center. Phytosociological records were done twice during the 1998 growing season using the Braun-Blanquet's method. The study sites represented various types of forest: Picea abies stands (8), beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands (10), fir (Abies alba) stands (2) and mixed beech-fir, spruce-fir and beech-spruce stands (6). Age of most stands was 80-100 years. Degree of crown damage varied greatly between sites, a percentage of damaged trees decrease in Carpathians from West to East. It corresponds well with the O{sub 3} level in these areas. Typical damage by O{sub 3} in herb layer species in several Carpathian sites were found. Land-use map for the entire Carpathian Mountains and two detailed land use maps for Tatras (Western Carpathians) and Retezat (Southern Carpathians) are presented. A little more than half of the Carpathian territory is forested. The most densely forested are Eastern Carpathians, while the most sparsely Western Carpathians. Arable lands occupy 22.6% of the Carpathians, pastures and meadows 6.2%, water bodies 1.9%, and build up areas several percent. In the highest elevation of the Carpathians alpine meadows (11.3%) and rocks (3.5%) are

  12. Patterns and determinants of species similarity decay of forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much research has focused on biodiversity in mountain regions, elevational patterns of community similarity (i.e. species turnover and the underlying processes are still rarely discussed. In this study, based on field investigations of 28 forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains, we evaluated the combined effects of habitat divergence and geographical distance on patterns of similarity in species composition using Mantel tests and multiple regressions on distance matrices (MRM. We also compared the rates of similarity decay of different life forms with geographical distance using permutation tests. Results indicated that, for all three life forms, community similarity decreased significantly with elevational, geographical, and habitat distances. Geographical distance and habitat heterogeneity together explained 41.1%, 59.0% and 47.4% of variance in species composition of trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively, with geographical distance uniformly explaining more variance than habitat heterogeneity. Woody plants showed a faster decay in similarity with geographical distance than herbaceous species. These results suggest that, at the scale of our study, dispersal limitations and habitat filtering influence species composition together, and highlighted that dispersal limitation may play a more important role in structuring the forest communities of the western Qinling Mountains.

  13. Airborne Laser Scanning of Forest Stem Volume in a Mountainous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Schadauer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Airborne laser scanning (ALS is an active remote sensing technique that uses the time-of-flight measurement principle to capture the three-dimensional structure of the earth’s surface with pulsed lasers that transmit nanosecond-long laser pulses with a high pulse repetition frequency. Over forested areas most of the laser pulses are reflected by the leaves and branches of the trees, but a certain fraction of the laser pulses reaches the forest floor through small gaps in the canopy. Thus it is possible to reconstruct both the three-dimensional structure of the forest canopy and the terrain surface. For the retrieval of quantitative forest parameters such as stem volume or biomass it is necessary to use models that combine ALS with inventory data. One approach is to use multiplicative regression models that are trained with local inventory data. This method has been widely applied over boreal forest regions, but so far little experience exists with applying this method for mapping alpine forest. In this study the transferability of this approach to a 128 km2 large mountainous region in Vorarlberg, Austria, was evaluated. For the calibration of the model, inventory data as operationally collected by Austrian foresters were used. Despite these inventory data are based on variable sample plot sizes, they could be used for mapping stem volume for the entire alpine study area. The coefficient of determination R2 was 0.85 and the root mean square error (RMSE 90.9 m3ha-1 (relative error of 21.4% which is comparable to results of ALS studies conducted over topographically less complex environments. Due to the increasing availability, ALS data could become an operational part of Austrian’s forest inventories.

  14. Impacts of climate and land-use changes on mountain forests in Central Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Chiara; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to analyze the vegetation dynamics of Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo and Fagus sylvatica (L.) at the treeline ecotone between the closed beech forest and the mountain pine krummholz vegetation. This transitional ecosystem zone dominates the high altitudes of the Majella massif, (Central Appennines) and represents the exception on the Apennines chain being treeline dominated by krummholz with mountain pine. This species in the Majella National Park is re-colonizing open areas both upward, to the alpine meadows, and downward, to areas potentially suitable by beech expansion. On the Apennine chain, Central Italy, global change could cause a negative impact on the spatial distribution of rare or endemic species, thus influencing the appearance, structure and productivity of the tree-line ecotone. Mountain pine, growing over the treeline, represents a very sensitive species to the effects of climate change acting in Mediterranean basin. In four sampling site a circular area of 40 m in diameter was established between beech forest and mountain pine krhummolz. For both species, dendrometric parameters were collected and woody cores were extracted. During sampling, basic information, to define the growth dynamics and competition between the two species, were also recorded. A landscape analysis from aerial photographs provided information to better understand the development dynamics of the two plant communities. The dendrochronological analysis, supported by dendrometric parameters, defined the population age, as well as the time of settlement. Climate-growth relationships was analized and showed responses, in terms of plant growth, to the current climate trend. The influence of temperature and precipitation on tree growth during the vegetation season was demonstrated by significant correlation coefficients, particularly for spring and summer temperatures and summer precipitation, in both species. An interesting result is the negative correlation of

  15. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring.

  16. [Forest lighting fire forecasting for Daxing'anling Mountains based on MAXENT model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Shi, Ming-Chang; Peng, Huan; Zhu, Pei-Lin; Liu, Si-Lin; Wu, Shi-Lei; He, Cheng; Chen, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Daxing'anling Mountains is one of the areas with the highest occurrence of forest lighting fire in Heilongjiang Province, and developing a lightning fire forecast model to accurately predict the forest fires in this area is of importance. Based on the data of forest lightning fires and environment variables, the MAXENT model was used to predict the lightning fire in Daxing' anling region. Firstly, we studied the collinear diagnostic of each environment variable, evaluated the importance of the environmental variables using training gain and the Jackknife method, and then evaluated the prediction accuracy of the MAXENT model using the max Kappa value and the AUC value. The results showed that the variance inflation factor (VIF) values of lightning energy and neutralized charge were 5.012 and 6.230, respectively. They were collinear with the other variables, so the model could not be used for training. Daily rainfall, the number of cloud-to-ground lightning, and current intensity of cloud-to-ground lightning were the three most important factors affecting the lightning fires in the forest, while the daily average wind speed and the slope was of less importance. With the increase of the proportion of test data, the max Kappa and AUC values were increased. The max Kappa values were above 0.75 and the average value was 0.772, while all of the AUC values were above 0.5 and the average value was 0. 859. With a moderate level of prediction accuracy being achieved, the MAXENT model could be used to predict forest lightning fire in Daxing'anling Mountains.

  17. Runoff Response to Climate Warming and Forest Disturbance in a Mid-Mountain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Langhammer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A headwater basin in the Sumava Mountains (Czech Republic, the upper Vydra basin, has undergone forest disturbance as a result of repeated windstorms, a bark beetle outbreak, and forest management. This study analyzed the long-term (1961–2010 hydro-climatic changes by using a combination of statistical analyses, including Mann-Kendall tests, CUSUM analysis, Buishand’s and Petitt’s homogeneity tests, and Kriging. Although the runoff balance over the study period experienced no apparent changes due to climate warming and forest disturbance, significant changes were detected in the share of direct runoff and baseflow, intra-annual variability of the runoff regime, seasonal runoff patterns, and the distribution of peak and low flow events. The seasonal runoff substantially shifted from summers (decreased from 40% to 28% to springs (increased by 10%. The occurrence of peak flow events has doubled since the 1980s, with a seasonal shift from late spring towards the early spring, while the occurrence of low-flow days decreased by two-thirds. By 1990, these changes were followed by a seasonal shift in runoff from autumn to mid-winter. The changes in hydrological regime in the mid-mountain basin indicate the sensitivity of its hydrological system and the complexity of its feedback with the changing environment.

  18. Giardia in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and domestic cattle in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Miller, Woutrina A; Cranfield, Michael R; Ramer, Jan; Hassell, James; Noheri, Jean Bosco; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten V K

    2014-01-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) are critically endangered primates surviving in two isolated populations in protected areas within the Virunga Massif of Rwanda, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda. Mountain gorillas face intense ecologic pressures due to their proximity to humans. Human communities outside the national parks, and numerous human activities within the national parks (including research, tourism, illegal hunting, and anti-poaching patrols), lead to a high degree of contact between mountain gorillas and wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. To assess the pathogen transmission potential between wildlife and livestock, feces of mountain gorillas, forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) in Rwanda were examined for the parasites Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia was found in 9% of mountain gorillas, 6% of cattle, and 2% of forest buffalo. Our study represents the first report of Giardia prevalence in forest buffalo. Cryptosporidium-like particles were also observed in all three species. Molecular characterization of Giardia isolates identified zoonotic genotype assemblage B in the gorilla samples and assemblage E in the cattle samples. Significant spatial clustering of Giardia-positive samples was observed in one sector of the park. Although we did not find evidence for transmission of protozoa from forest buffalo to mountain gorillas, the genotypes of Giardia samples isolated from gorillas have been reported in humans, suggesting that the importance of humans in this ecosystem should be more closely evaluated.

  19. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change, Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharuk, V.; Jon, R.; Im, S.

    2007-12-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  20. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Cooper, Lee W [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil (20 cm deep) is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. We hypothesize that, if other environmental factors (like soil moisture) are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  1. Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Cooper, L.W.; Post, W.M. III; Hanson, P.J.

    2000-04-01

    A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. The authors hypothesize that, if other environmental factors are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

  2. Assessment of soil properties under degraded forests: Javor mountain in Republic of Srpska - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapović Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main characteristics of soils under degraded beech forests on Mt. Javor and the possibility of the reintroduction of the spruce and fir that had been cut during previous negative human activity. Research into forest soil characteristics before reforestation is not common practice in the Republic of Srpska, and very often is not successful because it has not been established which soil environment conditions are most appropriate for a particular tree species. Soil degradation has been attributed to improper management and the unplanned deforestation of some parts of the Javor Mountain. Degraded parts were initially colonized by bushes and herbaceous vegetation, but despite this and due to the steep slopes, soil erosion has occurred. The restoration of degraded forests usually requires reforestation in order to reduce soil erosion and convert low to high forests. The aim of this study was the assessment of soil properties for the reintroduction of Picea abies (Karst. and Abies alba (Mill. on degraded parts of Mt. Javor, as one of the ways to protect the forest soil from erosion. According to the World Reference Base we determined the following soil types: Albic Acrisol, Dystric Cambisol and Mollic Leptosol. All analyzed soils can meet the demands of fir and spruce due to their characteristics.

  3. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  4. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.

  5. Forest disturbance interactions and successional pathways in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu Liang,; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Xuecao Li,; Peng Gong,

    2016-01-01

    The pine forests in the southern portion of the Rocky Mountains are a heterogeneous mosaic of disturbance and recovery. The most extensive and intensive stress and mortality are received from human activity, fire, and mountain pine beetles (MPB;Dendroctonus ponderosae). Understanding disturbance interactions and disturbance-succession pathways are crucial for adapting management strategies to mitigate their impacts and anticipate future ecosystem change. Driven by this goal, we assessed the forest disturbance and recovery history in the Southern Rocky Mountains Ecoregion using a 13-year time series of Landsat image stacks. An automated classification workflow that integrates temporal segmentation techniques and a random forest classifier was used to examine disturbance patterns. To enhance efficiency in selecting representative samples at the ecoregion scale, a new sampling strategy that takes advantage of the scene-overlap among adjacent Landsat images was designed. The segment-based assessment revealed that the overall accuracy for all 14 scenes varied from 73.6% to 92.5%, with a mean of 83.1%. A design-based inference indicated the average producer’s and user’s accuracies for MPB mortality were 85.4% and 82.5% respectively. We found that burn severity was largely unrelated to the severity of pre-fire beetle outbreaks in this region, where the severity of post-fire beetle outbreaks generally decreased in relation to burn severity. Approximately half the clear-cut and burned areas were in various stages of recovery, but the regeneration rate was much slower for MPB-disturbed sites. Pre-fire beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire produced positive compound effects on seedling reestablishment in this ecoregion. Taken together, these results emphasize that although multiple disturbances do play a role in the resilience mechanism of the serotinous lodgepole pine, the overall recovery could be slow due to the vast area of beetle mortality.

  6. The effect of protected areas on forest disturbance in the Carpathian Mountains 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Munteanu, Catalina; Griffiths, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Radeloff, Volker C; Lieskovský, Juraj; Mueller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2016-09-07

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for forest protection, but they are not always effective during times of socioeconomic and institutional crises. The Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe are an ecologically outstanding region, with widespread seminatural and old-growth forest. Since 1990, Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine) have experienced economic hardship and institutional changes, including the breakdown of socialism, European Union accession, and a rapid expansion of protected areas. The question is how protected-area effectiveness has varied during these times across the Carpathians given these changes. We analyzed a satellite-based data set of forest disturbance (i.e., forest loss due to harvesting or natural disturbances) from 1985 to 2010 and used matching statistics and a fixed-effects estimator to quantify the effect of protection on forest disturbance. Protected areas in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and the Ukraine had significantly less deforestation inside protected areas than outside in some periods; the likelihood of disturbance was reduced by 1-5%. The effectiveness of protection increased over time in these countries, whereas the opposite was true in Romania. Older protected areas were most effective in Romania and Hungary, but newer protected areas were more effective in Czech Republic, and Poland. Strict protection (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] protection category Ia-II) was not more effective than landscape-level protection (IUCN III-VI). We suggest that the strength of institutions, the differences in forest privatization, forest management, prior distribution of protected areas, and when countries joined the European Union may provide explanations for the strikingly heterogeneous effectiveness patterns among countries. Our results highlight how different the effects of protected areas can be at broad scales, indicating that the effectiveness of protected areas is

  7. Fast wood decay in a mountain Mediterranean area having Fagus sylvatica forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fravolini, Giulia; Egli, Markus; Cherubini, Paolo; Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Deadwood and litter act as important linkages between recent productivity and current community, and ecosystem processes. The increasing interest in the quantity and properties of coarse woody debris (CWD) and litter is relevant both to maintaining biodiversity and to global C dynamics. Mountain and Mediterranean areas, furthermore, are considered to be especially sensitive to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, a need exists to understand more in detail the interplay between soils, forests, deadwood and climate in general and in particular in mountain Mediterranean areas such as the Appenine. Due to the fact that linkages between climate, coarse woody decay and soils in mountain Mediterranean areas are only poorly understood, we aimed at investigating the decay mechanism of Fagus silvatica as a function of altitude and exposure. Furthermore, the effects of exposure on the decay dynamics of dead wood and soils were compared along a altitudinal sequence in an Appenine mountain forest (Majella Mountain). Ten sites, five of which having north and the other 5 having south exposure, were investigated, ranging from 1000 m to 1650 m asl. All sites have a Fagus sylvatica forest. In addition to this, experimental plots were installed at each site. In May 2014 standardised wood blocks (5 x 5 x 2 cm) of local Fagus sylvatica were placed at each site inside PVC tubes ('mesocosms') that was filled with undisturbed soil material. The sampling design foresees that three replicates of such mesocosms per site will be sampled after 8 , 16, 52 and 104 weeks. After 8 weeks three tubes were removed from the sites (sampled soil and dead wood blocks) and the wood blocks analysed for cellulose, lignin and density. At each site, three cores were taken to analyse soil properties. The soil cores were subdivided in 0 - 5, 5 - 10 and 10 - 15 cm depth and measured for organic carbon, carbonates and pH. In addition, the humus forms at each site were determined. Already after 8 weeks

  8. Biomechanical effects of trees in a mountain temperate forest: implications for biogeomorphology, soil science, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Senecká, Anna; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2017-04-01

    Biomechanical effects of trees in forest soils represent a potentially significant factor in hillslope processes, pedocomplexity, and forest dynamics. However, these processes have been only rarely studied so far. Within this study we aim (i) to elaborate a detailed and widely applicable methodology of quantification of the main biomechanical effects of trees in soil, (ii) to reveal actual (minimal) frequencies, areas and volumes related to these effects in a mountain temperate old-growth forest. The research took place in the Boubín Primeval Forest in the Czech Republic. The fir-spruce-beech forest reserve belongs among the oldest protected areas in Europe. The reserve occupies NE slopes of an average inclination of about 14˚ on gneiss at an altitude of 930-1110 m a.s.l. We evaluated effects of all standing or lying trees of diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm in an area of 10.2 ha. In total, 4000 trees were studied from viewpoint of following features: treethrow, root mound, bioprotective function of standing as well as lying tree, baumstein, root baumstein, infilling stump, hole after trunk fall, stemwash, trunkwash. Any biomechanical phenomena were recorded in 59% of standing and 51% of lying dead trees (excluding the pervasive soil displacement by thickening trunk and roots and the converse infilling of the space freed during their decay with surrounding soil). Approximately one tenth of the trees expressed simultaneously opposing phenomena such as blocking of slope processes and their intensification. Different tree species and DBH categories exhibited significantly different structure of biomechanical effects in soil. Bioprotective function represented the most frequent process. However, concerning area and volume of affected soil, treethrows were an even more important phenomenon. Total area influenced by the studied biomechanical effects of current generation of trees was 343 m2ha-1. Additional 774 m2ha-1 were occupied by older treethrow pit

  9. Ontogenetic niche shifts in three Vaccinium species on a sub-alpine mountain side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auffret, Alistair G.; Meineri, Eric; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    . uliginosum and V. vitis-idaea on a mountain slope in northern Sweden in relation to current adult occurrence. Methods: We combined a seed-sowing experiment in seven community types with adult occurrence observations and species distribution mapping. Results: Emergence of V. myrtillus and V. vitis...

  10. Assessing impact of forest cover change dynamics on high nature value farmland in Mediterranean mountain landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cimini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A general trend of scrub encroachment and natural forest expansion (old-field succession has been occurring in the past fifty years in Mediterranean mountain areas. While this phenomenon enhances a series of ecological processes and environmental services, it may represent a threat for biodiversity conservation when occurring on high nature value (HNV extensive farmland. These open areas, created by traditional farming systems, have been recognized as a critically important European biodiversity resource. Understanding the drivers of Land Use and Land Cover Change (LUCC and their implications on the dynamics of forest and HNV farmland habitats plays a crucial role in biodiversity conservation in protected areas. In this perspective, the case study here presented aims to model recent (1989-2008 LUCC in a National Park of the Central Apennines (Italy and to produce a mid-term forecast (2008-2020. In the past twenty years, 57% of the land uptake by shrubland and 46% by forest has been occurring on former HNV farmland. Mid-term projections (2008-2020 confirm further HNV farmland decline. Localization of HNV farmland habitats vulnerable to change is a valuable decision-making tool to tradeoff in protected areas the conservation of traditional landscapes with the increase of forest and shrubland areas. In this perspective, concrete socio-economical and silvicultural measures are outlined to preserve these socially and economically-fragile open habitats.

  11. Estimating the collapse of aggregated fine soil structure in a mountainous forested catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouri, Goro; Shinoda, Seirou; Golosov, Valentin; Chalov, Sergey; Shiiba, Michiharu; Hori, Tomoharu; Oki, Taikan

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the relationship of forest soil dryness and antecedent rainfall with suspended sediment (SS) yield due to extreme rainfall events and how this relationship affects the survival of forest plants. Several phenomena contribute to this relationship: increasing evaporation (amount of water vapour discharged from soil) due to increasing air temperature, decreasing moisture content in the soil, the collapse of aggregates of fine soil particles, and the resulting effects on forest plants. To clarify the relationships among climate variation, the collapse of soil particle aggregates, and rainfall-runoff processes, a numerical model was developed to reproduce such aggregate collapse in detail. The validity of the numerical model was confirmed by its application to the granitic mountainous catchment of the Nagara River basin in Japan and by comparison with observational data. The simulation suggests that important problems, such as the collapse of forest plants in response to decreases in soil moisture content and antecedent rainfall, will arise if air temperature continues to increase.

  12. Soil CO2 efflux from two mountain forests in the eastern Himalayas, Bhutan: components and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Norbu; Mayer, Mathias; Prasad Nirola, Mani; Zangmo, Norbu; Orong, Karma; Uddin Ahmed, Iftekhar; Darabant, Andras; Jandl, Robert; Gratzer, Georg; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of mountain forests in the Hindu Kush Himalaya range is poorly studied, although climate change is expected to disproportionally affect the region. We measured the soil CO2 efflux (Rs) at a high-elevation (3260 m) mixed forest and a lower-elevation (2460 m) broadleaf forest in Bhutan, eastern Himalayas, during 2015. Trenching was applied to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic (Rh) soil respiration. The temperature (Q10) and the moisture sensitivities of Rh were determined under controlled laboratory conditions and were used to model Rh in the field. The higher-elevation mixed forest had a higher standing tree stock, reflected in higher soil C stocks and basal soil respiration. Annual Rs was similar between the two forest sites (14.5 ± 1.2 t C ha-1 for broadleaf; 12.8 ± 1.0 t C ha-1 for mixed). Modelled annual contribution of Rh was ˜ 65 % of Rs at both sites with a higher heterotrophic contribution during winter and lower contribution during the monsoon season. Rh, estimated from trenching, was in the range of modelled Rh but showed higher temporal variability. The measured temperature sensitivity of Rh was similar at the mixed and broadleaf forest sites (Q10 2.2-2.3) under intermediate soil moisture but decreased (Q10 1.5 at both sites) in dry soil. Rs closely followed the annual course of field soil temperature at both sites. Covariation between soil temperature and moisture (cold dry winters and warm wet summers) was likely the main cause for this close relationship. Under the prevailing weather conditions, a simple temperature-driven model was able to explain more than 90 % of the temporal variation in Rs. A longer time series and/or experimental climate manipulations are required to understand the effects of eventually occurring climate extremes such as monsoon failures.

  13. Large-scale road detection in forested mountainous areas using airborne topographic lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, António; Mallet, Clément; Chehata, Nesrine

    2016-02-01

    In forested mountainous areas, the road location and characterization are invaluable inputs for various purposes such as forest management, wood harvesting industry, wildfire protection and fighting. Airborne topographic lidar has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface. Lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing for fine reconstruction of ground topography while preserving high frequencies of the relief: fine Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) is the key product. This paper addresses the problem of road detection and characterization in forested environments over large scales (>1000 km2). For that purpose, an efficient pipeline is proposed, which assumes that main forest roads can be modeled as planar elongated features in the road direction with relief variation in orthogonal direction. DTMs are the only input and no complex 3D point cloud processing methods are involved. First, a restricted but carefully designed set of morphological features is defined as input for a supervised Random Forest classification of potential road patches. Then, a graph is built over these candidate regions: vertices are selected using stochastic geometry tools and edges are created in order to fill gaps in the DTM created by vegetation occlusion. The graph is pruned using morphological criteria derived from the input road model. Finally, once the road is located in 2D, its width and slope are retrieved using an object-based image analysis. We demonstrate that our road model is valid for most forest roads and that roads are correctly retrieved (>80%) with few erroneously detected pathways (10-15%) using fully automatic methods. The full pipeline takes less than 2 min per km2 and higher planimetric accuracy than 2D existing topographic databases are achieved. Compared to these databases, additional roads can be detected with the ability of lidar sensors to penetrate the understory. In case of very dense vegetation and insufficient relief in the DTM, gaps may exist in

  14. Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Attarchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In those regions, forests mainly extend in rough terrain and comprise different stand structures, which are difficult to discriminate. This paper explores the joint analysis of Landsat7/ETM+, L-band SAR and their derived parameters and the effect of terrain corrections to overcome the challenges of discriminating forest stand age classes in mountain regions. We also verified the performances of three machine learning methods which have recently shown promising results using multisource data; support vector machines (SVM, neural networks (NN, random forest (RF and one traditional classifier (i.e., maximum likelihood classification (MLC as a benchmark. The non-topographically corrected ETM+ data failed to differentiate among different forest stand age classes (average classification accuracy (OA = 65%. This confirms the need to reduce relief effects prior data classification in mountain regions. SAR backscattering alone cannot properly differentiate among different forest stand age classes (OA = 62%. However, textures and PolSAR features are very efficient for the separation of forest classes (OA = 82%. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the joint usage of SAR and ETM+ (OA = 86%. However, this shows a slight improvement compared to the ETM+ classification (OA = 84%. The machine learning classifiers proved t o be more robust and accurate compared to MLC. SVM and RF statistically produced better classification results than NN in the exploitation of the considered multi-source data.

  15. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  16. MARKETIZATION OF GREEN FOOD RESOURCES IN FOREST REGION OF THE CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains is rich in the resources of green food. At present, the low marketization of green food resources in the forest region of the Changbai Mountains becomes the bottleneck to restrict the benign development of its green food industry. With huge market demands at home and abroad, it is the urgent problem how to improve marketization process of green food resources and transfer the resources superiority into the market superiority in the region. According to the investigation, this paper analyzed the status quo and the cause of formation of low-marketization with the method of combining comparative research and practice research. It pointed out that necessary condition of marketization of green food resources in the forest region, such as strategy, economic environment, marketization allocation of sci-tech resources, etc. should be established. Furthermore, the concrete strategies of marketization of green food resources in the region such as market location, strategies of objective markets, combined strategy of marketing, etc. were advanced.

  17. Forest Dynamics and Their Phenological Response to Climate Warming in the Khingan Mountains, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Khingan Mountain region, the most important and typical natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE in China, is the largest and northernmost forest area and the one more sensitive to climate change. Taking this region as the study area, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF and its phenology changes in relation to climate change and elevation. Based on MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI time series over the period of 2001 to 2009, the start-of-season (SOS, length-of-season (LOS and another two vegetation variables (seasonal amplitude (SA and integrated EVI (SI were derived. Over the past decade, the DBF in Khingan Mountains has generally degraded and over 65% of DBF has experienced negative SA and SI trends. Earlier trends in SOS and longer trends in LOS for DBF were observed, and these trends were mainly caused by climate warming. In addition, results from our analysis also indicated that the effects of temperature on DBF phenology were elevation dependent. The magnitude of advancement in SOS and extension in LOS with temperature increase significantly increased along a raising elevation gradient.

  18. Characteristics of soil seed bank in plantation forest in the rocky mountain region of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zeng-hui; YANG Yang; LENG Ping-sheng; DOU De-quan; ZHANG Bo; HOU Bing-fei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated characteristics (scales and composition) of soil seed banks at eight study sites in the rocky mountain region of Beijing by seed identification and germination monitoring.We also surveyed the vegetation communities at the eight study sites to explore the role of soil seed banks in vegetation restoration.The storage capacity of soil seed banks at the eight sites ranked from 766.26 to 2461.92 seedsm-2.A total of 23 plant species were found in soil seed banks,of which 63-80%of seeds were herbs in various soil layers and 60% of seeds were located in the soil layer at 0-5 cm depth.Biodiversity indices indicated clear differences in species diversity of soil seed banks among different plant communities.The species composition of aboveground vegetation showed low similarity with that based on soil seed banks.In the aboveground plant community,the afforestation tree species showed high importance values.The plant species originating from soil seed banks represented natural regeneration,which also showed relatively high importance values.This study suggests that in the rocky mountain region of Beijing the soil seed banks played a key role in the transformation from pure plantation forest to near-natural forest,promoting natural ecological processes,and the role of the seed banks in vegetation restoration was important to the improvement of ecological restoration methods.

  19. The ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-kui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest, called "Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen" (LXSS in China′s Pharmacopoeia. In recent years, it has been quickly propelled to plant at a large scale. Objective: To study the profiles of ginsenosides and carbohydrate profiles of LXSS. Materials and Methods: The contents of ginsenosides and carbohydrates, such as soluble sugar, polysaccharide, pectin, and starch in LXSS, were determined. All the above components were profiled, and the correlations between them were analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the contents of total ginsenoside, protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, Rg 1 , Re, Rb 1 , Rc, Rb 2 , Rd, starch, and pectin were negatively correlated with the growing years within 17 years. Among them, the content of starch was positively correlated with that of pectin. The total ginsenosides was positively correlated with starch and pectin, which cannot be found in garden ginseng, maybe resulting of fertilizer and other manual intervention in process of cultivation of garden ginseng. Discussion and Conclusions: The accumulation of ginsenosides and carbohydrate, especially starch and pectin, was different in garden ginseng and LXSS. This research may provide the scientific basis for germplasm evaluation, the cultivation and utilization of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest.

  20. Multitemporal analysis of landscape metrics for monitoring forested patterns in coastal and mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, M. T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2009-04-01

    The role of forested areas for the maintaining of an acceptable landscape balance is crucial. As an example, they contribute to higher biodiversity levels directly and to cleaner fluvial waters indirectly, thus, the degradation of such ecosystems has strong repercussions on many ecological processes. In order to preserve their natural stability, monitoring forest temporal dynamics is very important for a correct management, particularly, in fragile Mediterranean environments that are highly vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. For analysing the evolution of forested patterns, especially in areas with a strong human presence, landscape metrics are a basilar tool since they allow for evaluating the structure of landscape patterns at different spatio-temporal scales and the relationship between natural environment and human environment. Starting from this premise, we selected a set of Landscape Metrics to evaluate the temporal dynamics of forested covers in two different environments (coastal and mountainous) located in Basilicata Region, Southern Italy. The first one (area A) is located along the Ionian coast and is largely characterized by evergreen forests; in such an area, even if many sites are protected by the European Community (SCI), forests are subjected to a strong incidence of human activities mainly linked to agriculture and tourism as well as to frequent fire events and coastal erosion processes that favour salt-water intrusion. The second one (area B) is a high heterogeneous mountainous area, which also comprehends alluvial planes. The particular configuration of the territory allows for the presence of a very rich faunal and vegetation biodiversity; thus, it is partially under the protection of a National Park, but there are also many critical anthropical activities (e.g. oil drilling, agriculture, etc.). The landscape ecology analyses were performed on multi temporal land cover maps, obtained from hybrid classifications of a time

  1. Use of passive UAS imaging to measure biophysical parameters in a southern Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M. K.; Sloan, J.; Mladinich, C. S.; Wessman, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide detailed, fine spatial resolution imagery for ecological uses not otherwise obtainable through standard methods. The use of UAS imagery for ecology is a rapidly -evolving field, where the study of forest landscape ecology can be augmented using UAS imagery to scale and validate biophysical data from field measurements to spaceborne observations. High resolution imagery provided by UAS (30 cm2 pixels) offers detailed canopy cover and forest structure data in a time efficient and inexpensive manner. Using a GoPro Hero2 (2 mm focal length) camera mounted in the nose cone of a Raven unmanned system, we collected aerial and thermal data monthly during the summer 2013, over two subalpine forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. These forests are dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus ponderosae) and have experienced insect-driven (primarily mountain pine beetle; MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) mortality. Objectives of this study include observations of forest health variables such as canopy water content (CWC) from thermal imagery and leaf area index (LAI), biomass and forest productivity from the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from UAS imagery. Observations were, validated with ground measurements. Images were processed using a combination of AgiSoft Photoscan professional software and ENVI remote imaging software. We utilized the software Leaf Area Index Calculator (LAIC) developed by Córcoles et al. (2013) for calculating LAI from digital images and modified to conform to leaf area of needle-leaf trees as in Chen and Cihlar (1996) . LAIC uses a K-means cluster analysis to decipher the RGB levels for each pixel and distinguish between green aboveground vegetation and other materials, and project leaf area per unit of ground surface area (i.e. half total needle surface area per unit area). Preliminary LAIC UAS data shows summer average LAI was 3.8 in the most dense forest stands and 2.95 in less dense

  2. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Ligarreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters. Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (p<0.05 resulted to be between fruit length and fruit width (0.90, leaf length and leaf width (0.78, plant height and stem diameter (0.60, and inflorescence length and flowers number per inflorescence (0.57. The results suggest that an important genetic resource exists for this species in the wild. Low

  4. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  5. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  6. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    V. Mahat; Anderson, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC ...

  7. Impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    V. Mahat; Anderson, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC in combination wit...

