WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest woody communities

  1. Invertebrate community response to coarse woody debris removal for bioenergy production from intensively managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodsky, Steven M; Moorman, Christopher E; Fritts, Sarah R; Campbell, Joshua W; Sorenson, Clyde E; Bertone, Matthew A; Castleberry, Steven B; Wigley, T Bently

    2017-09-26

    Increased market viability of harvest residues as forest bioenergy feedstock may escalate removal of coarse woody debris in managed forests. Meanwhile, many forest invertebrates use coarse woody debris for cover, food, and reproduction. Few studies have explicitly addressed effects of operational-scale woody biomass harvesting on invertebrates following clearcutting. Therefore, we measured invertebrate community response to large-scale harvest residue removal and micro-site manipulations of harvest residue availability in recently clearcut, intensively managed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in North Carolina (NC; n = 4) and Georgia (GA; n = 4), USA. We captured 39,794 surface-active invertebrates representing 171 taxonomic groups using pitfall traps situated among micro-site locations (i.e., purposefully retained piles of hardwood stems and piles of conifer stems and areas without coarse woody debris in NC; windrows and no windrows in GA). Micro-site locations were located within six, large-scale treatments (7.16 - 14.3 ha) in clearcuts. Large-scale treatments represented intensive harvest residue removal, 15% and 30% harvest residue retention, and no harvest residue removal. In NC, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) were three times more abundant in treatments with no harvest residue removal than those with the most intensive harvest residue removal and were reduced in treatments that retained 15% or 30% of harvest residues, although not significantly. Invertebrate taxa richness was greater at micro-site locations with retained hardwood and pine (Pinus spp.) harvest residues than those with minimal amounts of coarse woody debris. In both states, relative abundances of several invertebrate taxa, including cave crickets (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae), fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae and Sciaridae), millipedes (Diplopoda), and wood roaches (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), were greater at micro-site locations with retained

  2. Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Woody Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin H. White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of woody biomass feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts involves multiple sources of material that together create year round supplies. The main sources of woody biomass include residues from wood manufacturing industries, low value trees including logging slash in forests that are currently underutilized and dedicated short-rotation woody crops. Conceptually a ton of woody biomass feedstocks can replace a barrel of oil as the wood is processed (refined through a biorefinery. As oil is refined only part of the barrel is used for liquid fuel, e.g., gasoline, while much of the carbon in oil is refined into higher value chemical products-carbon in woody biomass can be refined into the same value-added products.

  3. Forest biodiversity and woody biomass harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; T. Bently Wigley; Darren A. Miller

    2017-01-01

    With the expected increase in demand for woody biomass to help meet renewable energy needs, one principal sustainability question has been whether this material can be removed from forest stands while still conserving biological diversity and retaining ecosystem functioning (Hecht et al. 2009; Berch, Morris, and Malcolm 2011; Ridley et al. 2013). In general,...

  4. Relationship between the decomposition process of coarse woody debris and fungal community structure as detected by high-throughput sequencing in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan.

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    Satoshi Yamashita

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between the community structure of wood-decaying fungi, detected by high-throughput sequencing, and the decomposition rate using 13 years of data from a forest dynamics plot. For molecular analysis and wood density measurements, drill dust samples were collected from logs and stumps of Fagus and Quercus in the plot. Regression using a negative exponential model between wood density and time since death revealed that the decomposition rate of Fagus was greater than that of Quercus. The residual between the expected value obtained from the regression curve and the observed wood density was used as a decomposition rate index. Principal component analysis showed that the fungal community compositions of both Fagus and Quercus changed with time since death. Principal component analysis axis scores were used as an index of fungal community composition. A structural equation model for each wood genus was used to assess the effect of fungal community structure traits on the decomposition rate and how the fungal community structure was determined by the traits of coarse woody debris. Results of the structural equation model suggested that the decomposition rate of Fagus was affected by two fungal community composition components: one that was affected by time since death and another that was not affected by the traits of coarse woody debris. In contrast, the decomposition rate of Quercus was not affected by coarse woody debris traits or fungal community structure. These findings suggest that, in the case of Fagus coarse woody debris, the fungal community structure is related to the decomposition process of its host substrate. Because fungal community structure is affected partly by the decay stage and wood density of its substrate, these factors influence each other. Further research on interactive effects is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between fungal community structure and the woody debris

  5. The influence of topographic variation on forest structure in two woody plant communities: A remote sensing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediriweera, S.; Danaher, T.; Pathirana, S.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The study aimed to characterise variation in structural attributes of vegetation in relation to variations in topographic position using LIDAR data over landscapes. Area of study: The study was conducted in open canopy eucalypt-dominated forest (Richmond Range National Park-RRNP) and closed canopy subtropical rainforest (Border Ranges National Park-BRNP) in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Material and Methods: one metre resolution digital canopy height model (CHM) was extracted from the LIDAR data and used to estimate maximum overstorey height and crown area. LIDAR fractional cover representing the photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic component of canopy was calculated using LIDAR points aggregated into 50 m spatial bins. Potential solar insolation, Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), slope and the elevation were processed using LIDAR derived digital elevation models. Main results: No relationship was found between maximum overstorey height and insolation gradient in the BRNP. Maximum overstorey height decreased with increasing insolation in the RRNP (R2 0.45). Maximum overstorey height increased with increasing TWI in the RRNP. Average crown area decreased with increasing insolation in both study areas. LIDAR fractional cover decreased with increasing insolation (R2 0.54), and increased with increasing TWI (R2 0.57) in the RRNP. Research highlights: The characterization of structural parameters of vegetation in relation to the variation of the topography was possible in eucalyptus dominated open canopy forest. No reportable difference in variation of structural elements of vegetation was detected with topographic variation of subtropical rainforest. (Author)

  6. Survey of Plant Communities and Use by White-tailed Deer of Woody Plants in Two Forests at Erie National Wildlife Refuge 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the present research project is to develop and implement a protocol for short- and long-term monitoring of forest plant communities on National...

  7. Concept and Classification of Coarse Woody Debris in Forest Ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Enrong; Wang Xihua; Huang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is generally considered as dead woody materials in various stages of decomposition,including sound and rotting logs,snags,and large branches.CWD is an important functional and structural component of forested ecosystems and plays an important role in nutrient cycling,long-term carbon storage,tree regeneration,and maintenance of heterogeneous environmental and biological diversity.However,the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.CWD has not been precisely defined.Recently,with the rapid development of landscape ecology in CWD,the USDA Forest Service and the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER)have provided a standardized definition and classification for CWD,which makes data comparison in landscape scale possible.Important characteristics of their definition include:(1) a minimum diameter (or an equivalent crosssection) of CWD≥10 cm at the widest point (the woody debris with a diameter from 1 to 10 cm should be defined as fine woody debris,and the rest is litterfall);and (2) sound and rotting logs,snags,stumps,and large branches (located above the soil),and coarse root debris (larger than 1 cm in diameter).This classification has greatly facilitated CWD studies.Therefore,it has been widely applied in some countries (particularly in North America).However,this classification has long been a source of confusion for forest ecologists in China.Furthermore,different definitions and criteria are still adopted in individual studies,which makes the interpretation and generalization of their work difficult.This article reviewed recent progress in classifying CWD,with an emphasis on introducing the classification system of the USDA Forest Service and the LTER.It is expected that this review will help facilitate the development of standardized definition and classification suitable to forest ecosystems in China.

  8. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Greg C. Liknes

    2008-01-01

    Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be...

  9. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model accura

  10. Development of a downed woody debris forecasting tool using strategic-scale multiresource forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall

    2017-01-01

    The increasing interest in forest biomass for energy or carbon cycle purposes has raised the need for forest resource managers to refine their understanding of downed woody debris (DWD) dynamics. We developed a DWD forecasting tool using field measurements (mean size and stage of stage of decay) for three common forest types across the eastern United States using field...

  11. The woody vegetation communities of the Hluhluwe-Corridor- Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex

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    A. Whateley

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Land units for the 900 km- Hluhluwe-Corridor-Umfolozi Game Reserve Complex in north eastern Natal were identified on aerial photographs. The physiognomy, dominants and description of the woody vegetation for each unit were identified during ground inspections and. where necessary, the point-centred quarter method was applied. Two forest, two riverine forest, ten woodland and two thicket communities were recognized. These communities are described according to their distribution, height and percentage frequency of the components in the different canopy strata. A map at a scale of 1:25 000 was also compiled. Some of these communities are compared with other similar woodlands previously described for Natal. In some communities the frequency of certain dominant canopy species in the under tree strata was extremely low and autecological research has been suggested.

  12. Carbon Stocks of Fine Woody Debris in Coppice Oak Forests at Different Development Stages

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    Ender Makineci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dead woody debris is a significant component of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in coppice-originated oak forests to determine carbon stocks of dead woody debris in addition to carbon stocks of different ecosystem compartments from the same area and forests which were formerly elucidated. Weight and carbon stocks of woody debris were determined with recent samplings and compared among development stages (diameter at breast height (DBH, D1.3m, namely small-diameter forests (SDF = 0–8 cm, medium diameter forests (MDF = 8–20 cm, and large-diameter forests (LDF = 20–36 cm. Total woody debris was collected in samplings; as bilateral diameters of all woody debris parts were less than 10 cm, all woody parts were in the “fine woody debris (FWD” class. The carbon concentrations of FWD were about 48% for all stages. Mass (0.78–4.92 Mg·ha−1 and carbon stocks (0.38–2.39 Mg·ha−1 of FWD were significantly (p > 0.05 different among development stages. FWD carbon stocks were observed to have significant correlation with D1.3m, age, basal area, and carbon stocks of aboveground biomass (Spearman rank correlation coefficients; 0.757, 0.735, 0.709, and 0.694, respectively. The most important effects on carbon budgets of fine woody debris were determined to be coppice management and intensive utilization. Also, national forestry management, treatments of traditional former coppice, and conversion to high forest were emphasized as having substantial effects.

  13. Structure Measurements of Leaf and Woody Components of Forests with Dual-Wavelength Lidar Scanning Data

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    Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Schaaf, C.; Howe, G.; Martel, J.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Wang, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L. B.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest structure plays a critical role in the exchange of energy, carbon and water between land and atmosphere and nutrient cycle. We can provide detailed forest structure measurements of leaf and woody components with the Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), which acquires full-waveform scans at both near-infrared (NIR, 1064 nm) and shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1548 nm) wavelengths from simultaneous laser pulses. We collected DWEL scans at a broadleaf forest stand and a conifer forest stand at Harvard Forest in June 2014. Power returned from leaves is much lower than from woody materials such as trunks and branches at the SWIR wavelength due to the liquid water absorption by leaves, whereas returned power at the NIR wavelength is similar from both leaves and woody materials. We threshold a normalized difference index (NDI), defined as the difference between returned power at the two wavelengths divided by their sum, to classify each return pulse as a leaf or trunk/branch hit. We obtain leaf area index (LAI), woody area index (WAI) and vertical profiles of leaf and woody components directly from classified lidar hits without empirical wood-to-total ratios as are commonly used in optical methods of LAI estimation. Tree heights, diameter at breast height (DBH), and stem count density are the other forest structure parameters estimated from our DWEL scans. The separation of leaf and woody components in tandem with fine-scale forest structure measurements will benefit studies on carbon allocation of forest ecosystems and improve our understanding of the effects of forest structure on ecosystem functions. This research is supported by NSF grant, MRI-0923389

  14. Seeing through the Canopy: Relationship between Coarse Woody Debris and Forest Structure measured by Airborne Lidar in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; Keller, M. M.; dos-Santos, M. N.; Longo, M.; Pinagé, E. R.; Leitold, V.

    2016-12-01

    Coarse woody debris is an important but infrequently quantified carbon pool in tropical forests. Based on studies at 12 sites spread across the Brazilian Amazon, we quantified coarse woody debris stocks in intact forests and forests affected by different intensities of degradation by logging and/or fire. Measurement were made in-situ and for the first time field measurements of coarse woody debris were related to structural metrics derived from airborne lidar. Using the line-intercept method we established 84 transects for sampling fallen coarse woody debris and associated inventory plots for sampling standing dead wood in intact, conventional logging, reduced impact logging, burned and burned after logging forests. Overall mean and standard deviation of total coarse woody debris were 50.0 Mg ha-1 and 26.4 Mg ha-1 respectively. Forest degradation increased coarse woody debris stocks compared to intact forests by a factor of 1.7 in reduced impact logging forests and up to 3-fold in burned forests, in a side-by-side comparison of nearby areas. The ratio between coarse woody debris and biomass increased linearly with number of degradation events (R²: 0.67, plevels in the Brazilian Amazon. The strong relation of coarse woody debris with lidar derived structural variables suggests an approach for quantifying infrequently measured coarse woody debris over large areas.

  15. Woody plants of Western African forests, A guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawthorne, W.D.; Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    A guide to the identification of all the woody plants (c. 2,250 species in 740 genera) of the forest region of West Africa called 'Upper Guinea', between Togo and Senegal. Upper Guinea is one of the world's most important centres of biodiversity, from the mountain forests of Liberia, Guinea and Sier

  16. Woody invasions of urban trails and the changing face of urban forests in the great plains, USA

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    Nemec, K.T.; Allen, C.R.; Alai, A.; Clements, G.; Kessler, A.C.; Kinsell, T.; Major, A.; Stephen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Corridors such as roads and trails can facilitate invasions by non-native plant species. The open, disturbed habitat associated with corridors provides favorable growing conditions for many non-native plant species. Bike trails are a corridor system common to many urban areas that have not been studied for their potential role in plant invasions. We sampled five linear segments of urban forest along bike trails in Lincoln, Nebraska to assess the invasion of woody non-native species relative to corridors and to assess the composition of these urban forests. The most abundant plant species were generally native species, but five non-native species were also present: white mulberry (Morus alba), common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima), honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.) and elm (Ulmus spp.). The distribution of two of the woody species sampled, common buckthorn and honeysuckle, significantly decreased with increasing distance from a source patch of vegetation (P = 0.031 and 0.030). These linear habitats are being invaded by non-native tree and shrub species, which may change the structure of these urban forest corridors. If non-native woody plant species become abundant in the future, they may homogenize the plant community and reduce native biodiversity in these areas. ?? 2011 American Midland Naturalist.

  17. Woody plant diversity in sacred forests and fallows in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junsongduang, A.; Balslev, Henrik; Jampeetong, Arunothai;

    2014-01-01

    ; old fallow, 5-6 years old). All woody plant species were identified and counted in three transects (20 x 40 m) . Seedlings were inventoried in 12 circular (5 m diam.) plots. The highest species richness of all woody species and seedlings were found in the sacred forests in both villages. The highest......All woody plant and seedling diversity was compared in a Karen and a Lawa hill-tribe village in northern Thailand in four different habitats: sacred forests and fallow fields of three ages derived from rotational shifting cultivation (young fallows, 1–2 years old; medium-age fallow, 3-4 years old...... values of the Shannon-Wiener index for both trees and seedlings were in the sacred forest of the Karen village. There were significant differences in species richness between the four studied habitats surrounding both villages (pplant and seedlings species compositions in the sacred...