  8. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  9. Remote Sensing Assessment of Forest Disturbance across Complex Mountainous Terrain: The Pattern and Severity of Impacts of Tropical Cyclone Yasi on Australian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Topography affects the patterns of forest disturbance produced by tropical cyclones. It determines the degree of exposure of a surface and can alter wind characteristics. Whether multispectral remote sensing data can sense the effect of topography on disturbance is a question that deserves attention given the multi-scale spatial coverage of these data and the projected increase in intensity of the strongest cyclones. Here, multispectral satellite data, topographic maps and cyclone surface wind data were used to study the patterns of disturbance in an Australian rainforest with complex mountainous terrain produced by tropical cyclone Yasi (2011. The cyclone surface wind data (H*wind was produced by the Hurricane Research Division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (HRD/NOAA, and this was the first time that this data was produced for a cyclone outside of United States territory. A disturbance map was obtained by applying spectral mixture analyses on satellite data and presented a significant correlation with field-measured tree mortality. Our results showed that, consistent with cyclones in the southern hemisphere, multispectral data revealed that forest disturbance was higher on the left side of the cyclone track. The highest level of forest disturbance occurred in forests along the path of the cyclone track (±30°. Levels of forest disturbance decreased with decreasing slope and with an aspect facing off the track of the cyclone or away from the dominant surface winds. An increase in disturbance with surface elevation was also observed. However, areas affected by the same wind intensity presented increased levels of disturbance with increasing elevation suggesting that complex terrain interactions act to speed up wind at higher elevations. Yasi produced an important offset to Australia’s forest carbon sink in 2010. We concluded that multispectral data was sensitive to the main effects of complex topography on disturbance

  10. Variation in litter decomposition-temperature relationships between coniferous and broadleaf forests in Huangshan Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xing-bing; SONG Fu-qiang; ZHANG Peng; LIN Yong-hui; TIAN Xing-jun; REN Li-li; CHEN Cheng; LI Xiao-na; Tan Hai-xia

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the differences in the decompositions of leaf litter, lignin and carbohydrate between coniferous forest and broadleaf forest at 20℃ and 30℃ in Huangshan Mountain, Anhui Province, China. Results showed that at 20℃ mass loss of leaf litter driven by microbial decomposers was higher in broadleaf forest than that in coniferous forest, whereas the difference in mass loss of leaf litter was not significant at 30℃. The temperature increase did not affect the mass loss of leaf litter for coniferous forest treatment, but significantly reduced the decomposition rate for broadleaf forest treatment. The functional decomposers of microorganism in broadleaf forest produced a higher lignin decomposition rate at 20℃, compared to that in coniferous forest, but the difference in lignin decomposition was not found between two forest types at 30℃. Improved temperature increased the lignin decomposition for both broadleaf and coniferous forest. Additionally, the functional group of microorganism from broadleaf forest showed marginally higher carbohydrate loss than that from coniferous forest at both temperatures. Temperature increase reduced the carbohydrate decomposition for broadleaf forest, while only a little reduce was found for coniferous forest. Remarkable differences occurred in responses between most enzymes (Phenoloxidase, peroxidase, β-glucosidase and endocellulase) and decomposition rate of leaf litter to forest type and temperature, although there exist strong relationships between measured enzyme activities and decomposition rate in most cases. The reason is that more than one enzyme contribute to the mass loss of leaf litter and organic chemical components. In conclusion, at a community scale the coniferous and broadleaf forests differed in their temperature-decomposition relationships.

  11. A long-term simulation of forest carbon fluxes over the Qilian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min; Tian, Xin; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Li, Chunmei; Fan, Wenwu

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we integrated a remote-sensing-based (the MODIS MOD_17 Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) model (MOD_17)) and a process-based (the Biome-BioGeochemical Cycles (Biome-BGC) model) ecological model in order to estimate long-term (from 2000 to 2012) forest carbon fluxes over the Qilian Mountains in northwest China, a cold and arid forest ecosystem. Our goal was to obtain an accurate and quantitative simulation of spatial GPP patterns using the MOD_17 model and a temporal description of forest processes using the Biome-BGC model. The original MOD_17 model was first optimized using a biome-specific parameter, observed meteorological data, and reproduced fPAR at the eddy covariance site. The optimized MOD_17 model performed much better (R2 = 0.91, RMSE = 5.19 gC/m2/8d) than the original model (R2 = 0.47, RMSE = 20.27 gC/m2/8d). The Biome-BGC model was then calibrated using GPP for 30 representative forest plots selected from the optimized MOD_17 model. The calibrated Biome-BGC model was then driven in order to estimate forest GPP, net primary productivity (NPP), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). GPP and NEE were validated against two-year (2010 and 2011) EC measurements (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 1.15 gC/m2/d for GPP; and R2 = 0.69, RMSE = 1.087 gC/m2/d for NEE). NPP estimates from 2000 to 2012 were then compared to dendrochronological measurements (R2 = 0.73, RMSE = 24.46 gC/m2/yr). Our results indicated that integration of the two models can be used for estimating carbon fluxes with good accuracy and a high temporal and spatial resolution. Overall, NPP displayed a downward trend, with an average rate of 0.39 gC/m2/yr, from 2000 and 2012 over the Qilian Mountains. Simulated average annual NPP yielded higher values for the southeast as compared to the northwest. The most positive correlative climatic factor to average annual NPP was downward shortwave radiation. The vapor pressure deficit, and mean temperature and precipitation yielded negative correlations to average

  12. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  13. Tiger density in a tropical lowland forest in the Eastern Himalayan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randeep; Chauhan, Devendra Singh; Mishra, Sudhanshu; Krausman, Paul R; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Tropical evergreen forests in northeast India are a biological hot spot for conservation of flora and fauna. Little is known, however, about tiger abundance, which is a flagship species for tropical evergreen forests. Our objective was to document the capture rate and population density of tigers based on spatial explicit capture-recapture (SECR) approaches using camera trap data in an intensive study area (ISA) of 158 km(2) in Pakke Tiger Reserve (PTR) during March to May 2006. The Reserve lies in the foothills of the Eastern Himalayan Mountains, northeast India. We monitored 38 camera traps in ISA for 70 days and documented 10 photo-captures of tigers (5 left and 5 right flanks) with an average trap success rate of 1.3 captures/100 trap days. The overall capture probability was 0.05. The tiger density estimated using a SECR model was 0.97 ± 0.23 individuals/100 km(2). This is the first systematic sampling study in tropical semi evergreen forests of India, and information on capture rate and population density of tigers provides baseline data from which to determining changes in the future to assist conservation.

  14. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Parton, William J.

    1994-01-01

    We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m−2 y−1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.

  15. [Energy balance and evapotranspiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-jian; Yuan, Feng-hui; Chen, Ni-na; Deng, Jun-li; Yu, Xiao-zhou; Sheng, Xue-jiao

    2011-03-01

    Based on the continuous measurements of an open-path eddy covariance system, this paper analyzed the characteristics of energy balance components and evapotranspiration in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 2008, as well as the differences of energy balance components and evapotranspiration between growth season and dormant season. For the test forest, the year-round energy balance closure was 72%, being at a medium level, compared to the other studies in the Fluxnet community. The energy balance components had significant differences in their diurnal and seasonal variations. In growth season, turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward latent heat flux, accounting for 66% of available energy; while in dormant season, the turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward sensible heat flux, accounting for 63% of available energy. The accumulated annual evapotranspiration in the study site in 2008 was 484.7 mm, occupying 87% of the precipitation at the same time period (558.9 mm), which demonstrated that evapotranspiration was the main water loss item in temperate forests of northern China.

  16. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-09-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2-3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4-50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%-0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting.

  17. The effects of sustained forest use on hillslope soil hydraulic conductivity in the Middle Mountains of Central Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Bonell, Mike; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, M.; Gilmour, Don A.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the multi-decadal changes in field saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, beneath severely degraded pasture, natural forest and two mature planted Pinus roxburghii stands between two sets of measurements made in 1986 and 2011 at the same locations in the Middle Mountains of

  18. Field test of foliar-spray herbicides to control mountain laurel in mature mixed-oak forests in western Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose; Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Kurt W. Gottschalk; John R. Denning

    2016-01-01

    Successful oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration requires the presence of competitive sources of oak reproduction before parent oaks are harvested. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) in the understory of many Appalachian forests prevents new oak seedlings from receiving adequate sunlight to survive and grow into competitive size classes. This study examined the efficacy of...

  19. Effects of prescribed fire on the buried seed bank in mixed-hardwood forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Tracy L. Roof; Jacquelyne L. Adams; Dean Simon; Gordon Warburton

    2012-01-01

    This study characterizes the seed bank prior to and immediately following dormant-season prescribed fire in mature, mixed-Quercus spp. (oak) forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Thirty samples from the litter/duff (LD) and the top 5 cm of the mineral soil (MS) were collected from five 5-ha burn units (6 plots per experimental unit) before...

  20. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara E. Jenkins; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Diana E. Anderson; Darrell S. Kaufman; Philip A. Pearthree

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area...

  1. Long-term effects of fuel treatments on aboveground biomass accumulation in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate A. Clyatt; Christopher R. Keyes; Sharon M. Hood

    2017-01-01

    Fuel treatments in ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains are commonly used to modify fire behavior, but it is unclear how different fuel treatments impact the subsequent production and distribution of aboveground biomass, especially in the long term. This research evaluated aboveground biomass responses 23 years after treatment in two silvicultural...

  2. Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and water relations of fraser fir in a temperate mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Reinhardt; William K. Smith

    2010-01-01

    The red spruce-Fraser fir ecosystem (Picea rubens Sarg.-Abies fraseri [Pursh] Poir.) of the southern Appalachian mountains is a temperate zone cloud forest immersed in clouds for 30 to 40 percent of a typical summer day, and experiencing immersion on about 65 percent of all days annually. We compared the microclimate,...

  3. Climatic controls on the isotopic composition and availability of soil nitrogen in mountainous tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, S. R.; Cole, R. J.; Schmitt, C. G.; All, J.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical forests in mountainous regions are often assumed to be nitrogen (N) limited, yet N dynamics across rugged terrain can be complex due to gradients in climate and topography. Elucidating patterns of N availability and loss across such gradients is necessary to predict and manage tropical forest response to environmental changes such as increasing N deposition and rising temperatures. However, such data is currently lacking, particularly in remote locations that are of high conservation value. To address this gap, a research expedition organized by the American Climber Science Program recently made a coast-to-coast journey across a remote region of Costa Rica, travelling over the Cordillera Talamanca and through La Amistad International Park. Numerous biological, chemical and hydrologic measurements were made en-route across montane to premontane wet tropical forests, spanning nearly 2,000 m in elevation and 200 km. Surface soil samples collected at regular intervals along this transect illuminate environmental drivers of N dynamics across the region. The dataset reveals strong links between soil natural abundance N isotopic composition (δ15N) and elevation and temperature parameters, and weaker links to precipitation and topography. This is in general agreement with global scale observations, but divergence from some previously published works is apparent and will be discussed. δ15N mass balance models suggest that N isotope patterns reflect differences in forms of N loss and the relative importance of fractionating and non-fractionating pathways. When combined with data on several other edaphic properties, especially C:N stoichiometry, the results points toward notable variation in soil N availability and N constraints across the transect. This study illustrates large, but predictable, variation in key N cycle traits across the premontane to montane wet tropical forest transition. These findings have management-relevant implications for tropical regions.

  4. Factorial analysis on forest canopy density restoration in the burned area of northern Great Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEFu-ju; XIAODu-ning; LIXiu-zhen; WANGXu-gao; SHIBao-dong

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of forest landscape has drawn much attention since the catastrophic fire took place on the northern slope of Great Xing'an Mountains in 1987. Forest canopy density, which has close relation to forest productivity, was selected as a key factor to find how much the forest quality was changed 13 years after fire, and how fire severity, regeneration way and terrain factors influenced the restoration of forest canopy density, based on forest inventory data in China, and using Kendall Bivariate Correlation Analysis, and Distances Correlation Analysis. The results showed that fire severity which was inversely correlated with forest canopy density grade was an initial factor among all that selected. Regeneration way which did not remarkably affect forest canopy density restoration in short period, may shorten the cycle of forest succession and promote the forest productivity of conophorium in the future, Among the three terrain factors, the effect of slope was the strongest, the position on slope was the second and the aspect was the last.

  5. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  6. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A. [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Godzik, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Institute of Botany; Frczek, W. [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands (US)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations f O{sub 3}, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Guba Iowka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O{sub 3} concentrations in the Vychodna and Guba Iowka sites reached 160 and 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and at 25{sup o}C and 760 mm Hg, 1 {mu}g O{sub 3} = 0.51 ppb O{sub 3}), These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal O{sub 3} distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon with lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-hr period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O{sub 3} levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O{sub 3} levels with elevation occurred, Concentrations of O{sub 3} determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O{sub 3} concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O{sub 3} distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O{sub 3} on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the A0T40 indices for forest trees and natural

  7. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  8. Soils on overburden dumps in the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, P. S.; Tsibart, A. S.; Zavadskaya, M. P.; Sharapova, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    The properties of the soils forming on coal dumps significantly depend on the properties of the parent rocks and the technology of creating the dumps. In the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin, argillites, siltstones, and sandstones are the overburden and enclosing rocks. They are responsible for the alkaline reaction and the same microelement composition in almost all the soils studied. The nonselective formation of the dumps and the predominance of the coarse fraction in the rocks composing the dumps is a cause of the wide distribution of petrozems and humus petrozems on their surface. The presence of a great amount of coal particles in the substrates and the incorrect planning of the dumps may be the reasons for their self-ignition, which can change the composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of the dumps.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a new Methanosarcina mazei strain GFJ07 from a mountain forest pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: A new methanogenic strain, named GFJ07, was isolated from a pond of mountain forests in Guangxi, China. Cells grown in liquid culture tended to form aggregates with pseudosarcina-like or irregular shape.Methodology and Results: The optimum temperature, pH and NaCl concentration were 35 ℃, 7.0 and 0.5%, respectively. The isolate used methanol, trimethylamine, acetate and H2-CO2 as substrates. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed strain GFJ07 showed the highest sequence similarity of 99.9% to Methanosarcina mazei.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The cells were Gram positive and nonmotile. Most of single cell grew as a sausage-like clinder about 0.5 μm in diameter and 1.0 μm in length.

  10. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  11. Species composition and minimum sampling area of a riparian mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Fang-zhou; XU Dong; DENG Hong-bing

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas are unique although often small component of the overall watershed landscape. The structure of riparian forests along Erdaobai River on the north slope of Changhai Mountain were investi- gated by using field data collected from eight sampling transects perpen- dicular to the Erdaobai River channel. Two kinds of species-area satura- tion curves were used to examine the relationship between species num- ber and minimum sampling area. The results showed that riparian gym- nosperms accounted for a high proportion of all gymnosperms in the Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve while riparian ferns and angiosperms accounted for a relatively low proportion. The average minimum sam- pling areas of riparian forest that included 60%, 80%, and 90% of the community species pool were about 85, 185, and 328 m, respectively; while those for nonriparian forest were about 275, 390, and 514 m, correspondingly.

  12. Genetic patterns in forest antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, as inferred from non-invasive sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowkett, Andrew E.; Jones, Trevor; Rovero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    As for many tropical regions, the evolutionary and demographic status of antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, are poorly resolved. We employed genetic information from 618 faecal samples to assess the status of forest antelope species in terms of their distribution, intraspec...... except the endangered C. spadix. Overall, our results demonstrate the value of non-invasive genetic sampling in studying the distribution and evolution of rarely observed species.......As for many tropical regions, the evolutionary and demographic status of antelope populations in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, are poorly resolved. We employed genetic information from 618 faecal samples to assess the status of forest antelope species in terms of their distribution......, intraspecific diversity and population subdivision within the Udzungwa landscape. Most species were detected in the majority of forest fragments, except for Philantomba monticola. Phylogenetic analyses were consistent with traditional taxonomy with the exception of Cephalophus harveyi which was paraphyletic...

  13. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  14. APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE UJUK MOUNTAIN BOREAL FORESTS (THE TYVA REPUBLIC, RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulermaa B. Kuular

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to assessment and monitoring of forests insouthern Siberia. This study aims to evaluate the response of southern boreal forests to climate warming at local scale. Estimating the impacts of climate change on mountain boreal forests requires a more complete accounting of tree growth/climate interaction. We used both remote sensing and field data. Field measurements were made from the upper to lower timberline of dark deciduous forest in 2005 and 2012. The remote sensing datasets were generated from LANDSAT scenes of different dates (19.08.1988, 25.06.1992 and 18.08.2011. For estimation of forests changes, we used values of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and NBR (Normalized Burn Ratio.

  15. Holocene forest development and maintenance on different substrates in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, Christy E; Whitlock, Cathy; Skinner, Carl N; Mohr, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    The influence of substrate on long-term vegetation dynamics has received little attention, and yet nutrient-limited ecosystems have some of the highest levels of endemism in the world. The diverse geology of the Klamath Mountains of northern California (USA) allows examination of the long-term influence of edaphic constraints in subalpine forests through a comparison of vegetation histories between nutrient-limited ultramafic substrates and terrain that is more fertile. Pollen and charcoal records spanning up to 15000 years from ultramafic settings reveal a distinctly different vegetation history compared to other soil types. In non-ultramafic settings, the dominant trees and shrubs shifted in elevation in response to Holocene climate variations resulting in compositional and structural changes, whereas on ultramafic substrates changes were primarily structural, not compositional. Fire activity was similar through most of the Holocene with the exception of declines over the last 4000 years on ultramafic substrates, likely due to the reduction of understory fuels and cooler wetter conditions than in the middle Holocene. These results suggest that the tree and shrub distributions were more responsive to past climate changes on non-ultramafic substrates compared to those on ultramafic substrates. The combination of these dynamics may help explain high levels of plant diversity in the Klamath Mountains and provide insights for managing these complex ecosystems.

  16. Moth outbreaks alter root-associated fungal communities in subarctic mountain birch forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravesi, Karita; Aikio, Sami; Wäli, Piippa R; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Kaukonen, Maarit; Huusko, Karoliina; Suokas, Marko; Brown, Shawn P; Jumpponen, Ari; Tuomi, Juha; Markkola, Annamari

    2015-05-01

    Climate change has important implications on the abundance and range of insect pests in forest ecosystems. We studied responses of root-associated fungal communities to defoliation of mountain birch hosts by a massive geometrid moth outbreak through 454 pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the ITS2 rDNA region. We compared fungal diversity and community composition at three levels of moth defoliation (intact control, full defoliation in one season, full defoliation in two or more seasons), replicated in three localities. Defoliation caused dramatic shifts in functional and taxonomic community composition of root-associated fungi. Differentially defoliated mountain birch roots harbored distinct fungal communities, which correlated with increasing soil nutrients and decreasing amount of host trees with green foliar mass. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) abundance and richness declined by 70-80 % with increasing defoliation intensity, while saprotrophic and endophytic fungi seemed to benefit from defoliation. Moth herbivory also reduced dominance of Basidiomycota in the roots due to loss of basidiomycete EMF and increases in functionally unknown Ascomycota. Our results demonstrate the top-down control of belowground fungal communities by aboveground herbivory and suggest a marked reduction in the carbon flow from plants to soil fungi following defoliation. These results are among the first to provide evidence on cascading effects of natural herbivory on tree root-associated fungi at an ecosystem scale.

  17. The performance of sonic anemometers under foggy conditions - An intercomparision above a Taiwanese mountainous cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T.; Griessbaum, F.; Maneke, F.; Chu, H.-S.; Wu, C.-C.; Chang, S. C.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Juang, J.-Y.; Klemm, O.

    2010-07-01

    Foggy conditions are a toughness test for anemometers because the transceivers are continuously influenced by the deposition of fog-droplets. During a period of nearly four weeks three sonic anemometers where tested for their performance under foggy conditions. The anemometers were set up on a 24 meter high flux tower in a 14 meter high Chamaecyparis obtusa var. Formosana forest. The test anemometers were a Gill R3-50, a Young 81000V, and a Campbell CSAT3 (equipped with ‘dripping noses’). All anemometers were set up at one level on the highest platform of the tower. The performance was evaluated on the basis of 10 Hz data. The test site is located in the northwest of Taiwan at about 1650 m above sea level. This location is influenced by a steady diurnal wind system of valley winds during daytime and mountain winds during nighttime. The valley winds transport air masses from the coast up to the mountain where they cool down and fog development occurs. Due to this effect the site is highly frequented with fog. Results of this intercomparison will be presented.

  18. Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Caldwell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in sequestering carbon and offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but changing disturbance regimes may compromise the capability of forests to store carbon. In the Southern Rocky Mountains, a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB has caused levels of tree mortality that are unprecedented in recorded history. To evaluate the long-term impacts of both this insect outbreak and another characteristic disturbance in these forests, high-severity wildfire, we simulated potential changes in species composition and carbon stocks using the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS. Simulations were completed for 3 scenarios (no disturbance, actual MPB infestation, and modeled wildfire using field data collected in 2010 at 97 plots in the lodgepole pine-dominated forests of eastern Grand County, Colorado, which were heavily impacted by MPB after 2002. Results of the simulations showed that (1 lodgepole pine remained dominant over time in all scenarios, with basal area recovering to pre-disturbance levels 70–80 yr after disturbance; (2 wildfire caused a greater magnitude of change than did MPB in both patterns of succession and distribution of carbon among biomass pools; (3 levels of standing-live carbon returned to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 vs. 50 yr following MPB vs. wildfire disturbance, respectively, but took 120 vs. 150 yr to converge with conditions in the undisturbed scenario. Lodgepole pine forests appear to be relatively resilient to both of the disturbances we modeled, although changes in climate, future disturbance regimes, and other factors may significantly affect future rates of regeneration and ecosystem response.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity and its causes in evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation of species richness over spatial scales, and elucidating the response of plant community composition to habitat heterogeneity has been one of the major topics in the study of community ecology. Niche differentiation related to habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in shaping diversity levels and species distribution patterns of plant communities. Based on a survey of 42 plots of four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, this paper explored how community distribution and tree species richness of such forests changed along topographic and edaphic gradients. We found significant differences in community composition among the four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests. Tree species richness of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of the other forest types. Tree species richness of mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, whereas no significant difference was observed among the other forest types. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed that nine environmental gradients, including elevation, slope, soil water content, soil organic matter, were the determinants of forest community composition and tree distribution patterns. As the best predictors of tree species richness, soil available boron, elevation, soil total potassium and convexity together explained 63.2% of the variance of tree species richness. The combination of topographic and edaphic factors explained most of the variance of community composition and tree species richness of the evergreen broad leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains.

  20. Cloud water in windward and leeward mountain forests: The stable isotope signature of orographic cloud water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Giambelluca, T.W.; Gingerich, S.B.; Nullet, M.A.; Loope, L.L.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud water can be a significant hydrologic input to mountain forests. Because it is a precipitation source that is vulnerable to climate change, it is important to quantify amounts of cloud water input at watershed and regional scales. During this study, cloud water and rain samples were collected monthly for 2 years at sites on windward and leeward East Maui. The difference in isotopic composition between volume-weighted average cloud water and rain samples was 1.4??? ??18O and 12??? ??2H for the windward site and 2.8??? ??18O and 25??? ??2H for the leeward site, with the cloud water samples enriched in 18O and 2H relative to the rain samples. A summary of previous literature shows that fog and/or cloud water is enriched in 18O and 2H compared to rain at many locations around the world; this study documents cloud water and rain isotopic composition resulting from weather patterns common to montane environments in the trade wind latitudes. An end-member isotopic composition for cloud water was identified for each site and was used in an isotopic mixing model to estimate the proportion of precipitation input from orographic clouds. Orographic cloud water input was 37% of the total precipitation at the windward site and 46% at the leeward site. This represents an estimate of water input to the forest that could be altered by changes in cloud base altitude resulting from global climate change or deforestation.

  1. Observations and methodology of atmospheric ammonia within the Colorado Rocky Mountain pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdina, Amy; Moravek, Alexander; Murphy, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of trace gases (HCl, HNO3, HONO, NH3, SO2) and particle phase constituents from fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were continuously measured using an online ambient ion monitor ion chromatograph (AIM-IC) within the canopy at the Rocky Mountain Research Station (Manitou Experimental Forest) in Woodland Park, Colorado, from July 31 - August 12 2015. A consistent diurnal pattern of ammonia mixing ratios was observed, ranging from 0.1 - 2.6 ppb. Analysis of PM2.5ammonium was below the 130 ng m-3 detection limit of the instrument, which was corroborated by parallel particle concentration data also gathered at the site showing extremely low overall particle concentrations in the order of 103. As a result, variability in gas phase ammonia can be attributed to surface-atmosphere exchange and/or transport rather than gas particle partitioning. Complimentary analysis of ammonium found within the pine needles and the soil was also performed on site using established extraction methods and analysis by ion chromatography. Emissions potentials calculated from observed ammonium levels were generally consistent in the pine needles showing stomatal emission potentials within the range of 28 - 60, whereas the soil data varied widely, spanning 5 - 2100. The measurements are used to quantify compensation points of ammonia representative of the canopy and ground at the site to better predict the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of ammonia within the forest.

  2. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  3. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  4. A floristic survey of the Hyrcanian forests in Northern Iran, using two lowland-mountain transects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Naqinezhad; Hassan Zare-Maivan; Hamid Gholizadeh

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition of the Hyrcanian forests and the related forest-steppe ecotone in Northern Iran by using two long ecological transects, from lowland to upper mountain areas. The study was conducted during 2008 and 2009 and yielded the identification of 395 plant taxa belonging to 233 genera and 78 families. Dicots with 300 taxa were the richest groups of the flora, followed by monocots with 75 taxa, pteridophytes with 18 species, and gymnosperms with two species. The largest families were Asteraceae (33 taxa); Rosaceae (32 taxa); and Poa-ceae (30 taxa), and the most diverse genera included Carex (15 taxa); Alchemilla (7 taxa); and Poa, Geranium and Acer (6 taxa each). Hemicryptophytes were the most dominant life forms in the area (40%); followed by geo-phytes (31.4%); phanerophytes (15.4%); therophytes (11.4%);and chamaephytes (1.8%). Phytogeographically, Euro-Siberian/Irano-Turanian elements (86 taxa, 21.8%) and Euro-Siberian elements (85 taxa, 21.5%) were the most common chorotypes in the area. Out of 395 taxa, 66 taxa (16.7%) were endemics and subendemics in Iran, of which 26 taxa were exclusively endemics of Iran. According to the IUCN Red List Categories, 48 threatened plant taxa were found in the study area. Plant diversity, life form, and chorotypes in the current study were compared with similar transect studies in other areas of the Hyrcanian forests and in different altitudinal belts, using Sørenson similarity indices. Floristic composition of the surveyed transects demonstrated almost 50% similarity between them.

  5. Improving the Estimation of Above Ground Biomass Using Dual Polarimetric PALSAR and ETM+ Data in the Hyrcanian Mountain Forest (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Attarchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop models based on both optical and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data for above ground dry biomass (hereafter AGB estimation in mountain forests. We chose the site of the Loveh forest, a part of the Hyrcanian forest for which previous attempts to estimate AGB have proven difficult. Uncorrected ETM+ data allow a relatively poor AGB estimation, because topography can hinder AGB estimation in mountain terrain. Therefore, we focused on the use of atmospherically and topographically corrected multispectral Landsat ETM+ and Advanced Land-Observing Satellite/Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS/PALSAR to estimate forest AGB. We then evaluated 11 different multiple linear regression models using different combinations of corrected spectral and PolSAR bands and their derived features. The use of corrected ETM+ spectral bands and GLCM textures improves AGB estimation significantly (adjusted R2 = 0.59; RMSE = 31.5 Mg/ha. Adding SAR backscattering coefficients as well as PolSAR features and textures increase substantially the accuracy of AGB estimation (adjusted R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 25.04 Mg/ha. Our results confirm that topographically and atmospherically corrected data are indispensable for the estimation of mountain forest’s physical properties. We also demonstrate that only the joint use of PolSAR and multispectral data allows a good estimation of AGB in those regions.

  6. Development of an object-based classification model for mapping mountainous forest cover at high elevation using aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateb, Mustapha; Kalaitzidis, Chariton; Tompoulidou, Maria; Gitas, Ioannis

    2016-08-01

    Climate change and overall temperature increase results in changes in forest cover in high elevations. Due to the long life cycle of trees, these changes are very gradual and can be observed over long periods of time. In order to use remote sensing imagery for this purpose it needs to have very high spatial resolution and to have been acquired at least 50 years ago. At the moment, the only type of remote sensing imagery with these characteristics is historical black and white aerial photographs. This study used an aerial photograph from 1945 in order to map the forest cover at the Olympus National Park, at that date. An object-based classification (OBC) model was developed in order to classify forest and discriminate it from other types of vegetation. Due to the lack of near-infrared information, the model had to rely solely on the tone of the objects, as well as their geometric characteristics. The model functioned on three segmentation levels, using sub-/super-objects relationships and utilising vegetation density to discriminate forest and non-forest vegetation. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using 503 visually interpreted and randomly distributed points, resulting in a 92% overall accuracy. The model is using unbiased parameters that are important for differentiating between forest and non-forest vegetation and should be transferrable to other study areas of mountainous forests at high elevations.

  7. Comparison of wood-inhabiting myxomycetes in subalpine and montane coniferous forests in the Yatsugatake Mountains of Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunari; Harakon, Yuichi

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate altitudinal gradients (and resulting temperatures) that affect myxomycete biodiversity and species composition, we statistically compared myxomycete assemblages between a subalpine coniferous forest and a montane pine forest within the region of the Yatsugatake Mountains, Nagano Prefecture, Central Japan. In summer and autumn field surveys during 2003-2010, 53 myxomycete taxa (with varieties treated as species) were observed from 639 records of fruiting bodies in the subalpine forest and 32 taxa were detected from 613 records in the montane forest. There were 20 species in common between the assemblages and the percentage similarity index was 0.400. Myxomycete biodiversity was higher in the subalpine than in the montane forest. Nine myxomycete species were statistically frequent occurrences in the subalpine forest and appeared in autumn: Lamproderma columbinum, Cribraria macrocarpa, Trichia botrytis, Physarum newtonii, Diderma ochraceum, Enteridium splendens, Elaeomyxa cerifera, Trichia verrucosa, and Colloderma oculatum. Five species were restricted to appear in the subalpine forest: Cribraria purpurea, Cribraria rufa, Cribraria ferruginea, Cribraria piriformis, and Lepidoderma tigrinum. Dead wood in the subalpine forest provided a breeding habitat for specific myxomycetes that inhabit cold areas; that is those areas having geographical features of decreasing temperature and increasing elevation, such as the temperate area of Central Japan.

  8. Production potential of photosynthesis in forest ecosystems of the low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was testing on the example of a model region a method of estimation of the production potential of forest ecosystems and the consequences of anthropogenic changes there. The object of study is a typical Carpathian lower mountain forest in the basin of the river Lyuchka, an area of 14,806 ha. It has long undergone considerable agricultural transformations. Studies were based on cartographic modeling of modern anthropogenically transformed biogeocenotic cover using large scale satellite images. The main types of biogeocenotical cover were defined according to the altitudinal zonation of vegetation of the parts of the mountain terrain and the prevailing types of soil and hydrological conditions. For analytical procedures a database of materials describing the biometric features of the forests was created. It is possible to perform calculations of average and potential biometrical parameters of stands growing in different climatic, soil and hydrological conditions. The structure and the biological diversity of different vegetation types was determined by construction of mapping models of spatial structures of the basic types of biogeocenotic cover. The biological productivity of the main types of forest ecosystems was determined on base of the volume of timber stands. The mass of dry wood was determined taking into account its size and standard density of wood of different tree species. Calculation of the total volume of forest biomass was performed using the conversion factors of weight relative to the trunk timber volume. The mass of carbon deposited accounted for 50% of the total biomass. The average annual growth of biomass and carbon deposited was determined by dividing the volume of the stands by their average age. Calculation of phytocenosis consumed as a result of photosynthesis reaction of CO2, H2O and light energy was performed taking into account corresponding material and energy ratios. In general, in the course of

  9. Diversity of plasmodial slime molds (myxomycetes in coastal, mountain, and community forests of Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No profiling of diversity of myxomycetes has ever been conducted in one of the biodiversity hotspot areas in the Philippine archipelago, and this necessitates a swift survey of myxomycetes in Puerto Galera, Oriental Mindoro. An assessment of diversity of myxomycetes collected from seven collecting points of three different forest types in the study area showed a total of 926 records of myxomycetes. Of which, 42 morphospecies belonging to 16 genera are reported in this study. Species richness of myxomycetes was higher in collecting points that were found in inland lowland mountain forests, but the most taxonomically diverse species was found in coastal forests. Myxomycete species, namely, Arcyria cinerea, Diderma hemisphaericum, Physarum echinosporum, Lamproderma scintillans, and Stemonitis fusca, were found in all the collecting points. Manmade disturbances and forest structure may affect the occurrence of myxomycetes.

  10. The recurrence interval of forest fires in Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain--northwest of Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Leite, Flora; Bento Gonçalves, António; Vieira, António

    2011-02-01

    The recurrence of forest fires is degrading an important part of the Portuguese natural heritage namely its forest and soils. In this paper we present the case study of Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain-northwest Portugal), where in recent decades, particularly in the 70s, there was a significant increase in the number of forest fires and in the areas scorched annually. There is thus a turning point between a period when fire was an integral part of the ecosystems and when fire has become a serious threat to woodland management and development (Bento Gonçalves, 2006). Starting with a thorough characterization of forest fires and based on the mapping of scorched areas between 1990 and 2006, we have proceeded to identify the annual pattern of maximum recurrence and the definition of the return interval in Cabeço da Vaca, producing thus a valuable document to support management and forestry development in general.

  11. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  12. Generation of runoff characteristics over three time period for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys

  13. Geomorphic controls of soil spatial complexity in a primeval mountain forest in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daněk, Pavel; Šamonil, Pavel; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-11-01

    gradient of soil weathering and leaching, suggesting synergistic influences of topography, climate, (hydro)geology and biomechanical and biochemical effects of individual trees. The pattern of stony soils, random in most respects, resulted probably from local geology and quaternary biogeomorphological processes. Thus, while geomorphology is the primary control over a very locally complex soil pattern, microtopography and local disturbances, mostly related to the effects of individual trees, are also critical. Considerable local pedodiversity seems to be an important component of the dynamics of old-growth mixed temperate mountain forests, with implications for decreasing pedodiversity in managed forests and deforested areas.

  14. N Mineralization and Nitrification in a Primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus Forest and Degraded Vegetation in the Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGui-Cai; HANXing-Guo; HUANGJian-Hui

    2004-01-01

    Using the closed-top tube incubation method, we examined the soil nitrogen (N) mineralizationand nitrification in the primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest, a secondary oak forest and a tea plantationin the Ailao Mountain, Yunnan Province, China. This study was conducted in the dry season fromNovember 20, 1998 to May 15, 1999. Results showed that there were significant differences among thethree vegetation types in both net N mineralization and nitrification rates, and they also demonstratedtemporal variation. The net ammonification rate (RA) was much higher than net nitrification rate (RN), andthe latter was about 0.5%-10% of the former. Our results indicated that incubation period, vegetation typeand the location of plot all interactively affected RA, RN and net mineralization rate (RM). We providedevidence that anthropogenic disturbances could result in changes of ecosystems processes such as Nmineralization and nitrification rates. It is obvious that tea plantation and secondary growth forest havemore physically (mainly temperature and moisture) controlled N transformation processes than thewell-preserved primary L. xylocarpus forest, implying that the conservation of primary forest ecosystemsin the Ailao Mountain region should be emphasized.

  15. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  16. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  17. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  18. Influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics of main planted forests in Qinling Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen LIU; Erjun DUAN; Wenjun GAO

    2009-01-01

    Long-term continuous growth of the same tree species in planted pure forest will lead to soil polarization and degradation. Mixed forestation or litter replacement between different needle- and broad-leaved forests are effective measures, except fertilization, to control soil polarization according to the mutual compensation principle of different tree species. Through a two-year leaf litter replacement experiment in 4 typical planted pure forests of Larix kaempferi, Pinus tabulaeformis, Catalpa fargesii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in Qinling Mountains of China, influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics and their interspecific relationships were studied and main conclusions were reached as follows. (1) Annual leaf litter decomposition rate of broadleaved forests was 33.70% higher than those of needleleaved forests and increased by 8.35%-12.15% when needle-leaved litter was replaced with broad-leaved forests, whereas it decreased by 5.38%-9.49% when broad-leaved litter was replaced with needle-leaved forests. (2) Leaf litter replacement between needle- and broad-leaved forests popularly raised the contents of organic C, available N, P and K in soil, whose content increments in the needle-leaved forests (8.70%-35.84%) were obviously more than those in the broad-leaved forests (3.73%-10.44%), and in the former, the content increments after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii (24.63%-35.84%) were more than those after replacement with the litter ofQuercus aliena var. acuteserrata (8.70% 28.15%). Furthermore, the litter replacement was found to make the soil pH of needle-leaved forests developed from light-acid to neutral. (3) Litter replacement of the needleleaved forests with the broad-leaved litter popularly raised enzyme activities, amounts of microorganisms and contents of micro-biomass C and N in soil, the increments of which after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii were also more than those after

  19. Changes in soil biogeochemistry following disturbance by girdling and mountain pine beetles in subalpine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trahan, Nicole A; Dynes, Emily L; Pugh, Evan; Moore, David J P; Monson, Russell K

    2015-04-01

    A recent unprecedented epidemic of beetle-induced tree mortality has occurred in the lodgepole pine forests of Western North America. Here, we present the results of studies in two subalpine forests in the Rocky Mountains, one that experienced natural pine beetle disturbance and one that experienced simulated disturbance imposed through bole girdling. We assessed changes to soil microclimate and biogeochemical pools in plots representing different post-disturbance chronosequences. High plot tree mortality, whether due to girdling or beetle infestation, caused similar alterations in soil nutrient pools. During the first 4 years after disturbance, sharp declines were observed in the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (45-51 %), microbial biomass carbon concentration (33-39 %), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration (31-42%), and inorganic phosphorus (PO4(3-)) concentration (53-55%). Five to six years after disturbance, concentrations of DOC, DON, and PO4(3-) recovered to 71-140 % of those measured in undisturbed plots. Recovery was coincident with observed increases in litter depth and the sublitter, soil O-horizon. During the 4 years following disturbance, soil ammonium, but not nitrate, increased to 2-3 times the levels measured in undisturbed plots. Microbial biomass N increased in plots where increased ammonium was available. Our results show that previously observed declines in soil respiration following beetle-induced disturbance are accompanied by losses in key soil nutrients. Recovery of the soil nutrient pool occurs only after several years following disturbance, and is correlated with progressive mineralization of dead tree litter.

  20. Controls over N2O, NOx and CO2 fluxes in a calcareous mountain forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured nitrogen oxides (N2O and NOx, dinitrogen (N2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from a spruce-fir-beech forest soil in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Austria. The site received 10.6–11.9 kg N ha−1 y−1 nitrogen as bulk deposition. Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO were measured by an automatic dynamic chamber system on an hourly basis over a two year period. Daily N2O emissions were obtained by a semi-automatic gas measuring system. In order to cover spatial variability biweekly manual measurements of N2O and CO2 emissions were carried out in addition. For acquiring information on the effects of soil and meteorological conditions and of N-deposition on N-emissions we chose the auto-regression procedure (time-series analysis as our means of investigation. Hence, we could exclude the data's autocorrelation in the course of the time. We found that soil temperature, soil moisture and bulk N-deposition followed by air temperature and precipitation were the most powerful influencing parameters effecting N-emissions. With these variables, up to 89% of observed temporal variations of N-emissions could be explained. During the two-year investigation period between 2.5 and 3.5% of deposited N was reemitted in form of N2O whereas only 0.2% were emitted as NO. At our mountain forest site the main end-product of microbial activity processes was N2 and trace gases (N2O and NO were only of minor importance.

  1. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    field maple. Succession of the oak replacement in natural stand of the vegetative origin can be explained with the soil fatigue under the oak forest inhibiting its own regrowth [2]. However, you can observe the same succession of the oak replacement by other native species in the artificial planting of the oak on the virgin meadow lands. Therefore, the exogenous factors proceeding against the background of global warming during the number of decades are the reason of the succession. The nature of this process demands further studying. References 1.Kazankin A.P. Ecological role of the mountain woods of the Caucasus. Novosibirsk: Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science publishing house, 2013. - 366 p. 2. Slepykh, V.V. Successions and bioclimate of oak groves in the resort region Caucasian MineralnyeVody / V.V.Slepykh, N.P.Povolotskaya// Resort medicine, № 3, 2015. - P. 18-27.

  2. The Utilization of Landsat 8 Multitemporal Imagery and Forest Canopy Density (FCD) Model for Forest Reclamation Priority of Natural Disaster Areas at Kelud Mountain, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himayah, S.; Hartono; Danoedoro, P.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing has the advantage in terms of temporal resolution that can be used to examine changes of the forest canopy density as occurred in Kelud Mountain after the eruption of 2014. Canopy density changes then used as a consideration for forest reclamation priority. This study aims to assess the ability of Landsat 8 multitemporal imagery and Forest Canopy Density (FCD) modeling for canopy density changes at Kelud forest before and after the eruption, as well as take advantage of the canopy density changes from FCD and biophysical condition of forest to make a forest reclamation priority. This research using a Landsat 8 imagery (26 June 2013 and 4 September 2015). The method that used is FCD modeling to obtain canopy density. Forest reclamation priority is determined based on the canopy density change after the eruption and biophysical factors such as slope, soil fertility and native vegetation. Landsat 8 can used to determine the forest canopy density of Kelud before and after eruption with an accuracy of 83.73% and 81.14%. Kelud forest reclamation priorities are divided into nine classes based on priority level. The most prioritized class is 1a with an area of 865 ha and class 1b with an area of 2.085 ha. Then class 1c (0 ha), 1d (413 ha), and 1e that most dominate (5.454 ha). Beside that, there is class 2a (1.900 ha) and 2b (243 ha), and the last is class 3a (467 ha) and 3b (1.172 Ha).ntroduction

  3. Snowmelt as a driver of ecosystem response in water limited mountain forests of the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent large-scale changes in snow cover over Western North America associated with climate warming may have widespread impacts on water availability. These changes have potentially varied impacts on water availability as snowmelt influences, soil moisture, streamflow, and evapotranspiration. These changes may significantly alter runoff production and gross primary productivity in mountain forests. Analysis of remotely sensed and in situ soil moisture data indicate strong sensitivities of the timing of peak soil moisture to the timing of snowmelt. Observations of vegetation greenness indicate strong forest and understory growth dependencies associated with snow accumulation, snowmelt, and soil moisture with peak snow water equivalent explaining 40-50% of inter-annual greenness variability in the Rocky Mountains. Examples of these dependencies will be presented based on the 2012 drought in the Southwestern US whereby near record low snow accumulation and record high potential evapotranspiration have resulted in record low forest greening as evident in the 30+ year satellite record. Forest response to aridity in 2012 was exacerbated by forest disturbance with greenness anomalies 90% greater in magnitude in Bark Beetle and Spruce Budworm affected areas versus undisturbed areas and 182% greater in magnitude in areas impacted by fire. Greenness sensitivities to aridity showed seasonal dependencies with record high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in April (14% above average) and record low NDVI values in July (7% below average). Gross primary productivity estimates from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and from the Niwot Ridge, Colorado Ameriflux tower indicate record high April GPP (30% and 90% above average for MODIS and the tower, respectively) and record low July GPP (19% and 30% below average, respectively). These energy, water, ecosystem relationships indicate that the sensitivity of ecosystems to changes in climate is

  4. TLS monitoring of snowpack distribution in a mountain forested areas: Analysis of canopy disturbance on snow evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Alonso, Esteban; San Miguel, Alba

    2016-04-01

    Forested mountain areas at high elevations show important interaction with snowpack distribution and its evolution in time, and thus in many cases are the limit of the cryosphere in mountain zones. Such interactions have significant consequences in the hydrologic response of mountain rivers. Thereby observing the evolution of snowpack in forested areas has a big importance form a basic science perspective and also for water management. This work presents a detailed comparison of small scale effect of forest characteristics on snowpack distribution in Central Pyrenees, before and after a strong modification of canopies features. The snowpack distribution has been obtained using a novel remote sensing technology (Terrestrial Laser Scanner, TLS), with high spatial resolution (0.25m) over a 1000m2 study area for 27 survey dates along three snow seasons. Between the second and the third snow season a strong canopy pruning was performed in the study site, and thereby the snowpack evolution with both canopy configurations was compared. A Principal Component Analysis has been applied to analyze the snowpack distributions observed during the study period. Results obtained have shown that despite large differences in Canopy radius (1.2 m) and Canopy height (2.5m), not a different snowpack evolution was observed. For both Canopy configurations the variable with higher importance on snowpack distribution is the snow depth amount. The change in forest structure has important implications in the decrease of Canopy areas and the increase of Open areas (proportionally to Canopy change), but not a different interaction with forest structure was observed. The canopy pruning realized in the study site is typically accomplished for fire risk reduction and this shows the consequences that such action has in snowpack distribution and that hereby these may have in water management possibly delaying peak runoff.

  5. [Effects of forest gap on tree species regeneration and diversity of mixed broadleaved Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Chong; Duan, Wen-Biao; Feng, Jing; Han, Sheng-Zhong

    2011-06-01

    This paper studied the quantitative characteristics of main tree species along a forest gap gradient (gap center-near gap center-gap border) of mixed broadleaved Korean pine forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, as well as the effects of forest gap size on the regeneration of the tree species. In forest gap, the density of shrub species was obviously larger than that in non-gap, and the density ratio of the same shrub species in forest gap to in non-gap ranged from 1.08 to 18.15. With the increase of gap size, the regeneration density of tree seedlings increased, and that of sapling I (H > or = 1 m, DBH or = 1 m, 2 cm tree seedlings and sapling I. The mean height, mean basal diameter, species density, and individual density of trees in different locations of forest gaps were all different. From gap center to non-gap, the importance value of tree species seedlings in regeneration layer was ranked in gap center > near gap center > gap border > non-gap, the tree species evenness presented a variation of high-low-high, and the species diversity decreased in the order of early phase gap > mid phase gap > late phase gap.

  6. Species association in tropical montane rain forest at two successional stages in Diaoluo Mountain, Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fude LIU; Wenjin WANG; Ming ZHANG; Jianwei ZHENG; Zhongsheng WANG; Shiting ZHANG; Wenjie YANG; Shuqing AN

    2008-01-01

    Species association is one of the basic concepts in community succession. There are different viewpoints on how species interaction changes with the progress of succession. In order to assess these relationships, we examined species associations in the tropical montane rain forest at early and late successional stages in Diaoluo Mountain, Hainan Island. Based on data from a 2 × 2 contingency table of species presence or absence, statist-ical methods including analysis of species association and χ2 tests were applied. The results show that: 1) an overall positive association was present among tree species in the communities during the two successional stages and were statistically significant at the late stage. The number of species pairs with positive and negative associations decreased throughout the process of succession, while the number with null associations was greatly increased. The same trend existed among the dominant and compan-ion species. The results indicate that the communities are developing towards a stable stage where the woody species coexist in harmony. 2) In the early-established and later invading species, all positive associations were not signifi-cant. Compared with positive and null associations, fewer negative associations were found. This implies that these species are inclined to coexist independently through por-tioning of resources. 3) Among the later invading species, positive associations were significant and no negative associations were found which suggest that these species have similar adaptive ability in the habitat and occupied overlapping niches in the community.

  7. Smog Nitrogen and the Rapid Acidification of Forest Soil, San Bernardino Mountains, Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne A. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rapid acidification of forest soils in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. After 30 years, soil to a depth of 25 cm has decreased from a pH (measured in 0.01 M CaCl2 of 4.8 to 3.1. At the 50-cm depth, it has changed from a pH of 4.8 to 4.2. We attribute this rapid change in soil reactivity to very high rates of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen (N added to the soil surface (72 kg ha–1 year–1 from wet, dry, and fog deposition under a Mediterranean climate. Our research suggests that a soil textural discontinuity, related to a buried ancient landsurface, contributes to this rapid acidification by controlling the spatial and temporal movement of precipitation into the landsurface. As a result, the depth to which dissolved anthropogenic N as nitrate (NO3 is leached early in the winter wet season is limited to within the top ~130 cm of soil where it accumulates and increases soil acidity.

  8. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution.

  9. Slope gradient and shape effects on soil profiles in the northern mountainous forests of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi Mohammadi, M.; Jalali, S. G. H.; Kooch, Y.; Said-Pullicino, D.

    2016-12-01

    In order to evaluate the variability of the soil profiles at two shapes (concave and convex) and five positions (summit, shoulder, back slope, footslope and toeslope) of a slope, a study of a virgin area was made in a Beech stand of mountain forests, northern Iran. Across the slope positions, the soil profiles demonstrated significant changes due to topography for two shape slopes. The solum depth of the convex slope was higher than the concave one in all five positions, and it decreased from the summit to shoulder and increased from the mid to lower slope positions for both convex and concave slopes. The thin solum at the upper positions and concave slope demonstrated that pedogenetic development is least at upper slope positions and concave slope where leaching and biomass productivity are less than at lower slopes and concave slope. A large decrease in the thickness of O and A horizons from the summit to back slope was noted for both concave and convex slopes, but it increased from back slope toward down slope for both of them. The average thickness of B horizons increased from summit to down slopes in the case of the concave slope, but in the case of convex slope it decreased from summit to shoulder and afterwards it increased to the down slope. The thicknesses of the different horizons varied in part in the different positions and shape slopes because they had different plant species cover and soil features, which were related to topography.

  10. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  11. [Macropore characteristics and its relationships with the preferential flow in broadleaved forest soils of Simian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong-jiang; Cheng, Jin-hua; Wu, Yu-he; Du, Shi-cai; Wang, Ran

    2010-05-01

    Brilliant blue dyeing and water breakthrough curve were applied to study the number and distribution of macropores and their relations to the preferential flow in typical sub-tropic broad-leaved forest soils of Simian Mountains. The radii of the macropores were mainly between 0. 3 and 3.0 mm, with the macroporosities in the range of 6.3% to 10.5%, and the macropores were always distributed in aggregation with increasing soil depth. The number of the macropores in each radius interval of dye-stained areas was tenfold increase than that of blank areas. The number of the macropores with radius larger than 0.3 mm, especially larger than 1.5 mm, was the most important factor affecting the occurrence of preferential flow. Significant correlations were found between the number of macropores and the water steady effluent volume, with the highest correlation coefficients of 0.842 and 0.879 for the radii intervals of 0.7-1.5 mm and 1.5-3.0 mm, respectively. Macro-pore continuity in dye-stained areas was better than that in blank areas, especially in the radius interval of 1.5-3.0 mm, with the biggest difference of 78.31%. In dye-stained areas, the number of macropores decreased gradually with soil depth. The filler-like distribution of macropores formed an effective water pressure gradient, which resulted in the preferential transport of water.

  12. Pollen flux and vertical dispersion in coniferous and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QingHai; LI YueCong; ZHOU LiPing; LI YiYin; ZHANG ZhenQing; LIN FengYou

    2007-01-01

    The pollen flux in coniferous and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains is presented in one year's experiments. The results indicate that arboreal pollen percentages are more than 65% and pollen flux is higher than 5000 grain·cm-2·a-1, while less than 2% and lower than 1000 grain·cm-2·a-1 for shrubby pollen, and less than 20% and lower than 3000 grain·cm-2·a-1 for herbaceous pollen for most samples at different heights. The pollen assemblages are similar to those in the samples under 8 m height where Pinus and Quercus are dominant and followed by the few non-local pollen types, and Fraxinus percentages are high with a few non-local pollen types at 16 m to 32 m height as well as non-local pollen clearly increased at 40 m height. Comparisons between pollen assemblages and vegetation composition suggest that similarities are higher for pollen trap samples than for surface moss samples.

  13. Spatial variations of nitrogen trace gas emissions from tropical mountain forests in Nyungwe, Rwanda

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    N. Gharahi Ghehi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. Therefore, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90 % water filled pore space (WFPS at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m−2 h−1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265 μg N m−2 h−1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50 %WFPS, 71.7 ± 11.5 (70 %WFPS and 98.8 ± 16.4 (90 %WFPS μg N m−2 h−1, while mean NO emission was 69.3 ± 9.3 (50 %WFPS, 47.1 ± 5.8 (70 %WFPS and 36.1 ± 4.2 (90 %WFPS μg N m−2 h−1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season controls N2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N2O and NO production. But interestingly N2O and NO emissions also showed a positive correlation with free iron and a negative correlation with soil pH (only N2O. The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will benefit from spatially explicit trace gas emission estimates linked to basic soil property data and differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation.

  14. Spatial variations of nitrogen trace gas emissions from tropical mountain forests in Nyungwe, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gharahi Ghehi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, tropical forest soils represent the second largest source of N2O and NO. However, there is still considerable uncertainty on the spatial variability and soil properties controlling N trace gas emission. To investigate how soil properties affect N2O and NO emission, we carried out an incubation experiment with soils from 31 locations in the Nyungwe tropical mountain forest in southwestern Rwanda. All soils were incubated at three different moisture levels (50, 70 and 90% water filled pore space (WFPS at 17 °C. Nitrous oxide emission varied between 4.5 and 400 μg N m−2 h−1, while NO emission varied from 6.6 to 265 μg N m−2 h−1. Mean N2O emission at different moisture levels was 46.5 ± 11.1 (50% WFPS, 71.7 ± 11.5 (70% WFPS and 98.8 ± 16.4 (90% WFPS μg N m−2 h−1, while mean NO emission was 69.3 ± 9.3 (50% WFPS, 47.1 ± 5.8 (70% WFPS and 36.1 ± 4.2 (90% WFPS μg N m−2 h−1. The latter suggests that climate (i.e. dry vs. wet season controls N2O and NO emissions. Positive correlations with soil carbon and nitrogen indicate a biological control over N2O and NO production. But interestingly N2O and NO emissions also showed a negative correlation (only N2O with soil pH and a positive correlation with free iron. The latter suggest that chemo-denitrification might, at least for N2O, be an important production pathway. In conclusion improved understanding and process based modeling of N trace gas emission from tropical forests will not only benefit from better spatial explicit trace gas emission and basic soil property monitoring, but also by differentiating between biological and chemical pathways for N trace gas formation.

  15. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Bradford; R.A. Birdsey; L.A. Joyce; M.G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks and fluxes vary with forest age, and relationships with forest age are often used to estimate fluxes for regional or national carbon inventories. Two methods are commonly used to estimate forest age: observed tree age or time since a known disturbance. To clarify the relationships between tree age, time since disturbance and forest carbon storage...

  16. Organosulfates and Carboxylic Acids in Secondary Organic Aerosols in Coniferous Forests in Rocky Mountains (USA), Sierra Nevada Mountains (USA) and Northern Europe (Finland and Denmark)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasius, M.; Hansen, A. M. K.; Kristensen, K.; Kristensen, T. B.; Mccubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.; Petäjä, T.; Surratt, J. D.; Worton, D. R.; Bilde, M.; Kulmala, M. T.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Levels and chemical composition of secondary organic aerosols affect their climate effects and properties. Organosulfates (OS) are formed through heterogeneous reactions involving oxidized sulfur compounds, primarily originating from anthropogenic sources. Availability of authentic standards have until now been an obstacle to quantitative investigations of OS in atmospheric aerosols. We have developed a new, facile method for synthesis and purification of OS standards. Here we have used 7 standards to quantify OS and nitrooxy organosulfates (NOS) observed in aerosols collected at four sites in coniferous forests in USA and Europe during spring or summer. The two American sites were Storm Peak Laboratory, Colorado (Rocky Mountains, elevation 3220 m a.s.l) and Sierra Nevada Mountains, California (as part of BEARPEX 2007 and 2009). The European sites were Hyytiälä Forest Station, Finland (in the boreal zone) and Silkeborg, Denmark (temperate forest). Aerosol filter samples were extracted and analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatograph coupled through an electrospray inlet to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-QTOF-MS). We identified 11 carboxylic acids using authentic standards, while 16 different OS and 8 NOS were identified based on their molecular mass and MS fragmentation patterns, as well as comparison with available standards. OS were ubiquitous in the atmospheric aerosol samples, even at the high elevation mountain station. Levels of carboxylic acids from oxidation of monoterpenes were 8-25 ng m-3 at Silkeborg and Storm Peak Laboratory, while concentrations at the sites with strong regional monoterpene emissions (Sierra Nevada Mountains and Hyytiälä) were much higher (10-200 ng m-3). At all sites, the dominant group of OS were derived from isoprene (IEPOX) and related compounds, while OS of monoterpenes showed lower concentrations, except at Hyytiälä during periods of north-westerly winds when monoterpene OS were at similar or

  17. Mountain pine beetle, a major disturbance agent in US Western coniferous forests: A synthesis of the state of knowledge [Research In Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, has impacted 8.9 million hectares of forests in the western United States. Historically a common occurrence in western forests, particularly in lodgepole and ponderosa pine, the magnitude and extent of recent outbreaks have exceeded past events since written records are available and have occurred in...

  18. Impact of forest disturbance on the runoff response in headwater catchments. Case study: Sumava mountains, Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Hais, Martin; Bartunkova, Kristyna; Su, Ye

    2013-04-01

    The forest disturbance and stream modifications are important phenomenon affecting the natural dynamics of erosion and sedimentation processes on montane and submontane streams. The changes in land use, land cover structure, forest cover and stream modifications, occurring in the cultural landscape have significant effect on the dynamics of fluvial processes, especially in relation to the extreme runoff events. The contribution discusses the relations between forest disturbance and fluvial dynamics, stemming from the research in Sumava Mountains, located at the border between Czech Republic and Germany, Central Europe. The study area is located in headwater region, affected by different types of forest disturbance in past three decades - bark beetle outbreak, repeated windstorms and clear-cut forest management. The streams in experimental catchments here displayed extensive dynamics of erosion and sedimentation after the extreme floods in 2002 and 2009 and were affected by artificial modifications. The analysis is based on the combination of different research techniques, including remote sensed data processing, network of automated high frequency rainfall-runoff monitoring or field survey of stream modifications and geomorphologic changes on riverbeds after extreme events. Using landsat satellite data and aerial photographs we created model of Bark beetle dispersion and clear-cutting between 1985 and 2007. This model enables to describe disturbance dynamic, which is needed for understanding of nature those processes. Next analysis of Landsat satellite data was used to detect the effect of forest disturbance on the wetness and temperature properties of land cover, affected by two significant different types of forest disturbance - bark beetle outbreak and clear cut. The rainfall-runoff analysis using multivariate geostatistical techniques was focused on experimental catchments with similar conditions of climate, physiography and topography but different type

  19. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  20. Simulation of Forest Evapotranspiration Using Time-Series Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS over the Qilian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a long-term parameterization scheme for two critical parameters, zero-plane displacement height (d and aerodynamic roughness length (z0m, that we further use in the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS. A sensitivity analysis of SEBS indicated that these two parameters largely impact the estimated sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. First, we calibrated regression relationships between measured forest vertical parameters (Lorey’s height and the frontal area index (FAI and forest aboveground biomass (AGB. Next, we derived the interannual Lorey’s height and FAI values from our calibrated regression models and corresponding forest AGB dynamics that were converted from interannual carbon fluxes, as simulated from two incorporated ecological models and a 2009 forest basis map These dynamic forest vertical parameters, combined with refined eight-day Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI products, were applied to estimate the eight-day d, z0m, and, thus, the heat roughness length (z0h. The obtained d, z0m and z0h were then used as forcing for the SEBS model in order to simulate long-term forest evapotranspiration (ET from 2000 to 2012 within the Qilian Mountains (QMs. As compared with MODIS, MOD16 products at the eddy covariance (EC site, ET estimates from the SEBS agreed much better with EC measurements (R2 = 0.80 and RMSE = 0.21 mm·day−1.

  1. [Microbial community and its activities in canopy- and understory humus of two montane forest types in Ailao Mountains, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-jie; Liu, Wen-yao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Han-bo; Wang, Gao-sheng

    2010-09-01

    Mid-montane moist evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF) and top-montane dwarf mossy forest (DMF) are the two major natural forest types in subtropical mountainous area of Ailao Mountains, Northwest China. In this paper, a comparative study was made on the microbial composition, quantity, biochemical activity, metabolic activity, and their seasonal dynamics in the canopy- and understory humus of the two forest types. The composition, quantity, and metabolic activity of the microbes in the canopy humus of dominant tree species in MMF and DMF were also analyzed. In the canopy humus of the two forest types, the amounts of fungi and actinomycetes, microbial biomass C and N, and intensities of nitrogen fixation and cellulose decomposition were significantly higher than those in understory humus. Meanwhile, the amount of cellulose-decomposing microbes (ACDM), cellulose decomposition intensity, microbial biomass C and N, and metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF were significantly higher than those of DMF. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ANFB) and the metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF and DMF were significantly higher in wet season than in dry season, while a contradictory trend was observed on the amount of actinomycetes. No significant difference was observed on the amount of ACDM between wet season and dry season. For the two forest types, the amounts of microbes and their biochemical activities in canopy humus had a larger seasonal variation range than those in understory humus. There was a significant difference in the amounts of the microbes in canopy humus among the dominant tree species in MMF and DMF, especially in wet season. The microbes in canopy humus played important roles in maintaining the biodiversity of epiphytes in the canopy, and in supplying the needed nutrients for the vigorous growth of the epiphytes.

  2. Land Cover Classification in an Ecuadorian Mountain Geosystem Using a Random Forest Classifier, Spectral Vegetation Indices, and Ancillary Geographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Ayala-Izurieta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We presented a methodology to accurately classify mountainous regions in the tropics. These landscapes are complex in terms of their geology, ecosystems, climate and land use. Obtaining accurate maps to assess land cover change is essential. The objectives of this study were to (1 map vegetation using the Random Forest Classifier (RFC, spectral vegetation index (SVI, and ancillar geographic data (2 identify important variables that help differentiate vegetation cover, and (3 assess the accuracy of the vegetation cover classification in hard-to-reach Ecuadorian mountain region. We used Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images of the entire scene, a RFC algorithm, and stratified random sampling. The altitude and the two band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2 provide more information on vegetation cover than the traditional and often use normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in other settings. We classified the vegetation cover of mountainous areas within the 1016 km2 area of study, at 30 m spatial resolution, using RFC that yielded a land cover map with an overall accuracy of 95%. The user´s accuracy and the half-width of the confidence interval for 95% of the basic map units, forest (FOR, páramo (PAR, crop (CRO and pasture (PAS were 95.85% ± 2.86%, 97.64% ± 1.24%, 91.53% ± 3.35% and 82.82% ± 7.74%, respectively. The overall disagreement was 4.47%, which results from adding 0.43% of quantity disagreement and 4.04% of allocation disagreement. The methodological framework presented in this paper and the combined use of SVIs, ancillary geographic data, and the RFC allowed the accurate mapping of hard-to-reach mountain landscapes as well as uncovering the underlying factors that help differentiate vegetation cover in the Ecuadorian mountain geosystem.

  3. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  4. Potential Distribution of Mountain Cloud Forest in Michoacán, Mexico: Prioritization for Conservation in the Context of Landscape Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Ayram, Camilo A; Mendoza, Manuel E; Etter, Andrés; Pérez Salicrup, Diego R

    2017-07-01

    Landscape connectivity is essential in biodiversity conservation because of its ability to reduce the effect of habitat fragmentation; furthermore is a key property in adapting to climate change. Potential distribution models and landscape connectivity studies have increased with regard to their utility to prioritizing areas for conservation. The objective of this study was to model the potential distribution of Mountain cloud forests in the Transversal Volcanic System, Michoacán and to analyze the role of these areas in maintaining landscape connectivity. Potential distribution was modeled for the Mountain cloud forests based on the maximum entropy approach using 95 occurrence points and 17 ecological variables at 30 m spatial resolution. Potential connectivity was then evaluated by using a probability of connectivity index based on graph theory. The percentage of variation (dPCk) was used to identify the individual contribution of each potential area of Mountain cloud forests in overall connectivity. The different ways in which the potential areas of Mountain cloud forests can contribute to connectivity were evaluated by using the three fractions derived from dPCk (dPCintrak, dPCfluxk, and dPCconnectork). We determined that 37,567 ha of the TVSMich are optimal for the presence of Mountain cloud forests. The contribution of said area in the maintenance of connectivity was low. The conservation of Mountain cloud forests is indispensable, however, in providing or receiving dispersal flows through TVSMich because of its role as a connector element between another habitat types. The knowledge of the potential capacity of Mountain cloud forests to promote structural and functional landscape connectivity is key in the prioritization of conservation areas.