  18. Cultural treatments and woody debris: the study case of beech forests in Casentino (Italy

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    Calamini G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first results about quantity and quality of dead wood on the ground in beech forests of Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park. The presence of dead wood depends on several factors such as forest productivity, natural disturbances and human activities. Data from some mature managed beech stands have been collected and compared with those from unmanaged beech forest (Sasso Fratino full-protected Reserve. Results do not show significant differences between managed and unmanaged forests. The dead wood varies between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 (in terms of total dry weight mostly composed by fine woody debris.

  19. Floristic diversity and regeneration status of woody plants in Zengena Forest, a remnant montane forest patch in northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desalegn Tadele; Ermias Lulekal; Destaw Damtie; Adane Assefa

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted at Zengena forest, a fragmented remnant montane forest in northwestern Ethiopia, which surrounds Lake Zengena. The purpose was to assess the species composition, diversity and the regeneration status of woody plants. A total of 27 plots of 20 m × 20 m were sampled along the line transects laid down the altitudinal gradient from the edge of the forest encompassing the lake to the edge of the lake in eight aspects. In each plot, woody species were counted and the diameter at breast height and the height of trees and shrubs were measured. A total of 50 woody species belonging to 31 families were found, of which 17 (34%) were trees, 7 (14%) trees or shrubs, 23 (46%) shrubs and 3 (6%) lianas. The overall Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indices of woody species were 2.74 and 0.7, respectively. Clausena anisata had the highest relative density (23.5%), Rapanea rhododendroides the highest relative frequency (6.5%) and Prunus afri-cana the highest relative dominance (45%) and importance value index (IVI, 51.6). The total basal area and density of woody plants were 22.3 m2⋅ha-1 and 2,202 individuals⋅ha-1, respectively. The population structure showed variations among woody plants and revealed varied regeneration patterns of different species. The importance value index and population structure revealed that some species are threatened and need prioritiza-tion for conservation measures. The results suggest that remnant forest patches in the highlands of northern Ethiopia host several woody plant species that are almost disappearing in other areas due to deforestation.

  20. Woody biomass production lags stem-girth increase by over one month in coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Henri E; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Frank, David; Fonti, Patrick; Mäkinen, Harri; Prislan, Peter; Rossi, Sergio; Del Castillo, Edurne Martinez; Campelo, Filipe; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Bryukhanova, Marina V; Jyske, Tuula; Gričar, Jožica; Gryc, Vladimír; De Luis, Martin; Vieira, Joana; Čufar, Katarina; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Oberhuber, Walter; Treml, Vaclav; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Xiaoxia; Swidrak, Irene; Deslauriers, Annie; Liang, Eryuan; Nöjd, Pekka; Gruber, Andreas; Nabais, Cristina; Morin, Hubert; Krause, Cornelia; King, Gregory; Fournier, Meriem

    2015-10-26

    Wood is the main terrestrial biotic reservoir for long-term carbon sequestration(1), and its formation in trees consumes around 15% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions each year(2). However, the seasonal dynamics of woody biomass production cannot be quantified from eddy covariance or satellite observations. As such, our understanding of this key carbon cycle component, and its sensitivity to climate, remains limited. Here, we present high-resolution cellular based measurements of wood formation dynamics in three coniferous forest sites in northeastern France, performed over a period of 3 years. We show that stem woody biomass production lags behind stem-girth increase by over 1 month. We also analyse more general phenological observations of xylem tissue formation in Northern Hemisphere forests and find similar time lags in boreal, temperate, subalpine and Mediterranean forests. These time lags question the extension of the equivalence between stem size increase and woody biomass production to intra-annual time scales(3, 4, 5, 6). They also suggest that these two growth processes exhibit differential sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Indeed, in the well-watered French sites the seasonal dynamics of stem-girth increase matched the photoperiod cycle, whereas those of woody biomass production closely followed the seasonal course of temperature. We suggest that forecasted changes in the annual cycle of climatic factors(7) may shift the phase timing of stem size increase and woody biomass production in the future.

  1. Photosynthetic acclimation to light changes in tropical monsoon forest woody species differing in adult stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied morphological and physiological leaf and whole-plant features of seedlings of six late-successional woody species common in the Xishuangbanna lowland rain forest in southwest China. Study species differed in adult stature and shade tolerance and included the shrubs Lasianthus attenuatus J

  2. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...

  3. Biomass and carbon attributes of downed woody materials in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; B.F. Walters; S.N. Oswalt; G.M. Domke; C. Toney; A.N. Gray

    2013-01-01

    Due to burgeoning interest in the biomass/carbon attributes of forest downed and dead woody materials (DWMs) attributable to its fundamental role in the carbon cycle, stand structure/diversity, bioenergy resources, and fuel loadings, the U.S. Department of Agriculture has conducted a nationwide field-based inventory of DWM. Using the national DWM inventory, attributes...

  4. Motivations to leave coarse woody debris in private forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik; Andersen, Anne Sofie Kirkegaard

    2014-01-01

    costs and benefits incurred? Based on the theory of planned behaviour, the aim of this study is to investigate forest owners’ motivation to integrate nature concerns in forest management. As criteria for choosing a relevant case, we looked for a measure that has a potential to significantly improve...... area and half of the red listed species belong to forests. Of the forest area, 71 % is owned by private owners. Hereby private forest owners are key players in providing for biodiversity conservation in forests. But, what motivates the owner to take biodiversity conservation measures, with the possible...

  5. Diversity of Ancient Woody Species in Urban Forests

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    Fornal-Pieniak Beata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostly parks and forest are the most important ‘green islands’ in urban ecological network. Urban forests are belong to green areas and collected many plant species. The main aim of the article was characteristic of ancient plant species in urban forests in Tarnów. The field studies were carried out in years 2011-2012. It covered 80 phytosociological records on the area 500 m2 in herb layer of urban forests and in forest nature on oak-hornbeam. The results showed that many ancient plant species were growing in urban forest but less than in nature reserves

  6. Wildlife and forest communities

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    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  7. Potentials for forest woody biomass production in Serbia

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    Vasiljević Aleksandar Lj.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of possible potentials for the production of forest biomass in Serbia taking into consideration the condition of forests, present organizational and technical capacities as well as the needs and situation on the firewood market. Starting point for the estimation of production potentials for forest biomass is the condition of forests which is analyzed based on the available planning documents on all levels. Potentials for biomass production and use refer to initial periods in the production and use of forest biomass in Serbia.

  8. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  9. Long-term reproductive behaviour of woody plants across seven Bornean forest types in the Gunung Palung National Park (Indonesia): suprannual synchrony, temporal productivity and fruiting diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles H; Curran, Lisa M; Marshall, Andrew J; Leighton, Mark

    2007-10-01

    For 68 months, we observed the reproductive behaviour of 7288 woody plants (172 figs, 1457 climbers and 5659 trees) spanning major soil and elevational gradients. Two 2-3 month community-wide supra-annual fruiting events were synchronized across five forest types, coinciding with ENSO events. At least 27 genera in 24 families restricted their reproduction to these events, which involved a substantial proportion of tree diversity (> 80% of phylogenetic diversity). During these events, mean reproductive levels (8.5%) represented an almost four-fold increase compared with other months. These patterns indicate a strong behavioural advantage to this unusual reproductive behaviour. Montane forest experienced a single, separate fruiting peak while the peat swamp forest did not participate. Excluding these events, no temporal reproductive pattern was detectable, at either the landscape or forest type. These phenological patterns have major implications for the conservation of frugivore communities, with montane and swamp forests acting as 'keystone' forests.

  10. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

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    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  11. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  12. Motivations to leave coarse woody debris in private forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Tove Enggrob; Meilby, Henrik; Andersen, Anne Sofie Kirkegaard

    2014-01-01

    costs and benefits incurred? Based on the theory of planned behaviour, the aim of this study is to investigate forest owners’ motivation to integrate nature concerns in forest management. As criteria for choosing a relevant case, we looked for a measure that has a potential to significantly improve...

  13. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  14. Woody flora and dynamic of Aucoumea klaineana forest in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10 cm and highlights the evolution and the correlation between the density, the ... The trees number by subplot oscillated between 70 and 159 trees (6 to 13% of ... the Congolese coastal forest, notably during the first stages of installation.

  15. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Archer, Steven R; Gelwick, Frances; Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Wu, Xinyuan Ben

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs) better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured) were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species), but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA) indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture) and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, the latter

  16. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species, but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen

  17. Impacts of harvesting forest residues for bioenergy on nutrient cycling and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, D.M.; Zalesny, R.S. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States). Northern Research Station, Inst. for Applied Ecosystem Studies; St Pierre, M.; Eklund, D. [Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Rhinelander, WI (United States); Coyle, D.R. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Ribic, C.A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). United States Geological Survey, WI Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of whole-tree harvesting on the nutrient cycles and community assemblages in northern hardwood forests. The woody biomass left on the forest floor after logging is important for nutrient cycling in addition to providing seed beds and creating habitats for wildlife. The impact of fine woody debris (FWD) removal on nutrient availability and above and below ground community assemblages on rich soils in regenerating northern hardwood stands in Wisconsin was investigated at 9 sites within a national forest. Soil carbon and nitrogen availability was assessed. Insect pitfalls, amphibian time-constraint searches, herbaceous plant quadrants, and soil cores along transects were sampled during the summer months of 2009. Results of the study will be used to evaluate the trade-offs of harvesting woody biomass on public lands for energy use as well as to develop management guidelines for maintaining biodiversity and forest health.

  18. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  19. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  20. Woody species composition, diversity and structure of riparian forests of four watercourses types in Burkina Faso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oumarou Sambaré; Fidèle Bognounou; Rüdiger Wittig; Adjima Thiombiano

    2011-01-01

    Riparian forests are classified as endangered ecosystems in general, particularly in sahelian countries like Burkina Faso because of human-induced alterations and civil engineering works. The modification of this important habitat is continuing, with little attention being paid to the ecological or human consequences of these changes. The objective of this study is to describe the variation of woody species diversity and dynamic in riparian forests on different type of watercourse banks along phytogeographical gradient in Burkina Faso. All woody species were systematically measured in 90 sample plots with sides of 50 m × 20 m.Density, dominance, frequency and species and family importance values were computed to characterize the species composition. Different diversity indices were calculated to examine the heterogeneity of riparian forests. A total of 196 species representing 139 genera and 51 families were recorded in the overall riparian forests. The species richness of individuals with dbh ≥ 5cm increased significantly from the North to the South along the phytogeographical gradient and varied significantly between the different types of riparian forests. Similarity in tree species composition between riparian forests was low, which indicates high beta diversity and reflects differences in habitat conditions and topography.The structural characteristics varied significantly along the phytogeographical gradient and between the different types of riparian forests.The diameter class distribution of trees in all riparian forests showed a reverse “J” shaped curve except riparian forest of stream indicating vegetation dominated by juvenile individuals. Considering the ecological importance of riparian forest, there is a need to delineate and classify them along watercourses throughout the country.

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  2. Dinâmica estrutural da comunidade lenhosa em Floresta Estacional Semidecidual na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica, Mato Grosso, Brasil Structural dynamics of the woody community in a semideciduous forest in the Cerrado-Amazon Forest transition of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Augusto Mews

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento de processos ecológicos, especialmente das modificações estruturais e florísticas em ecossistemas naturais, é fundamental para embasar ações visando à sua conservação e/ou restauração. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar mudanças ocorridas na estrutura da comunidade lenhosa na transição Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica, no período de 2003 a 2008. Foram estabelecidas 60 parcelas permanentes de 10 x 10 m onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito > 5 cm. Em 2003 foram registrados 1.140 ind. ha-1 e área basal de 24,35 m² ha-1, enquanto em 2008 foram 1.071 ind. ha-1 e área basal de 22,04 m² ha-1. O recrutamento (2,76% ano-1 não compensou a mortalidade (3,95% ano-1 e o ganho em área basal (0,54% ano-1 não superou a perda (3,77% ano-1. Em função dessa diferença, a meia vida (17,3 anos foi menor que o tempo de duplicação (29,9 anos, resultando em baixa estabilidade (12,6 anos e reposição (23,6 anos em relação a outras florestas estacionais. Os parâmetros de dinâmica da comunidade e das principais espécies sugerem que a floresta está passando por mudanças caracterizadas principalmente pela retração da densidade e biomassa dos indivíduos arbóreos, que podem estar relacionadas ao aumento das lianas, a uma fase de início de reconstrução do ciclo silvigenético da floresta ou ainda à forte seca que ocorreu na região no ano de 2005.Understanding ecological processes, especially the structural and floristic changes in natural ecosystems, is essential before conserving and/or restoring these areas. The aim of this study was to assess the changes that occurred in the woody plant community from 2003 to 2008. Sixty permanent plots of 10 x 10 m were established, in which all individuals with diameter at breast height > 5 cm were sampled. A total of 1,140 ind. ha-1 were recorded in 2003 (basal area 24.35 m² ha-1 and 1,071 ind. ha-1 in 2008 (basal area of 22.04 m² ha-1. The

  3. Reclamation of coppice forests in order to increase the potential of woody biomass in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelanovic, I.; Krstic, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass makes 63% of the total renewable energy potential of Serbia. Here, the biomass from forests together with wood processing industry waste represent the second most important renewable source for energy production. The Action Plan for Biomass of Serbia (2010) shows that the technically exploitable biomass in the Republic of Serbia amounts annually 2.7 Mtoe. Here, the woody biomass (fuelwood, forest residue, wood processing industry residue, wood from trees outside the forest) accounts for 1.0 Mtoe while the rest originates from agricultural sources. According to the national forest inventory (2008), forest cover in Serbia accounts for 29% of the country area, having standing volume of 362.5 mil. m3 and annual increment of 9.1 mil. m3. More than half is state-owned and the rest 47% is in the private ownership. Coppice forests dominate in the forest stock (65%). According to Glavonjić (2010), northeastern and southwestern Serbia are the regions with greatest spatial forest distribution. The general forest condition is characterised by insufficient production volume, unsatisfactory stock density and forest cover, high percentage of degraded forests, unfavorable age structure, unfavorable health condition and weeded areas. Herewith, the basic measures for the improvement of forest fund (Forestry Development Strategy for Serbia, 2006) represent conversion of coppice forests, increase of forest cover and productivity of forest ecosystems by the ecologically, economically and socially acceptable methods. The actions include reclamation of degraded forests, re- and afforestation activities on abandoned agricultural, degraded and other treeless lands. The average standing volume of high forests is 254 m3·ha-1 with an annual increment of 5.5 m3·ha-1. On the contrary, coppice forests dispose 124 m3·ha-1 of standing volume, having an annual increment of 3.1 m3·ha-1. Here, estimated losses from coppice forests amount up to 3.5 mil. m3 wood annually. These data

  4. Diversity and regeneration status of woody species in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests, northwestern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haileab Zegeye; Demel Teketay; Ensermu Kelbessa

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Tara Gedam and Abebaye forests 1,northwestern Ethiopia to investigate the diversity, regeneration status,socio-economic importance and the factors causing destruction of theforests. A total of 30 plots, measuring 20 m x20 m, were establishedalong line transects laid across the forests. Participatory Rural Appraisal(PRA) method was employed to generate the socio-economic data. Pri-mary data were collected by field observation, semi-structured interviewwith key informants and discussion with relevant stakeholders. A total of143 woody species belonging to 114 genera and 57 families were re-corded, and of all the species 44 (30.8%) were trees, 57 (39.9%)trees/shrubs, 33 (23.1%) shrubs and 9 (6.3%) lianas. The diversity andevenness of woody species in Tara Gedam forest are 2.98 and 0.65, re-spectively, and in Abebaye forest they are 1.31 and 0.31, respectively.The total density and basal area of woody species in Tara Gedam forestare 3001 individuals.ha and 115.36 m·ha, respectively, and in Abe-baye forest the values are 2850 individuals·ha and 49.45 m.ha, re-spectively. The results on the importance value index (IVI) and DBHclass distributions suggest that the species with low IVI value and poorregeneration status need to be prioritized for conservation. In thesocio-economic survey, the responses from the key informants indicatedthat the forests are the major sources of fuelwood (90%), constructionmaterial (80%), timber (75%) and farm implements (55%). The forestsare also sources of medicines, animal fodder, bee forage and edible fruits.Tara Gedam monastery, assisted by the local people who have strongreligious belief and high respect to the monastery, has played a great rolein the maintenance of the sacred forest since a long time. At present, theconservation efforts are made jointly by the monastery and institutionsconcerned with conservation. The major factors that cause destruction of the forests are livestock grazing, tree cutting for

  5. Review on the decomposition and influence factors of coarse woody debris in forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; DAI Li-min; GU Hui-yan; ZHONG Lei

    2007-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important and particular component of forest ecosystems and is extremely important to forest health. This review describes the decomposition process, decomposition model and influence factors. CWD decomposition is a complex and continuous process and characterizes many biological and physical processes, including biological respiration, leaching, and fragmentation.All these processes have closed relationships between each other and work synergistically. During decomposition, there are many controlling factors mainly including site conditions (temperature, humidity, and O2/CO2 concentration), woody substrate quality (diameter, species and compound) and organism in CWD. The decomposition rate is generally expresses through a constant k which indicate the percent mass,volume or density loss over time, and can be determined by long-term monitoring, chronosequence approach and the radio between input and the total mass. Now using mathematical models to simulate decomposition patterns and estimate the decomposition rate is widely applied, especially the exponential model. We brought forward that managing and utilizing for the CWD in forest was a primary objective on all forest lands. And it is should be intensified to integrate many related research subjects and to carry a comprehensive, long-term and multi-scale research which mainly focus on seven sections.