  5. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Pavel; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Mikoláš, Martin; Bače, Radek; Nagel, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Seedre, Meelis; Morrissey, Robert C; Kucbel, Stanislav; Jaloviar, Peter; Jasík, Marián; Vysoký, Juraj; Šamonil, Pavel; Čada, Vojtěch; Mrhalová, Hana; Lábusová, Jana; Nováková, Markéta H; Rydval, Miloš; Matějů, Lenka; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2017-03-15

    In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-driven alterations of disturbance regimes. We established 184 plots (mostly 1000 m(2)) in 14 primary mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians. On each plot we surveyed live and dead trees and regeneration, and cored around 25 canopy trees. Disturbance history was reconstructed by examining individual tree growth trends. The study plots were further aggregated into five groups based on disturbance history (severity and timing) to evaluate and explain its influence on forest structure. These ecosystems are characterized by a mixed severity disturbance regime with high spatiotemporal variability in severity and frequency. However, periods of synchrony in disturbance activity were also found. Specifically, a peak of canopy disturbance was found for the mid-19th century across the region (about 60% of trees established), with the most important periods of disturbance in the 1820s and from the 1840s to the 1870s. Current stand size and age structure were strongly influenced by past disturbance activity. In contrast, past disturbances did not have a significant effect on current tree density, the amount of coarse woody debris, and regeneration. High mean densities of regeneration with height >50 cm (about 1400 individuals per ha) were observed. Extensive high severity disturbances have recently affected Central European forests, spurring a discussion about the causes and consequences. We found some evidence that forests in the Western Carpathians were predisposed to recent severe disturbance events as a result of synchronized past disturbance activity, which partly homogenized size and age structure and made recent

  6. Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions in mountain forest and meadow ecosystems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Peng, Changhui; Zhu, Qiuan; Xue, Wei; Shen, Yan; Yang, Yanzheng; Shi, Guohua; Shi, Shengwei; Wang, Meng

    2016-10-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted at three temperature levels (8, 18 and 28 °C) to quantify the response of soil CO2 and N2O emissions to temperature in three ecosystems (pine forest, oak forest, and meadow) located in the Qinling Mountains of China, which are considered to be susceptible to disturbance and climate changes, especially global warming. The soil CO2 emission rates increased with temperature and decreased with soil depth; they were the highest in the oak forest (broadleaf forest) and were lower in the pine forest (coniferous forest) and the meadow ecosystem. However, there was no significant difference in the soil N2O emission rates among the three ecosystems. The temperature sensitivity of CO2 and N2O was higher in the forest than in the meadow ecosystem. The Q10 values (temperature sensitivity coefficient) for CO2 and N2O were 1.07-2.25 and 0.82-1.22, respectively, for the three ecosystems. There was also evidence that the CO2 and N2O emission rates were positively correlated. The soil characteristics exhibited different effects on CO2 and N2O emissions among different ecosystems at the three temperature levels. Moreover, the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and nitrate (NO3-) were important factors for CO2 emissions, whereas the soil ammonium (NH4+) and pH were the major controllers of N2O emissions. Unexpectedly, our results indicated that CO2 emissions are more sensitive to increasing temperature than N2O, noting the different feedback of CO2 and N2O emissions to global warming in this region. The different responses of greenhouse gas emissions in different forest types and a meadow ecosystem suggest that it is critical to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the complex mountain forest and meadow ecosystem in the transitional climate zone under global warming. Our research results provide new insight and advanced understanding of the variations in major greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 and N2O

  7. Lithium isotope systematics in a forested granitic catchment (Strengbach, Vosges Mountains, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Emmanuel; Chabaux, François; Vigier, Nathalie; Millot, Romain; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    2010-08-01

    Over the last decade it has become apparent that Li isotopes may be a good proxy to trace silicate weathering. However, the exact mechanisms which drive the behaviour of Li isotopes in surface environments are not totally understood and there is a need to better calibrate and characterize this proxy. In this study, we analysed the Li concentrations and isotopic compositions in the various surface reservoirs (soils, rocks, waters and plants) of a small forested granitic catchment located in the Vosges Mountains (Strengbach catchment, France, OHGE http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr). Li fluxes were calculated in both soil profiles and at the basin scale and it was found that even in this forested basin, atmospheric inputs and litter fall represented a minor flux compared to input derived from the weathering of rocks and soil minerals (which together represent a minimum of 70% of dissolved Li). Li isotope ratios in soil pore waters show large depth dependent variations. Average dissolved δ 7Li decreases from -1.1‰ to -14.4‰ between 0 and -30 cm, but is +30.7‰ at -60 cm. This range of Li isotopic compositions is very large and it encompasses almost the entire range of terrestrial Li isotope compositions that have been previously reported. We interpret these variations to result from both the dissolution and precipitation of secondary phases. Large isotopic variations were also measured in the springs and stream waters, with δ 7Li varying from +5.3‰ to +19.6‰. δ 7Li increases from the top to the bottom of the basin and also covaries with discharge at the outlet. These variations are interpreted to reflect isotopic fractionations occurring during secondary phase precipitation along the water pathway through the rocks. We suggest that the dissolved δ 7Li increases with increasing residence time of waters through the rocks, and so with increasing time of interaction between waters and solids. A dissolution precipitation model was used to fit the dissolved Li isotopic

  8. Exploring the Leaf Beetle Fauna (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of an Ecuadorian Mountain Forest Using DNA Barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Thormann

    Full Text Available Tropical mountain forests are hotspots of biodiversity hosting a huge but little known diversity of insects that is endangered by habitat destruction and climate change. Therefore, rapid assessment approaches of insect diversity are urgently needed to complement slower traditional taxonomic approaches. We empirically compare different DNA-based species delimitation approaches for a rapid biodiversity assessment of hyperdiverse leaf beetle assemblages along an elevational gradient in southern Ecuador and explore their effect on species richness estimates.Based on a COI barcode data set of 674 leaf beetle specimens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae of 266 morphospecies from three sample sites in the Podocarpus National Park, we employed statistical parsimony analysis, distance-based clustering, GMYC- and PTP-modelling to delimit species-like units and compared them to morphology-based (parataxonomic species identifications. The four different approaches for DNA-based species delimitation revealed highly similar numbers of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs (n = 284-289. Estimated total species richness was considerably higher than the sampled amount, 414 for morphospecies (Chao2 and 469-481 for the different MOTU types. Assemblages at different elevational levels (1000 vs. 2000 m had similar species numbers but a very distinct species composition for all delimitation methods. Most species were found only at one elevation while this turnover pattern was even more pronounced for DNA-based delimitation.Given the high congruence of DNA-based delimitation results, probably due to the sampling structure, our study suggests that when applied to species communities on a regionally limited level with high amount of rare species (i.e. ~50% singletons, the choice of species delimitation method can be of minor relevance for assessing species numbers and turnover in tropical insect communities. Therefore, DNA-based species delimitation is confirmed as a

  9. Mass, nutrient pool, and mineralization of litter and fine roots in a tropical mountain cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos C, Adolfo; Cruz H, Lourdes; Rocha O, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    We used fine root and litter mass from a tropical mountain cloud forest to assess their relative contribution to nutrient content and to examine mineralization processes during a laboratory incubation experiment. Our results showed that average fine root mass density ranged from 2.86kgm(-3) to 11.59kgm(-3), while litter mass density ranged from 72.5kgm(-3) to 177.3kgm(-3). On average, fine root mass density represented 4.7% of the mass density of the O horizon. Fine root mass density followed an exponentially declining trend with soil depth. On average, 83% of fine root mass density within the soil profile was concentrated in the O horizon. Mean element pools in litter decreased from 44.08mgcm(-3) to 0.49μgcm(-3) in the following sequence: C>N>Fe>S>Ca>P>K>Mg>Na>Mn>Zn>Cu. For fine roots, a different mean element pool sequence (C>N>Ca>K>Fe>S>Mg>Na>P>Mn>Zn>Cu) in decreasing abundance (from 2.88mgcm(-3) to 0.13μgcm(-3)) was observed with respect to litter. Regarding C, litter mineralized faster than fine roots, with a mean k value of 0.25d(-1) for litter and 0.13d(-1) for fine roots. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main mass density predictors were N, S, Zn, and Mn for litter (plitter mass and therefore the nutrient availability and C sequestration.

  10. Monitoring bedload entrainment and transport in snowmelt-dominated forest streams of the Columbia Mountains, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kim; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alila, Younes

    2014-05-01

    We monitor bedload transport and water discharge at six stations in two forested headwater streams of the Columbia Mountains, Canada. The monitoring network of sediment traps is designed to examine the effects of channel bed texture, and the influence of alluvial (i.e., step pools, and riffle pools) and semi-alluvial morphologies (i.e., boulder cascades and forced step pools) on bedload entrainment and transport. Results suggest that patterns of bedload entrainment are influenced by flow resistance while the value of the critical dimensionless shear stress for mobilization of the surface D50 varies due to channel gradient, grain sheltering effects and, to a less extent, flow resistance. Regardless of channel morphology we observe: (i) equal-threshold entrainment for all mobile grains in channels with high grain and/or form resistance; and (ii) initial equal-threshold entrainment of calibers ≤ 22mm, and subsequent size-selective entrainment of coarser material in channels with low form resistance (e.g. riffle pool). Scaled fractional analysis reveals that in reaches with high flow resistance most bedload transport occurs in partial mobility fashion relative to the available bed material and that only material finer than 16mm attains full mobility during over-bank flows. Equal mobility transport for a wider range of grain sizes is achieved in reaches with reduced flow resistance. Evaluation of bedload rating curves across sites identifies that grain effects predominate with respect to bedload flux whereas morphological effects (i.e. form resistance) play a secondary role. Application of selected empirical formulae developed in steep alpine channels present variable success in predicting transport rates in the study reaches.

  11. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  12. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  13. Verification of food supply for red deer under conditions of the air- polluted area of mountain forest ecosystems in the Ore Mountains (Forest District Klášterec nad Ohří

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Vala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of typological classification, representative sample plots 1×1 m were established in forest stands, on meadows and pastures in hunting districts Jelení hora and Černý potok in the area of the Ore Mountains (Forest District Klášterec nad Ohří in the growing season. The aim of the plots was to determine the existing average area production (kg.m−2 of biomass utilizable by game. The biomass was differentiated to herb, grass and woody components. Analyses proved that the total daily need of food, energy and mineral substances of red deer in both hunting grounds was fully covered by the natural food offer of herb, grass and woody biomass in the growing season even in case of increased requirements, e.g. in the period of growth, lactation or the development of antlers.

  14. How does canopy wetness shape evapotranspiration in a mountain cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H.-S.; Chang, S.-C.; Lin, Y.-Z.; Hsia, Y.-J.

    2010-07-01

    Interception plays an important role in the hydrological characteristics of cloud forest ecosystems due to frequent wetness of the canopy. The dynamics of this canopy interception processes are ecologically important for partitioning between interception evaporation and transpiration. Long term meteorological observations at the Chi-Lan Mountain site (24°35’N, 121°25’E) indicated that fog weather accounts for one third of the time on a year around and mainly prevails in the late afternoon and evening. However, it is still not clear how long the interception water could last on canopy surface under such diurnal foggy patterns and how this wetness further shapes the partition between interception evaporation and transpiration. In order to explore the evapotranspiration patterns under wet canopy conditions, three-month intensive experiment was conducted at the CLM site from 2009/4/28 to 7/21. Eddy covariance method was applied to measure the net water vapor exchange between ecosystem and atmosphere. An open/closed-path eddy covariance system, including a sonic anemometer (Campbell CSAT3), an open path infrared gas analyzer (Licor LI7500) and a closed path infrared gas analyzer (Licor LI7000), was mounted at 1.8-fold of canopy height. The S-type sap flow sensors (Ecomatik SF-L) were mounted at 1.3 m height of trunk on five representative Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana trees as an index of transpiration rate. Three leaf wetness sensors (Campbell LW237) and two infrared surface thermometers (Apogee IRTS-P) were added to monitor the wetness and surface temperature of canopy. The result showed that canopy wetness played a crucial role in partitioning the interception evaporation and transpiration at this forest stand. Evapotranspiration either under wet or dry canopy conditions was mainly driven by the evapotranspiration demand, as indicated by the potential evapotranspiration. However, evapotranspiration was lower for dry canopy condition. While total

  15. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  16. [Dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in typical forest stand at different spatial levels in Simian Mountain, mid-subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Huang, Li-xin

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in subtropical forest ecosystem, one typical forest stand, evergreen broad-leaved forest, at Simian Mountain located in Chongqing was selected in this research. Based on field monitoring, effects of precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, and groundwater runoff of the typical forest stand on the quality of water of Simian Mountain were investigated from September 2012 to August 2013. Results showed that the rainfall of Simian Mountain was apparently acidic, with average pH of 4.89 and maximum pH of 5.14. The soil, canopies and trunks could increase pH of precipitation, with soils having the maximum increment, followed by the forest canopy. Forest canopy had the function of adsorption and purification of NO3-, NO2- and SO4(2-), and the average entrapment rate was 56.68%, 45.84% and 35.51%, respectively. Moreover, the degradation of litter was probably the main reason for the increase of ion concentrations in the surface litter water. Forest soils could absorb and neutralize NO3-, SO2- and NH4+, and release NO2-. The evergreen broad-leaf forest of mid-subtropical region had the function of interception on NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and SO4(2-), and the total entrapment rate was 92.86%, 57.86%, 87.24% and 87.25%, respectively, and it had a certain buffering function for the acid rain.

  17. Precipitation and air temperature control the variations of dissolved organic matter along an altitudinal forest gradient, Gongga Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Genxu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-03-09

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contribute significantly to C and N cycling in forest ecosystems. Little information is available on the variations in the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions in bulk and stand precipitation within forests along an altitudinal gradient. To determine the temporal variations in the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions in different forests and the spatial variations along the elevation gradient, the DOC and DON concentrations and depositions were measured in bulk precipitation, throughfall, and stemflow within three forest types, i.e., broadleaf forest (BLF), broadleaf-coniferous forest (BCF), and coniferous forest (CF), during the wet season (May to October) on Gongga Mountain, China, in 2015. The concentrations of bulk precipitation in BLF, BCF, and CF were 3.92, 4.04, and 2.65 mg L(-1), respectively, for DOC and were 0.38, 0.26, and 0.29 mg L(-1), respectively, for DON. BCF had the highest DOC deposition both in bulk precipitation (45.12 kg ha(-1)) and stand precipitation (98.52 kg ha(-1)), whereas the highest DON deposition was in BLF (3.62 kg ha(-1) bulk precipitation and 4.11 kg ha(-1) stand precipitation) during the study period. The meteorological conditions of precipitation and air temperature significantly influenced the dissolved organic matter (DOM) depositions along the elevation gradient. The leaf area index did not show any correlation with DOM depositions during the growing season.

  18. Forest stands volume estimation by using Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory in Stołowe Mountains National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachana Przemko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to convey to the reader the method and application of the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI that was devised in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The study area concerned is Stołowe Mountains National Park, which is located in the south-western Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic. To accomplish the above mentioned aim, the following data have been applied: timber volume derived from field sample plots, satellite image, digital map data and digital elevation model. The Pearson correlation coefficient between independent and dependent variables has been verified. Furthermore, the non-parametric k-nearest neighbours (k-NN technique and genetic algorithm have been used in order to estimate forest stands biomass at the pixel level. The error estimates have been obtained by leave-one-out cross-validation method. The main computed forest stands features were total and mean timber volume as well as maximum and minimum biomass occurring in the examined area. In the final step, timber volume map of the growing stock has been created.

  19. Comparing the Impacts of Forest Thinning and Mortality on Streamflow, Recharge, and Forest Productivity in a Semi-Arid Mountain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugger, A. L.; Tague, C.; Allen, C. D.; Ringler, T.

    2012-12-01

    Forested mountain systems across the Southwest U.S. are increasingly shaped by novel pressures, including artificially dense and continuous canopies due to fire suppression, warmer temperatures, more frequent drought periods, and increasing demands on downstream water supplies. Forest restoration through thinning and prescribed burns is currently underway in a number of watersheds across the region, bolstered by not only the fire risk abatement benefits but also the generally accepted premise that fewer trees lead to more streamflow. However, a recent study (Guardiola-Claramonte et al., 2011) found just the opposite, observing increases in streamflow after drought-induced vegetation die-off in a set of Southwest U.S. basins. In this study, we use a spatially distributed, processes-based, eco-hydrologic model (RHESSys) to simulate forest thinning and die-off in the Santa Fe Municipal Watershed in Northern New Mexico to compare impacts on hydrology. We vary the spatial distribution of thinning (by elevation and aspect), intensity of biomass removal, litter and debris management, and understory growth, and compare to simulated drought-induced mortality. Forest structural changes alter radiation and water movement in complex ways though variations in albedo, radiation attenuation, interception, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture storage. Using the model to track these processes, we compare changes in recharge, streamflow, and net primary productivity under thinning, mortality, and climate scenarios, and determine spatial scales (stand, hillslope, basin) at which changes are significant. Based on these findings, we present a systematic analysis of conditions that are likely to lead to significant increases or decreases in water yield and changes in forest vulnerability to drought stress. Our results highlight how direct human modifications to the landscape, through thinning, might alter warming and drought impacts, and consequences for forest health and water

  20. Phenotypic plasticity of Vaccinium meridionale (Ericaceae in wild populations of mountain forests in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Ligarreto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale is a promising crop for the Andean region of South America and is currently available only in the wild. Spontaneous populations of this plant are found across the Colombian mountains, but very few published records on this plant morphology are available. A zonification study of V. meridionale was conducted in four principal areas of a low mountain forest of Colombia (Provinces of Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Santander and Nariño in 2007. A total of 20 populations and 100 plants of V. meridionale were individually characterized and surveyed, using a list of 26 characters of morphological variables (9 quantitative and 17 qualitative characters. Our results indicated that natural populations of V. meridionale might be found in the tropical forest under a highly heterogeneous climate and microclimate conditions, at different mountain regions between 2 357 and 3 168masl. The shrubs of V. meridionale exhibited a high level of intra-population variation in several quantitative (plant height, stem diameter and qualitative (growth habit, ramification density, presence of anthocyanins in stems morphological characters, suggesting an environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity. Plant height, stem diameter and foliar density were the most variable morphological traits, with coefficients of variation higher than 50%. However, several quantitative characters of its reproductive potential, such as berry dimensions, rachis length and number of flowers per inflorescence, resulted with low plasticity with coefficients of variation lower than 30.2%, indicating that these characters were genetically determined. The highest correlation coefficients (pVaccinium meridionale es una planta promisoria para la región Andina de Sudamérica y está disponible actualmente sólo en forma silvestre. Las poblaciones espontáneas de esta planta se encuentran en las montañas colombianas y existen muy pocos reportes publicados respecto a su morfología. Se

  1. Subsurface recharge to the Tesuque aquifer system from selected drainage basins along the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains near Santa Fe, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiolek, Maryann

    1995-01-01

    Water budgets developed for basins of five streams draining the western side of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico indicate that subsurface inflow along the mountain front is recharging the Tesuque aquifer system of the Espanola Basin. Approximately 14,700 acre-feet of water per year, or 12.7 percent of average annual precipitation over the mountains, is calculated to leave the mountain block and enter the basin as subsurface recharge from the drainage basins of the Rio Nambe, Rio en Medio, Tesuque Creek, Little Tesuque Creek, and Santa Fe River. About 5,520 acre- feet per year, or about 12 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio Nambe drainage basin; about 1,710 acre- feet per year, or about 15 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Rio en Medio drainage basin; about 1,530 acre- feet, or about 10 percent of average annual precipi- tation, is calculated to enter from the Tesuque Creek drainage basin; about 1,790 acre-feet, or about 19 percent of average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Little Tesuque Creek drainage basin; and about 4,170 acre-feet per year, or about 12 percent average annual precipitation, is calculated to enter from the Santa Fe River drainage basin. Calculated subsurface recharge values were used to define maximum fluxes permitted along the specified-flux boundary defining the mountain front of the Sangre De Cristo Mountains in a numerical computer model of the Tesuque aquifer system near Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  2. Understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, S.M.

    1993-06-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are rich in biological diversity. These forests contain many species adapted to conditions ranging from mesic coves to xeric ridges. The major plant communities include wetlands and balds as well as hardwood and coniferous forests. To understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation, the sensitivity of ecosystems, communities, and species to fragmentation must be determined. Recognizing the natural patterns of heterogeneity in these forest and the importance of this heterogeneity to ecological processes will promote our understanding of fragmentation. The impact of a specific forest use (economic development, forest harvesting, recreation) depends on the type of habitat modification.and the spatial extent and pattern of this use. Information on ecological processes, maps of natural communities, and projections about activities that modify forests are needed in order to implement management strategies that will minimize forest fragmentation.

  3. The age and tectonic environment of the rhyolitic rocks on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU LiangShu; DENG Ping; YU JinHai; WANG YanBin; JIANG ShaoYong

    2008-01-01

    During the geological survey of the metamorphic rocks in Xingning-Wuhua region on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China, we discovered the Neoproterozoic rhyolite and rhyolitic greywacke for the first time that outcrop in the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks near Jingnan Town of Xingning County,eastern Guangdong Province. A systematic research on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of rhyolitic rocks was conducted to understand their tectonic setting and formation age. The Jingnan rhyolite is interbedded with a coeval greywacke, with a total thickness of 60 m; both rhyolite and greywacke display a similar folding and metamorphic pattern. Meta-rhyolite consists of groundmass and phenocrystals including sanidine, orthoclase, and quartz with distinct undulose extinction; the groundmass has been re-crystallized into fine-grain feldspar, quartz and sericite aggregation.Meta-greywacke is composed of crystallinoclastic grains (sanidine, orthoclase, quartz and oligoclase)and clay groundmass. Zircon grains used for the SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are light brown-colored and euhedral or sub-euhedral. Dating data suggest two age groups; eight grains of magma-type zircon with an idiomorphic form yield an age of 972±8 Ma, and the other seven weakly corroded grains of zircon with euhedral to subeuhedral shape construct an average age of 1097±11 Ma, which were captured from older rocks by an uplifting magma, implying that a late Mesoproterozoic basement exists in the Nanling region. In addition, one Paleoproterozoic age, 2035±11 Ma, is obtained from a rounded detrital zircon,indicating that a Paleoproterozoic thermal event took place in the South China. Geochemically, the Jingnan rhyolitic rocks are characterized by high K2O content, intermediate Al2O3 content, with the ACNK value 0.98-1.11, and belonging to high-K alkaline series. They are rich in ∑REE, Rb, Th and Ce,depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti, P and Nb-Ta, and with moderate negative Eu and Sr anomalies. These features

  4. The age and tectonic environment of the rhyolitic rocks on the western side of Wuyi Mountain,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During the geological survey of the metamorphic rocks in Xingning-Wuhua region on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China, we discovered the Neoproterozoic rhyolite and rhyolitic greywacke for the first time that outcrop in the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks near Jingnan Town of Xingning County, eastern Guangdong Province. A systematic research on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of rhyolitic rocks was conducted to understand their tectonic setting and formation age. The Jingnan rhyolite is interbedded with a coeval greywacke, with a total thickness of 60 m; both rhyolite and greywacke display a similar folding and metamorphic pattern. Meta-rhyolite consists of groundmass and phenocrystals including sanidine, orthoclase, and quartz with distinct undulose extinction; the groundmass has been recrystallized into fine-grain feldspar, quartz and sericite aggregation. Meta-greywacke is composed of crystallinoclastic grains (sanidine, orthoclase, quartz and oligoclase) and clay groundmass. Zircon grains used for the SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are light brown-colored and euhedral or subeuhedral. Dating data suggest two age groups; eight grains of magmatype zircon with an idiomorphic form yield an age of 972±8 Ma, and the other seven weakly corroded grains of zircon with euhedral to subeuhedral shape construct an average age of 1097±11 Ma, which were captured from older rocks by an uplifting magma, implying that a late Mesoproterozoic basement exists in the Nanling region. In addition, one Paleoproterozoic age, 2035±11 Ma, is obtained from a rounded detrital zircon, indicating that a Paleoproterozoic thermal event took place in the South China. Geochemically, the Jingnan rhyolitic rocks are characterized by high K2O content, intermediate Al2O3 content, with the ACNK value 0.98―1.11, and belonging to high-K alkaline series. They are rich in ΣREE, Rb, Th and Ce, depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti, P and Nb-Ta, and with moderate negative Eu and Sr anomalies. These

  5. Minimum sampling area and a biodiversity of riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in Erdaobaihe forested watershed, Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Riparian zone is an important component of forested watershed. Species component, structure, and distribution pattern of plant community in riparian zone are different from those of forest far away from the riparian zone because of edge effect and influence of river, and their minimum sampling areas are also different. To study the minimum area and a biodiversity of broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in riparian zone, three 8 m × 32 m sampling belts were selected and distributed at elevation of 800 m, 900 m, and 1000 m. In the riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest, mean minimum sampling areas including 60%, 80%, and 90% of total species were 80 m2 (8 m×10 m), 180 m2 (12 m×15 m), and 320 m2 (16 m × 20 m) respectively; The corresponding mean minimum areas of non-riparian forest were about 260 m2, 380 m2, and 480 m2; and the former were smaller than the latter. In the riparian zone, species richness, Shannon-Weiner index and species evenness were also higher than those in non-riparian forest. On the contrary, species dominance in forest community was higher than that in riparian zone.

  6. Fuelwood collection and its impacts on a protected tropical mountain forest in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Local communities who live close to protected tropical forests often depend on them for woodfuel, their main source of energy. The impacts of fuelwood extraction in humid forests are rarely studied, yet the extraction of wood for fuel can impact forest structure, function and biodiversity. We assess

  7. A comparison of forest dynamics at two sites in the Southeastern Ozark Mountains of Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; Stephen G. Pallardy

    1993-01-01

    Changes in tree species composition and regeneration patterns were studied in 53 permanent vegetation plots located at two sites (Pioneer Forest and University State Forest) in oak-hickory forests of southeastern Missouri where mortality and decline of red oak species have been identified. The two sites also exhibited differing levels of decline and mortality. Between...

  8. Impact of biomass harvesting on forest soil productivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woongsoon Jang; Christopher R. Keyes; Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    Biomass harvesting extracts an increased amount of organic matter from forest ecosystems over conventional harvesting. Since organic matter plays a critical role in forest productivity, concerns of potential negative long-term impacts of biomass harvesting on forest productivity (i.e., changing nutrient/water cycling, aggravating soil properties, and compaction) have...

  9. Exploring the Connectivity of Ecological Corridors Between Low Elevation Mountains and Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park of Taiwan by Least-Cost Path Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. L.; Liu, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, C. T.

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was explored the variation of landscape process and its impact on the possibility of ecological corridors on Pingtung Linhousilin Forest Park. Developing the landscape change process in year 2002, 2005, 2012 and 2014 via the land-use definition of IPCC (forest land, cropland, grassland, wetlands, settlements and other land). In the landscape structure analysis, the cropland was gradually changed to forest land in this area. Moreover, the variation of gravity model showed that the interaction between Linhousilin Forest Park and low elevation mountains were gradually increased which means the function of ecological corridors has increased.

  10. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  11. [Dynamics of soil inorganic nitrogen in middle mountain moist evergreen broadleaf forest under different disturbance intensities in Ailao Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicai; Han, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhui; Wamg, Changyao

    2003-08-01

    The effects of three different intensities of disturbance on soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-).N contents were studied in three community types (primary Lithocarpus xylocarpus forest, secondary oak forest, and tea plantation, which represent three different intensities of disturbance). The results showed that the contents of inorganic nitrogen in soil (0-15 cm) of three community types had marked differences. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen decreased, while C/N ratio increased, with the increasing intensity of the disturbance. Simultaneously, the potential lose of NO3(-)-N increased. It suggested that the disturbance was not in favor of the retainment of soil fertility and the positive development of community succession. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen and C/N ratio were basically same at different spatial sites in same community, while the NO3(-)-N contents were obvious difference. This implied that soil NO3(-)-N content was less stable than NH4(+)-N. In addition, NH4(+)-N was the major component of the soil inorganic nitrogen, accounted for 95.5%-99.3% of the total content of soil inorganic nitrogen.

  12. Logistics of supplying biomass from a mountain pine beetle-infested forest to a power plant in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammadhossein; Sowlati, Taraneh (Depts. of Wood Science, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Sokhansanj, Shahab (Chemical and Biological Engineering, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    2009-03-15

    The search for alternative energy sources has increased the interest in forest biomass. During the past few years, the severe infestation of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) within the forests of interior British Columbia (BC) has led to huge volumes of dead wood that exceed the capacity of the lumber industry. One way to make the most value of the surplus wood is to use it as the feedstock for bioenergy. The high costs associated with harvest and transport, and uncertainty in supply logistics are issues related to forest biomass utilization. This paper presents the development of a forest biomass supply logistics simulation model and its application to a case of supplying MPB-killed biomass from Quesnel timber supply area (one of the most infested areas in the interior BC) to a potential 300 MW power plant adjacent to the city of Quesnel. It provides values of quantity, cost and moisture content of biomass which are important factors in feasibility study of bioenergy projects. In the case of a conventional harvesting system, the biomass recovered from roadside residues in 1 year will meet only about 30% of the annual demand of the power plant with an estimated delivered cost of Can $45 per oven-dry tonne of woodchips. Sensitivity analyses were also performed

  13. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  14. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-11-01

    Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades, and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr-1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy ), computed annually (1964 to 2013) as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.67-0.88, P gy (r2 = 0.53, P gy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Consequently, maximum tree height, leaf area : sapwood area ratio, and stem wood density were all correlated with CMIgy . The tight coupling of forest carbon cycling and species traits with water availability suggests that warmer and drier conditions projected for the 21st century could have significant biogeochemical, ecological, and social consequences in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. [Modeling of forest landscape change in Xiaoxinganling mountains under different planting proportions of coniferous and broadleaved species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-fei; He, Hong-shi; Bu, Ren-cang; Jin, Long-ru; Li, Xiu-zhen

    2008-08-01

    With spatially explicit landscape model (LANDIS), the dynamic change of forest landscape in Youhao Forest Bureau in Xiaoxinganling Mountains from 2001-2201 under 5 planting proportions of coniferous and broadleaved species, i.e., 100% broadleaved species, 70% broadleaved and 30% coniferous species, 50% broadleaved and 50% coniferous species, 30% broadleaved and 70% coniferous species, and 100% coniferous species, was studied, taking the forest under natural regeneration after harvesting as the control. The results showed that afforestation effectively promoted the recovery of forest resources, but single planting of coniferous species would lead to the area percent of broadleaved species lower than the control. When broadleaved species were planted only, the area percent of coniferous species was lower than the control. The area percent and aggregation index of Pinus koraiensis and Larix gmelini increased with increasing planting proportion of coniferous species, and those of Quercus mongolica increased with increasing planting proportion of broad-leaved species. Afforestation decreased the area percent of Betula phatyphylla, but had no significant effects on its aggregation index. Different afforestation strategies not only altered the species area percent, but also affected the species spatial pattern.

  16. Effects of Different Logging Techniques on Forest Soil Compaction at Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated that the effects of different logging techniques on forest soil compaction in the Artvin region. For this purpose, soil penetration resistance was measured in a total of 12 experimental areas where each with 3 pieces, including logging with forest skyline, forest tractor, manpower and chute systems using penetrologger. As a result, changes of penetration resistances values at where logging with manpower and forest tractor according to control points were higher than logging with forest skyline and chute systems.

  17. Bagley Fire Sediment Study: Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; De La Fuente, J. A.; Hill, B.; Mai, C.; Mikulovsky, R. P.; Mondry, Z.; Rust, B.; Young, D.

    2013-12-01

    The US Forest Service is conducting a study of sediment mobilization, transport, and deposition on the Bagley Fire, which burned about 18,000 hectares in late summer, 2012, on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, south of McCloud, CA. The fire area is in steep terrain of the Eastern Klamath Mountains that are underlain primarily by metasedimentary rock. The watersheds affected drain into the headwaters of Squaw Creek, along with small streams tributary to the McCloud and Pit Rivers, all of which flow into Shasta Lake Reservoir. In November and December of 2012, intense storms occurred over the fire area with estimated return intervals of 25-50 years, based on 4-day storm totals in ranging from 38 to 56 cm. The Squaw Creek storm response was unique for this area, in that it remained turbid for about 2 months following the storms. Subsequent small storms through June, 2013 have also generated prolonged turbidity. This may be attributable to the remobilization of fine particles temporarily stored in the channel network. Preliminary observations from field reconnaissance include the following: a) Erosional processes were dominated by sheet, rill, and gully erosion, and the resulting sediment delivered to channels was rich in fine particles and gravels; b) Landslides were infrequent, and as a result, a limited amount of large rock and logs were delivered to channels; c) Sediment laden flows occurred in most burned low order channels, but classic debris flows, those scouring all vegetation from channel bottoms, were very uncommon; d) Most road stream crossing culverts failed in high severity burn areas; e) Low gradient stream reaches in Squaw Creek were aggraded with fine sediment; f) Sustained high levels of turbidity occurred in the main stem of Squaw Creek. The goals of this study are to characterize relative roles of surface erosion, landslides, and debris flows in delivering sediment to streams after the fire, and if possible, to develop a rough sediment budget

  18. [Distribution pattern of neutral sugar in forest soils along an altitude gradient in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiu-Xiang; Zhang, Bin; He, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Cheng, Wei-Xin

    2013-07-01

    In July 2010, soil samples were collected from five typical forests (Pinus koraiensis and broadleaved mixed forest, Picea and Abies forest, Larix and Abies forest, Betula ermanii forest, and alpine tundra) along an altitude gradient on the northern slope of Changbai Mountains to investigate the distribution and quantity of neutral sugar in the soils and related affecting factors. The origins of the neutral sugar were differentiated to probe into the biochemical accumulation mechanisms of soil organic matter. There was a significant difference in the neutral sugar content among the forest soils. The relative content of soil neutral sugar' s carbon to soil organic carbon ranged in 80.55-170.63 mg C x g(-1), and tended to be increased with elevated altitude. The multiple regression analysis showed that the mean temperature in growth season was the main factor affecting the relative content of soil neutral sugar, and low temperature was conducive to the accumulation of neutral sugar. The ratio of (galactose + mannose) / (arabinose + xylose) in the five soils was around 1.62-2.28, and had an increasing trend with elevated altitude, illustrating that the contribution of soil microbial neutral sugar to soil organic matter increased with elevated altitude. Soil microbial metabolic quotient declined significantly along elevated altitude, suggesting that in low temperature environment, soil microbial activity decreased but the carbon utilization efficiency enhanced. As a result, a significant portion of decomposed plant residues was transformed into microbial neutral sugar and accumulated stably in soil, and thus, increased the proportion of soil microbial neutral sugar.

  19. Effects of community succession dynamics on forest biodiversity in eastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Plant, insect and forest structures of 25 forest communities were investigated in Mao'ershan Experimental Forest Farm and Liangshui Experimental Forest Farm during 1994-1995. The paper used continuum index (Ci) as a parameter, to quantitatively describe forest community succession stage. Relationships between the biodiversity and continuum index of forest community were studied. The annual species and family diversities in forest plant community showed nonlinear correlation with continuum index, and the largest diversities were during the middle stage of succession. The diversities of total insect community and herbivorous insect group were negatively related with Ci, that of spide group and parasitic insect group was positively related. The pattern diversity and coverage weight diversity index foliage height increased with continuum index.

  20. Simulating Carbon Sequestration and GHGs Emissions in Abies fabric Forest on the Gongga Mountains Using a Biogeochemical Process Model Forest-DNDC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xuyang; CHENG Genwei; XIAO Feipeng; HUO Changfu

    2008-01-01

    The process-oriented model Forest-DNDC describing biogeochemical cycling of C and N and GHGs (greenhouse gases) fluxes (CO2, NO and N2O) in forest ecosystems was applied to simulate carbon sequestration and GHGs emissions in Abies fabric forest of the Gongga Mountains at southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that the simulated gross primary production (GPP) of Abies fabric forest was strongly affected by temperature. The annual total GPP was 24,245.3 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 26,318.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2006, respectively. The annual total net primary production (NPP) was 5,935.5 and 4,882.2 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total net ecosystem production (NEP) was 4,815.4 and 3,512.8 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively. The simulated seasonal variation in CO2 emissions generally followed the seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation. The annual total CO2 emissions were 3,109.0 and 4,821.0 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, the simulated annual total N2O emissions from forest soil were 1.47 and 1.36 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, and the annual total NO emissions were 0.09 and 0.12 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for 2005 and 2006, respectively.

  1. Landscape structure in a managed forest mosaic of the Southern Appalachian Mountains and its influence on songbirds and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimgruber, Peter

    Forests in the Appalachian Mountains have been severely affected by logging in the past and little old-growth is left. The remaining forests form a heterogeneous mosaic of different forest successions. A concern for conservation is how additional logging will alter the mosaic and its fauna. I studied the effects of logging on the landscape mosaic and how changes in the landscape structure influence small mammals and birds in the George Washington National Forest, Virginia. My dissertation also included research on how to improve techniques for landscape ecological studies, such as roadside monitoring of birds and mapping of forest resources using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Because of the scale dependency of landscape-ecological relationships, I investigated how landscape structure in the forest mosaic changes with increasing scales. I determined threshold scales at which structure changed markedly. After establishing a baseline, I examined how logging affected the intensity and location of such thresholds. I found thresholds in landscape structure exist at 400-, 500-, and 800-m intervals from the outer edge of the cut. While logging did not change threshold location and intensity for global landscape indices, such as dominance and contagion, thresholds for focal indices, such as mean patch size and percent cover for early-successional forest, changed markedly. Using GIS, I determined how logging affected small mammals and birds at the landscape scale. I divided the landscape into three zones (zone 1, inside logged areas; zone 2, 20--400 m from logged areas; zone 3, 1000--1500 m from logged areas). Logging changed species presence and richness more drastically in close proximity of cuts than on the landscape and influenced birds more strongly than mammals. In the cuts, edge-adapted birds, such as the indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), replaced forest interior species, such as the Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens). Most

  2. Hydrologic response to forest cover changes following a Mountain Pine Beetle outbreak in the context of a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dan; Jost, Georg; Nelson, Harry; Smith, Russell

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, there has been extensive mortality of pine forests in western North America associated with an outbreak of Mountain Pine Beetle, often followed by salvage logging. The objective of this study was to quantify the separate and combined effects of forest recovery and climate change over the 21st century on catchment hydrology in the San Jose watershed, located in the semi-arid Interior Plateau of British Columbia. Forest cover changes were simulated using a dynamic spatial model that uses a decentralized planning approach. We implemented management strategies representing current timber management objectives around achieving targeted harvest levels and incorporating existing management constraints under two different scenarios, one with no climate change and one under climate change, using climate-adjusted growth and yield curves. In addition, higher rates of fire disturbance were modelled under climate change. Under climate change, while productivity improves for some species (mainly Douglas-fir on better quality sites), on drier and poorer quality sites most species, especially Lodgepole Pine, become significantly less productive, and stocking is reduced to the point that those sites transition into grasslands. The combined effect of initial age classes (where the forest has been severely impacted by MPB), increased fire, and reduced stocking results in a greater proportion of the forest in younger age classes compared to a "Business As Usual" scenario with no climate change. The hydrologic responses to changes in vegetation cover and climate were evaluated with the flexible Hydrology Emulator and Modelling Platform (HEMP) developed at the University of British Columbia. HEMP allows a flexible discretization of the landscape. Water is moved vertically within landscape units by processes such as precipitation, canopy interception and soil infiltration, and routed laterally between units as a function of local soil and groundwater storage. The

  3. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  4. Sources and interpretation of channel complexity in forested subalpine streams of the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livers, Bridget; Wohl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    We evaluate correlations between stream geomorphic complexity and characteristics of the adjacent riparian forest, valley geometry, and land use history in forested subalpine streams of the Colorado Front Range. Measures of geomorphic complexity focus on cross-sectional, planform, and instream wood piece and logjam variables. We categorize adjacent riparian forests as old-growth unmanaged forest (OU), younger unmanaged forest (YU), and younger managed forest (YM), and valley geometry as laterally confined, partly confined, or unconfined. Significant differences in geomorphic stream complexity between OU, YU, and YM result primarily from differences in wood pieces and logjams, and these differences correlate strongly with pool volume and organic matter storage. Significant differences in planform and cross-sectional complexity correlate more strongly with valley geometry, but do not explain as much of the observed variability in complexity between streams as do the wood variables. Unconfined OU streams have the largest wood loads and the greatest complexity, whereas legacy effects of logging, tie-drives, and channel simplification create lower complexity in YM streams, even relative to YU streams flowing through similarly aged forest. We find that management history of riparian forests exerts the strongest control on reduced functional stream channel complexity, regardless of riparian forest stand age.

  5. Avian response to fire in pine–oak forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park following decades of fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    Fire suppression in southern Appalachian pine–oak forests during the past century dramatically altered the bird community. Fire return intervals decreased, resulting in local extirpation or population declines of many bird species adapted to post-fire plant communities. Within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, declines have been strongest for birds inhabiting xeric pine–oak forests that depend on frequent fire. The buildup of fuels after decades of fire suppression led to changes in the 1996 Great Smoky Mountains Fire Management Plan. Although fire return intervals remain well below historic levels, management changes have helped increase the amount of fire within the park over the past 20 years, providing an opportunity to study patterns of fire severity, time since burn, and bird occurrence. We combined avian point counts in burned and unburned areas with remote sensing indices of fire severity to infer temporal changes in bird occurrence for up to 28 years following fire. Using hierarchical linear models that account for the possibility of a species presence at a site when no individuals are detected, we developed occurrence models for 24 species: 13 occurred more frequently in burned areas, 2 occurred less frequently, and 9 showed no significant difference between burned and unburned areas. Within burned areas, the top models for each species included fire severity, time since burn, or both, suggesting that fire influenced patterns of species occurrence for all 24 species. Our findings suggest that no single fire management strategy will suit all species. To capture peak occupancy for the entire bird community within xeric pine–oak forests, at least 3 fire regimes may be necessary; one applying frequent low severity fire, another using infrequent low severity fire, and a third using infrequently applied high severity fire.

  6. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  7. [Seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization for two forest types in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Lin, Wei; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, we incubated soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in different seasons in the laboratory and measured the SOC mineralization rate and cumulative SOC mineralization (Cm). We employed simultaneous reaction model to describe C mineralization kinetics and estimated SOC mineralization parameters including soil easily mineralizable C (C1), potentially mineralizable C (C₀). We also analyzed the relations between Cm, C₁and their influencing factors. Results showed that the incubated SOC mineralization rate and Cm for 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from early spring to late autumn, while for 5-10 cm soil layer the seasonal variation was not statistically significant for both forest types. The C₁ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 42.92-92.18 and 19.23-32.95 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, while the C₀ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 863.92-3957.15 and 434.15-865.79 mg · kg⁻¹, respec- tively. Both C₁ and C₀ decreased from early spring to late autumn. The proportions of C₀ in SOC for two forest types were 0.74%-2.78% and 1.11%-1.84% in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively, and decreased from early spring to late autumn, indicating that SOC tended to become more stable as a whole from spring to autumn. The Cm and C₀ were significantly positively correlated to in situ soil water content and hot water-extractable carbohydrate content, but were not correlated to in situ soil temperature and cool water-extractable carbohydrate content. We concluded that soil labile organic carbon, soil physical and chemical properties contributed to the seasonal dynamics of SOC mineralization in the forests.

  8. Multifunctionality assessment in forest planning at landscape level. The study case of Matese Mountain Community (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The main objective is to improve a method that aims at evaluating forest multifunctionality from a technical and practical point of view. A methodological approach - based on the index of forest multifunctionality level - is proposed to assess the “fulfilment capability” of a function providing an estimate of performance level of each function in a given forest. This method is aimed at supporting technicians requested to define most suitable management guidelines and silvicultural practices in the framework of a Forest Landscape Management Plan (FLMP. The study area is the Matese district in southern Apennines (Italy, where a landscape planning experimentation was implemented. The approach includes the qualitative and quantitative characterization of selected populations, stratified by forest category by a sampling set of forest inventory plots. A 0.5 ha area around the sample plot was described by filling a form including the following information: site condition, tree species composition, stand origin and structure, silvicultural system, health condition, microhabitats presence. In each sample plot, both the multifunctionality assessment and the estimate of the effect of alternative management options on ecosystem goods and services, were carried out. The introduction of the term “fulfilment capability” and the modification of the concept of priority level - by which the ranking of functions within a plot is evaluated - is an improvement of current analysis method. This enhanced approach allows to detect the current status of forest plot and its potential framed within the whole forest. Assessing functional features of forests with this approach reduces the inherent subjectivity and allows to get useful information on forest multifunctionality to support forest planners in defining management guidelines consistent with current status and potential evolutive pattern.

  9. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  10. Human impacts on forest structure and species richness on the edges of a. protected mountain forest in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassen, M.; Sheil, D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how local scale variation in human impacts influenced forest structure and tree species richness within Mt Elgon National Park, Uganda. We assessed basal area (BA), stem density, diameter at breast height (dbh) and indicators of human activity in 343 plots in four study sites, on tra

  11. Landscape pattern and diversity of natural secondary forests in the eastern mountainous region, northeast China: A case study of Mao'ershan region in HeUongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShu-juan; SUIYu-zheng; FENGHai-qing; WANGFeng-you; LIYu-wen

    2004-01-01

    Mao'ershan region is a representative natural secondary forested region in the eastern mountainous region, northeast of China. Under the support of ARC/INFO, the landscape pattern and landscape diversity of Mao'erhshan region were sudied by combining the forest type map (1:10 000), which was drawn from the aerial photographs (1999), field investigation and land utilization map (1:10 000). The selected indices included patch number, patch size, patch density index, richness index,dominance index, evenness index and diversity index. The results showed that the landscape dominant forest type in Mao'ershan region was softwood broad-leaved forest. In all landscape types, the average patch area of natural secondary forests was bigger than that of artificial forest. The patch density index of each landscape formed in artificial forest was higher than that of natural secondary forest. The landscape diversity index and landscape evenness index of natural forest were highest, the landscape heterogeneity was also, but the landscape dominance was lower. In natural forest, the control effects of landscape elements on landscape-structure, function and its change were weakened. The artificial forest was on the contrary.

  12. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  13. Predicting nest success from habitat features in aspen forests of the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather M. Struempf; Deborah M. Finch; Gregory Hayward; Stanley Anderson

    2001-01-01

    We collected nesting data on bird use of aspen stands in the Routt and Medicine Bow National Forests between 1987 and 1989. We found active nest sites of 28 species of small nongame birds on nine study plots in undisturbed aspen forests. We compared logistic regression models predicting nest success (at least one nestling) from nest-site or stand-level habitat...

  14. Curve Numbers for Nine Mountainous Eastern United States Watersheds: Seasonal Variation and Forest Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many engineers and hydrologists use the curve number method to estimate runoff from ungaged watersheds; however, the method does not explicitly account for the influence of season or forest cutting on runoff. This study of observed rainfall and runoff for small, forested watershe...

  15. Data base for early postfire succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Stickney; Robert B. Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Web site and CD-ROM include 21 pages of text plus electronic data for 55 succession sites including color plates, tables, and figures. Provides data on quantitative postfire changes of plant species and forest vegetation components for up to the first 25 years of secondary plant succession for 55 forest sites in northern Idaho and northwestern Montana. Cover (aerial...

  16. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  17. Turbulent exchange of CO2 over a broadleaf-Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiabing WU; Dexin GUAN; Xiaomin SUN; Tingting SHI; Shijie HAN; Changjie JIN

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent exchange of CO2 was measured con-tinuously via the open-path eddy covariance technique over a broadleaf-Korean pine forest in Changbai Moun-tain, northeast China. The results show that with near-neutral atmospheric stratification, CO2 and vertical wind components measured over the forest canopy in the iner-tial sub-range followed the expected -2/3 power law. The dominant vertical eddy scale was about 100 m. The fre-quency ranges of eddy contributions to CO2 fluxes were mostly within 0.01-2.0 Hz. Large eddies with low fre-quency over the canopy contributed more to CO2 fluxes than small eddies. The open-path eddy covariance system could satisfy the estimation of turbulent fluxes over the canopy, but the CO2 fluxes between forest and atmo-sphere were generally underestimated at night because of the increment non-turbulent processes, suggesting that the CO2 fluxes estimated under weak turbulence need to be revised correspondingly.

  18. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate.

  19. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  20. Acid fog deposition and the declining forest in Tanzawa mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, M.; Shigihara, A.; Goto, S.; Nanzai, B.

    2010-07-01

    Since 1988, we have investigated fog chemistry in Mt. Oyama, Tanzawa mountains, Japan, and acid fog has been frequently observed there. We have observed fog on Mt. Oyama by using a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain, by using a visibility meter at the top of the mountain, and by an active fog sampler at the mountainside. We have reported the fog frequency at the top of Mt. Oyama to be 46% measured by the video camera, but it was overestimated. The visibility measured at the top of the mountain is the most reliable index, and the top of the mountain is covered with fog for about 30%. The frequency of about 15% was added for the case of the visibility of a few km when it was measured by a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain (8.5 km far from the top). Fog-water deposition increases with the increasing altitude to be much larger than the rain-water deposition. The factors affecting on the occult precipitation intensity were investigated by the simultaneous measurement of the rainfall intensity under a canopy, the wind speed and direction, and the visibility at the top of the mountain. Air pollution has been improved recently in Japan, but acid fog is not improved and has been affecting the leaves of the trees. In Tanzawa mountains, many fir trees and beech trees are declining, while cedar trees show no decline symptoms. We have investigated the effect of acid fog on the trees of these species by exposing simulated acid fog on the seedlings of the species. Seedlings of fir and beech are much damaged by the long term exposure of pH 3 fog, while cedar seedlings are not affected by the acid fog. By the exposure of simulated acid fog, the epicuticle wax is eroded at first, then the cross linking polycation between sugar chains of cell wall is ion-exchanged with proton and the cell wall is swollen, and the membrane calcium is desorbed from the membrane, which lowers the tolerance of the trees to the climate change. Fir and beech

  1. EDAPHIC PROPERTIES PLOTS CULTIVATED WITH MILPA USING MINIMUM TILLAGE IN THE MOUNTAINS OF OAXACA, WHERE THERE WAS MOUNTAIN CLOUD FOREST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Reyes-Jaramillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility in the first 20 cm of six plots and a cloud forest (MCF still preserved in Sta. María Chilchotla, north of Oaxaca, where the predominant MCF and grown landraces were evaluated. The soils are on slopes are shallow, rocky and not suitable for agriculture. Yields are low, the Mazatec perform traditional cultural practices such as minimum tillage as the terrain does not allow entering tractor or oxen, farmers do not burn, and do not use chemicals. Soil sampling randomly obtaining composite samples were made​​ physical, chemical and biological properties were analyzed. The results showed that are medium textured soils, the pH of the MCF is extremely acid (4.5 and in the plots ranged from 5 to 6.9, organic carbon is high from 24 to 100 g kg -1, total nitrogen ranged from 1.4 - 8.3 g kg-1 medium and high values, available phosphorus was low with the exception of the plot three, the CEC ranged from 8.8 to 36 cmoles(+ kg-1. They have high iron content of 20.26 to 94.18 mg kg-1 on BMM standing there also high in copper, zinc and manganese. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed a significant difference (р 0.5 between the means of soil properties and soil analyzed than sodium. The multiple comparison test of Tukey was applied. Trap pots mycorrhizal fungi were isolated from different species. It is concluded that the soils of most of the plots are fertile, are poor in phosphorus but everything indicates that they make up the AM fungi; no physical degradation was observed, its major limitation is the stoniness and steep slopes. The practice of minimum tillage, barriers of rocks that outcrop at the surface and leaving stumps of tree ferns prevent erosion. It aims to increase maize production experimenting with chemical fertilizers. To preserve the MCF recommends building their biological and ethnobotanical wealth, carbon sequestration mazatec could receive a financial benefit.

  2. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  3. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  4. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  5. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on measurement

  6. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  7. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  8. Effect of gap size on seedling establishment, growth and survival at three years in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in Victoria, Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.; Saveneh, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Establishment, growth and survival of Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. seedlings was studied at two sites over three years under a range of small gaps (up to 30mx30m) and large gaps (50mx50m up to clearfells) in a gap cutting experiment in mountain ash forest at Tanjil Bren, Victoria, Australia. In both

  9. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  10. MOUNTAINS, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest is a dense tropical forest, which covers the southern slopes of the Sanetti. Plateau ... other sides, Harenna is one of the few large forests in Ethiopia that is relatively ..... and Largen (1992) assumed that Ethiopian Otomys typus may be a complex of .... major role in determining the intraspecific structure of some species.

  11. Effects of ground fires on element dynamics in mountainous coniferous forest in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Näthe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances such as fires are a natural phenomenon of forested ecosystems, having a different impact on (micro- climate (e.g. emissions of gases and aerosols, ecology (destruction of flora and fauna and nutrient cycles especially in the soils. Forest fires alter the spatial distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil, binding forms (organic vs. inorganic and availability (water solubility of organic substances and nutrients. The effects of fires on chemical, biological and physical soil properties in forested ecosystems have been intensively studied in the last decades, especially in the Mediterranean area and North America. However, differences in fire intensity, forest type (species, age and location (climate, geological substrate, nutrient status lead to divergent results. Furthermore, only a few case studies focused on the effects of ground fires in hilly landscapes, on the vertical and lateral water-driven fluxes of elements (C, N, nutrients, as well as on the input of fire-released terrestrial nutrients into aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this study will evaluate the effects of low-severity fires on nutrient cycling in a coniferous forest in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system. At three spatially independent sites three paired plots (control and manipulated were chosen at a forested site in Thuringia, Germany. All plots are similar in the vegetation cover and pedogenetic properties.In relation to control sites, this study will examine the effects of low-severity fires on:a the mobilization of organic carbon and nutrients (released from ash material and the forest floor via leachate and erosion paths,b the binding form (inorganic/organic of elements and organic compounds, and c the particle size fraction (DOM/POM of elements and organic compounds.The goal of this study is a better understanding of the impact of forest fires on element cycling and release in a hilly landscape connected to an aquatic system, supposedly driven by

  12. [Estimation of carbonaceous gases emission from forest fires in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China in 1953-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Luo, Bi-Zhen; Wei, Shu-Jing; Sun, Long; Wei, Shu-Wei; Wen, Zheng-Min

    2013-11-01

    Based on the forest resources investigation data and the forest fire inventory in 1953-2011, in combining with our field research in burned areas and our laboratory experiments, this paper estimated the carbonaceous gases carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emission from the forest fires in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China in 1953-2011. The total carbon emission from the forest fires in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains in 1953-2011 was 1.12 x 10(7) t, and the annual emission was averagely 1.90 x10(5) t, accounting for 1.7% of the annual average total carbon emission from the forest fires in China. The emission of CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC was 3.39 x 10(7), 1.94 x 10(5), 1.09 x 10(5), and 7.46 x 10(4) t, respectively, and the corresponding annual average emission was 5.74 x 10(5), 3.29 x 10(4), 1.85 x 10(3), and 1.27 x 10(3) t, accounting for 1.4%, 1.2%, 1.7%, and 1.1% of the annual carbonaceous gases emitted from the forest fires in China, respectively. The combustion efficiency and the carbon emission per unit burned area of different forest types decreased in order of coniferous forest > broad-leaved forest > coniferous broadleaved mixed forest. Some rational forest fire management measures were put forward.

  13. Historical dominance of low-severity fire in dry and wet mixed-conifer forest habitats of the endangered terrestrial Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Ellis; Malevich, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of ecosystem processes confounds forest management and conservation of rare, declining species. Restoration of forest structure and fire hazard reduction are central goals of forest management policy in the western United States, but restoration priorities and treatments have become increasingly contentious. Numerous studies have documented changes in fire regimes, forest stand structure and species composition following a century of fire exclusion in dry, frequent-fire forests of the western U.S. (e.g., ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer). In contrast, wet mixed-conifer forests are thought to have historically burned infrequently with mixed- or high-severity fire—resulting in reduced impacts from fire exclusion and low restoration need—but data are limited. In this study we quantified the current forest habitat of the federally endangered, terrestrial Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) and compared it to dendroecological reconstructions of historical habitat (e.g., stand structure and composition), and fire regime parameters along a gradient from upper ponderosa pine to wet mixed-conifer forests. We found that current fire-free intervals in Jemez Mountains salamander habitat (116–165 years) are significantly longer than historical intervals, even in wet mixed-conifer forests. Historical mean fire intervals ranged from 10 to 42 years along the forest gradient. Low-severity fires were historically dominant across all forest types (92 of 102 fires). Although some mixed- or highseverity fire historically occurred at 67% of the plots over the last four centuries, complete mortality within 1.0 ha plots was rare, and asynchronous within and among sites. Climate was an important driver of temporal variability in fire severity, such that mixed- and high-severity fires were associated with more extreme drought than low-severity fires. Tree density in dry conifer forests historically ranged from open (90 trees/ha) to

  14. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Berner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and grand fir (Abies grandis forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr−1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy , computed annually (1964 to 2013 as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.58–0.85, P gy (r2 = 0.65, P gy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Correspondingly, maximum tree height, leaf area:sapwood area ratio, and stem wood density were all correlated with CMIgy . The tight coupling of forest carbon cycling and species traits with water availability suggests that warmer and drier conditions projected for the 21st century could have significant biogeochemical, ecological, and social consequences in the Pacific Northwest.

  15. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  16. Afforestation, subsequent forest fires and provision of hydrological services: a model-based analysis for a Mediterranean mountainous catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Naranjo Quintanilla, Paula; Santos, Juliana; Serpa, Dalila; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Rocha, João; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean landscapes have experienced extensive abandonment and reforestation in recent decades, which should have improved the provision of hydrological services, such as flood mitigation, soil erosion protection and water quality regulation. However, these forests are fire-prone, and the post-fire increase in runoff, erosion and sediment exports could negatively affect service provision. This issue was assessed using the SWAT model for a small mountain agroforestry catchment, which was monitored between 2010 and 2014 and where some eucalypt stands burned in 2011 and were subsequently plowed for replanting. The model was calibrated and validated for streamflow, sediment yield and erosion in agricultural fields and the burnt hillslopes, showing that it can be adapted for post-fire simulation. It was then used to perform a decadal assessment of surface runoff, erosion, and sediment exports between 2004 and 2014. Results show that the fire did not noticeably affect flood mitigation but that it increased erosion by 3 orders of magnitude, which subsequently increased sediment yield. Erosion in the burnt forest during this decade was one order of magnitude above that in agricultural fields. SWAT was also used to assess different fire and land-use scenarios during the same period. Results indicate that the impacts of fire were lower without post-fire soil management, and when the fire occurred in pine forests (i.e. before the 1990s) or in shrublands (i.e. before afforestation in the 1930s). These impacts were robust to changes in post-fire weather conditions and to a lower fire frequency (20-year intervals). The results suggest that, in the long term, fire-prone forests might not provide the anticipated soil protection and water quality regulation services in wet Mediterranean regions.

  17. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  18. 陕北黄龙山林区景观格局动态%Dynamics of Landscape Pattern in Huanglong Mountain Forest Region of Northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵鹏祥; 郝红科; 杨延征; 袁飞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the forest inventory data of Huanglong Mountain in 1986 , 1997 and 2006, we analyzed the changes of landscape types and landscape structure.The landscape was changed greatly during the 20 years.The area of forested land continuously was increased, while the shrub land and wasteland were gradually decreased.The area of the cultivated land and immature forest land increased from 1986 to 1997, while decreased from 1997 to 2006.Changes in Cupressus forest land and nursery land, which accounted for only a small part of the entire landscape, were not significant.At the landscape level, the area of hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests was increased by 40% from 1986 to 2006.The area of Cupressus forest land remained unchanged at approximate 2 000 hm during the two periods, while the area of soft broad-leaved forest land continuously decreased.Moreover, the age-class structure of the major species significantly varied.The hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests merged with a block which had the largest patch index and was much greater than that of the other landscape types in each period.The landscape diversity decreased, while the landscape heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance increased.The patch types tended to distribute in reunion state.

  19. Cloud forest restoration for erosion control in a Kichwa community of the Ecuadorian central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, L.; Giordanengo, J.; Sacatoro, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Denver Professional Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) has begun conducting erosion control projects in the Kichwa communities of Malingua Pamba in the Andes Mountains south of Quito, Ecuador. In many high elevation areas in this region, erosion of volcanic soils on steep hillsides (i.e., teach these skills to adjacent villages.

  20. Effects of Closing Mountain for Forest Restoration in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinxiao; Niu Jianzhi; Xu Junliang

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides a systematical analysis of ecological restoration effects of natural secondary forest of closure area in Chao Guanxi Gou, Miyun County, Beijing. The results indicate that through more than twenty years of hillclosing afforestation since 1983, canopy closure has improved almost by 0.2; forest cover rate has raised from 7.2% to 93.8%; biodiversity, tree biomass and vegetation community have increased to a great extent. Compared with the average canopy closure before hillclosing afforestation in this area, it has improved to over 0.4 in average and increased by 0.1-0.2. The forest coverage degree has reached more than 90%. Consequently, the forest plays more important roles in intercepting precipitation, improving water storage capacity of soil, decreasing the surface runoff, and preventing soil and water loss.

  1. 76 FR 9537 - Sequoia National Forest; California; Piute Mountains Travel Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of the burned area. After review and consultation with the travel management interdisciplinary team... interdisciplinary team: 1. The Sequoia National Forest has a need to provide greater diversity of...

  2. Multifunctional management of mountain forests - Compromises between the protection and conservation functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Fuhr, Nicolas Clouet, Thomas Cordonnier and Frédéric Berger

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available How can the balance between protection against natural hazards and biodiversity conservation be determined at each stage in forest development? This study provides a number of answers in view of improving multifunctional management.

  3. Low-level gamma spectrometry of forest and moor soils from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, N. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Preusse, W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Degering, D. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics; Unterricker, S. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Applied Physics

    1997-03-01

    In soils with distinct organic and mineral horizons, radionuclides (RN) can be used to understand geochemical migration processes. In the study presented here high sensitivity HPGe-detectors with active and passive shielding were employed to determine the low activity levels of various natural, cosmogenic and artificial RN. Soils of a spruce forest and a moor from exposed mountain regions in Saxony (Erzgebirge) were investigated as they provide a good example of layered soil systems with vertical transfer of chemical elements. Different soil horizons were sub-sampled as thin slices and analysed to examine the migration processes at sub-horizon level. The depth distributions of chemically different RN were studied considering the geochemical and pedological soil characteristics of the profiles. (orig.)

  4. Exploration and Inventory of Araceae Genera in Silui Mountain and Uluisimbone Forest, Kolaka Regency, South-East Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAMANTYO TRI ADI NUGROHO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The island of Sulawesi has been highlighted as a globally important conservation area, across a range of evaluation criteria. Collection rates on the Sulawesi island are the lowest among in Indonesia area. Taxonomic study also has been limited, with most experts reporting large numbers of undescribed species. The research of Araceae diversity in Sulawesi is subject which in general has not been studied critically. The main purpose of this research is concerned to inventory the diversity of Araceae genera. The exploration was conducted in each location used exploring method. The Araceae genera in Silui mountain and Uluisimbone forest consist of 30 numbers, 24 species and 14 genera, including into 3 sub families (Aroideae, Monsteroideae and Photoideae. Mostly Araceae were found at humid location, the river flows. Schismatoglottis calyptrata Zoll.&Mor. and Aglaonema simplex Bl. are dominant species for terrestrial Araceae, where as Scindapsus spp. and Pothoidium spp. are dominant species for climbing Araceae.

  5. Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously measured tropical forest plots is presented. Long-term measurements, 72 years at the leeward site, and 25 years at windward site, of stem density are similar to initial and pre-hurricane values at both sites. For 10 years post-hurricane Hugo (1989, stem density increased at both sites. Following that increase period, stem density has remained at 1400 to 1600 stems/ha in the leeward site, and at 1200 stems/ha in the windward site. The forests had similar basal area values before hurricane Hugo in 1989, but these sites are following different patterns of basal area accumulation. The leeward forest site continues to accumulate and increase basal area with each successive measurement, currently above 50 m2/ha. The windward forest site maintains its basal area values close to an asymptote of 35 m2/ha. Currently, the most abundant species at both sites is the sierra palm. Ordinations to explore variation in tree species composition through time present the leeward site with a trajectory of directional change, while at the windward site, the composition of species seems to be converging to pre-hurricane conditions. The observed differences in forest structure and composition from sites differently affected by hurricane disturbance provide insight into how particular forest characteristics respond at shorter or longer time scales in relation to previous site conditions and intensity of disturbance effects.

  6. Humus form variability at two experimental sites in the mountain Norway spruce forest, Trentino, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chersich S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Region Trentino Alto-Adige, 59 humus profiles were studied and classified in order to understand the variability of humus forms in alpine forest ecosystems. In particular, the evolution of humus forms was investigated in relation to the development of vegetation cover, with the aim of determining whether a humus form can be representative of a specific forest phase. For the study of humus profiles, transects were traced so as to cut across all 4 principal dynamic phases of forest evolution: open canopy, regeneration, intermediate and mature. Two sub-sites (of about 1000 m2 were selected at an altitude of 1700 m. a.s.l., on parent soil material of morenic sediments on acid substrate and with a vegetation cover of alpine spruce forest: the first, having a north exposition, is located within the Municipality of Pellizzano in Val di Sole, near Mount Nambino; the second, with a south exposition, is located near Madonna di Campiglio, in Val Rendena, near Mount Ritorto. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. Our investigation pointed out a wide evolutionary variability of forest humus in the studied sites, permitting to identify a probable association trend between different growing-phases of forest and specific humus forms.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Plant Diversity of Pinus tabulaeformis Forests in Ten Regions of Beijing Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liping; Xing Shaohua; Zhao Bo; Wang Qingchun; Cui Guofa

    2006-01-01

    Based on investigations during 1998-2003,shrubs and herbs,as well as indicators of similarity and diversity in Pinus tabulaeformis forests of ten regions around Beijing were compared and analyzed,and protection measures were suggested.Generally,the shrubs and herbs in P.tabulaeformis forests of Shidu,Mutianyu,and Yunfengshan are rich in species diversity and have great similarities.The percentages of common species in each of these three paired regions are above 50%,while many peculiar plant species that could not be found in the other nine regions exist in Labagoumen.As for plant diversity indices,plants in the P.tabulaeformis forests of Baihuashan,Shidu,and Labagoumen occur more frequently than in other regions,while the number of plants in Tanjiesi and Miaofengshan are far less.Some endangered orchid species were found distributed in P.tabulaeformis forests with a clumped spatial pattern but rarely appeared in other forest types,indicating that P.tabulaeformis forests are ideal habitats for orchid species.

  8. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  9. Interactions among forest age, valley and channel morphology, and log jams regulate animal production in mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D. M.; Venarsky, M. P.; Hall, R. O., Jr.; Herdrich, A.; Livers, B.; Winkelman, D.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest age and local valley morphometry strongly influence the form and function of mountain streams in Colorado. Streams in valleys with old growth forest (>350 years) have extensive log jam complexes that create multi-thread channel reaches with extensive pool habitat and large depositional areas. Streams in younger unmanaged forests (e.g., 120 years old) and intensively managed forests have much fewer log jams and lower wood loads. These are single-thread streams dominated by riffles and with little depositional habitat. We hypothesized that log jam streams would retain more organic matter and have higher metabolism, leading to greater production of stream macroinvertebrates and trout. Log jam reaches should also have greater emergence of adult aquatic insects, and consequently have higher densities of riparian spiders taking advantage of these prey. Surficial organic matter was 3-fold higher in old-growth streams, and these streams had much higher ecosystem respiration. Insect production (g m2 y-1) was similar among forest types, but fish density was four times higher in old-growth streams with copious log jams. However, at the valley scale, insect production (g m-1 valley-1) and trout density (number m-1 valley-1) was 2-fold and 10-fold higher, respectively, in old growth streams. This finding is because multi-thread reaches created by log jams have much greater stream area and stream length per meter of valley than single-thread channels. The more limited response of macroinvertebrates may be related to fish predation. Trout in old growth streams had similar growth rates and higher fat content than fish in other streams in spite of occurring at higher densities and higher elevation/colder temperatures. This suggests that the positive fish effect observed in old growth streams is related to greater availability of invertebrate prey, which is consistent with our original hypothesis. Preliminary analyses suggest that spider densities do not respond strongly to

  10. Physiognomy and distribution of mountain meadows in an alpine valley over 150 years of spontaneous forest expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitzia T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the classification of current and historical aerial photosbetween 1973 and 2006, we analysed the evolution of size, shape and connectivity of 59 mountain meadows (maggenghi of the Pejo district (Trentino, Northern Italy. The maggenghi are scattered patches within a forested matrix. We conducted the same analysis on an Austro-Hungarian cadastral map of 1859. The total surface covered by maggenghi was 137.4 ha in 1973, and decreased to 78.3 ha (57% in 2006. The mean shape and connectivity index in 1973 are significantly lower than those of 2006. Within a 1-km radius around the studied patches, woodlands increased by 7% in the same time range. Among the 25 maggenghi present in 1958, 12 has been subdivided into 39 smaller fragments and 13 has been reduced in their size without any fragmentation. A general process of meadow patches evolution which included area and connectivity reduction and shape simplification has been noticed. This process is common to many other alpine landscapes. The study of these processes is fundamental for policies aimed to conservation of mountain meadows, as well as to identify the single patches deserving conservation for their current and historical landscape structure, as many studies report their significant effects on local floristic diversity.