  6. Woody species diversity in forest plantations in a mountainous region of Beijing, China: effects of sampling scale and species selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of forest plantations in biodiversity conservation has gained more attention in recent years. However, most work on evaluating the diversity of forest plantations focuses only on one spatial scale; thus, we examined the effects of sampling scale on diversity in forest plantations. We designed a hierarchical sampling strategy to collect data on woody species diversity in planted pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., planted larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii Mayr., and natural secondary deciduous broadleaf forests in a mountainous region of Beijing, China. Additive diversity partition analysis showed that, compared to natural forests, the planted pine forests had a different woody species diversity partitioning pattern at multi-scales (except the Simpson diversity in the regeneration layer, while the larch plantations did not show multi-scale diversity partitioning patterns that were obviously different from those in the natural secondary broadleaf forest. Compare to the natural secondary broadleaf forests, the effects of planted pine forests on woody species diversity are dependent on the sampling scale and layers selected for analysis. Diversity in the planted larch forest, however, was not significantly different from that in the natural forest for all diversity components at all sampling levels. Our work demonstrated that the species selected for afforestation and the sampling scales selected for data analysis alter the conclusions on the levels of diversity supported by plantations. We suggest that a wide range of scales should be considered in the evaluation of the role of forest plantations on biodiversity conservation.

  7. Species composition and diversity of non-forest woody vegetation along roads in the agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Attila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-forest woody vegetation represents an important component of green infrastructure in the agricultural landscape, where natural and semi-natural forest cover has only a low land use proportion. This paper focuses on linear woody vegetation structures along roads in the agricultural landscape and analyses them in three study areas in the Nitra Region, Slovakia. We evaluate species composition and diversity, species occurrence frequency or spatial distribution, their structure according to relatively achievable age and origin. For the evaluation of occurrence frequency, a Frequency Factor was proposed and applied. This factor allows a better comparison of different study areas and results in more representative findings. The study areas were divided into sectors based on visual landscape features, which are easily identifiable in the field, such as intersections and curves in roads, and intersections of roads with other features, such as cadastral or land boundaries, watercourses, etc. Based on the species abundance, woody plants present within the sectors were categorised into 1 predominant, 2 complementary and 3 mixed-in species; and with regard to their origin into 1 autochthonous and 2 allochthonous. Further, trees were categorised into 1 long-lived, 2 medium-lived and 3 short-lived tree species. The main finding is that among trees, mainly allochthonous species dominated. Robinia pseudoacacia L. was the predominant tree species in all three study areas. It was up to 4 times more frequent than other predominant tree species. Introduced tree species prevailed also among complementary and mixed-in species. Among shrubs, mainly native species dominated, while non-native species had a significantly lower proportion and spatial distribution. Based on these findings, several measures have been proposed to improve the overall ecological stability, the proportion and spatial distribution of native woody plant species. The recommendations and

  8. National inventories of down and dead woody material forest carbon stocks in the United States: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; L.S. Heath; J.E. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Concerns over the effect of greenhouse gases and consequent international agreements and regional/national programs have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem carbon stocks. Down and dead woody (DDW) materials are a substantial component of forest carbon stocks; however, few surveys of DDW carbon stocks have been conducted at national-...

  9. Mapping aboveground woody biomass using forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bechu K V; Nandy, S

    2015-05-01

    Mapping forest biomass is fundamental for estimating CO₂ emissions, and planning and monitoring of forests and ecosystem productivity. The present study attempted to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) integrating forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques, viz., direct radiometric relationships (DRR), k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) and cokriging (CoK) and to evaluate their accuracy. A part of the Timli Forest Range of Kalsi Soil and Water Conservation Division, Uttarakhand, India was selected for the present study. Stratified random sampling was used to collect biophysical data from 36 sample plots of 0.1 ha (31.62 m × 31.62 m) size. Species-specific volumetric equations were used for calculating volume and multiplied by specific gravity to get biomass. Three forest-type density classes, viz. 10-40, 40-70 and >70% of Shorea robusta forest and four non-forest classes were delineated using on-screen visual interpretation of IRS P6 LISS-III data of December 2012. The volume in different strata of forest-type density ranged from 189.84 to 484.36 m(3) ha(-1). The total growing stock of the forest was found to be 2,024,652.88 m(3). The AGWB ranged from 143 to 421 Mgha(-1). Spectral bands and vegetation indices were used as independent variables and biomass as dependent variable for DRR, k-NN and CoK. After validation and comparison, k-NN method of Mahalanobis distance (root mean square error (RMSE) = 42.25 Mgha(-1)) was found to be the best method followed by fuzzy distance and Euclidean distance with RMSE of 44.23 and 45.13 Mgha(-1) respectively. DRR was found to be the least accurate method with RMSE of 67.17 Mgha(-1). The study highlighted the potential of integrating of forest inventory, remote sensing and geostatistical techniques for forest biomass mapping.

  10. A comparative assessment on regeneration status of indigenous woody plants in Eucalyptus grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiferaw Alem; Tadesse Woldemariam

    2009-01-01

    Diversity, density and species composition of naturally regenerated woody plants under Eucalyptus grandis plantation and the adjacent natural forest were investigated and compared. Twenty plots, with an area of 20 m× 20 m for each, were established in both of E. Grandis plantation and adjacent natural forest, independently. In each plot, species name, abundance, diameter and height were recorded. Numbers of seedling were collected in five sub-plots (4 m2) within each major plot. A total of 46 species in the plantation, and 52 species in the natural forest, which belongs to 36 families were recorded. The diversity of species (H') is 2.19 in the plantation and 2.74 in the natural forest. The density of understory woody plant was 3842 stems/ha in the plantation and 4122 stems/ha in the natural forest. The densities of seedlings in the natural forest and the plantation were 8101 stems/ha and 4151 stems/ha, respectively. High similarity of woody species composition was found between the natural forest and the plantation. The E. Grandis plantation was found favoring the regeneration and growth of Millitia ferruginia and Coffea arabica in a much better way than other underneath woody species.

  11. Vegetation composition and structure of woody plant communities along urban interstate corridors in Louisville, KY, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. E. Trammell; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2011-01-01

    Urban forests adjacent to interstate corridors are understudied ecosystems across cities. Despite their small area, these forests may be strategically located to provide large ecosystem services due to their ability to act as a barrier against air pollutants and noise as well as to provide flood control. The woody vegetation composition and structure of forests...

  12. Native and exotic woody vegetation communities in domestic gardens in relation to social and environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda M. van Heezik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation in private gardens contributes significantly to plant species richness and vegetation volume across urban areas. Drivers of garden diversity and structure are complex, reflecting the diversity of social, cultural, and socioeconomic characteristics of the householders who manage their gardens, as well as their predecessors. Here we investigate the woodiness of gardens, and focus on (1 the prevalence of native versus exotic woody plants and (2 the influence of characteristics of garden owners, the gardens, and their proximity to neighborhood green spaces to identify the degree to which these factors explain patterns in native and exotic woody species communities in entire (back and front gardens in southern temperate New Zealand. We found few consistent patterns in structure in woody species community composition. Outlying gardens were characterized by low species richness and abundance. Thirty-seven species commonly occurred across most gardens: most of these were exotic. Twelve native species were common throughout most gardens. There was significant but weak matching to social and environmental variables: vegetated area, species knowledge, and education explained pattern in native communities, whereas vegetated area, species knowledge, and householder age explained variation in exotic communities. Native trees > 5 m tall occurred in only 58% of gardens. Tall tree density was 10/ha, and 29% of gardens lacked any trees > 5 m. Tree presence was weakly (positively associated with extent and proximity of neighborhood green space. We suggest that the legacy of previous owners' gardening practices is important to consider when identifying drivers of garden plant community structure.

  13. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  14. Thirty-eight years of autogenic, woody understory dynamics in a mature, temperature pine-oak forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, M.D.; Shelton, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1935, 32 ha of a pine-hardwood forest were set aside from future timber management in southern Arkansas, U.S.A. Old-growth timber had been cut to a 36-cm stump diameter before 1915. During 38 years of assessment, no catastrophic disturbances occurred within the 32-ha forest. Although loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) dominated the overstory (64% of basal area in 1954 and 63% in 1993), pines were absent from the understory in all but seedling size classes for the last 38 years. Woody understory diversity indices were essentially stable for 38 years, but the similarity of understory species tended to decline as the time between inventories increased. Relative importance values for woody understory species tended to increase for the more shade-tolerant genera and decrease for less tolerant genera. Survival and height growth for woody understory species were also found to be positively correlated with shade tolerance.

  15. Fruit composition and seed dispersal strategies of woody plants in a Dujiangyan subtropical forest, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate relationships between fruit traits and seed dispersal in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. Fruit composition and fruit phenology were monitored using 240 seed traps distributed over 10 separated stand patches in a fragmented forest in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A total of 10,542 mature fruits, belonging to 42 woody plant species of 36 genera and 24 families, were collected between April 2009 and December 2010. The peak of fruiting and fruit abundance occurred during autumn (between September and December when there is less rainfall. Plant families with higher species richness included Fagaceae (17%, Lauraceae (12%, and Rosaceae (10%, while other families included only 1–2 fruiting species. Seed dispersal by animals was the most dominant dispersal mode (88.1% of species while anemochory (wind dispersal was the mode for other species. Seeds of animal-dispersed species were mainly dispersed by frugivorous birds (52.4%, followed by scatter-hoarding rodents (19.0% and frugivorous birds and mammals combined (16.7%. Drupes (48%, nuts (17%, and cones (10% were the most common fruit types. Species with black fruits (39% and red fruits (21% were most common and were dispersed by fruigivorous birds, while species with brown nuts (29% were also common and were mainly dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals. Most fruiting species (64.3% had relatively small fruits (10 mm in diameter were mainly dispersed by wind or rodents. Our study indicates that most of fruiting woody species occur during autumn (later wet season and early dry season and fruit traits of these plants have been adapted by animal-mediated seed dispersal in the Dujiangyan subtropical forest.

  16. Temporal trends and sources of variation in carbon flux from coarse woody debris in experimental forest canopy openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, J A; Mladenoff, D J; D'Amato, A W; Fraver, S; Lindner, D L; Brazee, N J; Clayton, M K; Gower, S T

    2015-11-01

    Pulses of respiration from coarse woody debris (CWD) have been observed immediately following canopy disturbances, but it is unclear how long these pulses are sustained. Several factors are known to influence carbon flux rates from CWD, but few studies have evaluated more than temperature and moisture. We experimentally manipulated forest structure in a second-growth northern hardwood forest and measured CO2 flux periodically for seven growing seasons following gap creation. We present an analysis of which factors, including the composition of the wood-decay fungal community influence CO2 flux. CO2 flux from CWD was strongly and positively related to wood temperature and varied significantly between substrate types (logs vs. stumps). For five growing seasons after treatment, the CO2 flux of stumps reached rates up to seven times higher than that of logs. CO2 flux of logs did not differ significantly between canopy-gap and closed-canopy conditions in the fourth through seventh post-treatment growing seasons. By the seventh season, the seasonal carbon flux of both logs and stumps had decreased significantly from prior years. Linear mixed models indicated the variation in the wood inhabiting fungal community composition explained a significant portion of variability in the CO2 flux along with measures of substrate conditions. CO2 flux rates were inversely related to fungal diversity, with logs hosting more species but emitting less CO2 than stumps. Overall, our results suggest that the current treatment of CWD in dynamic forest carbon models may be oversimplified, thereby hampering our ability to predict realistic carbon fluxes associated with wood decomposition.

  17. Trade-offs among forest value components in community forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Baraloto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary conservation interventions must balance potential trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services. In tropical forests, much attention has focused on the extent to which carbon-based conservation provided by REDD+ policies can also mitigate biodiversity conservation. In the nearly one-third of tropical forests that are community owned or managed, conservation strategies must also balance the multiple uses of forest products that support local livelihoods. Although much discussion has focused on policy options, little empirical evidence exists to evaluate the potential for trade-offs among different tropical forest value components. We assessed multiple components of forest value, including tree diversity, carbon stocks, and both timber and nontimber forest product resources, in forest communities across the trinational frontier of Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. We installed 69 0.5-ha vegetation plots in local communities, and we characterized 15 components of forest value for each plot. Principal components analyses revealed two major axes of forest value, the first of which defined a trade-off between diversity of woody plant communities (taxonomic and functional versus aboveground biomass and standing timber volume. The second axis described abundance of commercial species, with strong positive loadings for density of timber and nontimber forest products, including Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa and copaiba oil (Copaifera spp.. The observed trade-off between different components of forest value suggests a potential for management conflicts prioritizing biodiversity conservation versus carbon stocks in the region. We discuss the potential for integrative indices of forest value for tropical forest conservation.

  18. Forested floristic quality index: An assessment tool for forested wetland habitats using the quality and quantity of woody vegetation at Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William B.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Cretini, Kari F.

    2017-02-08

    overstory and health of the herbaceous community beneath it because of resource competition (for example, light) and differing environmental preferences between the two communities. The herbaceous layer vegetation responds rapidly to basic environmental factors such as flooding, salinity, and nutrients and can offer insight into the sustainability of swamps on a temporal scale shorter than tha of the slowly growing woody vegetation.The FFQI will be available via the CRMS spatial viewer (http://lacoast.gov/crms2/home.aspx), and a new score will be calculated annually for each CRMS forested wetland site as data are collected to establish trends, to compare among sites, and to evaluate specific restoration projects when applicable. The FFQI will identify forested wetland areas in need of restoration and conservation and will help define targets and trajectories for restoration planning.