  11. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  12. Special forest products: An east-side perspective. Interior Columbia Basin ecosystem management project: Scientific assessment. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, W.E.; Blatner, K.

    1997-02-01

    The special forest products industry has gained increasing attention, as timber harvest levels in the Pacific Northwest have declined, and has been heralded, at least by some, as a partial solution to the employment problems common throughout the rural areas of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. To date, relatively little work has been published on those portions of the industry located east of the Cascade Range. Yet the east side produced about 48 percent of the total wild edible mushroom harvest (about 1.9 million pounds worth $11.8 million) during 1992. The region also accounts for all of the baby`s breath harvested in the Pacific Northwest and has the potential to produce large quantities of other foral products. It also seems to have the potential to become an important producer of other edibles and medicinal products; however, relatively little is known about this segment of the industry. The following report provides overview of the special forest products industry east of the Cascade Range and evaluates its potential for expansion.

  13. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  14. [Species composition and point pattern analysis of standing trees in secondary Betula albosinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao-xin; Kang, Bing; Li, Gang; Wang, De-xiang; Yang, Gai-he; Wang, Da-wei

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the species composition and population diameter-class structure of a typical secondary Betula albo-sinensis forest in Xiaolongshan of west Qinling Mountains, and the spatial distribution pattern and interspecific correlations of the main populations were analyzed at multiple scales by the O-ring functions of single variable and double variables. In the test forest, B. albo-sinensis was obviously dominant, but from the analysis of DBH class distribution, the B. albo-sinensis seedlings were short of, and the natural regeneration was very poor. O the contrary, the regeneration of Abies fargesii and Populus davidianas was fine. B. albo-sinensis and Salix matsudana had a random distribution at almost all scales, while A. fargesii and P. davidianas were significantly clumped at small scale. B. albo-sinensis had positive correlations with A. fargesii and P. davidianas at medium scale, whereas S. matsudana had negative correlations with B. albo-sinensis, A. fargesii, and P. davidianas at small scale. No significant correlations were observed between other species. The findings suggested that the spatial distribution patterns of the tree species depended on their biological characteristics at small scale, but on the environmental heterogeneity at larger scales. In a period of future time, B. albo-sinensis would still be dominant, but from a long-term view, it was necessary to take some artificial measures to improve the regeneratio of B. albo-sinensis.

  15. The application of APEX images in the assessment of the state of non-forest vegetation in the Karkonosze Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarocińska Anna M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Information about vegetation condition is needed for the effective management of natural resources and the estimation of the effectiveness of nature conservation. The aim of the study was to analyse the condition of non-forest mountain communities: synanthropic communities and natural grasslands. UNESCO’s M&B Karkonosze Transboundary Biosphere Reserve was selected as the research area. The analysis was based on 40 field test polygons and APEX hyperspectral images. The field measurements allowed the collection of biophysical parameters - Leaf Area Index (LAI, fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR and chlorophyll content - which were correlated with vegetation indices calculated using the APEX images. Correlations were observed between the vegetation indices (general condition, plant structure and total area of leaves (LAI, as well as fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR. The outcomes show that the non-forest communities in the Karkonosze are in good condition, with the synanthropic communities characterised by better condition compared to the natural communities.

  16. Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShijie; WENXuefa; YUGuirui; SUNXiaomin; LIQingkang; RENChuanyou

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  17. Forest Condition Monitoring Using Very-High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in a Remote Mountain Watershed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Uddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery has proven extremely useful for repetitive timeline-based data collection, because it offers a synoptic view and enables fast processing of large quantities of data. The changes in tree crown number and land cover in a very remote watershed (area 1305 ha in Nepal were analyzed using a QuickBird image from 2006 and an IKONOS image from 2011. A geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA was carried out using the region-growing technique for tree crown detection, delineation, and change assessment, and a multiresolution technique was used for land cover mapping and change analysis. The coefficient of determination for tree crown detection and delineation was 0.97 for QuickBird and 0.99 for IKONOS, calculated using a line-intercept transect method with 10 randomly selected windows (1×1 ha. The number of tree crowns decreased from 47,121 in 2006 to 41,689 in 2011, a loss of approximately 90 trees per month on average; the area of needle-leaved forest was reduced by 140 ha (23% over the same period. Analysis of widely available very-high-resolution satellite images using GEOBIA techniques offers a cost-effective method for detecting changes in tree crown number and land cover in remote mountain valleys; the results provide the information needed to support improved local-level planning and forest management in such areas.

  18. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Erika M.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. PMID:28130453

  19. Impact of land-use management on nitrogen transformation in a mountain forest ecosystem in the north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maryam Asadiyan; Seyed Mohammad Hojjati; Mohammad reza Pourmajidian; Asghar fallah

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic N is one of the most important soil quality indexes,which may be influenced by land-use change.The historical conversion of land-use from native vegetation to agriculture resulted in sharp declines in soil N dynamics.This study was conducted to determine the soil inorganic N concentrations and net N mineralization rate in four common types of land-uses in the mountain forest area in the north of Iran,namely arable land,pine plantation,ash plantation,and beech stand.The soil samples were taken from top mineral soil layer (5 cm) in each site randomly (n=6) during August-September 2010.Beech stand and ash plantation showed significantly higher total nitrogen compared with arable land and pine plantation,while extractable NH4+-N concentration was significantly greater in Beech stand compare to arable soils (p<0.05).No significantly difference was found in Net N mineralization,net nitrification and net ammonification rates among different land-uses.Results showed that net N mineralization and ammonification were occurred just in the soil of Ash plantation during the incubation time.Our findings suggested that conversion of Hyrcanian forests areas to pine plantation and agricultural land can disrupt soil natural activities and affect extremely soil quality.

  20. Shear strengths of undisturbed and remolded soil under typical forests in Jinyun Mountain ,Chongqing City ,southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaoming; WANG Yujie; WANG Yunqi; XIA Yiping; WU Yun; CHEN Lin

    2007-01-01

    To find the controlling measures in preventing soil and water loss from soil mechanics,according to the prescribed methods of soil engineering test regulations,shear strengths of undisturbed and remolded soils under five typical forests in Jinyun Mountain,Chongqing City were measured using the direct shear apparatus.Shear difference of both undisturbed and remolded soils was compared at the same vertical loading,under the condition of the same dry density and water content from the same forest land.The effect of roots (the freest roots) in soil-root composites (undisturbed soils) was analyzed.The results indicate that undisturbed soils have higher shear resistance and less shear displacement than remolded soils at the same vertical loading,when both soils have the same dry density and water content under the same vegetations.It has been shown that shear failure of undisturbed soils approximately indicate plastic failure,while shear failure of remolded soils is of the elastic nature.Shear strength of undisturbed soils has a positive correlation with root content,and relevant regression models about undisturbed soil were established from this.

  1. Dynamics of forest ecosystems regenerated on burned and harvested areas in mountain regions of Siberia: characteristics of biological diversity, structure and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Danilin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.

  2. Sustaining the Landscape: A Method for Comparing Current and Desired Future Conditions of Forest Ecosystems in the North Cumberland Plateau and Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druckenbrod, D.L.

    2004-12-22

    This project initiates an integrated-landscape conservation approach within the Northern Cumberlands Project Area in Tennessee and Kentucky. The mixed mesophytic forests within the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains are among the most diverse in North America; however, these forests have been impacted by and remain threatened from changes in land use across this landscape. The integrated-landscape conservation approach presented in this report outlines a sequence of six conservation steps. This report considers the first three of these steps in two, successive stages. Stage 1 compares desired future conditions (DFCs) and current prevailing conditions (CPCs) at the landscape-scale utilizing remote sensing imagery, remnant forests, and descriptions of historical forest types within the Cumberland Plateau. Subsequently, Stage 2 compares DFCs and CPCs for at-risk forest types identified in Stage 1 utilizing structural, compositional, or functional attributes from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis data. Ecological indicators will be developed from each stage that express the gaps between these two realizations of the landscape. The results from these first three steps will directly contribute to the final three steps of the integrated-landscape conservation approach by providing guidance for the generation of new conservation strategies in the Northern Cumberland Plateau and Mountains.

  3. Forest inventory: Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit, Craig Mountain, Idaho. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narolski, Steven W.

    1996-12-01

    The primary objective of this report is to determine the quantity and quality of existing forest habitat types on the 59,991-acre Peter T. Johnson Wildlife Mitigation Unit (WMU). Products from this effort include a description of the ecological condition, a map of habitat types, and an inventory of forest resources on the WMU lands. The purpose of this and other resource inventories (plant and wildlife) is to assess the current resources condition of the WMU and to provide necessary information to generate a long-term management for this area.

  4. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on diversity patterns of anthophyllous insect communities in a tropical mountain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartas-Hernández, S E; Gómez-Murillo, L

    2015-06-01

    The determinants of diversity are a central issue in ecology, particularly in Andean forests that are known to be a major diversity hotspot for several taxa. We examined the effect of abiotic (elevation and precipitation) and biotic (flowering plant diversity) factors considered to be decisive causal factors of diversity patterns on anthophyllous insect communities on mountain forest. Sampling was carried out in 100-m transects at eight elevational levels and during a period of 8 months. All flowering plants in the understory and their flowering visitors were recorded. Species richness and diversity were estimated for each elevation and month. Diversity of flowering plants, elevation, and precipitation were used as independent variables in multiple regressions against insect diversity. The evaluated abiotic and biotic factors had contrasting effects on insect diversity: a significant decrease on insect diversity occurred at high elevation and dry months (i.e., threshold effect), while it showed a positive relationship with flowering plant diversity through time (i.e., linear effect), but not along elevation. Rapid turnover of species of both interacting guilds was observed every 100-m altitude and month. Local insect communities were also divided functionally depending on the plant family they visit. These results indicate that each insect community is distinctive among elevations and months and that diversity of flowering plants, precipitation, and elevation influence their structure and composition. Thus, conservation strategies should involve protection of forest cover at the whole elevation gradient, in order to preserve common and exclusive components of diversity and consequently, the mosaic of plant-pollinator interactions.

  5. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  6. Impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-07-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (Global Climate Model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. This amplification is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, possibly resulting in lower water availability in the snowmelt dominated regions during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty were higher in spring and summer flows than in winter and fall flows. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  7. Impacts of climate and catastrophic forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, V.; Anderson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc.) may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC (Hydrologiska Byråns attenbalansavdelning, Environment Canada), in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG) driven by GCM (global climate model) output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1) are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s). The GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm) increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm) decrease in summer flow in June. Flow also decreased in July and August, when irrigation is important; these reduced river flows during this season could impact agriculture production. The amplification in the streamflow is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, resulting in lower water availability during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation) approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty in streamflows were higher in spring and summer than in winter and fall. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing the winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  8. Impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow and water balance in a mountainous headwater stream in Southern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mahat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rivers in Southern Alberta are vulnerable to climate change because much of the river water originates as snow in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Changes in likelihood of forest disturbance (wildfire, insects, logging, etc. may also have impacts that are compounded by climate change. This study evaluates the impacts of climate and forest changes on streamflow in the upper parts of the Oldman River in Southern Alberta using a conceptual hydrological model, HBV-EC in combination with a stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG driven by GCM (Global Climate Model output climate data. Three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 are selected to cover the range of possible future climate conditions (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. GCM projected less than a 10% increase in precipitation in winter and a similar amount of precipitation decrease in summer. These changes in projected precipitation resulted in up to a 200% (9.3 mm increase in winter streamflow in February and up to a 63% (31.2 mm decrease in summer flow in June. This amplification is mostly driven by the projected increase in temperature that is predicted to melt winter snow earlier, possibly resulting in lower water availability in the snowmelt dominated regions during the summer. Uncertainty analysis was completed using a guided GLUE (generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation approach to obtain the best 100 parameter sets and associated ranges of streamflows. The impacts of uncertainty were higher in spring and summer flows than in winter and fall flows. Forest change compounded the climate change impact by increasing winter flow; however, it did not reduce the summer flow.

  9. N, P and K limitation of fine root growth along an elevation transect in tropical mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graefe, Sophie; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-11-01

    It is generally assumed that tree growth in tropical low-elevation forests is primarily limited by phosphorus while nitrogen limitation is more prominent in tropical montane forests where temperature is lower and the soils are poorly developed. We tested this hypothesis in mountain rainforests of South Ecuador by investigating the growth response of tree fine roots to N, P and K fertilization in ingrowth cores exposed at 1050 m (pre-montane) and 3060 m (upper montane) elevation. Root growth into unfertilized ingrowth cores (control treatment) was about 10 times slower at 3060 m than at 1050 m. At 1050 m, root growth was stimulated not only by P, but also by N and K. In contrast, N was the only element to promote root growth at 3060 m. The N concentration in fine root biomass dropped to nearly a third between 1050 and 3060 m, those of P, K, Ca and Mg decreased as well, but to a lesser degree. According to a 15NO 315NH 4 tracer study along the slope, tree fine roots accumulated nitrate and ammonium in root biomass at similar rates between 1050 and 3060 m, despite lower temperatures higher upslope. We conclude that the nature of nutrient limitation of tree fine root growth changes with elevation from an apparent co-limitation by P together with N and K at 1050 m to predominant N limitation at 3060 m, which is also reflected by low foliar N concentrations. Increasing N limitation may have caused the high fine root biomass and root/shoot ratio in the high elevation forest, while the capability of the roots to acquire mineral N apparently was not affected by lower temperatures at high elevations.

  10. Topographic Correction of Landsat TM-5 and Landsat OLI-8 Imagery to Improve the Performance of Forest Classification in the Mountainous Terrain of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Pimple

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate mapping and monitoring of forests is essential for the sustainable management of forest ecosystems. Advancements in the Landsat satellite series have been very useful for various forest mapping applications. However, the topographic shadows of irregular mountains are major obstacles to accurate forest classification. In this paper, we test five topographic correction methods: improved cosine correction, Minnaert, C-correction, Statistical Empirical Correction (SEC and Variable Empirical Coefficient Algorithm (VECA, with multisource digital elevation models (DEM to reduce the topographic relief effect in mountainous terrain produced by the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM-5 and Operational Land Imager (OLI-8 sensors. The effectiveness of the topographic correction methods are assessed by visual interpretation and the reduction in standard deviation (SD, by means of the coefficient of variation (CV. Results show that the SEC performs best with the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM 30 m × 30 m DEM. The random forest (RF classifier is used for forest classification, and the overall accuracy of forest classification is evaluated to compare the performances of the topographic corrections. Our results show that the C-correction, SEC and VECA corrected imagery were able to improve the forest classification accuracy of Landsat TM-5 from 78.41% to 81.50%, 82.38%, and 81.50%, respectively, and OLI-8 from 81.06% to 81.50%, 82.38%, and 81.94%, respectively. The highest accuracy of forest type classification is obtained with the newly available high-resolution SRTM DEM and SEC method.

  11. Landscape modeling for forest restoration planning and assessment: lessons from the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Xi; Robert N. Coulson; John D. Waldron; Maria D. Tchakerian; Charles W. Lafon; David M. Cairns; Andrew G. Birt; Kier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    Restoration planning, evaluation, and implementation are important in areas where abiotic disturbances (e.g., wildfires, hurricanes, and ice storms), biotic disturbances (e.g., outbreaks of native and exotic invasive pests and diseases), and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., harvesting, planting, and fire exclusion) have altered forest...

  12. 77 FR 70414 - White River National Forest; Eagle County, CO; Vail Mountain Recreation Enhancements Projects EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... activities, particularly for families, children and the aging, but extending to people seeking more.... Capitalize on the relationship between the WRNF and Vail Resorts to connect people with the natural... Family Forest Park at Adventure Ridge Modified Horse Trail in Game Creek Bowl Observation Decks...

  13. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  14. Conversion of Mountain Beech Coppices into High Forest: An Example for Ecological Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Walter; Ferrari, Barbara; Giuliarelli, Diego; Mancini, Leone Davide; Portoghesi, Luigi; Corona, Piermaria

    2015-11-01

    Converting beech coppices into high forest stands has been promoted in the last decades as a management goal to attenuate the negative effects that frequent clearcutting may have on soil, landscape, and biodiversity conservation. The silvicultural tool usually adopted is the gradual thinning of shoots during the long span of time required to complete the conversion, that also allows the owner to keep harvesting some wood. This research reports and discusses, in the light of the ecological intensification approach, the results achieved from an experimental test started more than 25 years ago in a 42-year-old beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) coppice with standards in central Italy. The effects of various thinning intensities (three treatments plus a control) on the stand growth and structure are assessed by successive forest inventories. Analyses are integrated by spatial indices to assess stem density and canopy cover. Converting beech coppices into high forest through gradual thinning of shoots proves to be an effective step down the road to silvicultural systems characterized by continuous forest cover, as a tool of ecological intensification suitable to guarantee both public and private interests. Thinning has led to stands with fewer but larger stems, thus accelerating the long conversion process while maintaining both wood harvesting capability and environmental services.

  15. Detection of Spatio-Temporal Changes of Norway Spruce Forest Stands in Ore Mountains Using Landsat Time Series and Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mišurec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on spatio-temporal changes in the physiological status of the Norway spruce forests located at the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains (northwestern part of the Czech Republic, which suffered from severe environmental pollution from the 1970s to the 1990s. The situation started improving after the pollution loads decreased significantly at the end of the 1990s. The general trends in forest recovery were studied using the tasseled cap transformation and disturbance index (DI extracted from the 1985–2015 time series of Landsat data. In addition, 16 vegetation indices (VIs extracted from airborne hyperspectral (HS data acquired in 1998 using the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS and in 2013 using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX were used to study changes in forest health. The forest health status analysis of HS image data was performed at two levels of spatial resolution; at a tree level (original 2.0 m spatial resolution, as well as at a forest stand level (generalized to 6.0 m spatial resolution. The temporal changes were studied primarily using the VOG1 vegetation index (VI as it was showing high and stable sensitivity to forest damage for both spatial resolutions considered. In 1998, significant differences between the moderately to heavily damaged (central Ore Mountains and initially damaged (western Ore Mountains stands were detected for all the VIs tested. In 2013, the stands in the central Ore Mountains exhibited VI values much closer to the global mean, indicating an improvement in their health status. This result fully confirms the finding of the Landsat time series analysis. The greatest difference in Disturbance Index (DI values between the central (1998: 0.37 and western Ore Mountains stands (1998: −1.21 could be seen at the end of the 1990s. Nonetheless, levelling of the physiological status of Norway spruce was observed for the central and western parts of the Ore Mountains in

  16. Experimental warming effects on the microbial community of a temperate mountain forest soil

    OpenAIRE

    Schindlbacher, A.; Rodler, A.; Kuffner, M.; Kitzler, B.; Sessitsch, A; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The amount of carbon (C) that is respired leaves the soil as CO2 (soil respiration) and causes one of the greatest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. How soil microbial communities will respond to global warming, however, is not well understood. To elucidate the effect of warming on the microbial community we analyzed soil from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, Austria. Soil of a mature spruce forest was ...

  17. Dynamics of profiles and storage of carbon dioxide in broadleaved/Korean forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShi-jie; LINLi-sha; YUGui-rui; ZHANGJun-hui; WUJia-bing; ZHOXiao-song; GUANDe-xin

    2003-01-01

    CO2 concentrations at different heights in a broadleaved/Korean forest (with a mean height of 26 m) were measured with infrared gas analyzer IRGA (model 2250D, LI-COR inc. and LI-COR, 820) from Aug. to Oct. of 1999, Apr. to Jul. of 2000,and from Aug. 2002 to Sept. 2003. Based on the collected dada, the diurnal and seasonal dynamics of profiles and storage of carbon dioxide in the forest were analyzed. The diurnal CO2 profites showed that the verticat distribution of CO2 concentration were different for daytime and nighttime, and the CO2 concentration was highest close to forest floor, no matter at daytime and nighttime. The seasonal profiles of CO2 showed that stratification in the canopy was evident during growth season. CO2 concentrations at different heights (60 m to 2.5 m) had a little change in March, with a difference of 10μmol·mol-1, but had a significant change in July, with a difference of 60μmol·mol-1, In July, there also existed a greater gradient of CO2 concentrations at canopy (22, 26 and 32 m), with a difference of 8μmol·mol-1. The calculated total storage ( Δ C/Δ t) of CO2 in the air column with height of 40 m beneath eddy covariance instrument was negative, and made a little contribution to NEE.

  18. The southernmost Andean Mountain soils: a toposequence from Nothofagus Forest to Sub Antarctic Tundra at Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firme Sá, Mariana M.; Schaefer, Carlos E.; Loureiro, Diego C.; Simas, Felipe N.; Francelino, Marcio R.; Senra, Eduardo O.

    2015-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Fuegian Andes Cordilhera, the Martial glacier witnessed a rapid process of retreat in the last century. Up to now little is known about the development and genesis of soils of this region. A toposequence of six soils, ranging from 430-925 m a.s.l, was investigated, with emphasis on genesis, chemical and mineralogical properties. The highest, youngest soil is located just below the Martial Glacier Martial Sur sector, and the lowest soils occur on sloping moraines under Nothofagus pumilio forests. Based on chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics, the soils were classified according to the Soil taxonomy, being keyed out as Inceptisols and Entisols. Soil parent material of the soil is basically moraines, in which the predominant lithic components dominated by metamorphic rocks, with allochthonous contributions of wind-blown materials (very small fragments of volcanic glass) observed by hand lens in all horizons, except the highest profile under Tundra. In Nothofagus Deciduous Forests at the lowest part of the toposequence, poorly developed Inceptisols occur with Folistic horizons, with mixed "andic" and "spodic" characters, but with a predominance of andosolization (Andic Drystrocryepts). Under Tundra vegetation, Inceptisols are formed under hydromorphism and andosolization processes (Oxiaquic Dystrocrepts and Typic Dystrocrepts). On highland periglacial environments, soils without B horizon with strong evidence of cryoturbation and cryogenesis occur, without present-day permafrost down to 2 meters (Typic Cryorthents and Lithic Haploturbels). The mountain soils of Martial glacier generalize young, stony and rich in organic matter, with the exception of barely vegetated Tundra soils at higher altitudes. The forest soils are more acidic and have higher Al3+activity. All soils are dystrophic, except for the highest profile of the local periglacial environment. The organic carbon amounts are higher in forest soils and

  19. [Impact of fire on carbon dynamics of Larix gmelinii forest in Daxing'an Mountains of North-East China: a simulation with CENTURY model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jiang, Yan-Ling; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xu, Zhen-Zhu; Sui, Xing-Hua

    2012-09-01

    Fire is one of the important natural disturbances to forest ecosystem, giving strong impact on the ecosystem carbon dynamics. By using CENTURY model, this paper simulated the responses of the carbon budget of Larix gmelinii forest in Huzhong area of Daxing' an Mountains to different intensities of fire. The results indicated that after the fires happened, the soil total carbon pool of the forest had a slight increase in the first few years and then recovered gradually, while the stand biomass carbon pool increased after an initial decrease, with the recovery rate of carbon pool of the stand fine components being faster than that of the coarse components. The fluctuation of the carbon pools increased with the increase of fire intensity. After the fires, both the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest vegetation and the soil heterotrophic respiration increased after an initial decrease, but the recovery rate of the NPP was faster than that of soil heterotrophic respiration, resulting in the alternation of the stand functioned as a carbon source or sink. After light fire, the forest still functioned as a weak carbon sink, and quickly recovered as a carbon sink to the level before the fire happened. After other intensities fire, the forest functioned as a carbon source within 9-12 years, and then turned back to a carbon sink again. It was suggested that lower intensity forest fire could promote the regeneration of L. gmelinii forest, reduce the combustibles, and have no strong impact on the stand carbon budget, while higher intensity forest fire would lead to the serious loss of soil- and tree carbon sequestration, retard the recovery of the forest, and thereby, the forest would be a carbon source in a longer term.

  20. [Soil organic carbon pools and their turnover under two different types of forest in Xiao-xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jiang, Hang; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (8, 18 and 28 °C) for 160 days, and the data from the incubation experiment were fitted to a three-compartment, first-order kinetic model which separated soil organic carbon (SOC) into active, slow, and resistant carbon pools. Results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization rates and the cumulative amount of C mineralized (all based on per unit of dry soil mass) of the broad-leaved secondary forest were both higher than that of the virgin Korean pine forest, whereas the mineralized C accounted for a relatively smaller part of SOC in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil. Soil active and slow carbon pools decreased with soil depth, while their proportions in SOC increased. Soil resistant carbon pool and its contribution to SOC were both greater in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil than in the virgin Korean pine forest soil, suggesting that the broad-leaved secondary forest soil organic carbon was relatively more stable. The mean retention time (MRT) of soil active carbon pool ranged from 9 to 24 d, decreasing with soil depth; while the MRT of slow carbon pool varied between 7 and 24 a, increasing with soil depth. Soil active carbon pool and its proportion in SOC increased linearly with incubation temperature, and consequently, decreased the slow carbon pool. Virgin Korean pine forest soils exhibited a higher increasing rate of active carbon pool along temperature gradient than the broad-leaved secondary forest soils, indicating that the organic carbon pool of virgin Korean pine forest soil was relatively more sensitive to temperature change.

  1. Uraniferous schists of the Alsacian side of Vosges mountains; Les schistes uraniferes du versant Alsacien des Vosges Moyennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimbert, A.; Carlier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Since the discover of uraniferous schists in 1951 in the Ribeauville region (Haut-Rhin), the atomic energy commission has been interested in low content uranium deposits. It originated in France a new interest in uranium sedimentary deposit which were, until now, of a less interest than deposits in crystalline vein-stone. A general description of the oriental versant of Vosges mountains is given and a petrographical and tectonic study is described as well as the mineralization and radioactivity of the region. It studied in particular the uranium deposits near the Schaentzel summit. An historic of the local research is given as well as a study of the borings. A description of the different rock formations, which have been found on the site, is given: sandstone, schists, arkoses, granites. A comparison of the Schaentzel uraniferous schists with other known uraniferous schists is made. finally, interpretations of the study and origin of the uraniferous mineralization in Schaentzel sedimentary deposits are discussed. (M.P.)

  2. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Houshuo

    2009-01-01

    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10-20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s-1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Evaluation of regeneration potential of Pinus koraiensis in mixed pine-hardwood forests in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-bin; MOU Pu; WANG Tian-ming; GE Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Large scale harvest of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seeds as a food product in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest of northeastern China poses a serious threat to the sustainability and restoration of this endangered regional ecosystem.Seed collection over past decades greatly reduced the seed bank and subsequent seedling and sapling recruitment,and impacting a wide array of granivorous animals that rely on the pine seeds.We surveyed Korean pine seeds,including solid seeds (SS),insect consumed seeds (ICS) and other (animal) consumed (OCS)kernels,of the seed bank (forest floor and the top 10 cm of mineral soil),the seedlings and saplings from 1 m2 sample plots in five forest types in Liangshui Nature Reserve (LNR) of the southern Xiao Xing'an Mountains in northeastern China to provide accurate information for assessing the Korean pine regeneration potential.The average number of pine seeds in the seed bank were 11.2 seeds/m2,9.1 seeds/m2,4.6 seeds/m2,1.1 seeds/m2,and 0.2 seeds/m2 in Korean pine-basswood forest,mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,mixed conifer-hardwood forest,white birch forests,and oak forests,respectively.In the first three forest types,percentages of SS (potentially viable seeds) were 11.2%,3.5% and 27.8%,respectively.The percentages of ICS (not viable seeds) were consistent at around 35%.The higher but variable percentages of OCS (not viable seeds) indicated high seed predation in these forests.Compared with other studies,we recorded higher percentages of seed damage,probably due to our survey approach and the increased depth of seed bank sampled in our study.Depletion of pine seeds in the seed bank greatly reduced seedling and sapling recruitment.Densities of pine seedlings varied from about 180 trees/ha in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest to about 5,400 trees/ha in the mixed conifer-hardwood forests and showed a high degree of spatial variation.Saplings were rare in the mixed Korean pine-hardwood forest,but ranged in the

  4. Potential influence of wildfire in modulating climate-induced forest redistribution in a central Rocky Mountain landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L.; Shinneman, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionClimate change is expected to impose significant tension on the geographic distribution of tree species. Yet, tree species range shifts may be delayed by their long life spans, capacity to withstand long periods of physiological stress, and dispersal limitations. Wildfire could theoretically break this biological inertia by killing forest canopies and facilitating species redistribution under changing climate. We investigated the capacity of wildfire to modulate climate-induced tree redistribution across a montane landscape in the central Rocky Mountains under three climate scenarios (contemporary and two warmer future climates) and three wildfire scenarios (representing historical, suppressed, and future fire regimes).MethodsDistributions of four common tree species were projected over 90 years by pairing a climate niche model with a forest landscape simulation model that simulates species dispersal, establishment, and mortality under alternative disturbance regimes and climate scenarios.ResultsThree species (Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, subalpine fir) declined in abundance over time, due to climate-driven contraction in area suitable for establishment, while one species (ponderosa pine) was unable to exploit climate-driven expansion of area suitable for establishment. Increased fire frequency accelerated declines in area occupied by Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and subalpine fir, and it maintained local abundance but not range expansion of ponderosa pine.ConclusionsWildfire may play a larger role in eliminating these conifer species along trailing edges of their distributions than facilitating establishment along leading edges, in part due to dispersal limitations and interspecific competition, and future populations may increasingly depend on persistence in locations unfavorable for their establishment.

  5. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (TERRA/AQUA MODIS and Landsat-5 TM/Landsat-7 ETM+ and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30%. The poor agreement obtained using MODIS data reveals that ETd retrieval from coarse resolution remote sensing data is troublesome in these heterogeneous areas, and therefore further research is necessary on this issue.

  6. Characterization of traditional healers in the mountain forest region of Kahuzi-Biega, South-Kivu, DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalukoma, C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Several ethnobotanical studies have demonstrated links between traditional medicine practices and the ethnicity and geographical location of healers, while many others have concluded the opposite. This study deals with the typology of traditional healers in the mountain region of Kahuzi-Biega. Objectives. The goal is to understand whether the typology of traditional healers is related to their inter-ethnic and inter-zonal differences, based on diseases treated and plants used. Method. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted using the "PSSVV" method. This involved 88 traditional healers recognized as "specialists" in 33 villages adjacent to the forest of Kahuzi-Biega, in DR Congo. Multivariate analysis (clustering, ordination, Mantel test, IndVal were applied to establish typologies of traditional healers. Results. Multivariate analyses showed that ethnicity and geographical location did not explain the practices and knowledge of healers. However, by using the IndVal method, differences were observed in their degree of specialization. Non-specialized healers (70% could be distinguished from specialized healers (30%. Two clear groups of specialists emerged; those who treat bone trauma and those who treat obstetric-gynecological complaints. The Mantel correlation test revealed a positive association (r = 0.134, p < 0.05 between the "healers-plants" and "healers-diseases" matrices. This indicates that healers who treat similar diseases use similar herbs. Both typologies have shown their preferences for forest species (81%, especially trees (51%. Conclusions. This exploratory study suggests that traditional healers are characterized based on their specializations. This result helps in creating strategies to preserve local traditional knowledge and apply it to the conservation of species.

  7. Policy Recommendations for the Argentinean Water Resources National Plan Related to Extreme Events in Forested Mountain Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuolo, A. B.; Iturraspe, R. J.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    In the framework of activities developed by COHIFE (Federal Water Resource Council), Argentina is preparing the Water Resources National Plan. To achieve an integrating project and considering that Argentina is a federal country, each province is working on the basis of its own Water Resources Provincial Plan. The first step of the plan consists in the identification of problems, with the purpose of further defining solutions based on structural and non structural actions. The general perception of the stakeholders involved in the plan development is the necessity of the analysis of strategies for the integrated water resource management Although a first document for water policy, named "Principios Rectores de Política Hídrica" is available, there are not specific strategies for integrated management of water and land use oriented to extreme events. In other way, there are a lack of policies oriented to Mountain basin with forest coverage, may be because of most of the population and the economical structure of the country is located on plain regions. This article proposes recommendations for policy to be integrated to the Water Resources National Plan, based on studies developed in a pilot basin representative of the Andean-Patagonia eco-region, in the framework of the EPIC FORCE proyect, financed by the European Union. Project methodology includes basin instrumentation, reconstruction and analysis of extreme events and land-water management practices revision. Climate, flow and sediment Data are available for simulation using the Shetran model on different land use scenarios, including changes in the basin forest coverage. On the basis of the first results of the project, policy guides oriented to fill mentioned policy lacks were defined.

  8. An impacts of logging operations on understory plants for the broadleaved/Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; SHAO Guo-fan; DAI Li-min; XU Dong; GU Hui-yan; WANG Fei

    2005-01-01

    Natural regeneration of tree species is important to the sustainability of native forest ecosystems in the temperate zone of northeast China. This study compared the densities and heights of seedlings and the diversities of shrubs and herbs on three sites of logging operations: log-skidding trails (LST), logging gaps (LG) and log landing sites (LLS). Sites undisturbed by logging gaps operations were sampled as control. The species, counts and height of tree seedlings and the species, counts, height and percentage coverage of shrubs and herbs were recorded in the field. The highest density and greatest height of regeneration trees were observed at LG and LST. The effects of LST on the densities of broadleaved trees were greater than those of coniferous trees. The difference in seedling density between LLS and control was significant (p=0.05). There was no significant difference in average seedling height for all the tree species between the disturbed sites and control. There were more shrub and herb species at the disturbed sites than at control. The diversity of understory plants at LG was the highest among all the sites. LST and LLS were different in shrub diversity, so were LLS and control. Both LG and LLS were different from control in herb diversity. Active measures need to be taken on the operation sites to protect the coniferous trees and the diversities of understory plants for sustaining the structure and composition of the broadleaved-Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain of China. Since different operation sites have different effects on different tree species, site-dependent actions must be taken to assure the regeneration of ecologically important tree species.

  9. Comparative Structural Dynamics of the Janj Mixed Old-Growth Mountain Forest in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Are Conifers in a Long-Term Decline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Keren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regression of conifers in European mixed old-growth mountain forests has been observed for a long period and studied from different aspects. Old-growth (OG forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH have not experienced heavy air pollution and chronic overbrowsing that have affected many other European OG forests, while climatic and anthropogenic disturbances have been well documented. We analysed stand structure in the Janj OG forest, compared it with inventories of Lom and Perucica OG forests (BiH and with earlier inventories of the same reserves. At present, OG forest Janj is characterized by a high growing stock (1215 m3∙ha−1. This is due to good site quality, prevalence of conifers (84% and dominant endogenous processes in recent decades. In all three OG forests, indicators of structural change exhibited progression of European beech over time. Historical evidence revealed the occurrence of warm summers and droughts followed by bark beetle outbreaks in the 1920s, 1940s and early 1950s, which in turn influenced a marked conifer decline. It seems likely that repeated canopy opening released waves of European beech regeneration. These stand structural changes have delayed the rejuvenation of conifers and can help explain the early observations of conifer decline.

  10. The Importance of the Nothofagus Forest on Snowmelt Process linked to floods in Mountain Basins of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina as Input for Land Use Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturraspe, R. J.; Urciuolo, A. B.; Lofiego, R.

    2007-05-01

    The conception and application of policies and best practices for the appropriate land use from the view point of extreme floods attenuation, must be based on scientist acknowledge of the basin response, reaching each one of the hydrological cycle's components. That condition is necessary as a start point for an integrated intersectoral management of water and forest resources at the basin scale, especially when forest logging or forest urbanization appear as land use alternatives with socioeconomic importance, confronting the natural roll of the forest in the basin. Within this framework, this article analyzes the forest importance on the seasonal snow-pack and snow-melting process in the mountain basin environment of Tierra del Fuego Island, Argentina, where a mixed rain-snow hydrological regimen and a canopy of native Nothofagus forest are basic features considered. Extreme floods events are related to heavy rain and snow-melting combination. In theory, the worst scenario is the exceptional rain occurrence at the moment of the maximum snow storage, air temperature higher than 0ºC in the whole basin, and previous wet conditions. On this scenario we analyze aspects that indicate forest influences on the snow pack distribution and evolution which are favorable to the attenuation of the intensity of melting process which are induced by rain and temperate air mass. Results were obtained in the context of the EPIC FORCE (EU) Project.

  11. Excess of Organic Carbon in Mountain Spruce Forest Soils after Bark Beetle Outbreak Altered Microbial N Transformations and Mitigated N-Saturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kaňa

    Full Text Available Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004-2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history. We hypothesised that the high litter input after forest dieback at the disturbed plot and its consequent decomposition might influence the availability of C for microorganisms, and consequently, N transformations in the soil. The concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC and N (DON in soil water extracts rapidly increased at the disturbed plot for 3 yeas and then continually decreased. Net ammonification exhibited a similar trend as DOC and DON, indicating elevated mineralization. Despite the high ammonium concentrations found after the forest dieback (an increase from 0.5 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1, net nitrification was stable and low during these 3 years. After the DOC depletion and decrease in microbial biomass 5 years after the forest dieback, net nitrification started to rise, and nitrate concentrations increased from 0.2-1 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1. Our results emphasize the key role of the availability of organic C in microbial N transformations, which probably promoted microbial heterotrophic activity at the expense of slow-growing nitrifiers.

  12. [Short-term death dynamics of trees in natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao-Chen; Hao, Zhan-Qing; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuo-Qiang; Xing, Ding-Liang; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Xu-gao

    2013-02-01

    Taking the 5 hm2 sampling plot in the natural secondary poplar-birch forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, and based on the two census data in 2005 and 2010, an analysis was made on the main tree species composition and quantity, size class distribution of dead individuals, and regeneration characteristics of the main tree species in different habitat types of the plot in 2005-2010. In the five years, the species number of the individuals with DBH> or = 1 cm increased from 46 to 47, among which, 3 species were newly appeared, and 2 species were disappeared. The number of the individuals changed from 16509 to 15027, among which, 2150 individuals died, accounting for 13% of the whole individuals in 2005, and 668 individuals were newly increased. The basal area of the trees increased from 28.79 m2.m-2 to 30.55 m2.m-2, with that of 41 species increased while that of 6 species decreased. The decrease of the basal area of Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana accounted for 72.3% of the total decrease. Small individuals had higher mortality, as compared with large ones, and the mortality of the individuals with DBHDBH. No difference was observed in the tree mortality among different habitat types, but the mortality of the individuals with different size classes showed greater variation.

  13. Wind power in the open countryside, forests, mountains and seas; Vindkraft i oeppet landskap, skog, fjaell och hav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, Aasa [Sociologiska inst,, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Ek, Kristina [Inst. foer Ekonomi, teknik och samhaelle, Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Johansson, Maria [Miljoepsykologi, Institutionen foer Arkitektur och byggd miljoe, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Persson, Lars [Inst. foer Nationalekonomi, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    There is a support for the development of wind power. Meanwhile, there is uncertainty about how the landscape and the local values will be affected. Of the environments forests, mountains, open countryside and the sea, you can not point to any that would be suitable in particular for wind power. To find the right places, it is necessary to weigh the various factors. The report describes local conditions that are important for anchoring of wind power projects. It is about how people use the environment, what qualities they perceive as valuable, and how wind power project can be coordinated with other interests. It is about how people use the environment, what qualities they perceive as valuable, and how wind power project can be coordinated with other interests. Research also shows that people demand facts about wind power project's benefits and costs, both environmentally and economically. Also the ownership of wind turbines is important for attitude to planned wind power projects. The report is based on surveys and interview studies undertaken by an interdisciplinary research team in the areas of economics, environmental psychology and sociology. These studies underline the importance of dialogue and participation for all who feel concerned by a wind power establishment.

  14. [Effects of light intensity heterogeneity in gaps of broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains on Pinus koraiensis seedings growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Xiu-Hua

    2009-05-01

    By using a Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system, this paper studied the heterogeneity of light intensity in four different size gaps of a broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, and analyzed the diurnal change of the photosynthesis of Pinus koraiensis saplings in the gaps. In the nine orientations within the gaps, the peak value of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) varied in the sequence of west of actual gap, north of extended gap, gap center > south of actual gap, south of extended gap, east of extended gap, east of actual gap > west of extended gap, north of actual gap. Light distribution was dissymmetry in the orientations of east-west and south-north, with the variation in west and north being more significant than that in other orientations. There was no significant difference in the average PAR among the positions within specific orientations. The average PAR of the four gaps from I to IV was 21.85, 45.57, 66.02, and 23.48 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). PAR had a significant positive correlation with net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and the correlation coefficient increased with increasing PAR. With the increase of gap size, both the PAR and the P(n) of P. koraiensis saplings increased first and decreased then, with the maximum values appeared at 267 m2 of gap size.

  15. Eddy flux corrections for CO2 exchange in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Jiabing; GUAN; Dexin; SUN; Xiaomin; YU; Guirui; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    Based on analysis of mechanisms causing energy no-closure and nocturnal low fluxes issues for CO2 exchange studies by eddy covariance method, corrections were done with the raw data sets obtained from Changbai Mountains forest flux site, to evaluate the impacts of sonic anemometer tilt, frequency response limitations and advection on estimation of CO2 exchange, respectively. The results show that the planar fit coordinate transforming method is superior to the streamline coordinate transforming method in tilt correction. The latter could cause a systematical underestimation of eddy fluxes relating with the angle of sensor and terrain tilt. The underestimation of CO2 and energy fluxes for frequency response limitations average 3.0% and 2.0% during daytime, respectively, which increase by 9.0% and 5.5% during nighttime, respectively. The corrections of frequency response limitations are closely related to atmospheric stability. The advection loss of CO2 fluxes is dominated by nocturnal vertical advection, which is at least 18% when the horizontal advection is neglected. It is suggested that more work be done to understand the characteristics of horizontal advection and turbulent eddies under a complexcircumstance.

  16. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  17. [Effects of bryophytes in dark coniferous forest of Changbai Mountains on three conifers seed germination and seedling growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhanqing; Ye, Ji; Jiang, Ping

    2006-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, the main bryophytes in dark coniferous forests of Changbai Mountains, on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis. The results indicated that at definite concentrations, the water extract of H. splendens inhibited Picea koraiensis seed germination, while that of R. triquetrus promoted it. Although the water extracts of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, they expedited the occurrence of the tree species' daily germination peak. The water extracts of test bryophytes inhibited the seedling growth of P. koraiensis and Picea koraiensis, but promoted that of Larix olgensis. The living shoots of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but delayed the daily germination peak of Picea koraiensis while promoted that of Larix olgensis, andthe killed shoots inhibited the seed germination of all test tree species. Living shoots in larger amounts promoted the seedling growth of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but killed shoots were inadverse.

  18. Examining soil erosion and nutrient accumulation in forested and agriculture lands of the low mountainous area of Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, A. T.; Gomi, T.; Takahisa, F.; Phung, K. V.

    2011-12-01

    We examined soil erosion and nutrient accumulations in the Xuanmai area located in the low mountainous region of Northern Vietnam, based on field investigations and remote sensing approaches. The study area had been degraded by land-use change from forest to agriculture in the last 20 years. In contrast, around the study area, the Vietnam government promoted reforestation projects. Such changes in land-use conditions, which may or may not be associated with vegetation ground cover conditions, potentially alter soil erosion and nutrient accumulation. We selected 10 dominant land-use types including forested land (e.g., Pinus massoniana and Acacia mangium plantation) agriculture land (e.g., Cassava), and bare land. We established three 1 x 1 m plots in each land-use type in September 2010. Vegetation biomass, litter cover, soil erosion (height of soil pedestal), and soil physical (soil bulk density and particle size distribution) and chemical properties (Total soil carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus) were measured. Height of soil pedestal can be a record of soil erosion by rain splash during rainy periods from April to August (prior to our field study). We also conducted remote sensing analysis using Landsat TM images obtained in 1993, 2000, and 2007 for identifying temporal patterns of land-use types. We found that the intensity of soil erosion depended primary on current vegetation ground cover condition with no regard of land-use. Hence, nutrient accumulation varied among vegetation ground cover and soil erosion. Remote sensing analysis suggested that shrub and bare lands had been altered from forested land more recently. Our finding suggested that variability of soil nutrient conditions can be associated with long-term soil erosion and production processes. Findings of our study are that: (1) current vegetation and litter ground cover affected the amount of surface soil erosion, and (2) legacy of land-use can be more critical for soil nutrient accumulation. Both

  19. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  20. Forest resources of the Prescott National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rogers

    2003-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Prescott National Forest 1996...

  1. Testing of evaluation methods applied to raw infiltration data measured at very heterogeneous mountain forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Lukas; Pavlasek, Jirka; Pech, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain infiltration parameters and analytical expressions of the cumulative infiltration and infiltration rate, raw infiltration data are often evaluated using various infiltration equations. Knowledge about the evaluation variability of these equations in the specific case of extremely heterogeneous soils provides important information for many hydrological and engineering applications. This contribution presents an evaluation of measured data using five well-established physically-based equations and empirical equations, and makes a comparison of these procedures. Evaluation procedures were applied to datasets measured on three different sites of hydrologically important mountain podzols. A total of 47 single ring infiltration experiments were evaluated using these procedures. From the quality-of-fit perspective, all of the tested equations characterized most of the raw datasets properly. In a few cases, some of the physically-based equations led to poor fits of the datasets measured on the most heterogeneous site (characterized by the lowest depth of the organic horizon, and more bleached eluvial horizon than on the other tested sites). For the parameters evaluated on this site, the sorptivity estimates and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) estimates were distinctly different between the tested procedures.

  2. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  3. Soil warming affects soil organic matter chemistry of all density fractions of a mountain forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Wanek, Wolfgang; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and increase thereby the soil CO2 efflux. Elevated microbial activity might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. We here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three different density fractions of forest soils from a long term warming experiment in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling the soils in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for 8 consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results which included organic C content, total N content, δ13C, δ 14C, δ 15N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. The differences in the three individual fractions (free particulate organic matter, occluded particulate organic matter and mineral associated organic matter) were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and sampling depth. We did however find statistically significant effects of warming in all density fractions from 0-10 cm depth, 10-20 cm depth or both. Our results also including significant changes in the supposedly more stable mineral associated organic matter fraction where δ 13C values decreased at both sampling depths and the relative proportion of N-bearing compounds decreased at a sampling depth of 10-20 cm. All the observed changes can be attributed to an interplay of enhanced microbial decomposition of SOM and increased root litter input. This study suggests that soil warming destabilizes all density fractions of

  4. Vertical patterns of the flora of seed plants in Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Juan; Ma Qin-yan; Du Fan; Yang Yu-ming

    2007-01-01

    Vertical gradients incorporate multiple resources gradients which vary continuously. Therefore, research on mountain floristic patterns along vertical gradients is important to reveal regular patterns of the flora along environmental gradients and to understand the changes in biodiversity along these gradients and their biological fitness. This study was designed to explore the characteristics of the floral compositions and ecological significance of floristic patterns along the vertical gradients of the National Nature Reserve of Dawei Mountain, located in the southeast of Yunnan Province. We analyzed the structural characteristics of the flora and the distribution patterns of its floristic components as a function of elevation on the basis of our field investigations along vertical vegetation transects. We carried out a systematic cluster analysis in order to determine the dividing line of floristic changes by elevation along gradients and studied the effects of mountain climate on the vertical variation of floristic composition. The study shows: 1)that the obvious boundary, which differentiates tropical distribution, is located at an elevation of approximately 1,500 m, which separates the tropical rain forests from the evergreen broad-leaved forests; 2) that humid rain forests are found below 700 m elevation,mountain rain forests between 700 and 1,500 m, monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests between 1,300 and 1,800 m and mountain mossy evergreen broad-leaved forests above 1,800 m. Non-representative mountain mossy dwarf forests (above 2,100 m) in the area are found on the windward sides and barren lands on mountain slopes; 3) that Hopea mollissima is one of the major component species of mountain rain forests, but it should not be considered as the major indicator species in humid rain forests as is generally accepted.

  5. Assimilation of Remotely Sensed Data into the Biome-BGC Ecosystem Model to Improve the Prediction of Energy and Carbon Exchange in Southwestern Mountain Island Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Mitic, C. M.; Burke, E. J.; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Petti, J. R.; Harlow, R. C.; Brooks, P. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain island forest ecosystems populate high-altitude areas in the semi-arid southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. In these regions, on average, the precipitation input exceeds the evapotranspiration loss. Therefore, they represent the primary source area for sustainable water resources, as well as making a major contribution to the regional carbon balance. During 2002 a 30-m tall micrometeorological tower was installed at a sky island forest site in the Santa Catalina Mountains, near Tucson AZ in order to characterize the surface exchanges of water, energy, and carbon. Measurements to date indicate that the surface fluxes are very sensitive to water status, for example, stomatal functioning totally closed down during the pre-monsoon period in 2002. Initial studies with the Biome Biogeochemical model (Biome-BGC) using driving data measured in the Santa Catalina Mountains provide reasonable simulations of the behavior of the mountain island forest. In order to obtain a regional estimate of the carbon exchange using a model such as Biome-BGC accurate estimates of the distributed forcing data particularly the precipitation are required. Alternatively, an estimate of the soil water status and the leaf area index can be used to improve model predictions. TERRA-MODIS leaf area index and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) are both sensitive to drought stress. Time periods during which there is a marked and sustained decrease in FPAR are shown to be symptomatic of a sustained period of low soil moisture that started 10-20 days earlier. Under these conditions the soil moisture status in Biome-BGC can be set to an arbitrary low value. Initial modeling studies demonstrate significant improvement in the prediction of surface exchange when using FPAR to diagnose periods of water stress.

  6. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  7. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  8. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  9. Effectiveness of native arbuscular mycorrhiza on the growth of four tree forest species from the Santa Marta Mountain, Veracruz (Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Retama-Ortiz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this work was to isolate consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF associated to Liquidambar styraciflua in soils of the Santa Marta Mountain in Veracruz, and to select highly effective mycorrhizal consortia on promoting the growth of four tree forest species with economic and ecological importance. Area of study: Santa Marta Mountain, inside the buffer area of the Los Tuxtlas Biological Reserve in Veracruz (México. Materials and methods: Ten composite samples of rhizosphere soil were collected from L. styraciflua trees of 13-15 cm DBH (diameter at breast height. Roots were fixed in FAA solution to determine the mycorrhizal colonization percentage, the abundance of morphospecies, and its effectiveness in promoting the growth of L. styraciflua, Terminalia amazonia, Cordia alliodora, and Cojoba arborea. Soil physical and chemical characteristics were also analysed, and soil type recognition was performed with the Reference Base for Soil FAO-ISRIC World-SICS. Mycorrhizal colonization was determined by the method of clearing and staining roots with trypan blue; total percentage of colonization was estimated by the Linderman-Biermann method. Spores were extracted for counting and identifying morphospecies from each soil sample, those with more effectiveness were selected and inoculated in the four tree species, based upon a completely random design there were evaluated height, number of leaves, total dry weight and foliar area. Main results: Average mycorrhizal colonization percentage was 45% from natural conditions, samples one and four showed 80% of AMF-colonization. Average number of spores was 617 in 100 g-1 of dry soil. Forty-seven AMF-morphospecies were identified. After eight months significant differences were observed in root colonization, height, number of leaves, total dry weight, leaf area and foliar analysis of N5+, P5+ and K+ on plants inoculated with rhizosphere samples of L. styraciflua. Terminalia

  10. Experimental warming effects on the microbial community of a temperate mountain forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbacher, A; Rodler, A; Kuffner, M; Kitzler, B; Sessitsch, A; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S

    2011-07-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The amount of carbon (C) that is respired leaves the soil as CO(2) (soil respiration) and causes one of the greatest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. How soil microbial communities will respond to global warming, however, is not well understood. To elucidate the effect of warming on the microbial community we analyzed soil from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, Austria. Soil of a mature spruce forest was warmed by 4 °C during snow-free seasons since 2004. Repeated soil sampling from control and warmed plots took place from 2008 until 2010. We monitored microbial biomass C and nitrogen (N). Microbial community composition was assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of ribosomal RNA genes. Microbial metabolic activity was estimated by soil respiration to biomass ratios and RNA to DNA ratios. Soil warming did not affect microbial biomass, nor did warming affect the abundances of most microbial groups. Warming significantly enhanced microbial metabolic activity in terms of soil respiration per amount of microbial biomass C. Microbial stress biomarkers were elevated in warmed plots. In summary, the 4 °C increase in soil temperature during the snow-free season had no influence on microbial community composition and biomass but strongly increased microbial metabolic activity and hence reduced carbon use efficiency.

  11. Genetic effects of air pollution on forest tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longauer, Roman; Goemoery, Dusan; Paule, Ladislav; Blada, Ioan; Popescu, Flaviu; Mankovska, Blanka; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Schubert, Roland; Percy, Kevin; Szaro, Robert C.; Karnosky, David F

    2004-07-01

    The effects of air pollution on the genetic structure of Norway spruce, European silver fir and European beech were studied at four polluted sites in Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic. In order to reduce potential effects of site heterogeneity on the health condition, pair-wise sampling of pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was applied. Genotypes of sampled trees were determined at 21 isozyme gene loci of spruce, 18 loci of fir and 15 loci of beech. In comparison with Norway spruce, fewer genetic differences were revealed in beech and almost no differentiation between pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was observed in fir. In adult stands of Norway spruce, sensitive trees exhibited higher genetic multiplicity and diversity. The decline of pollution-sensitive trees may result thus in a gradual genetic depletion of pollution-exposed populations of Norway spruce through the loss of less frequent alleles with potential adaptive significance to altered stressing regimes in the future. Comparison of the subsets of sensitive and tolerant Norway spruce individuals as determined by presence or absence of discolorations (''spruce yellowing'') revealed different heterozygosity at 3 out of 11 polymorphic loci. - Genetic effects of air pollution on main forest trees of the Carpathians are species- and site-specific.

  12. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  13. Hyperspectral data for assessment of temporal changes in Norway spruce forest conditions in the mountainous region of the Czech Republic affected by long-term acidic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Misurec, J.; Kopackova, V.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Edwards-Jonasova, M.; Kupkova, L.; Cervena, L.; Potuckova, M.; Cudlin, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ore Mts. located in the western part of the Czech Republic suffered during 1950's-1990´s heavy atmospheric pollution due to the mining activities and brown coal combustion. Acidic deposition in combination with harsh climatic conditions led there to large-scale forest decline. Although the load of SO2 has significantly decreased since 1991, tree damage was still visible in 1998 in terms of high defoliation or dead trees. Nowadays Norway spruce trees do not exhibit visible symptoms of damage but the full recovery of Norway spruce forests is not complete yet due to persisting adverse soil conditions. The temporal changes in the physiological status of Norway spruce forests in the Krušné Hory Mts. were evaluated using two sets of spectral images acquired in 1998 (ASAS) and in 2013 (APEX) and ground truth data (LAI, tree crown status, photosynthetic pigment contents, leaf spectral properties measured by spectroradiometer, soil properties - pH, contents of basic cations, heavy metals, etc.). Ground truth data were evaluated by unconstrained and constrained multivariate analyses using Canoco 5. The high resolution spectral images (ASAS and APEX) enabled the identification of a gradient of forest conditions and their comparison. In 1998 the stands exhibited different physiological status corresponding to the pollution gradient with healthier trees at the western part of the mountains. Analysis of the foliar chemistry in 2013 show a slight improvement of the Norway spruce physiological status in the eastern part of the mountains while the status of the western-located stands slightly worsened. In 2013 we also studied the differences in soil geochemical conditions, which appeared to be less favorable in the western part of the mountains characterized by a low base cation contents in the top organic horizon and a very low pH (pH<3).

  14. HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK (Forest In Hatam Community Live On Arfak Mountains Natural Reserve Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trida Salosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar AlamPegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan. ABSTRACT Arfak Mountains is a region with its own uniqueness in the Province of West Papua. This region is dominated by high mountains with particularities of flora and fauna in ecosystems of mountain and alpine. Therefore, it is designated as a Natural Reservation of Arfak Mountains. Arfak Mountains region is occupied by a large tribe of Arfak which is Hatam is one of its sub-tribe. Forests are part of Hatam people's lives. Establishment of districts expansion will indirectly result in the preservation of species in natural reservation. SWOT analysis used in this study is intended to look at the potential strategies in accomodating people interest and preserving the natural reservation. The study was conducted in villages of

  15. Ecological processes dominate the 13C land disequilibrium in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, D. R.; Ballantyne, A. P.; Miller, J. B.; Burns, S. P.; Conway, T. J.; Menzer, O.; Stephens, B. B.; Vaughn, B. H.

    2014-04-01

    Fossil fuel combustion has increased atmospheric CO2 by ≈ 115 µmol mol-1 since 1750 and decreased its carbon isotope composition (δ13C) by 1.7-2‰ (the 13C Suess effect). Because carbon is stored in the terrestrial biosphere for decades and longer, the δ13C of CO2 released by terrestrial ecosystems is expected to differ from the δ13C of CO2 assimilated by land plants during photosynthesis. This isotopic difference between land-atmosphere respiration (δR) and photosynthetic assimilation (δA) fluxes gives rise to the 13C land disequilibrium (D). Contemporary understanding suggests that over annual and longer time scales, D is determined primarily by the Suess effect, and thus, D is generally positive (δR > δA). A 7 year record of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange was used to evaluate the seasonality of δA and δR, and the 13C land disequilibrium, in a subalpine conifer forest. A novel isotopic mixing model was employed to determine the δ13C of net land-atmosphere exchange during day and night and combined with tower-based flux observations to assess δA and δR. The disequilibrium varied seasonally and when flux-weighted was opposite in sign than expected from the Suess effect (D = -0.75 ± 0.21‰ or -0.88 ± 0.10‰ depending on method). Seasonality in D appeared to be driven by photosynthetic discrimination (Δcanopy) responding to environmental factors. Possible explanations for negative D include (1) changes in Δcanopy over decades as CO2 and temperature have risen, and/or (2) post-photosynthetic fractionation processes leading to sequestration of isotopically enriched carbon in long-lived pools like wood and soil.

  16. Combining remote sensing and GIS climate modelling to estimate daily forest evapotranspiration in a Mediterranean mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cristóbal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration monitoring allows us to assess the environmental stress on forest and agricultural ecosystems. Nowadays, Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS are the main techniques used for calculating evapotranspiration at catchment and regional scales. In this study we present a methodology, based on the energy balance equation (B-method, that combines remote sensing imagery with GIS-based climate modelling to estimate daily evapotranspiration (ETd for several dates between 2003 and 2005. The three main variables needed to compute ETd were obtained as follows: (i Land surface temperature by means of the Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal band, (ii air temperature by means of multiple regression analysis and spatial interpolation from meteorological ground stations data at satellite pass, and (iii net radiation by means of the radiative balance. We calculated ETd using remote sensing data at different spatial and temporal scales (Landsat-7 ETM+, Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a spatial resolution of 60, 120 and 1000 m, respectively and combining three different approaches to calculate the B parameter, which represents an average bulk conductance for the daily-integrated sensible heat flux. We then compared these estimates with sap flow measurements from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stand in a Mediterranean mountain area. This procedure allowed us to better understand the limitations of ETd modelling and how it needs to be improved, especially in heterogeneous forest areas. The method using Landsat data resulted in a good agreement, R2 test of 0.89, with a mean RMSE value of about 0.6 mm day−1 and an estimation error of ±30 %. The poor agreement obtained using TERRA/AQUA MODIS, with a mean RMSE value of 1.8 and 2.4 mm day−1 and an estimation error of about ±57 and 50 %, respectively. This

  17. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  18. [Spatial point pattern analysis of Abies georgei var. smithii in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuan-qi; Tian, Min-xia; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zheng, Wei-lie; Wang, Guo-yan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, based on a 4 hm2 stem-mapping plot, we analyzed spatial distributions of Abies georgei var. smithii, the dominant species in forest of Sygera Mountains in southeast Tibet, China. Pair-correlation function was used to characterize univariate spatial point patterns of three size classes of the population and bivariate spatial patterns between those and different sizes of dead wood. A. georgei var. smithii population was characterized by reverse J-shaped DBH distribution, indicating an increasing population. Saplings of the population were spatially obviously aggregated at the small scales (0-7 m), and mid-sized trees and large-sized trees of the population were randomly or uniformly distributed. The aggregation intensities of A. georgei var. smithii decreased with the increasing diameter classes and spatial scales. Saplings and mid-sized trees were significantly and negatively associated with large-sized trees at the small scales (0-35 and 0-30 m), but the associations reversed at the large scales (45-100 and 80-100 m). In addition, with the increasing age difference between diameter classes of the population, the intensities of positive or negative correlations increased. Spatial associations between saplings and dead large-sized trees, and between mid-sized trees and dead large-sized trees were negative at the small scales (0-34 and 5-27 m), but positive at the large scales (49-100 and 73-100 m). This suggested that released niche space due to dead large-sized trees is not enough to weaken their negative impacts on saplings. We concluded that self-thinning effect and Janzen-Connell hypothesis may be the main mechanisms for the spatial pattern formation of A. georgei var. smithii population.

  19. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  20. [Characteristics of evaporation over broadleaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China during snow cover period in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-dong; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Jin, Chang-jie; ShiI, Ting-ting

    2013-04-01

    Based on the measurement data of water vapor flux by open-path eddy covariance system and of the micrometeorological factors in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains during the snow cover period from 2002 to 2005, this paper analyzed the dynamics of snow cover evaporation and the relationships between the evaporation and meteorological factors. The energy balanced ratio during the snow cover period was 79. 9% , and the latent heat flux accounted for 21. 4% of net radiation. The diurnal variation of the evaporation presented a single-peak curve, and the evaporation rate during snow-melting period was higher than that during stable snow cover period. The half-hour evaporation presented liner relationship with net radiation and quadratic relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented quadratic relationship with net radiation and exponential relationship with air temperature. The daily evaporation presented a dynamic trend of decreasing-stable-increasing, with the maximum at increasing stage and the minimum at stable stage. The maximum value of the daily evaporation was 0.73 mm d-1, and the minimum value was 0. 004 mm d-1. During the snow cover periods of 2002-2003, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, the annual evaporation was 27.6, 25.5, and 22.9 mm, accounting for 37.9% , 19.5% , and 30. 0% of the precipitation in the same periods, respectively. The mean value of the daily evaporation in the three periods was 0. 17, 0. 19, and 0. 17 mm d-1, respectively.

  1. Simulating the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat over Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiufeng; NIU; Dong; YU; Guirui; REN; Chuanyou; WEN; X

    2005-01-01

    A process-based ecosystem productivity model BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) was updated to simulate half-hourly exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains, China. The BEPSh model is able to capture the diurnal and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat fluxes at this site in the growing season of 2003. The model validation showed that the simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) are in good agreement with eddy covariance measurements with an R2 value of 0.68, 0.86 and 0.72 for NEP, LE and Hs, respectively. The simulated annual NEP of this forest in 2003 was 300.5 gC/m2, and was very close to the observed value. Driving this model with different climate scenarios, we found that the NEP in the Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem was sensitive to climate variability, and the current carbon sink will be weakened under the condition of global warming. Furthermore, as a process-based model, BEPSh was also sensitive to physiological parameters of plant, such as maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum stomatal conductance (gmax), and needs to be carefully calibrated for other applications.

  2. Restoring Mountain Slope Forests by Strip-cutting Shrubs in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River, Sichuan, China: A Biodiversity-oriented Silvicuture Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNShucun; BAOWeikai; PANKaiwen; GAOXianming

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of mountain slope forests is often used to achieve one or a combination of the following aims, including increased production, soil protection and wildlife conservation. In this paper, biodiversity-oriented silviculture was proposed as a design principle in forest restoration from which stripcutting of shrubs was used as the restoring technology of forests. More than lO-year-observations and experimental results of the afforestation practices in the upper reaches of Minjiang River, Sichuan, China,indicated that the technology was feasible and had many advantages. Strip-cutting of shrubs ameliorated microclimate conditions, improved soil nutriem level for the growth of target tree species and increased the physical survival of pine species. Structural diversity, in terms of species, did not increase, but a shrub species was observed to differentiate from shrub layer and tended to form mixed forests. Preserve belts of the technology were supposed to meet public demands including biodiversity conservation and soil protection,and act as a basic stage in ecologically progressive succession. The promising initial results indicate that stripcutting of shrubs may be an effective practice for forest restoration in the upper reaches of Minjiang River,Sichuan, China.

  3. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  4. The effects of forest cover on base flow of streams in the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martínez , Jesús; Santiago, Marilyn

    2017-03-07

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, completed a study to determine whether a relation exists between the extent of forest cover and the magnitude of base flow at two sets of paired drainage basins in the highlands of the municipalities of Adjuntas and Utuado within the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico. One set of paired basins includes the Río Guaónica and Río Tanamá, both tributaries of the Río Grande de Arecibo. The other set includes two smaller basins in the drainage basin of the Río Coabey, which is a tributary of the Río Tanamá. The paired basins in each set have similar rainfall patterns, geologic substrate, and aspect; the principal difference identified in the study is the extent of forest cover and related land uses such as the cultivation of shade and sun coffee. Data describing the hydrology, hydrogeology, and streamflow were used in the analysis. The principal objective of the study was to compare base flow per unit area among basins having different areal extents of forest cover and land uses such as shade coffee and sun coffee cultivation. Within the mountainous interior of Puerto Rico, a substantial amount of the annual rainfall (45 to 39 percent in the Rio Guaónica and Rio Tanamá, respectively) can migrate to the subsurface and later emerge as base flow in streams. The magnitude of base flow within the two sets of paired basins varies seasonally. Minimum base flows occur during the annual dry season (generally from January to March), and maximum base flows occur during the wet season (generally from August to October). During the dry season or periods of below-normal rainfall, base flow is either the primary or the sole component of streamflow. Daily mean base flow ranged from 3.2 to 20.5 cubic feet per second (ft3 /s) at the Rio Guaónica Basin, and from 4.2 to 23.0 ft3 /s at the Rio Tanamá Basin. The daily mean base flows during 2010 ranged from 0.28 to 0

  5. Developing a Quality Assessment Index System for Scenic Forest Management: A Case Study from Xishan Mountain, Suburban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The public’s demand for more and better forest landscapes is increasing as scenic forest tours flourish in China, especially in the capital, Beijing. How to improve the quality of scenic forests has become one of the greatest concerns of urban foresters. Although numerous studies have focused on scenic forest management, to date, no reports have been found on developing a quality assessment index system for scenic forest assessment. In this study, a simple and scientific index system was established using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP to quantitatively assess scenic forest quality. The index system is composed of four scales: individual tree landscape quality, in-forest landscape quality, near-view forest landscape quality and far-view landscape quality. The in-forest landscape quality was determined by horizontal and vertical stand structures, species composition and under-canopy landscape traits. Near-view forest landscape quality was mainly determined by patch characteristics, seasonal change, visibility, color change of patches and stand age class. To test the validity of our quality assessment index system, scenic forests in Xishan were used as a case study. The results show that near-view forest landscape was the most important scale for the overall quality of the scenic forest, according to the priorities of the criterion layer, and the second most important scale was far-view forest landscape. Seasonal change, patch color contrast, patch distribution and patch shape accounted for 52.2% of the total of 13 indices in the near-view forest landscape. The integrated quality of scenic forests in Xishan was at an average level, and the in-forest landscape, near-view landscape and far-view landscape had below average quality.