  19. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Roh, Y.; Son, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 - 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be a main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and 36 samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 6 replicates) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again at an interval of 6 months until July, 2016. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 32.4 % and 20.0 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (43.8 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (14.7 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the tree species and the termite exclusion treatment on coarse woody debris decomposition were statistically significant (P Education Center.

  20. Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Communities Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland: An Assessment Using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Gentry, T. J.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    Woody plants have encroached into grasslands, savannas, and other grass-dominated ecosystems throughout the world during the last century. This dramatic vegetation change is likely driven by livestock grazing, altered fire frequencies, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and/or changes in atmospheric deposition patterns. Woody invasion often results in significant changes in ecosystem function, including alterations in above- and belowground primary productivity, soil C, N, and P storage and turnover, and the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass pool. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships and interactions between plant communities and soil microbial communities in the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas where grasslands have been largely replaced by woodlands. Research was conducted along a successional chronosequence representing the stages of woody plant encroachment from open grassland to closed-canopy woodland. To characterize soil microbial community composition, soil samples (0-7.5 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands (representing time 0) and near the centers of woody plant clusters, groves, and drainage woodlands ranging in age from 10 to 130 yrs. Ages of woody plant stands were determined by dendrochronology. Community DNA was extracted from each soil sample with a MoBio PowerMax Soil DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentrations were quantified on a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and diluted to a standard concentration. Pyrosequencing was performed by the Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX) according to Roche 454 Titanium chemistry protocols. Samples were amplified with primers 27F and 519R for bacteria, and primers ITS1F and ITS4 for fungi. Sequences were aligned using BioEdit and the RDP Pipeline and analyzed in MOTHUR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the operational taxonomic units identified by pyrosequencing revealed that both bacterial and fungal community composition were

  1. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eElgar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability. In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha sites we quantified the response of native woody vegetation recruitment to (1 release from competition with introduced pasture grasses, and (2 local facilitation of frugivore-assisted seed dispersal provided by scattered woody plants and artificial bird perches. Herbicide pasture grass suppression during 20 months caused a significant but modest increase in density of native woody seedlings, together with abundant co-recruitment of the prominent non-native pioneer wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum. Recruitment of native species was further enhanced by local structure in herbicide-treated areas, being consistently greater under live trees and dead non-native shrubs (herbicide-treated than in open areas, and intermediate under bird perches. Native seedling recruitment comprised 28 species across 0.25 ha sampled but was dominated by two rainforest pioneers (Homalanthus novoguineensis, Polyscias murrayi. These early results are consistent with the expected increase in woody vegetation recruitment in response to release from competitive and dispersive barriers to rainforest regeneration. The findings highlight the need for a pragmatic consideration of the ecological roles of woody weeds and the potential roles of ‘new forests’ more broadly in accelerating succession of humid tropical forest across large areas of retired agricultural land.

  2. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...... there is a generally accepted agreement that collective management (community forestry) will yield success in forest conservation. However, the claim is seldom rigorously examined. We suggest to have a review of the literature and to propose a first step to a test of the claim in order to reach a first generalization...... as to the success of community forestry in forest conservation. The review of the literature is the first step towards such an examination, enabling us to make some initial generalizations for further research. In the present paper, a statistical test is performed and the claim is found wanting. The reviewed papers...

  3. Woody vegetation cover monitoring with multi-temporal Landsat data and Random Forests: the case of the Northwest Province (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, Elias; Higginbottom, Thomas; Petroulaki, Kyriaki

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification (LDD) are serious global threats to humans and the environment. Globally, 10-20% of drylands and 24% of the world's productive lands are potentially degraded, which affects 1.5 billion people and reduces GDP by €3.4 billion. In Africa, LDD processes affect up to a third of savannahs, leading to a decline in the ecosystem services provided to some of the continent's poorest and most vulnerable communities. Indirectly, LDD can be monitored using relevant indicators. The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands, and the subsequent conversion of savannahs and open woodlands into shrublands, has attracted a lot of attention over the last decades and has been identified as an indicator of LDD. According to some assessments, bush encroachment has rendered 1.1 million ha of South African savanna unusable, threatens another 27 million ha (~17% of the country), and has reduced the grazing capacity throughout the region by up to 50%. Mapping woody cover encroachment over large areas can only be effectively achieved using remote sensing data and techniques. The longest continuously operating Earth-observation program, the Landsat series, is now freely-available as an atmospherically corrected, cloud masked surface reflectance product. The availability and length of the Landsat archive is thus an unparalleled Earth-observation resource, particularly for long-term change detection and monitoring. Here, we map and monitor woody vegetation cover in the Northwest Province of South Africa, a mosaic of 12 Landsat scenes that expands over more than 100,000km2. We employ a multi-temporal approach with dry-season TM, ETM+ and OLI data from 15 epochs between 1989 to 2015. We use 0.5m-pixel colour aerial photography to collect >15,000 samples for training and validating a Random Forest model to map woody cover, grasses, crops, urban and bare areas. High classification accuracies are achieved, especially so for the two cover types indirectly

  4. Investing carbon offsets in woody forests - the best solution for California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, P.; Houlton, B. Z.; Warlind, D.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from fossil fuel combustion, land conversion and biomass burning are principal to climate change and its manifolds risks on human health, the environment and the global economy. Effective mitigation of climate change thereby involves cutting fossil-fuel emissions at the source or capturing CO2 in engineered or natural ecosystem stocks, or both. The lifetime of CO2 in the atmosphere exceeds 100 years; thus, in the case of CO2 sequestration by natural ecosystems, the residence time of soil and vegetation carbon(C) is a critical component of the efficacy of C offsets in the marketplace, particularly in local to global Cap and Trade frameworks. Here we use a land-surface model to analyze trade-offs in C investment into natural forest vs. grassland sinks and the role of fire in driving the most sustained pathways of CO2 sequestration under Cap and Trade policies. We focus on the California Climate Exchange and AB32 as the model system for examining risks of CO2 offset investments by considering model-based scenarios of (a.) natural woody forests (mixture of trees, shrubs and grasslands) or (b.) pure grasslands (no woody vegetation allowed) under conditions of drought and changes in fire frequency. While forests capture more carbon than grasslands, the latter stores a greater fraction of C in below ground stocks, making it less vulnerable to climate-driven disturbances. Preliminary results for simulations carried out for the last century for the state of California corroborate this hypothesis: while trees capture 100 GgCyr-1 more than grasses, CO2 emissions due to fire is less by 20 GgCyr-1 from grasslands when compared to forest environments. Since policies need to regard potential future scenarios, we present results that investigate how the alternate systems of trees and grasses respond to (i.) the environmental conditions of the no-mitigation scenario (RCP 8.5) through the year 2100, (ii.) periods of extended

  5. Effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Kim, Seungjun; Roh, Yujin; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Davies, Stuart; Son, Yowhan

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests have been considered important ecosystems in terms of carbon cycle and climate change, because they sequester carbon more than any other terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, coarse woody debris is one of the main carbon storages, accounting for 10 - 40% of the tropical forest carbon. Carbon in coarse woody debris is released by various activities of organisms, and particularly termite's feeding activities are known to be main process in tropical forests. Therefore, investigating the effects of termite activities on coarse woody debris decomposition is important to understanding carbon cycles of tropical forests. This study was conducted in an intact lowland mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF) of Brunei Darussalam, and three main MDF tree species (Dillenia beccariana, Macaranga bancana, and Elateriospermum tapos) were selected. Coarse woody debris samples of both 10 cm diameter and length were prepared, and half of samples were covered twice with nylon net (mesh size 1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) to prevent termite's approach. Three 2 m × 11 m permanent plots were installed in January, 2015 and eighteen samples per plot (3 species × 2 treatments × 3 repetitions) were placed at the soil surface. Weights of each sample were recorded at initial time, and weighed again in August, 2015. On average, uncovered and covered samples lost 18.9 % and 3.3 % of their initial weights, respectively. Weight loss percentage was highest in uncovered samples of M. bancana (23.9 %), and lowest in covered samples of E. tapos (7.8 %). Two-way ANOVA showed that tree species and termite exclusion treatment had statistically significant effects on coarse woody debris decomposition (P = 0.0001). The effect of species and termite exclusion treatment interaction was also statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The result reveals that termite activities promote the coarse woody debris decomposition and they influence differently along the wood species. However, many samples of D. beccariana

  6. Nisqually Community Forest VELMA modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a set of modeling tools to support community-based forest management and salmon-recovery planning in Pacific Northwest watersheds. Here we describe how these tools are being applied to the Mashel River Watershed in collaboration with the Board of Directors of the Nis...

  7. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  8. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Omar López-Martínez

    Full Text Available Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity. Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering, whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning, and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position, whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and

  9. β-Diversity of functional groups of woody plants in a tropical dry forest in Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity -possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  10. Effects of Topographic and Soil Factors on Woody Species Assembly in a Chinese Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen broadleaved forests in subtropical China contain a complicated structure of diverse species. The impact of topographic and soil factors on the assembly of woody species in the forest has been poorly understood. We used Ripley’s K(t function to analyze the spatial patterns and associations of dominant species and residual analysis (RDA to quantify the contribution of topography and soil to species assembly. The 1 ha plot investigated had 4797 stems with a diameter at breast height (dbh larger than 1 cm that belong to 73 species, 55 genera, and 38 families. All stems of the entire forest and four late successional species exhibited a reversed J shape for dbh distribution, while two early successional species showed a unimodal shape. Aggregation was the major spatial pattern for entire forests and dominant species across vertical layers. Spatial associations between inter- and intra-species were mostly independent. Topographic and soil factors explained 28.1% of species assembly. The forest was close to late succession and showed the characteristics of diverse woody species, high regeneration capacity, and aggregated spatial patterns. Topographic and soil factors affected species assembly, but together they could only explain a small part of total variance.

  11. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

    2009-04-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions.

  12. Effects of environment and space on species turnover of woody plants across multiple forest dynamic plots in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30%, 37.20%, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard’s (βj, Sorenson’s, (βs, and Simpson’s dissimilarity (βsim. Spatial factors explained 47.92%, 48.39%, and 41.38% of the total variance in βj, βs, and βsim, respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts.

  13. Effects of Environment and Space on Species Turnover of Woody Plants across Multiple Forest Dynamic Plots in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Yuan, Zhiliang; Li, Peikun; Cao, Ruofan; Jia, Hongru; Ye, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Species turnover is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms that influence large-scale species richness patterns. However, few studies have described and interpreted large-scale spatial variation in plant species turnover, and the causes of this variation remain elusive. In addition, the determinants of species turnover depend on the dispersal ability of growth forms. In this study, we explored the large-scale patterns of woody species turnover across the latitude gradient based on eight large stem-mapping plots (covering 184 ha forest) in East Asia. The patterns of woody species turnover increased significantly with increasing latitude differences in East Asia. For overall woody species, environment explained 36.30, 37.20, and 48.48% of the total variance in Jaccard’s (βj), Sorenson’s, (βs), and Simpson’s dissimilarity (βsim). Spatial factors explained 47.92, 48.39, and 41.38% of the total variance in βj, βs, and βsim, respectively. The effects of pure spatial and spatially structured environments were stronger than pure environmental effects for overall woody species. Our results support the hypothesis that the effect of neutral processes on woody species turnover is more important than the effect of the environment. Neutral processes explained more variation for turnover of tree species, and environmental factors explained more variation for the turnover of shrub species on a large scale. Therefore, trees and shrubs should be subjected to different protection strategies in future biodiversity conservation efforts. PMID:27790236

  14. Herbivores shape woody plant communities in the Kruger National Park: Lessons from three long-term exclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Wigley

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of grazers in determining vegetation community compositions and structuring plant communities is well recognised in grassy systems. The role of browsers in affecting savanna woody plant communities is less clear. We used three long-term exclosures in the Kruger National Park to determine the effect of browsers on species compositions and population structures of woody communities. Species assemblages, plant traits relating to browsing and soil nutrients were compared inside and outside of the exclosures. Our results showed that browsers directly impact plant species distributions, densities and population structures by actively selecting for species with traits which make them desirable to browsers. Species with high leaf nitrogen, low total phenolic content and low acid detergent lignin appeared to be favoured by herbivores and therefore tend to be rare outside of the exclosures. This study also suggested that browsers have important indirect effects on savanna functioning, as the reduction of woody cover can result in less litter of lower quality, which in turn can result in lower soil fertility. However, the magnitude of browser effects appeared to depend on inherent soil fertility and climate.Conservation implications: Browsers were shown to have significant impacts on plant communities. They have noticeable effects on local species diversity and population structure, as well as soil nutrients. These impacts are shown to be related to the underlying geology and climate. The effects of browsers on woody communities were shown to be greater in low rainfall, fertile areas compared to high rainfall, infertile soils.

  15. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jin-Hyeob; Chang, Scott X.; Naeth, M. Anne; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM) and peat mineral soil mix (PMM) are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD) can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP) and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM) × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD) factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05) in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05) near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01) according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05) but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates) in both cover soils (p<0.05) in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05) regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining. PMID:26618605

  16. Coarse Woody Debris Increases Microbial Community Functional Diversity but not Enzyme Activities in Reclaimed Oil Sands Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeob Kwak

    Full Text Available Forest floor mineral soil mix (FMM and peat mineral soil mix (PMM are cover soils commonly used for upland reclamation post open-pit oil sands mining in northern Alberta, Canada. Coarse woody debris (CWD can be used to regulate soil temperature and water content, to increase organic matter content, and to create microsites for the establishment of microorganisms and vegetation in upland reclamation. We studied the effects of CWD on soil microbial community level physiological profile (CLPP and soil enzyme activities in FMM and PMM in a reclaimed landscape in the oil sands. This experiment was conducted with a 2 (FMM vs PMM × 2 (near CWD vs away from CWD factorial design with 6 replications. The study plots were established with Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen CWD placed on each plot between November 2007 and February 2008. Soil samples were collected within 5 cm from CWD and more than 100 cm away from CWD in July, August and September 2013 and 2014. Microbial biomass was greater (p<0.05 in FMM than in PMM, in July, and August 2013 and July 2014, and greater (p<0.05 near CWD than away from CWD in FMM in July and August samplings. Soil microbial CLPP differed between FMM and PMM (p<0.01 according to a principal component analysis and CWD changed microbial CLPP in FMM (p<0.05 but not in PMM. Coarse woody debris increased microbial community functional diversity (average well color development in Biolog Ecoplates in both cover soils (p<0.05 in August and September 2014. Carbon degrading soil enzyme activities were greater in FMM than in PMM (p<0.05 regardless of distance from CWD but were not affected by CWD. Greater microbial biomass and enzyme activities in FMM than in PMM will increase organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling, improving plant growth. Enhanced microbial community functional diversity by CWD application in upland reclamation has implications for accelerating upland reclamation after oil sands mining.

  17. Coarse woody debris and its function in forest ecosystem.%森林生态系统中的粗死木质残体及其功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯平; 潘存德

    2001-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural and functional element in forest ecosystem. In this paper, the definition, dynamics, and role of CWI) in a forest ecosystem were overviewed. CWI) include all woody debris above and under the ground with a diameters ≥2. 5cm, and mainly comes from the dead trees resulted from competition and disturbances. The biomass of CWD changes like“ U” form along with the development of a forest community. The decay rate of CWI) is determined by the compound course of the espiration and natural fragmentation. Insects and microorganisma play an important role in the course. CWD basically has two functions in an ecosystem. One is as the nutrition pool for some living creatures, and the other is that the large CWD can form some special habitats for animals and plants. Conclusively these two functions are helpful to reserve the biodiversity and the integrity of ecological process in a natural ecosystem. Gaps are formed while dead trees falling down, and all gaps in a forest succeed one another randomly in the development of a forest ecosystem, which pushes the inner circulation of the forest. Because of the vital roles of CWI) in a forest ecosystem, much more attention should be aid in the management of forest ecosystem.%粗死木质残体(Coarse Woody Debris,CWD)是指所有地上和地下小头直径>2.5cm的死木质物.林分中CWD主要来源于个体的死亡和干扰所造成的死亡,在森林群落的生长发育过程中,CWD的数量变化呈“U”型.CWD的分解是动物和微生物吸收养分、淋溶和自然破碎综合作用的结果,CWD的分解过程就是其发挥功能的过程,在此过程中各阶段都会有不同类型的生物群体利用其提供生境或食物;CWD具有吸收和释放养分的能力,是植物生长的营养库,是森林树木更新的良好介质;CWD是许多陆生生物和水生生物的食物来源、栖息地、避难所、哺育地、迁移通道等

  18. Influence of Mature Overstory Trees on Adjacent 12-Year Regeneration and the Woody Understory: Aggregated Retention versus Intact Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda T. Curzon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Retention harvesting, an approach that intentionally retains legacy features such as mature overstory trees, provides options for achieving ecological objectives. At the same time, retained overstory trees may compete with the nearby recovering understory for resources, and much remains to be learned about potential trade-offs with regeneration objectives, particularly over extended time periods. We assessed the influence of aggregated retention (reserved mature overstory and understory patches versus intact forest on structure and productivity (standing biomass of the adjacent woody understory and regeneration 12 years after harvest in northern Minnesota, USA. Each site was dominated by Populus tremuloides Michx., a species that regenerates prolifically via root sprouts following disturbance. Overall, fewer differences than expected occurred between the effects of intact forest and aggregated retention on regeneration, despite the small size (0.1 ha of aggregates. Instead, harvest status and distance from harvest edge had a greater influence on structure and standing woody biomass. Proximity to aggregates reduced large sapling biomass (all species, combined relative to open conditions, but only up to 5 m into harvested areas. This suggests the trade-off for achieving productivity objectives might be minimal if managers use retention aggregates in this region to achieve ecological objectives and meet management guidelines.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  2. Nutrient concentration of down woody debris in mixedwood forests in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike R. Saunders; Shawn Fraver; Robert G. Wagner

    2011-01-01

    Both nutrient concentrations and pre- and post-harvest pool sizes were determined across down woody debris decay classes of several hardwood and softwood species in a long-term, natural disturbance based, silvicultural experiment in central Maine. Concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Zn generally increased 2- to 5-fold with increasing decay class. Concentrations...

  3. Use of financial and economic analyses by federal forest managers for woody biomass removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Morgan; Jason P. Brandt; John D. Baldridge; Dan R. Loeffler

    2011-01-01

    This study was sponsored by the Joint Fire Science Program to understand and enhance the ability of federal land managers to address financial and economic (F&E) aspects of woody biomass removal as a component of fire hazard reduction. Focus groups were conducted with nearly 100 federal land managers throughout the western United States. Several issues and...

  4. Community structure and regeneration types of Betula dahurica forest in Badaling forest center of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yong; Zheng Zhi-hua; Zhang Zhi-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Using plant community analysis methods, we analyzed the floristic characteristics, species composition, community structure, population structure, and spatial distribution patterns of a Betula dahurica forest on the "1238" mountain of Badaling in Beijing, China. The results show that: 1) There are 33 plant species in the B. dahurica community, including 18 woody plant species. The B. dahurica forest is a monodominant community with 75.9% dominance. 2) Based on diameter at breast height (DBH)size class distribution, the population structure of B. dahurica and Acer mono-two heliophyllous and pioneer tree species is cascade-type, with both in an increasing stage. The population structure of Tilia mandshurica and T. mongolica, two shade-tolerant tree species, is inverse-J type, and they have more young seedling individuals and regenerate more stably. They are associated species of the pioneer tree species. The population structure of Quercus mongolica, as the associated species of climax species in the community, is sporadic, and its regeneration is fluctuating and random. Fraxinus rhynchophylla is a shade-tolerant tree species which has a unibar population structure and climax characteristics of pioneer tree species. The relative frequency of young seedlings reached 0.4.3) The dominant species B. dahurica is still in an increasing stage, and the regeneration of other species is steady or partly influences the community, putting the community in the pioneer species stage. From the population structure and distribution frequency ofF. rhynchophylla, the B. dahurica forest will approach to a climax state in the future.

  5. 小陇山林区主要森林群落凋落物及死木质残体储量%Reserves of Litter and Woody Debris of Two Main Forests in the Xiaolong Mountains, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何帆; 王得祥; 张宋智; 刘文桢; 沈亚洲; 胡有宁

    2011-01-01

    The reserves of woody debris and litter from natural Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata forest and natural Pinus tabulaeformis forest in the Xiaolong Mountains were studied by fixed-area-quadrats sampling.The results indicated that coarse woody debris (CWD) and fine woody debris (FWD) from the Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest were 29 350.92 kg hm-2 and 2 298.41 kg hm-2, respectively, which were 3.8 times and 1.3 times of those from the Pinus tabulaeformis forest.The dead standing trees and fallen dead wood were separately accounted for 85.65% and 14.35% of CWD from the P.tabulaeformis forest, however, the proportion of dead standing trees and fallen dead wood from the Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest was 1.The big diameter grade of CWD larger than 20 cm was the main component in the Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest,and accounted for 60.81% of the total reserves, while small diameter grade from 10 cm to 20 cm was mainly found in the P.tabulaeformis forest.The big diameter grade and small diameter grade of CWD accounted for 55.33% and 44.67% of total reserves, respectively.The litter of the P.tabulaeformis forest was 30 472.31 kg hm-2, which was 3 times more than that of the Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata forest.The discrepancy of the reserves of litter and woody debris reflected the diversity of population structure, stand regeneration, community internal competition and litter decomposition conditions of the two forests in the Xiaolong Mountains.%采用周定面积样方取样法研究了小陇山林区锐齿栎和油松天然林死木质残体及凋落物的总储量.结果表明:小陇山林区锐齿栎天然林粗死木质残体(Coarse Woody debris,简称CWD)和细小木质残体(Fine woody debris,简称FWD)储量分别为29 350.92 kg hm-2和2 298.41 kg hm-2,分别为油松天然林的3.8和1.3倍.油松林CWD组成中枯立木占到85.65%,倒木只占14.35%,而锐齿栎天然林枯立木和倒木所占的比例基本为1.从CWD的径级结构上来说,

  6. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  7. Community and ecosystem ramifications of increasing lianas in neotropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Wright, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lianas (woody vines) are increasing in neotropical forests, representing one of the first large-scale structural changes documented for these important ecosystems. The potential ramifications of increasing lianas are huge, as lianas alter both tropical forest diversity and ecosystem functioning. At

  8. A conceptual framework for dryland aeolian sediment transport along the grassland-forest continuum: Effects of woody plant canopy cover and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breshears, David D.; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Zou, Chris B.; Field, Jason P.; Allen, Craig D.

    2009-04-01

    Aeolian processes are of particular importance in dryland ecosystems where ground cover is inherently sparse because of limited precipitation. Dryland ecosystems include grassland, shrubland, savanna, woodland, and forest, and can be viewed collectively as a continuum of woody plant cover spanning from grasslands with no woody plant cover up to forests with nearly complete woody plant cover. Along this continuum, the spacing and shape of woody plants determine the spatial density of roughness elements, which directly affects aeolian sediment transport. Despite the extensiveness of dryland ecosystems, studies of aeolian sediment transport have generally focused on agricultural fields, deserts, or highly disturbed sites where rates of transport are likely to be greatest. Until recently, few measurements have been made of aeolian sediment transport over multiple wind events and across a variety of types of dryland ecosystems. To evaluate potential trends in aeolian sediment transport as a function of woody plant cover, estimates of aeolian sediment transport from recently published studies, in concert with rates from four additional locations (two grassland and two woodland sites), are reported here. The synthesis of these reports leads to the development of a new conceptual framework for aeolian sediment transport in dryland ecosystems along the grassland-forest continuum. The findings suggest that: (1) for relatively undisturbed ecosystems, shrublands have inherently greater aeolian sediment transport because of wake interference flow associated with intermediate levels of density and spacing of woody plants; and (2) for disturbed ecosystems, the upper bound for aeolian sediment transport decreases as a function of increasing amounts of woody plant cover because of the effects of the height and density of the canopy on airflow patterns and ground cover associated with woody plant cover. Consequently, aeolian sediment transport following disturbance spans the largest

  9. Changes in Structure and Diversity of Woody Plants in a Secondary Mixed Pine-Oak Forest in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos Almazán-Núñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The biotic province of the Sierra Madre del Sur presents a mosaic of woodlands at different successional stages due to frequent modifications in land use. In this study, we analyzed changes in woody flora across three successional stages of pine-oak forest: early, intermediate, and mature. Vegetation composition and diversity were characterized in 10 plots (each 0.28 ha. The mature stage had the highest values for species richness, abundance, and diversity. Pioneer plants were dominant in the early-successional site and may promote the establishment of late-successional species. The vegetation structure was more complex in the mature stage, where members of the Quercus genus were co-dominant with Pinus species. Pine tree richness was highest in the early-successional stage, and its abundance increased at the intermediate-successional site. These results suggest that Pinus species can grow in perturbed and sunny environments but also require favorable edaphic and microclimatic conditions, such as those found in intermediate woodlands. Results of this fieldwork support the initial floristic composition succession model, which suggests that species present at early stages will also occur in subsequent stages. Ecological succession may be considered to be a natural restoration process, and thus, conservation strategies should focus on maintaining distinct successional communities in addition to mature forests in order to preserve a high number of species.

  10. Safe for saplings not safe for seeds : Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, H.A.L.; Kuijper, D.P.J.; Churski, M.; Zub, K.; Szafranska, P.; Smit, C.

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, oak saplings can be found in association with coarse woody debris (CWD) that offers protection against herbivore browsing. In this study we investigated whether CWD is already a safe site during the earlier stages of oak recruitment, i.e. at the seed and seedling phase, or wh

  11. Safe for saplings not safe for seeds : Quercus robur recruitment in relation to coarse woody debris in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, H.A.L.; Kuijper, D.P.J.; Churski, M.; Zub, K.; Szafranska, P.; Smit, C.

    2013-01-01

    In forested ecosystems, oak saplings can be found in association with coarse woody debris (CWD) that offers protection against herbivore browsing. In this study we investigated whether CWD is already a safe site during the earlier stages of oak recruitment, i.e. at the seed and seedling phase, or

  12. Management Conflicts in Cameroonian Community Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Ezzine de Blas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cameroonian community forests were designed and implemented to meet the general objectives of forest management decentralization for democratic and community management. The spread of management conflicts all over the country has shown that these broad expectations have not been met. We describe conflicts occurring in 20 community forests by types of actors and processes involved. We argue that a number of external (community vs. external actors and internal (intra-community conflicts are part of the causes blocking the expected outcome of Cameroonian community forests, fostering bad governance and loss of confidence. Rent appropriation and control of forest resources appear as systemic or generalized conflicts. While community forest support projects have tended to focus on capacity building activities, less direct attention has been given to these systemic problems. We conclude that some factors like appropriate leadership, and spending of logging receipts on collective benefits (direct and indirect are needed to minimize conflicts. Government and development agencies should concentrate efforts on designing concrete tools for improving financial transparency while privileging communities with credible leaders.

  13. Hypholoma lateritium isolated from coarse woody debris, the forest floor, and mineral soil in a deciduous forest in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese A. Thompson; R. Greg Thorn; Kevin T. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Fungi in the Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) are the primary decomposers in temperate forests of dead wood on and in the forest soil. Through the use of isolation techniques selective for saprotrophic Agaricomycetes, a variety of wood decay fungi were isolated from a northern hardwood stand in the Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. In particular,

  14. Post-fire dynamics of the woody vegetation of a savanna forest (Cerradão in the Cerrado-Amazon transition zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Matias Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFire can change the species composition, diversity, and structure of savanna vegetation, thus altering growth and mortality rates. Such changes in the woody vegetation of burned savanna forest were evaluated over four years in comparison to unburned savanna forest. All woody plants with a diameter at breast height > 10 cm were measured in 100 permanent plots. Six months later, 38 of these plots were burned. Three and a half years later, all surviving individuals were re-sampled. Species richness, diversity, and the number of individuals did not change in the burned plots, although they had significantly higher (p < 0.05 increases in basal area and mortality rates (5.1% year-1 than the unburned plots (3.0% year-1.Tachigali vulgarishad the greatest post-fire increase in basal area (53%. The results indicate that fire alters the dynamics and structure of the savanna forest, excluding the less fire-tolerant species and smaller individuals (? 15cm. Tachigali vulgaris is a key species for the recovery of savanna forest biomass due to its considerable post-fire gains in basal area, at least over the short term due to its short life cycle. It follows that frequent burning of savanna forest would result in a marked change in the species composition and structure of its woody vegetation.

  15. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  16. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  17. Individual species-area relationship of woody plant communities in a heterogeneous subtropical monsoon rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Han Tsai

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of species richness is often characterized by the species-area relationship (SAR. However, the SAR approach rarely considers the spatial variability of individual plants that arises from species interactions and species' habitat associations. Here, we explored how the interactions of individual plants of target species influence SAR patterns at a range of neighborhood distances. We analyzed the data of 113,988 woody plants of 110 species from the Fushan Forest Dynamics Plot (25 ha, northern Taiwan, which is a subtropical rainforest heavily influenced by typhoons. We classified 34 dominant species into 3 species types (i.e., accumulator, repeller, or no effect by testing how the individual species-area relationship (i.e., statistics describing how neighborhood species richness changes around individuals of target species departs (i.e., positively, negatively, or with no obvious trend from a null model that accounts for habitat association. Deviation from the null model suggests that the net effect of species' interactions increases (accumulate or decreases (repel neighborhood species richness. We found that (i accumulators were dominant at small interaction distances (30 m; (iii repellers were rarely detected; and (iv large-sized and abundant species tended to be accumulators. The findings suggest that positive species interactions have the potential to accumulate neighborhood species richness, particularly through size- and density-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that the frequently disturbed environment of this subtropical rainforest (e.g., typhoon-driven natural disturbances such as landslides, soil erosion, flooding, and windthrow might create the spatial heterogeneity of species richness and promote positive species interactions.

  18. Social preferences toward energy generation with woody biomass from public forests in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Campbell; Tyron J. Venn; Nathaniel M. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    In Montana, USA, there are substantial opportunities for mechanized thinning treatments on public forests to reduce the likelihood of severe and damaging wildfires and improve forest health. These treatments produce residues that can be used to generate renewable energy and displace fossil fuels. The choice modeling method is employed to examine the marginal...

  19. Dynamics of carbon storage in the woody biomass of northern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiarui

    2002-09-01

    Part of the puzzle of greenhouse gases and climate change is determining where carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed, and what causes a region to become a "carbon sink". Analyses of atmospheric CO2 concentration changes indicate a carbon sink of about 1 to 2 billion tons on land in the northerly regions. Elsewhere the land is suggested to be neutral, which implies that emissions of another 1.5 billion tons of carbon a year from cutting and burning of tropical forests are nearly balanced by sinks of similar magnitude there. The geographical detail of the land carbon sink has, however, remained elusive. Forest greenness observations from sensors on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites were combined with wood volume data from forest inventories to produce relatively high resolution maps of carbon stocks in about 15 million square kilometers of northern forests, roughly above the 30th parallel. Comparison of carbon stock maps from the late 1990s and early 1980s identifies where forests were storing carbon and where they were losing carbon. Results indicate that about 61 billion tons of carbon is contained in the wood of these northern forests. Further, the analysis indicates that forests in Europe, Russia and America have been storing nearly 700 million metric tons of carbon a year, or about 12% of annual global carbon emissions from industrial activities, during the 1980s and 1990s. American forests absorbed 120 million tons of carbon a year, which is about 11% of the USA's annual emissions. With the exception of some Canadian boreal forests, which were found to be losing carbon, most northern forests were storing carbon. Russia, the country with the most forests, accounted for almost 40 percent of the biomass carbon sink. This study has important scientific, economic and policy implications. The scientific implication is that it deconstructs the mystery of the land carbon sink by providing geographically detailed maps of forest carbon pools, sources

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass for broadleaf woody plants and young conifers in Sierra Nevada, California forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Shook, Christine D.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of biomass is fundamental to a wide range of research and natural resource management goals. An accurate estimation of plant biomass is essential to predict potential fire behavior, calculate carbon sequestration for global climate change research, assess critical wildlife habitat, and so forth. Reliable allometric equations from simple field measurements are necessary for efficient evaluation of plant biomass. However, allometric equations are not available for many common woody plant taxa in the Sierra Nevada. In this report, we present more than 200 regression equations for the Sierra Nevada western slope that relate crown diameter, plant height, crown volume, stem diameter, and both crown diameter and height to the dry weight of foliage, branches, and entire aboveground biomass. Destructive sampling methods resulted in regression equations that accurately predict biomass from one or two simple, nondestructive field measurements. The tables presented here will allow researchers and natural resource managers to easily choose the best equations to fit their biomass assessment needs.

  1. Mapping woody-biomass supply costs using forest inventory and competing industry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasko, Timon H.; Conrado, Robert J.; Labatut, Rodrigo; Tasseff, Ryan; Mannion, John T.; Gao, H. Oliver [College of Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wankerl, Andreas [Innovation Interface, 126 Reach Run, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Sanborn, Stephen D.; Knott, Gregory [General Electric Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The goals of energy independence and sustainability have motivated many countries to consider biomass-based energy sources. The United States has substantial and increasing forest resources that could be used to produce both electricity and liquid fuel. However, these forest resources are highly heterogeneous in terms of the wood's properties, the logging cost, the spatial distribution, and the value to other industries. These factors make predicting costs and selecting plant locations particularly challenging. When dealing with forest biomass, feedstock cost and location have frequently been highly simplified in previous studies. This paper presents a methodology for combining highly resolved forest inventory and price data with records of competing industries to develop detailed maps of feedstock availability. The feedstock sourcing strategy of the proposed bioenergy plants is modeled by a cost-minimizing linear program, as is the feedstock selection of the competing mills. A case study is performed on the southeast United States. (author)

  2. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  3. Coarse woody debris facilitates oak recruitment in Bialowieza Primeval Forest, Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Kuijper, Dries P. J.; Prentice, David; Wassen, Martin J.; Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    While oaks contribute to the ecology and economy of temperate lowland forests, recruitment into larger size classes is generally scarce. Ungulate herbivory is a limiting factor for tree recruitment, thus natural structures protecting against ungulates may be important for recruitment success. We stu

  4. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Omidi; Daniel C Dey

    2013-01-01

    Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest covers about 565,000 ha of land in Guilan province,north of Iran and forms a major carbon pool.It is an important economic,soil protection and recreation resource.We studied long-term effects of fire on the structure and composition 37 years after fire occurrence in these forests.To do this research,we selected 85 ha burned and 85 ha unbumed beech forests).The results indicated that the fire had not changed the overall uneven-aged structure,but it changed forest composition from pure stands to mixed stands that now include species such as Carpinus betulus,Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata.The density of trees and regeneration was significantly increased,while the density of shrubs significantly decreased.The main reasons for increased tree regeneration were attributed to (1) reduction of litter depth,and (2) increase in available light from opening of the canopy and reduction in shrub competition.It is apparent that the forest is on a path to return to its natural state before the fire after 37 years.

  5. Estimating aboveground biomass of broadleaved woody plants in the understory of Florida Keys pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Koptur, S.; Snyder, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Species-specific allometric equations that provide estimates of biomass from measured plant attributes are currently unavailable for shrubs common to South Florida pine rocklands, where fire plays an important part in shaping the structure and function of ecosystems. We developed equations to estimate total aboveground biomass and fine fuel of 10 common hardwood species in the shrub layer of pine forests of the lower Florida Keys. Many equations that related biomass categories to crown area and height were significant (p aboveground shrub biomass and shrub fine fuel increased with time since last fire, but the relationships were non-linear. The relative proportion of biomass constituted by the major species also varied with stand age. Estimates based on mixed-species regressions differed slightly from estimates based on species-specific models, but the former could provide useful approximations in similar forests where species-specific regressions are not yet available. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decomposition of New Woody Inputs as a Dry Tropical Forest Regenerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J. S.; Powers, J. S.; Ayres, A.; Kaffenberger, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling deadwood dynamics is limited by our empirical understanding of decomposition patterns and drivers. This gap is significant in dry tropical forests (and in the tropics, broadly) where forest regeneration is a management priority but where decision-making lacks resources. Our goal was to track decomposition and its biological drivers in tree boles added to the forest floor of a regenerating dry forest. We cut and then placed logs (~18 cm dia) of eight representative tree species in ground contact at two different sites (n=8, per site). We tracked density loss and element import/export in both sapwood and heartwood each 6 months over two years. We measured initial and final lignin, structural carbohydrates, nitrogen, and extractives. We also quantified insect gallery volumes, and used two residue 'signatures' to determine dominant fungal rot type: 1) dilute alkali solubility (DAS) and lignin:glucan loss. By year 2, mean density losses in sapwood were 11.6 - 44.4% among tree species, excluding one species that decomposed completely. The best predictor of density loss in sapwood was initial pH, but the correlation was negative rather than positive, as has been reported in temperate systems. Decay was consistently more advanced in sapwood than in heartwood, and although extractives were as high as 16.4% in heartwood, trait-density loss correlations were insignificant. Insects contributed little at this stage to density loss (import dynamics broadly resembled those from temperate studies (e.g., Ca gain, P, K loss), there was high spatial variability. This perhaps related to zone line (spalting) complexity, suggesting intense competition among fungi colonizing small territories within the wood. Estimated CO2 fluxes from the test logs ranged from ~25 to 75% of the annual fluxes from litter fall at these sites. Collectively, these results implicate wood decomposition as an important component of dry forest carbon cycling. Emergent patterns from decomposers are also

  7. Fragmentation of Forest Communities in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities and therefore the beta diversity of forestland in the eastern United States. We combined forest inventory data with land cover data to compare 70 forest communities in terms of the amount and ownership of int...

  8. Validating Community-Led Forest Biomass Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Michelle; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, Will; Bird, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The lack of capacity to monitor forest carbon stocks in developing countries is undermining global efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Involving local people in monitoring forest carbon stocks could potentially address this capacity gap. This study conducts a complete expert remeasurement of community-led biomass inventories in remote tropical forests of Papua New Guinea. By fully remeasuring and isolating the effects of 4,481 field measurements, we demonstrate that programmes employing local people (non-experts) can produce forest monitoring data as reliable as those produced by scientists (experts). Overall, non-experts reported lower biomass estimates by an average of 9.1%, equivalent to 55.2 fewer tonnes of biomass ha(-1), which could have important financial implications for communities. However, there were no significant differences between forest biomass estimates of expert and non-expert, nor were there significant differences in some of the components used to calculate these estimates, such as tree diameter at breast height (DBH), tree counts and plot surface area, but were significant differences between tree heights. At the landscape level, the greatest biomass discrepancies resulted from height measurements (41%) and, unexpectedly, a few large missing trees contributing to a third of the overall discrepancies. We show that 85% of the biomass discrepancies at the tree level were caused by measurement taken on large trees (DBH ≥50 cm), even though they consisted of only 14% of the stems. We demonstrate that programmes that engage local people can provide high-quality forest carbon data that could help overcome barriers to reducing forest carbon emissions in developing countries. Nonetheless, community-based monitoring programmes should prioritise reducing errors in the field that lead to the most important discrepancies, notably; overcoming challenges to accurately measure large trees.

  9. Diversity, distribution and resource values of woody climbers in tropical forests of southern Eastern Ghats, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chellam Muthumperumal; Narayanaswamy Parthasarathy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and resource values of liana species assessed in six hill complexes of southern Eastern Ghats,India.143 liana species (DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1.5 cm) and 32,033 liana individuals were recorded from 110 transects (0.5 ha each covering 55 ha area) in the study sites.The resource values of lianas were broadly categorized into ecological and economic importance.About 90% (129)of liana species and 96% (30,564) of liana individuals were established ecological/economic values.Fruit rewards provided by 76 species and 20,325 individuals constituted the major resource of ecological importance.82 species and 21,457 liana individuals are of economic importance as medicine,edible fruits,edible and medicinal values,and yet others are used for different domestic purposes including furniture,fuel wood,rope making etc..Ecologically,the prevalence of succulent diaspores in lianas of Indian Eastern Ghats indicates the animal dependence of many liana species for dispersal and underlines the need for a holistic and whole-forest conservation approach in maintaining forest biodiversity.

  10. Effects of uprooting tree on herbaceous species diversity, woody species regeneration status and soft physical characteristics in a temperate mixed forest of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Kooch; S.M.Hosseini; J.Mohammadi; S.M.Hojjati

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine the pattern of development of herbaceous plant species,woody species regeneration and soil physical characteristics after tree uprooting in 20-ha areas of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran.Soil bulk density,soil texture and moisture from pit and mound (PM) were measured in the laboratory.Results show that the soil bulk density was most in soil deeper layers at mound top,and the soil moisture content was most in soil deeper layers at Pit bottom.Our study supports that the micro-topography of PM (pit and mound) topography will create a mosaic of environmental conditions.This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species.It is recommend that the fallen trees with PM structure should remain in the protected area without clearing as the best option for forest restoration.This information can be useful for forest management that attempts to emulate natural processes.

  11. Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis James), a Flexible Generalist of Forest Communities in the Intermountain West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmuller-Campione, Marcella A; Long, James N

    2016-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is an increased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James.), an understudied species of western North America, has been documented to dominate harsh environments and thought to be competitively excluded from mesic environments. An observational study was conducted using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Database (FIAD) to test the competitive exclusion hypothesis across a broad elevational and geographic area within the Intermountain West, USA. We anticipated that competitive exclusion would result in limber pine's absence from mid-elevation forest communities, creating a bi-modal distribution. Using the FIAD database, limber pine was observed to occur with 22 different overstory species, which represents a surprising number of the woody, overstory species commonly observed in the Intermountain West. There were no biologically significant relationships between measures of annual precipitation, annual temperature, or climatic indices (i.e. Ombrothermic Index) and limber pine dominance. Limber pine was observed to be a consistent component of forest communities across elevation classes. Of the plots that contained limber pine regeneration, nearly half did not have a live or dead limber pine in the overstory. However, limber pine regeneration was greater in plots with higher limber pine basal area and higher average annual precipitation. Our results suggest limber pine is an important habitat generalist, playing more than one functional role in forest communities. Generalists, like limber pine, may be increasingly important, as managers are challenged to build resistance and resilience to future conditions in western forests. Additional research is needed to understand how different silvicultural systems can be used to maintain multi-species forest communities.

  12. Uniting forest and livelihood outcomes? Analyzing external actor interventions in sustainable livelihoods in a community forest management context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Clare; Claus, Rachel; Driessen, Peter; Dos Santos, Maria Joao Ferreira; George, Mary Ann; Van Laerhoven, Frank

    2017-01-01

    External actor interventions in community forest management (CFM) attempt to support communities with developing forest institutions and/ or improving their livelihoods portfolio. Common pool resource (CPR) scholars argue that forest institutions are required to prevent overharvesting of the forest

  13. Assessment of changes in formations of non-forest woody vegetation in southern Denmark based on airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Ioannis; Levin, Gregor; Díaz-Varela, Ramón Alberto; Malinowski, Radek

    2017-09-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology that uses light in the form of pulses to measure the range between a sensor and the Earth's surface. Recent increase in availability of airborne LiDAR scanning (ALS) data providing national coverage with high point densities has opened a wide range of possibilities for monitoring landscape elements and their changes at broad geographical extent. We assessed the dynamics of the spatial extent of non-forest woody vegetation (NFW) in a study area of approx. 2500 km(2) in southern Jutland, Denmark, based on two acquisitions of ALS data for 2006 and 2014 in combination with other spatial data. Our results show a net-increase (4.8%) in the total area of NFW. Furthermore, this net change comprises of both areas with a decrease and areas with an increase of NFW. An accuracy assessment based on visual interpretation of aerial photos indicates high accuracy (>95%) in the delineation of NFW without changes during the study period. For NFW that changed between 2006 and 2014, accuracies were lower (90 and 82% in removed and new features, respectively), which is probably due to lower point densities of the 2006 ALS data (0.5 pts./m(2)) compared to the 2014 data (4-5 pts./m(2)). We conclude that ALS data, if combined with other spatial data, in principle are highly suitable for detailed assessment of changes in landscape features, such as formations of NFW at broad geographical extent. However, in change assessment based on multi-temporal ALS data with different point densities errors occur, particularly when examining small or narrow NFW objects.

  14. Comparing the methods plot and point-centered quarter to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the effectiveness of the methods fixed area plots (AP and point-centered quarters (PQ to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado. We used 10 APs and 140 PQs, distributed into 5 transects. We compared the density of individuals, floristic composition, richness of families, genera, and species, and vertical and horizontal vegetation structure. The AP method was more effective to sample the density of individuals. The PQ method was more effective for characterizing species richness, vertical vegetation structure, and record of species with low abundance. The composition of families, genera, and species, as well as the species with higher importance value index in the community were similarly determined by the 2 methods. The methods compared are complementary. We suggest that the use of AP, PQ, or both methods may be aimed at the vegetation parameter under study.

  15. Rapid Shifts in Soil and Forest Floor Microbial Communities with Changes in Vegetation during Secondary Tropical Forest Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Balser, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (c19:0) in the wet season, which suggests the presence of anaerobic microsites in these very clayey Oxisols. Enzymatic activity did not differ with succession but was highest in the dry season. We expect this may be due to decreased turnover of enzymes with low soil moisture. Interannual sampling has revealed a very rapid microbial response to changes in aboveground cover. Within a year following woody biomass encroachment, we detected a shift in the soil microbial community from a pasture-associated community to an early secondary forest community in one of our replicate pasture sites. This very rapid response in the belowground microbial community structure to changes in vegetation has not been strongly documented in the literature. This data supports a direct link between aboveground and belowground biotic community structures and highlights the importance of long-term repeated sampling of microbial communities in dynamic ecosystems. Our findings have implications for predicting rapid ecological responses to land-cover change.

  16. Habitat fragmentation, tree diversity, and plant invasion interact to structure forest caterpillar communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stireman, John O; Devlin, Hilary; Doyle, Annie L

    2014-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasive species are two of the most prominent threats to terrestrial ecosystems. Few studies have examined how these factors interact to influence the diversity of natural communities, particularly primary consumers. Here, we examined the effects of forest fragmentation and invasion of exotic honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae) on the abundance and diversity of the dominant forest herbivores: woody plant-feeding Lepidoptera. We systematically surveyed understory caterpillars along transects in 19 forest fragments over multiple years in southwestern Ohio and evaluated how fragment area, isolation, tree diversity, invasion by honeysuckle and interactions among these factors influence species richness, diversity and abundance. We found strong seasonal variation in caterpillar communities, which responded differently to fragmentation and invasion. Abundance and richness increased with fragment area, but these effects were mitigated by high levels of honeysuckle, tree diversity, landscape forest cover, and large recent changes in area. Honeysuckle infestation was generally associated with decreased caterpillar abundance and diversity, but these effects were strongly dependent on other fragment traits. Effects of honeysuckle on abundance were moderated when fragment area, landscape forest cover and tree diversity were high. In contrast, negative effects of honeysuckle invasion on caterpillar diversity were most pronounced in fragments with high tree diversity and large recent increases in area. Our results illustrate the complex interdependencies of habitat fragmentation, plant diversity and plant invasion in their effects on primary consumers and emphasize the need to consider these processes in concert to understand the consequences of anthropogenic habitat change for biodiversity.

  17. Fuel reduction and coarse woody debris dynamics with early season and late season prescribed fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, E.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Ballenger, E.A.; Brennan, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fire exclusion has led to an unnatural accumulation and greater spatial continuity of organic material on the ground in many forests. This material serves both as potential fuel for forest fires and habitat for a large array of forest species. Managers must balance fuel reduction to reduce wildfire hazard with fuel retention targets to maintain other forest functions. This study reports fuel consumption and changes to coarse woody debris attributes with prescribed burns ignited under different fuel moisture conditions. Replicated early season burn, late season burn, and unburned control plots were established in old-growth mixed conifer forest in Sequoia National Park that had not experienced fire for more than 120 years. Early season burns were ignited during June 2002 when fuels were relatively moist, and late season burns were ignited during September/October 2001 when fuels were dry. Fuel loading and coarse woody debris abundance, cover, volume, and mass were evaluated prior to and after the burns. While both types of burns reduced fuel loading, early season burns consumed significantly less of the total dead and down organic matter than late season burns (67% versus 88%). This difference in fuel consumption between burning treatments was significant for most all woody fuel components evaluated, plus the litter and duff layers. Many logs were not entirely consumed - therefore the number of logs was not significantly changed by fire - but burning did reduce log length, cover, volume, and mass. Log cover, volume, and mass were reduced to a lesser extent by early season burns than late season burns, as a result of higher wood moisture levels. Early season burns also spread over less of the ground surface within the burn perimeter (73%) than late season burns (88%), and were significantly patchier. Organic material remaining after a fire can dam sediments and reduce erosion, while unburned patches may help mitigate the impact of fire on fire-sensitive species by

  18. Closely-related taxa influence woody species discrimination via DNA barcoding: evidence from global forest dynamics plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Nancai; Erickson, David L; Chen, Bufeng; Ge, Xuejun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Swenson, Nathan G; Zhang, Jin-Long; Jones, Frank A; Huang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Wanhui; Hao, Zhanqing; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Lum, Shawn; Bourg, Norman A; Parker, John D; Zimmerman, Jess K; McShea, William J; Lopez, Ida C; Sun, I-Fang; Davies, Stuart J; Ma, Keping; Kress, W John

    2015-10-12

    To determine how well DNA barcodes from the chloroplast region perform in forest dynamics plots (FDPs) from global CTFS-ForestGEO network, we analyzed DNA barcoding sequences of 1277 plant species from a wide phylogenetic range (3 FDPs in tropics, 5 in subtropics and 5 in temperate zone) and compared the rates of species discrimination (RSD). We quantified RSD by two DNA barcode combinations (rbcL + matK and rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA) using a monophyly-based method (GARLI). We defined two indexes of closely-related taxa (Gm/Gt and S/G ratios) and correlated these ratios with RSD. The combination of rbcL + matK averagely discriminated 88.65%, 83.84% and 72.51% at the local, regional and global scales, respectively. An additional locus trnH-psbA increased RSD by 2.87%, 1.49% and 3.58% correspondingly. RSD varied along a latitudinal gradient and were negatively correlated with ratios of closely-related taxa. Successes of species discrimination generally depend on scales in global FDPs. We suggested that the combination of rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA is currently applicable for DNA barcoding-based phylogenetic studies on forest communities.

  19. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  20. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.

  1. Woody plant encroachment, and its removal, impact bacterial and fungal communities across stream and terrestrial habitats in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Allison M; Dodds, Walter K; Jumpponen, Ari

    2015-10-01

    Woody plant encroachment has become a global threat to grasslands and has caused declines in aboveground richness and changes in ecosystem function; yet we have a limited understanding on the effects of these phenomena on belowground microbial communities. We completed riparian woody plant removals at Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas and collected soils spanning land-water interfaces in removal and woody vegetation impacted areas. We measured stream sediments and soils for edaphic variables (C and N pools, soil water content, pH) and bacterial (16S rRNA genes) and fungal (ITS2 rRNA gene repeat) communities using Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding. Bacterial richness and diversity decreased with distance from streams. Fungal richness decreased with distance from the stream in wooded areas, but was similar across landscape position while Planctomycetes and Basidiomycota relative abundance was lower in removal areas. Cyanobacteria, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Glomeromycota relative abundance was greater in removal areas. Ordination analyses indicated that bacterial community composition shifted more across land-water interfaces than fungi yet both were marginally influenced by treatment. This study highlights the impacts of woody encroachment restoration on grassland bacterial and fungal communities which likely subsequently affects belowground processes and plant health in this ecosystem. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  3. Forest owners' perceptions of ecotourism: Integrating community values and forest conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Piñeros, Sandra; Mayett-Moreno, Yesica

    2015-03-01

    The use of forest land for ecotourism has been well accepted due to its ability to provide income to local people and to conserve the forest. Preparing the forest with infrastructure to attract and educate visitors has been reported of importance. This study applied Q methodology in a small rural community of the State of Puebla, Mexico, to reveal forest owners' perceptions to build infrastructure in their forest as part of their ecotourism project. It also discloses forest owners' underlying motives to use their forest for ecotourism. Ecotourism is perceived as a complementary activity to farming that would allow women to be involved in community development. Low impact infrastructure is desired due to forest owners' perception to preserve the forest for the overall community well-being.

  4. Forest Islands and Castaway Communities: REDD+ and Forest Restoration in Prey Lang Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Work

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate Change policies are playing an ever-increasing role in global development strategies and their implementation gives rise to often-unforeseen social conflicts and environmental degradations. A landscape approach to analyzing forest-based Climate Change Mitigation policies (CCM and land grabs in the Prey Lang Forest landscape, Cambodia revealed two Korea-Cambodia partnership projects designed to increase forest cover that are juxtaposed in this paper. Case study data revealed a REDD+ project with little negative impact or social conflict in the project area and an Afforestation/Reforestation (A/R project that created both social and ecological conflicts. The study concludes that forest-based CCM policies can reduce conflict through efforts at minimal transformation of local livelihoods, maximal attention to the tenure rights, responsibilities, and authority of citizens, and by improving, not degrading, the project landscapes. The paper presents the circumstances under which these guidelines are sidestepped by the A/R project, and importantly reveals that dramatic forest and livelihood transformation had already affected the community and environment in the REDD+ project site. There are deep contradictions at the heart of climate change policies toward which attention must be given, lest we leave our future generations with nothing but forest islands and castaway communities.

  5. Bryophyte species associations with coarse woody debris and stand ages in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, T.; Muir, Patricia S.

    1998-01-01

    We quantified the relationships of 93 forest floor bryophyte species, including epiphytes from incorporated litterfall, to substrate and stand age in Pseudotsuga menziesii-Tsuga heterophylla stands at two sites in western Oregon. We used the method of Dufr??ne and Legendre that combines a species' relative abundance and relative frequency, to calculate that species' importance in relation to environmental variables. The resulting 'indicator value' describes a species' reliability for indicating the given environmental parameter. Thirty-nine species were indicative of either humus, a decay class of coarse woody debris, or stand age. Bryophyte community composition changed along the continuum of coarse woody debris decomposition from recently fallen trees with intact bark to forest floor humus. Richness of forest floor bryophytes will be enhanced when a full range of coarse woody debris decay classes is present. A suite of bryophytes indicated old-growth forest. These were mainly either epiphytes associated with older conifers or liverworts associated with coarse woody debris. Hardwood-associated epiphytes mainly indicated young stands. Mature conifers, hardwoods, and coarse woody debris are biological legacies that can be protected when thinning managed stands to foster habitat complexity and biodiversity, consistent with an ecosystem approach to forest management.

  6. Structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities following woody plant encroachment in the southern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, Emily B [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Ansley, R J [Texas A& M University; Boutton, Thomas W [Texas A& M University

    2010-01-01

    In the southern Great Plains (USA), encroachment of grassland ecosystems by Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) is widespread. Mesquite encroachment alters net primary productivity, enhances stores of C and N in plants and soil, and leads to increased levels of soil microbial biomass and activity. While mesquite's impact on the biogeochemistry of the region is well established, it effects on soil microbial diversity and function are unknown. In this study, soils associated with four plant types (C{sub 3} perennial grasses, C{sub 4} midgrasses, C{sub 4} shortgrasses, and mesquite) from a mesquite-encroached mixed grass prairie were surveyed to in an attempt to characterize the structure, diversity, and functional capacity of their soil microbial communities. rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used in conjunction with the GeoChip functional gene array to evaluate these potential differences. Mesquite soil supported increased bacterial and fungal diversity and harbored a distinct fungal community relative to other plant types. Despite differences in composition and diversity, few significant differences were detected with respect to the potential functional capacity of the soil microbial communities. These results may suggest that a high level of functional redundancy exists within the bacterial portion of the soil communities; however, given the bias of the GeoChip toward bacterial functional genes, potential functional differences among soil fungi could not be addressed. The results of this study illustrate the linkages shared between above- and belowground communities and demonstrate that soil microbial communities, and in particular soil fungi, may be altered by the process of woody plant encroachment.

  7. Indigenous knowledge of Zigi community and forest management decision-making: a perspective of community forest interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bwagalilo Fadhilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK regarding forests has existed for a long time and has defined community’s forests interaction in various areas. This interaction has resulted in knowledge developed by indigenous communities that has been used to manage their interaction with the forests. However, IK is often regarded as invalid and unreliable to use in forest management and its value has been eroded and replaced with western scientific knowledge for both production and conservation forest management objectives. However, despite the application of modern scientific knowledge, forest status continues to decline. This paper aims to explore IK held by communities in the Zigi catchment in Tanzania and assess the influence of this form of knowledge on forest management. The study used focus group discussions to explore IK related to forest management from communities living adjacent to forest reserves and a checklist questionnaire to assess the level of use of IK in forest management at different levels of decision-making. The results reveal several IK and practices related to forests in this region. However, there is minimal evidence of consideration of this IK in forest management decision- making. This paper recommends that a serious review of IK related to forests is undertaken in Tanzania and that mechanisms are developed to integrate this form of knowledge with western scientific forest management in order develop a more holistic approach to sustainable forest management.

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns and Dynamics of Species Richness and Abundance of Woody Plant Functional Groups in a Tropical Forest Landscape of Hainan Island,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Dong Zhang; Run-Guo Zang; Yao-Dong Qi

    2008-01-01

    Tropical forests are among the most species-diverse ecosystems on Earth. Their structures and ecological functions are complex to understand. Functional group is defined as a group of species that play similar roles in an ecosystem. The functional group approach has been regarded as an effective way of linking the compositions of complex ecosystems with their ecological functions. To understand the variation of functional groups in species-rich ecosystems after disturbance, the present study investigated the spatial pattern and temporal dynamics of woody plants in a typically fragmented natural forest landscape of Hainan Island in South China. The study area was classified into eight landscape types based on vegetation type, disturbance manner and the time of recovery. The woody plant species were aggregated into seven functional groups based on the growth form, successional status and plant size. The results gained from the present study showed that all functional groups, except for the emergent and canopy tree species, were present in all eight landscape types. Each landscape type had different numbers of dominant functional groups. There are similar species richness and stem abundance structure among functional groups between mid-successional clear cut lowland rainforest and old growth tropical coniferous forest. This similarity exists in selective logged lowland rainforest and old-growth lowland rainforest, as well as among landscape types of montane rainforest. The functional groups with the same successional status had similar patterns of species richness and stem abundance ratios among different landscape types. The variation patterns of functional groups along the successional stages in terms of species richness and stem abundance among the tropical lowland rainforest landscape types were more similar to each other than those in the tropical montane reinforest landscape types. This study provides further support for the competition-colonization tradeoff and

  9. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak P J Smit

    Full Text Available With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65% across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii reduced grass biomass, and (iii reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  10. Predicting the Effects of Woody Encroachment on Mammal Communities, Grazing Biomass and Fire Frequency in African Savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Izak P J; Prins, Herbert H T

    2015-01-01

    With grasslands and savannas covering 20% of the world's land surface, accounting for 30-35% of worldwide Net Primary Productivity and supporting hundreds of millions of people, predicting changes in tree/grass systems is priority. Inappropriate land management and rising atmospheric CO2 levels result in increased woody cover in savannas. Although woody encroachment occurs world-wide, Africa's tourism and livestock grazing industries may be particularly vulnerable. Forecasts of responses of African wildlife and available grazing biomass to increases in woody cover are thus urgently needed. These predictions are hard to make due to non-linear responses and poorly understood feedback mechanisms between woody cover and other ecological responders, problems further amplified by the lack of long-term and large-scale datasets. We propose that a space-for-time analysis along an existing woody cover gradient overcomes some of these forecasting problems. Here we show, using an existing woody cover gradient (0-65%) across the Kruger National Park, South Africa, that increased woody cover is associated with (i) changed herbivore assemblage composition, (ii) reduced grass biomass, and (iii) reduced fire frequency. Furthermore, although increased woody cover is associated with reduced livestock production, we found indigenous herbivore biomass (excluding elephants) remains unchanged between 20-65% woody cover. This is due to a significant reorganization in the herbivore assemblage composition, mostly as a result of meso-grazers being substituted by browsers at increasing woody cover. Our results suggest that woody encroachment will have cascading consequences for Africa's grazing systems, fire regimes and iconic wildlife. These effects will pose challenges and require adaptation of livelihoods and industries dependent on conditions currently prevailing.

  11. Patterns and determinants of species similarity decay of forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much research has focused on biodiversity in mountain regions, elevational patterns of community similarity (i.e. species turnover and the underlying processes are still rarely discussed. In this study, based on field investigations of 28 forest communities in the western Qinling Mountains, we evaluated the combined effects of habitat divergence and geographical distance on patterns of similarity in species composition using Mantel tests and multiple regressions on distance matrices (MRM. We also compared the rates of similarity decay of different life forms with geographical distance using permutation tests. Results indicated that, for all three life forms, community similarity decreased significantly with elevational, geographical, and habitat distances. Geographical distance and habitat heterogeneity together explained 41.1%, 59.0% and 47.4% of variance in species composition of trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively, with geographical distance uniformly explaining more variance than habitat heterogeneity. Woody plants showed a faster decay in similarity with geographical distance than herbaceous species. These results suggest that, at the scale of our study, dispersal limitations and habitat filtering influence species composition together, and highlighted that dispersal limitation may play a more important role in structuring the forest communities of the western Qinling Mountains.

  12. Woody vegetation stocking, composition and diversity in Miombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participatory forest management (PFM) model is aimed at improving both forest resources ... woody stocking, and species composition and diversity at Mgori Forest Reserve, in Tanzania. ... DBH distribution followed an inverse 'J' shape.

  13. The impacts of selective logging and clear-cutting on woody plant diversity after 40years of natural recovery in a tropical montane rain forest, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Zang, Runguo; Lu, Xinghui; Huang, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    Historically, clear-cutting and selective logging have been the commercial logging practices. However, the effect of these pervasive timber extraction methods on biodiversity in tropical forests is still poorly understood. In this study, we compared abiotic factors, species diversity, community composition, and structure between ca. 40-year-old clear-cut (MCC); ca. 40-year-old selectively logged (MSL); and tropical old growth montane rain forests (MOG) on Hainan Island, China. Results showed that there were a large number of trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) <30cm in the two logged forests. Additionally, the two logged forests only had 40% of the basal area of the large trees (DBH≥30cm) found in the old growth forest. The species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices generally showed no difference among the three forest types. MCC had 70% of the species richness of the large trees in the MOG, whereas MSL and MOG had similar species richness. High value timber species had similar species richness among the three forest types, but a lower abundance and basal area of large trees in MCC. The species composition was distinct between the three forests. Large trees belonging to the family Fagaceae dominated in the logged forests and played a more important role in the old growth forest. Huge trees (DBH≥70cm) were rare in MCC, but were frequently found in MSL. Most abiotic factors varied inconsistently among the three forest types and few variables related to species diversity, community structure and composition. Our study indicated that MSL had a relatively faster recovery rate than MCC in a tropical montane rain forest after 40years, but both logged forests had a high recovery potential over a long-term.

  14. Role of magpie in bird community formation in secondary forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed a bird community in a secondary forest and the results show that the magpie was one of the key groups in the secondary forest. The key group is identified based on the nests used by other birds at a rate of 25%-40.17%. The size of the community is different and the number of these key groups is not certain.

  15. L’esperienza delle Community Forests in Inghilterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Colangelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Community Forests can be described as multi-purpose forests that are close to people and that deliver environmental, social and economic benefits. Community Forests involve local communities in the planning, design, management and use of trees, woodland and associated green-spaces. In England, Community Forests are a national programme of environmental regeneration reaching half of the England’s population, enhancing the countryside around major towns and cities, creating beautiful landscapes, rich in wildlife with associated opportunities for recreation and education. Overall, Community Forests cover an area of over four hundred and fifty thousand hectares in England: one of the largest environmental initiatives in Europe. After twenty years, the great involvement of people shows the importance of this new strategy for environmental planning and management. 

  16. Headwater riparian forest-floor invertebrate communities associated with alternative forest management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykken, Jessica J; Moldenke, Andrew R; Olson, Deanna H

    2007-06-01

    Headwater streams and their riparian zones are a common, yet poorly understood, component of Pacific Northwest, USA, landscapes. We describe the ecological importance of headwater stream riparian zones as habitat for forest-floor invertebrate communities and assess how alternative management strategies for riparian zones may impact these communities. We compared community composition of forest-floor invertebrates at increasing distances along trans-riparian (stream edge to upslope) transects in mature forests, clearcuts, and riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width with upslope clearcuts. Invertebrates were collected using pitfall traps in five replicate blocks of three treatments each in the Willamette National Forest, Oregon, USA. We measured microclimate and microhabitat variables at pitfall locations. Despite strong elevation and block effects on community composition, community analyses revealed a distinct "riparian" invertebrate community within 1 m of the stream edge in mature forest treatments, which was strongly related to cool, humid microclimate conditions. Invertebrate community composition in buffer treatments was far more similar to that of mature forests than to clearcuts; a pattern mirrored by microclimate. These results suggest that, within our study sites, forest-floor invertebrate distributions are strongly associated with microclimate and that riparian buffers of approximately 30-m width do provide habitat for many riparian and forest species. Riparian reserves may serve as effective forest refugia and/or dispersal corridors for invertebrates and other taxa, and their incorporation into watershed management plans likely will contribute to meeting persistence and connectivity objectives.

  17. Indigenous knowledge of Zigi community and forest management decision-making: a perspective of community forest interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bwagalilo Fadhilia; Evarist Liwa; Riziki Shemdoe

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge (IK) regarding forests has existed for a long time and has defined community’s forests interaction in various areas. This interaction has resulted in knowledge developed by indigenous communities that has been used to manage their interaction with the forests. However, IK is often regarded as invalid and unreliable to use in forest management and its value has been eroded and replaced with western scientific knowledge for both production and conservation f...

  18. Development of Community Forest in South Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Syahrany Noor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of community forests in South Kalimantan and information about the properties and benefits of community forest timber, the hopes community forests timber can be developed into a source of raw materials of natural forest wood substitute that can support the development of the wood processing industry in South Kalimantan. The result showed that Community forest proved to be very useful both for the owner, the community and the environment as well as for the government especially in order to meet the timber supply for local. Until the year 2011 the community forest area that was developed by the government in South Kalimantan has reached 2,895 ha, and the most widely are the Tanah Laut district covering 935 ha. The wood species that developed is sengon, jati, mahoni, karet, petai, akasia, galam, kemiri. The properties of the wood need to be understood and known before the relevant timber used both as a building material or as raw material for the industry, because these properties are basically determining the quality of wood products that will be produced. Technically private community forest wood can be used for building materials, components boat/ship and industrial raw materials.

  19. Determinants of patchiness of woody vegetation in an African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Michiel P.; Rozen-Rechels, David; le Roux, Elizabeth; Cromsigt, Joris P.G.M.; Berg, Matheus P.; Olff, Han

    2016-01-01

    How is woody vegetation patchiness affected by rainfall, fire and large herbivore biomass? Can we predict woody patchiness and cover over large-scale environmental gradients? We quantified variation in local patchiness as the lacunarity of woody cover on satellite-derived images. Using Random Forest

  20. Transgenic woody plants for biofuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Tang; Anna Y.Tang

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic trees as a new source for biofuel have brought a great interest in tree biotechnology. Genetically modifying forest trees for ethanol production have advantages in technical challenges, costs, environmental concerns, and financial problems over some of crops. Genetic engineering of forest trees can be used to reduce the level of lignin, to produce the fast-growing trees, to develop trees with higher cellulose, and to allow the trees to be grown more widely. Trees can establish themselves in the field with less care of farmers, compared to most of crops. Transgenic crops as a new source for biofuel have been recently reviewed in several reviews. Here, we overview transgenic woody plants as a new source for biofuel including genetically modified woody plants and environment; main focus of woody plants genetic modifications;solar to chemical energy transfer; cellulose biosynthesis;lignin biosynthesis;and cellulosic ethanol as biofuel.

  1. Community-based Forest Resources Management in Nigeria: Case study of Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, Taraba State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria, human communities are found within or beside forest ecosystems, depending onthese ecosystems for survival. Their forest exploitation is considered a threat to conservation efforts,leading to constant conflicts between Government, law enforcement agencies and the communities. Thebest solution is a win-win system of participatory community-based forest resources management, inwhich the communities are regarded as stakeholders rather than as threats. This paper explains theadoption of this approach in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Mambilla Plateau, where the communities weretrained in establishment and management of forest plantations with readily available market for theirtimber; employment for some of the community youths as well as community development projects.This paper calls for the adoption of this system in other protected areas in Nigeria, while theGovernment should provide basic amenities for the communities as alternatives to those forest products.Keywords: Community-based forest management, Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, Protected areas, Nigeria.

  2. Benefit sharing and community participation dynamics in forest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antony, Bindu; Treue, Thorsten; Salim, Shyam S.;

    2014-01-01

    Community forestry has a significant role in the lives of people in Nepal as it serves the livelihood security of people to a greater extent. It is central in ensuring community participation in all the stages of CF (Community forestry) process and thus reach the objectives of sustainable forest...... on the dynamics of participation in forest management, especially on the link between distribution of benefits, and the level of participation of members, by exploring the process of institutional management and community governance. The study was undertaken in 178 households of Kankali community forestry...

  3. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Wassie Eshete, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates major bottlenecks for regeneration of woody species, and explores opportunities and challenges for restoration. In this thesis, the following major questions are addressed: 1. How do forest structure, ...

  4. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  5. Domestic Forests: A New Paradigm for Integrating Local Communities' Forestry into Tropical Forest Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Verdeaux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of confrontation between forest agencies and forest people, "indigenous" or "local" practices are increasingly considered as a viable alternative of forest management. This paper is a synthesis derived from various long-term research programs carried out by the authors in Southeast Asia and Africa on forests managed by farmers. These researches looked at local practices and underlying science, including their social, political, and symbolic dimensions. They also addressed evolutionary trends and driving forces, as well as potential and limits for forest conservation and development, mitigation of deforestation, biodiversity conservation, and poverty alleviation in a context of global environmental, political, and social change. We discuss how forest management by local communities, contrary to the unified models of professional forest management, exhibits a high historical and geographical diversity. The analysis we draw from the various examples we studied reveals several invariants, which allows proposing the unifying paradigm of "domestic forest." The first universal feature concerns the local managers themselves, who are, in their vast majority, farmers. Management practices range from local interventions in the forest ecosystem, to more intensive types of forest culture, and ultimately to permanent forest plantation. But in all cases, forest management is closely integrated with agriculture. The second universal feature concerns the conceptual continuity of planted forests with the natural forest, in matters of vegetation's structure and composition as well as economic traits and ecosystem services. The resulting forest is uneven-aged, composed of several strata, harboring a large diversity of species, and producing a wide range of products, with timber seldom being the dominant one. The term "domestic forest" aims at highlighting the close relationship the domestication process establishes between a specific human

  6. Effects of forest fragmentation on amazonian understory bird communities

    OpenAIRE

    Bierregaard Jr,Richard O.; Lovejoy, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARYData form an intensive mist-netting mark-recapture program in the central Amazon demostrate significant changes in the undesrtory avian community in isolate patches of 1 and 10 ha of terra firme forest. Following isolation, capture rates increase significantly as birds fleeing the felled forest entered the. newly formed forest fragments. Movement to and from the reserve is restricted, as witnessed by an increase in recapture percentages following isolation. Species of birds that axe. o...

  7. Effectiveness of community forest management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2015-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestati...... to no CFM or CFM allowing commercial uses. Our findings suggest that CFM and commercial use of forest resources are not guarantees of forest conservation and that differentiating among types of CFM is important....

  8. Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, B.J.M.; Bommel, van S.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Verschoor, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resou

  9. Forest-people interfaces: understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Arts; S. van Bommel; M. Ros-Tonen; G. Verschoor

    2012-01-01

    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resou

  10. Community Based Forest Management as a Tool for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-Based Forest Management (CBFM) in Cross River State (CRS) was ... a mutually acceptable formula should be worked out among the stakeholders. ... creation of enabling environment; state economic and fiscal policies, policy to ...

  11. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, Jana S; Rohland, Anja; Sichardt, Nora; Lade, Peggy; Guidetti, Brenda; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gossner, Martin M

    2016-01-01

    Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature) as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density) on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers), detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher) and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher) than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their structure and

  12. Forest Management Intensity Affects Aquatic Communities in Artificial Tree Holes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S Petermann

    Full Text Available Forest management could potentially affect organisms in all forest habitats. However, aquatic communities in water-filled tree-holes may be especially sensitive because of small population sizes, the risk of drought and potential dispersal limitation. We set up artificial tree holes in forest stands subject to different management intensities in two regions in Germany and assessed the influence of local environmental properties (tree-hole opening type, tree diameter, water volume and water temperature as well as regional drivers (forest management intensity, tree-hole density on tree-hole insect communities (not considering other organisms such as nematodes or rotifers, detritus content, oxygen and nutrient concentrations. In addition, we compared data from artificial tree holes with data from natural tree holes in the same area to evaluate the methodological approach of using tree-hole analogues. We found that forest management had strong effects on communities in artificial tree holes in both regions and across the season. Abundance and species richness declined, community composition shifted and detritus content declined with increasing forest management intensity. Environmental variables, such as tree-hole density and tree diameter partly explained these changes. However, dispersal limitation, indicated by effects of tree-hole density, generally showed rather weak impacts on communities. Artificial tree holes had higher water temperatures (on average 2°C higher and oxygen concentrations (on average 25% higher than natural tree holes. The abundance of organisms was higher but species richness was lower in artificial tree holes. Community composition differed between artificial and natural tree holes. Negative management effects were detectable in both tree-hole systems, despite their abiotic and biotic differences. Our results indicate that forest management has substantial and pervasive effects on tree-hole communities and may alter their

  13. Amounts and spatial distribution of downed woody debris, snags, windthrow, and forest floor mass within streamside management zones occurring in shortleaf pine stands five years after harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal Liechty

    2007-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is a dominant tree species in pine and pine-hardwood forest communities located on ridges and upper- to mid-slope positions in the Ouachita Mountains. The stream reaches located in these stands flow infrequently and are classified as ephemeral or intermittent, have low stream orders, and have relatively narrow...

  14. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  15. Regenerative morphological traits in a woody species community in Tumbesian tropical dry forest.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Saritama, José Miguel; Pérez Ruiz, César

    2016-01-01

    El estudio de rasgos morfológicos funcionales nos permite conocer muchos aspectos fundamentales de la dinámica de las comunidades vegetales en hábitats particulares y a nivel mundial, los rasgos morfológicos regenerativos cumplen un rol importante en la ecología e historia de las plantas por estar relacionados con la dispersión, germinación, colonización y establecimiento de las plántulas en determinados hábitas, sin embargo estos rasgos no han sido debidamente estudiados a nivel de toda una ...

  16. Success Factor of Woody Biomass Supply Chains in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Amanda; Eklund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    There is an abundance of forest in Japan, yet a lack of utilization of woody biomass in energy systems. Small-scale woody biomass can enable a supply chain based on domestic forest integrated with local industry and demands, in turn facilitating local vitalization. Successful creation of collective energy systems is strongly connected to supply chain design based on local conditions and stakeholder integration. A supply chain perspective is key in enabling woody biomass energy systems. In the...

  17. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  18. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  20. Limits to tree species invasion in pampean grassland and forest plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazia, Noemí C; Chaneton, Enrique J; Ghersa, Claudio M; León, Rolando J

    2001-08-01

    Factors limiting tree invasion in the Inland Pampas of