  6. Vegetation-zonation patterns across a temperate mountain cloud forest ecotone are not explained by variation in hydraulic functioning or water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Z Carter; Johnson, Daniel M; Reinhardt, Keith

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated linkages between the occurrence of fog and ecophysiological functioning in cloud forests, but few have investigated hydraulic functioning as a determining factor that explains sharp changes in vegetation. The objective of this study was to compare the plant water status during cloud-immersed and non-immersed conditions and hydraulic vulnerability in branches and roots of species across a temperate, mountain fog ecotone. Because cloud forests are often dark, cool and very moist, we expected cloud forest species to have less drought-tolerant characteristics (i.e., lower Pe and P50-the pressures required to induce a 12 and 50% loss in hydraulic conductivity, respectively) relative to non-cloud forest species in adjacent (lower elevation) forests. Additionally, due to the ability of cloud forest species to absorb cloud-fog water, we predicted greater improvements in hydraulic functioning during fog in cloud forest species relative to non-cloud forest species. Across the cloud forest ecotone, most species measured were very resistant to losses in conductivity with branch P50 values from -4.5 to -6.0 MPa, hydraulic safety margins (Ψmin - P50) >1.5 MPa and low calculated hydraulic conductivity losses. Roots had greater vulnerabilities, with P50 values ranging from -1.4 to -2.5 MPa, leading to greater predicted losses in conductivity (∼20%). Calculated values suggested strong losses of midday leaf hydraulic conductance in three of the four species, supporting the hydraulic segmentation hypothesis. In both cloud forest and hardwood species, Ψs were greater on foggy days than sunny days, demonstrating the importance of fog periods to plant water balance across fog regimes. Thus, frequent fog did not result in systemic changes in hydraulic functioning or vulnerability to embolism across our temperate cloud forest ecotone. Finally, roots functioned with lower hydraulic conductivity than branches, suggesting that they may serve as more

  7. Harvesting organic carbon by landslides in mountain forest: Establishing decadal rates of carbon transfer and the role of extreme events (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R. G.; Meunier, P.; Hovius, N.; Bellingham, P.; Galy, A.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquakes and storms can initiate widespread mass-wasting in active mountain belts. Landslides triggered by the highest magnitude events may disturb more than 5% of the surface area across numerous river catchments. In forested mountains, landslides clear entire sections of biomass and soil. This mobilises modern organic carbon (OCmodern), recently fixed from atmospheric-CO2 during photosynthesis. Landslides can therefore contribute to the cycle of organic carbon in mountains and a wider erosion-related OCmodern transfer, burial and carbon sequestration. In addition, the rate of landsliding can set the disturbance regime of the forest, potentially influencing ecosystem productivity and nutrient status. As such, extreme climatic or geomorphic events which trigger pervasive landsliding may impact regional or global biogeochemical cycles. Here, we assess their likely importance in natural, forested catchments of the western Southern Alps, New Zealand. Using remote sensing and measurements of standing biomass density, we derive a model to account for variations in biomass density and carbon stock with altitude. This is combined with the probability distribution of landslide area as a function of elevation over the last four decades. We quantify the erosion rate of OCmodern by landslides and find it represents a significant natural carbon transfer. Notable gradients in the rate of landscape turnover are found, which are linked to the geomorphic and climatic setting. Finally, our analysis allows us to assess the likely impact of a future Alpine Fault earthquake, which would generate a very large, transient yield of OCmodern from the hillslopes to river channels, the fate of which requires further investigation.

  8. Photochemical smog effects in mixed conifer forests along a natural gradient of ozone and nitrogen deposition in the San Bernardino Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, Michael; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Grulke, Nancy; Fenn, Mark; Poth, Mark; Temple, Patrick; Miller, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Toxic effects of photochemical smog on ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in the San Bernardino Mountains were discovered in the 1950s. It was revealed that ozone is the main cause of foliar injury manifested as chlorotic mottle and premature needle senescence. Various morphological, physiological and biochemical alterations in the affected plants have been reported over a period of about 40 years of multidisciplinary research. Recently, the focus of research has shifted from studying the effects of ozone to multiple pollutant effects. Recent studies have indicated that the combination of ozone and nitrogen may alter biomass allocation in pines towards that of deciduous trees, accelerate litter accumulation, and increase carbon sequestration rates in heavily polluted forests. Further study of the effects of multiple pollutants, and their long-term consequences on the mixed conifer ecosystem, cannot be adequately done using the original San Bernardino Mountains Air Pollution Gradient network. To correct deficiencies in the design, the new site network is being configured for long-term studies on multiple air pollutant concentrations and deposition, physiological and biochemical changes in trees, growth and composition of over-story species, biogeochemical cycling including carbon cycling and sequestration, water quality, and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. Eleven sites have been re-established. A comparison of 1974 stand composition with data from 2000 stand composition indicate that significant changes in species composition have occurred at some sites with less change at other sites. Moist, high-pollution sites have experienced the greatest amount of forest change, while dryer low-pollution sites have experienced the least amount of stand change. In general, ponderosa pine had the lowest basal area increases and the highest mortality across the San Bernardino Mountains.

  9. The harvested side of edges: effect of retained forests on the re-establishement of biodiversity in adjacent harvested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Baker; Thomas A. Spies; Timothy J. Wardlaw; Jayne Balmer; Jerry F. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Most silvicultural methods have been developed with the principal aim of ensuring adequate regeneration of commercial tree species after harvesting. Much less effort has been directed towards developing methods that benefit the re-establishment of all forest biodiversity. The concept of ‘forest influence’ relates the probability of species re-establishment to the...

  10. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  11. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  12. 雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林%ASPEN (Populus davidiana) FOREST IN WULING   MOUNTAIN NATURAL RESERVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文增

    2001-01-01

    The researches on Populus davidiana forest were carried out in Wuling Mountain Natural Reserve. It expounded its distribution, habitat, physiognomy character (biological spectrum, leaf-size class, leaf-tepe, leaf-margin), structural feature(synusia, vertical stratification, quantitative character), and predicated on the succession dynamic status of Populus davidiana forest was put forward.%对雾灵山自然保护区的山杨林进行了研究。详细论述了其分布、生境、种类组成、外貌特征(生活型谱、叶级、叶形、叶缘)、结构特征(层次、层片、综合数量特征),并对其演替动态进行了分析。

  13. Development of Tourism Resource of Xian Mountain Urban Forest Park%岘山城市森林公园的旅游资源开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱运海; 梅丽

    2014-01-01

    In the West forest tourism was a popular tourism after the 20th century, which is background of forest forms of tourism, the concept of urban forest park occurs in response to all the disadvantages of development of the city. Xiangyang Xian Mountain is a riverside-based rich cultural resource urban forest park, rich in tourism resources, rich cultural heritage, a vast source markets, geographic conditions and favorable investment conditions have great potential for tourism development. In order to better play tourism functions of Xian Mountain urban forest park, combined with Xian Mountain own characteristics, we suggest that we should development eight tourism products, such as religion cultural tourism, red cultural tourism, landscape garden tourism, the Three Kingdoms cultural tourism, poetry cultural tourism, leisure tourism, outdoor quality expansion of travel and festivals tourism.%森林旅游是西方国家20世纪中后叶兴起的一种以森林为背景的旅游形式,为了应对城市发展中出现的各种弊端,提出了城市森林公园的概念。襄阳岘山作为一座临江型的城市森林公园,旅游资源丰富、文化底蕴深厚、客源市场广阔、区位条件和投资条件优越,具有很大的旅游开发潜力。为更好发挥岘山城市森林公园的旅游功能,结合岘山森林公园自身特色,提出了开发宗教文化游、红色文化游、山水园林游、三国文化游、诗词文化游、休闲度假游、户外素质拓展游、节事旅游等旅游产品。

  14. Number of chromosomes and chromosome rearrangement of Norway spruce Picea abies (L. H. Karst. in the forests of Rilo-Rhodope mountain in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tashev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative investigations of chromosome numbers and chromosome rearrangements in populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. growing in the territory of State Forest Service «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa», «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte» in Rila-Rhodope mountain region (Bulgaria. Populations are located at the southern border of species range, and protected according to Bern Convention and EC Habitat Directive 92/43. It was found that diploid set of seed progeny of P. abies from the 4 populations studied includes 24 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 24. Mixoploidy (2n = 24, 36; 2n = 24, 48; 2n = 24, 36, 48 was detected in some germinating seeds of all studied populations of P. abies. Metaphase cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Garmen» and «Eleshnitsa» contain supernumerary, or B-chromosomes, while the variability of their number and occurrence was observed. In cells of germinating seeds of P. abies from State Forest Service «Yakoruda», «Dobrinishte», B-chromosomes are not revealed. Some chromosome rearrangements such as fragments and ring chromosomes were revealed in metaphase cells of P. abies from populations of «Garmen», «Eleshnitsa» and «Dobrinishte». Probably occurrence of mixoploids, B chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements in P. abies populations growing in Rila-Rhodope mountain region is connected with adaptation of trees to the extreme environmental conditions and such a serious factor that presently forests in the studied region located in the zone of natural radioactivity and in the past, the region of study was subjected to substantial anthropogenic pressure due to uranium extraction industry.

  15. Combined use of stable isotopes and fallout radionuclides as soil erosion indicators in a forested mountain site, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meusburger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess and to validate the suitability of the stable nitrogen and carbon isotope signature as soil erosion indicators in a mountain forest site in South Korea. Our approach is based on the comparison of the isotope signature of "stable" landscape positions (reference sites, which are neither affected by erosion nor deposition, with eroding sites. For undisturbed soils we expect that the enrichment of δ15N and δ13C with soil depth, due to fractionation during decomposition, goes in parallel with a decrease in nitrogen and carbon content. Soil erosion processes potentially weaken this correlation. 137Cs-method and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation are applied for the soil erosion quantification. The erosion rates obtained with the 137Cs method range from 0.9 t ha−1 yr−1 to 7 t ha−1 yr−1. Considering the steep slopes of up to 40° and the erosive monsoon events (R-factor of 6600 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1, the rates are plausible and within the magnitude of the RUSLE- modelled soil erosion rates, varying from 0.02 t ha−1 yr−1 to 5.1 t ha−1 yr−1. The soil profiles of the reference sites showed significant (p < 0.0001 correlations between nitrogen and carbon content and its corresponding δ15N and δ13C signatures. In contrast, for the eroding sites this relationship was weaker and for the carbon not significant. These results verify the usefulness of the stable carbon isotope signature as qualitative indicator for soil disturbance. We could show further that the δ15N isotope signature can be used similarly for uncultivated sites. We thus propose that the stable δ15N and δ13C signature of soil profiles could serve as a tool confirming the accurate choice of the reference

  16. Emissions of BVOC from lodgepole pine in response to mountain pine beetle attack in high and low mortality forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Duhl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this screening study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from intact branches of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta trees were measured from trees at two forested sites that have been impacted differently by the mountain pine beetle (MPB, with one having higher mortality and the other with lower mortality. Differences in the amounts and chemical diversity of BVOC between the two sites and from apparently healthy trees versus trees in different stages of MPB attack are presented, as well as (for one site observed seasonal variability in emissions. A brief comparison is made of geological and climatic characteristics as well as prior disturbances (both natural and man-made at each site. Trees sampled at the site experiencing high MPB-related tree mortality had lower chemodiversity in terms of monoterpene (MT emission profiles, while profiles were more diverse at the lower-mortality site. Also at the higher-mortality site, MPB-infested trees in various stages of decline had lower emissions of sesquiterpenes (SQTs compared to healthy trees, while at the site with lower mortality, MPB-survivors had significantly higher SQT emissions during part of the growing season when compared to both uninfested and newly infested trees. SQT profiles differed between the two sites and, like monoterpene and oxygenated VOC profiles, varied through the season. For the low-mortality site in which repeated measurements were made over the course of the early summer–late fall, higher chemical diversity was observed in early- compared to late-season measurements for all compound classes investigated (MT, oxygenated VOC, and SQT, with the amount of change appearing to correlate to the MPB status of the trees studied. Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO had a distinct seasonal signal but were not much different between healthy or infested trees, except in trees with dead needles, from which emissions of this compound were negligible, and in late

  17. The features of soil aggregation and its eco—environmental effects under different subalpine forests on the east slope of Gongga Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBao-hua; HEYu-rong; ZHOUHong-yi; CHENGGen-wei

    2003-01-01

    Structural properties of forest soils have important hydro-ecological function and can influence the soil water-physical characters and soil erosion.The experimental soil samples were obtained in surface horizon (0-10cm) from different subalpine forest types on east slope of Gongga Mountain in the upriver area of Yangtze River China in May 2002.The soil bulk density,porosity,stable infiltration rate,aggregate distribution and particle-size distribution were analyzed by the routine methods in room,and the features and effects on eco-environment of soil aggregation were studied.The results showed that the structure of soil under mixed mature forest is in the best condition and can clearly enhance the eco-environmental function of soil,and the soil structure under the clear-cutting forest is the worst,the others are ranked between them.The study results can offer a basic guidance for the eco-environmental construction in the upper reaches of Yangtze River.

  18. EMERGY-based environmental systems assessment of a multi-purpose temperate mixed-forest watershed of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, David Rogers; Swank, Wayne T

    2003-11-01

    Emergy (with an 'm') synthesis was used to assess the balance between nature and humanity and the equity among forest outcomes of a US Forest Service ecosystem management demonstration project on the Wine Spring Creek watershed, a high-elevation (1600 m), temperate forest located in the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA. EM embraces a holistic perspective, accounting for the multiple temporal and spatial scales of forest processes and public interactions, to balance the ecological, economic, and social demands placed on land resources. Emergy synthesis is a modeling tool that allows the structure and function of forest ecosystems to be quantified in common units (solar emergy-joules, sej) for easy and meaningful comparison, determining 'system-value' for forcing factors, components, and processes based on the amount of resources required to develop and sustain them, whether they are money, material, energy, or information. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), the units of solar emergy imported into the watershed via human control per unit of indigenous, natural solar emergy, was determined to be 0.42, indicating that the load on the natural environment was not ecologically damaging and that excess ecological capacity existed for increasing non-ecological activities (e.g. timbering, recreation) to achieve an ELR of 1.0 (perfect ecological-economic balance). Three forest outcomes selected to represent the three categories of desired sustainability (ecological, economic, and social) were evaluated in terms of their solar emergy flow to measure outcome equity. Direct economic contribution was an order of magnitude less (224 x 10(12)solar emergy-joules (sej) ha(-1)) than the ecological and social contributions, which were provided at annual rates of 3083 and 2102 x 10(12)sejha(-1), respectively. Emergy synthesis was demonstrated to holistically integrate and quantify the interconnections of a coupled nature-human system allowing the goals of

  19. Introduction to the Construction Method of Pavilion in Mountain Forest Park%浅析山地森林公园中亭的营建手法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞贝佳

    2014-01-01

    Pavilion is a landscaping symbol commonly used in the mountain forest park. Based on the function of the pavilion, the paper proposed the pavilion planning method from landscape environment requirements and tourists psychological needs, it also presents a method of pavilion location selection from the terrain slope and the overall layout, and the design method about material selection,modeling and building. It also proposes an overlay analysis by 3S technology, which can scientifically guid site selection and landscape construction , which further optimization the landscape architecture design in mountain forest park.%亭是山地森林公园建设过程中常用的造景符号。本文以亭的功能为出发点,从景观环境需求、游客心理需求提出亭的规划方法,从地势坡度、整体布局提出亭的选址方法,从选材、造型、建筑等方面提出亭的设计方法。通过辅以3S技术叠加分析功能,科学指导亭的选址及规划设计营建,进一步优化山地森林公园中园林小品的造景方法。

  20. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  1. Predictive Mapping of Dwarf Shrub Vegetation in an Arid High Mountain Ecosystem Using Remote Sensing and Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim André Vanselow

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In many arid mountains, dwarf shrubs represent the most important fodder and firewood resources; therefore, they are intensely used. For the Eastern Pamirs (Tajikistan, they are assumed to be overused. However, empirical evidence on this issue is lacking. We aim to provide a method capable of mapping vegetation in this mountain desert. We used random forest models based on remote sensing data (RapidEye, ASTER GDEM and 359 plots to predictively map total vegetative cover and the distribution of the most important firewood plants, K. ceratoides and A. leucotricha. These species were mapped as present in 33.8% of the study area (accuracy 90.6%. The total cover of the dwarf shrub communities ranged from 0.5% to 51% (per pixel. Areas with very low cover were limited to the vicinity of roads and settlements. The model could explain 80.2% of the total variance. The most important predictor across the models was MSAVI2 (a spectral vegetation index particularly invented for low-cover areas. We conclude that the combination of statistical models and remote sensing data worked well to map vegetation in an arid mountainous environment. With this approach, we were able to provide tangible data on dwarf shrub resources in the Eastern Pamirs and to relativize previous reports about their extensive depletion.

  2. 鹰咀界天然次生林自然保护区林地土壤特性研究%The Characteristics of Soil in Natural Secondary Forest Conservation Area of Yingzui Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 袁正科; 梁文斌

    2001-01-01

    According to the studies on 22 samples of soil profile from the natural forest conservation area at Yingzui mountain,the characteristics of soil were described.Research results indicated that the type of soil profile structure was A-B-C-D,and the soil development was successive.The average contents of organic matter in the soil was 54.30g*kg-1,the ratio of C/N was 10.93 and the bulk density was 1.25g*cm-3.the soil texture was heavy loam or light clay.The soil fertility was higher compared with the soil from natural forest conservation of ZhangJiajie mountain,which developed from the same parent material of silicon rocks as Yingzui area.The forest soil of the area is typical in the subtropical natural forest.So it is valuable to be protected.

  3. A model-data comparison of Holocene timberline changes in the Swiss Alps reveals past and future drivers of mountain forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwörer, Christoph; Henne, Paul D; Tinner, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Mountain vegetation is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift upwards with climate change. Dynamic vegetation models are often used to assess the impact of climate on vegetation and model output can be compared with paleobotanical data as a reality check. Recent paleoecological studies have revealed regional variation in the upward shift of timberlines in the Northern and Central European Alps in response to rapid warming at the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition ca. 11 700 years ago, probably caused by a climatic gradient across the Alps. This contrasts with previous studies that successfully simulated the early Holocene afforestation in the (warmer) Central Alps with a chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction from the (colder) Northern Alps. We use LandClim, a dynamic landscape vegetation model to simulate mountain forests under different temperature, soil and precipitation scenarios around Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) a lake in the Northwestern Swiss Alps, and compare the model output with the paleobotanical records. The model clearly overestimates the upward shift of timberline in a climate scenario that applies chironomid-inferred July-temperature anomalies to all months. However, forest establishment at 9800 cal. BP at Iffigsee is successfully simulated with lower moisture availability and monthly temperatures corrected for stronger seasonality during the early Holocene. The model-data comparison reveals a contraction in the realized niche of Abies alba due to the prominent role of anthropogenic disturbance after ca. 5000 cal. BP, which has important implications for species distribution models (SDMs) that rely on equilibrium with climate and niche stability. Under future climate projections, LandClim indicates a rapid upward shift of mountain vegetation belts by ca. 500 m and treeline positions of ca. 2500 m a.s.l. by the end of this century. Resulting biodiversity losses in the alpine vegetation belt might be mitigated with low

  4. Geospatial Variation of an Invasive Forest Disease and the Effects on Treeline Dynamics in the Rocky Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-McKenna, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Whitebark pine is an important keystone and foundation species in western North American mountain ranges, and facilitates tree island development in Rocky Mountain treelines. The manifestation of white pine blister rust in the cold and dry treelines of the Rockies, and the subsequent infection and mortality of whitebark pines raises questions as to how these extreme environments harbor the invasive disease, and what the consequences may be for treeline dynamics. This dissertation research c...

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbances on Forest Carbon Pools and Fluxes in the Western US using the NCAR Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edburg, S. L.; Hicke, J. A.; Lawrence, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Forest disturbances, such as fire, insects, and land-use change, significantly alter carbon budgets by changing carbon pools and fluxes. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) kills millions of hectares of trees in the western US, similar to the area killed by fire. Mountain pine beetles kill host trees by consuming the inner bark tissue, and require host tree death for reproduction. Despite being a significant disturbance to forested ecosystems, insects such as MPB are typically not represented in biogeochemical models, thus little is known about their impact on the carbon cycle. We investigate the role of past MPB outbreaks on carbon cycling in the western US using the NCAR Community Land Model with Carbon and Nitrogen cycles (CLM-CN). CLM-CN serves as the land model to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), providing exchanges of energy, momentum, water, carbon, and nitrogen between the land and atmosphere. We run CLM-CN over the western US extending to eastern Colorado with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and a half hour time step. The model is first spun-up with repeated NCEP forcing (1948-1972) until carbon stocks and fluxes reach equilibrium (~ 3000 years), and then run from 1850 to 2004 with NCEP forcing and a dynamic plant functional type (PFT) database. Carbon stocks from this simulation are compared with stocks from the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. We prescribe MPB mortality area, once per year, in CLM-CN using USFS Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) from the last few decades. We simulate carbon impacts of tree mortality by MPB within a model grid cell by moving carbon from live vegetative pools (leaf, stem, and roots) to dead pools (woody debris, litter, and dead roots). We compare carbon pools and fluxes for two simulations, one without MPB outbreaks and one with MPB outbreaks.

  6. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  7. 北京妙峰山森林文化条件价值评估%Contingent Valuation of Forest Culture in Miaofeng Mountain in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霖; 李智勇; 樊宝敏; 张德成; 苏立娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective]Valuation of forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was intended to provide an example for valuation of forest culture in other areas of China,and to develop approaches to the quantitative assessment of the cultural value of China’s forest. [Method]In order to assess the cultural value of forest in Miaofeng Mountain,interviews were conducted to analyze the recognition of forest culture by using Contingent Valuation Method. Factors influencing the willingness to pay of the respondents were analyzed by using stepwise regression method. [Result]Ancient and famous trees,fables and allusions,and legends of sacred mountains are most popular cultural symbols for the respondents. The respondents comprehended forest culture through a variety of ways,and internet and books were the main approach. Fruit collection in forest was the mostly accepted way of participation in practices related to forest. More than 94% of the respondents agreed that the forest has cultural value. The highest recognition by the respondents was relief of depressed mood as the gained benefit ( 82 . 32%) ,followed by physical exercise ( 62 . 20%) and entertainment ( 45 . 12%) . The willingness to pay for the forest culture in Miaofeng Mountain was 100 RMB per capita,and the most important influencing factor was the annual income of individuals,followed by approbation to forest cultural value and educational background of the respondents. Worries about the transparency of the uses of paid fees was the most important reason for rejecting pay. Most respondents (53. 05%) expressed willingness to pay for producing arts associated with the Miaofeng forest culture, and donation was the most acceptable way of payment by respondents. [Conclusion]A variety of deviations in understanding,mental account,pattern of payment and starting point of bidding,may cause errors in the contingent valuation. Even as a preliminary estimate,the methods and conclusion in this study could be used to provide the basis for

  8. Coupling a 3D patch model and a rockfall module to assess rockfall protection in mountain forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, M.; Rammer, W.; Brauner, M.; Seidl, R.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lexer, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Many forests in the Alps are acknowledged for protecting objects, such as (rail) roads, against rockfall. However, there is a lack of knowledge on efficient silvicultural strategies and interventions to maintain these forests at optimal protection level. Therefore, assessment tools are required that

  9. Organic functional groups in aerosol particles from burning and non-burning forest emissions at a high-elevation mountain site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Takahama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particles collected on teflon filters at the Peak of Whistler Mountain, British Columbia (2182 m a.s.l. during spring and summer 2009 were measured by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy for organic functional groups (OFG. The project mean and standard deviation of organic aerosol mass concentrations (OM for all samples was 3.2±3.3 (μg m−3. The OM was dominated by regional forest sources, burning, and non-burning that occurred mostly during June–September. On average, organic hydroxyl, alkane, carboxylic acid, ketone, and amine, groups represented 31%±11%, 34%±9%, 23%±6%, 6%±7%, and 6%±3% of OM, respectively. Ketone groups were associated with the forest aerosols and represented up to 27% of the OM in these aerosols. Additional measurements of aerosol mass fragments, size, and number concentrations were used to separate fossil-fuel combustion and burning and non-burning forest sources of the measured organic aerosol. The OM concentrations observed at Whistler Peak during this campaign were higher than those measured during a shorter period in the spring of 2008 at a site in Whistler valley, over one km lower than the peak location. The 2009 campaign was largely influenced by the wildfire emissions that were absent during the 2008 campaign.

  10. Contribution of Root Respiration to Total Soil Respiration in a Betula ermanii-Dark Coniferous Forest Ecotone of the Changbai Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; HAN Shi-Jie; ZHOU Yu-Mei; ZHANG Jun-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Total and root-severed soil respiration rates for five plots set up 50 m apart in a Betula ermanii Cham.-dark coniferous forest ecotone on a north-facing slope of the Changbai Mountains, China, were measured to evaluate the seasonal variations of soil respiration, to assess the effect of soil temperature and water content on soil respiration, and to estimate the relative contributions of root respiration to the total soil respiration. PVC cylinders in each of 5 forest types of a B. ermanii-dark coniferous forest ecotone were used to measure soil respirations both inside and outside of the cylinders. The contribution of roots to the total soil respiration rates ranged from 12.5% to 54.6%. The mean contribution of roots for the different plots varied with the season, increasing from 32.5% on June 26 to 36.6% on August 3 and to 41.8% on October 14.In addition, there existed a significant (P < 0.01) logarithmic relationship between total soil respiration rate and soil temperature at 5 cm soil depth. Also, a similar trend was observed for the soil respiration and soil water content at the surface (0-5 cm) during the same period of time.

  11. Effects of Forest Harvesting on Ecosystem Health in the Headwaters of the New York City Water Supply, Catskill Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of forest clearcutting and selective harvesting on forest soils, soil and stream water chemistry, forest regrowth, and aquatic communities were studied in four small headwater catchments. This research was conducted to identify the sensitivity of forested ecosystems to forest disturbance in the northeastern United States. The study area was in the headwaters of the Neversink Reservoir watershed, part of the New York City water supply system, in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York. Two sub-catchments of the Shelter Creek watershed were selectively harvested, one in its northern half and one more heavily in its southern half in 1995?96, the Dry Creek watershed was clearcut in the winter of 1996?97, and the Clear Creek watershed was left undisturbed and monitored as a control site. Monitoring was conducted from 4 years before the harvests until 4 years after the harvests. Clearcutting caused a large release of nitrate (NO3-) from watershed soils and a concurrent release of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim), which is toxic to some aquatic biota. The increased soil NO3- concentrations measured after the harvest could be completely accounted for by the decrease in nitrogen (N) uptake by watershed trees, rather than an increase in N mineralization and nitrification. The large increase in stream water NO3- and Alim concentrations caused 100-percent mortality of caged brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during the first year after the clearcut and adversely affected macroinvertebrate communities for 2 years after the harvest. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation increased in uncut mature trees after the two selective harvests. There was no increase in stream-water NO3- or Alim concentrations, and so there were no adverse affects on macroinvertebrate or trout communities. The amount of tree biomass that can be removed without causing a sharp increase in stream-water NO3- and Alim stream-water concentrations is unknown, but probably depends on

  12. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  13. Analysis of the Side-Lap Effect on Full-Waveform LIDAR Data Acquisition for the Estimation of Forest Structure Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Peremarch, P.; Ruiz, L. A.; Balaguer-Beser, A.; Estornell, J.

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR full-waveform provides a better description of the physical and forest vertical structure properties than discrete LiDAR since it registers the full wave that interacts with the canopy. In this paper, the effect of flight line side-lap is analysed on forest structure and canopy fuel variables estimations. Differences are related to pulse density changes between flight stripe side-lap areas, varying the point density between 2.65 m-2 and 33.77 m-2 in our study area. These differences modify metrics extracted from data and therefore variable values estimated from these metrics such as forest stand variables. In order to assess this effect, 64 pairwise samples were selected in adjacent areas with similar canopy structure, but having different point densities. Two parameters were tested and evaluated to minimise this effect: voxel size and voxel value assignation testing maximum, mean, median, mode, percentiles 90 and 95. Student's t-test or Wilcoxon test were used for the comparison of paired samples. Moreover, the absolute value of standardised paired samples was calculated to quantify dissimilarities. It was concluded that optimizing voxel size and voxel value assignation minimised the effect of point density variations and homogenised full-waveform metrics. Height/median ratio (HTMR) and Vertical distribution ratio (VDR) had the lowest variability between different densities, and Return waveform energy (RWE) reached the best improvement with respect to initial data, being the difference between standardised paired samples 1.28 before and 0.69 after modification.

  14. Community Dynamics of Seed Rain in Mixed Evergreen Broad-leaved and Deciduous Forests in a Subtropical Mountain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hao Shen; Yuan-Yuan Tang; Nan Lü; Jun Zhao; Dao-Xing Li; Gong-Fang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal is a key process within community dynamics. The spatial and temporal variations of seed dispersal and the interspecific differences are crucial for understanding species coexistence and community dynamics. This might also hold for the mixed evergreen broadleaved and deciduous forests in the mountains of subtropical China, but until now little existing knowledge is available for this question. In 2001, we chose to monitor the seed rain process of our mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forest communities in Mount Dalaoling National Forest Park, Yichang, Hubei Province, China.The preliminary analyses show obvious variations in seed rain density, species compositions and timing of seed rain among four communities. The average seed rain densities of the four communities are 2.43 ± 5.15, 54.13 ±182.75, 10.05 ±19.30and 24.91 ± 58.86 inds./m2, respectively; about one tenth the values in other studies in subtropical forests of China. In each community, the seed production is dominated by a limited number of species, and the contributions from the others are generally minor. Fecundity of evergreen broadleaved tree species is weaker than deciduous species. The seed rain of four communities begins earlier than September, and stops before December, peaking from early September to late October.The beginning date, ending date and peak times of seed rain are extensively varied among the species, indicating different types of dispersal strategies. According to the existing data, the timing of seed rain is not determined by the climate conditions in the same period, while the density of seed rain may be affected by the disturbances of weather variations at a finer temporal resolution.

  15. Biomass, Carbon and Nutrient Storage in a 30-Year-Old Chinese Cork Oak (Quercus Variabilis Forest on the South Slope of the Qinling Mountains, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis forests are protected on a large-scale under the Natural Forest Protection (NFP program in China to improve the ecological environment. However, information about carbon (C storage to increase C sequestration and sustainable management is lacking. Biomass, C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P storage of trees, shrubs, herb, litter and soil (0–100 cm were determined from destructive tree sampling and plot level investigation in approximately 30-year old Chinese cork oak forests on the south slope of the Qinling Mountains. There was no significant difference in tree components’ biomass estimation, with the exception of roots, among the available allometric equations developed from this study site and other previous study sites. Leaves had the highest C, N and P concentrations among tree components and stems were the major compartments for tree biomass, C, N and P storage. In contrast to finding no difference in N concentrations along the whole soil profile, higher C and P concentrations were observed in the upper 0–10 cm of soil than in the deeper soil layers. The ecosystem C, N, and P storage was 163.76, 18.54 and 2.50 t ha−1, respectively. Soil (0–100 cm contained the largest amount of C, N and P storage, accounting for 61.76%, 92.78% and 99.72% of the total ecosystem, followed by 36.14%, 6.03% and 0.23% for trees, and 2.10%, 1.19% and 0.03% for shrubs, herbs and litter, respectively. The equations accurately estimate ecosystem biomass, and the knowledge of the distribution of C, N and P storage will contribute to increased C sequestration and sustainable management of Chinese cork oak forests under the NFP program.

  16. Forest resources of the Santa Fe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Lambert

    2004-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Santa Fe National Forest 1998...

  17. Structura unor arborete exploatabile din regiunea de munte [Structure of some exploitable forest stands from the mountainous area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodan M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one of the first scientific works of the prof. dr. dr. h. c. Michail Prodan, published in the Romanian forestry journal “Viaţa forestieră” (“The forestry life”, in 1940, before starting his prodigious career in Germany. The used data - as in some of his next papers - are from the forest inventories performed in the forest districts of the Romanian Orthodox Religion Found from Bucovina (Eastern Carpathians with the occasion of the forest management plans renewal. Some details: (natural, almost primeval forest stands between 100-200 years, pure or mixed from species Norway spruce, Silver fir, Beech, in total 200,000 records. The analyzed stands were grouped based on Feistmantel class fertility and the basic analysis were the distribution of tree diameters, for these tree species and fertility classes. were computed the theoretical distribution for the diameter classes, using the Charlier approach

  18. Effect of acid rain on mercury leaching from forest yellow soil in Jinyun Mountain%酸雨对缙云山林地黄壤汞溶出的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical I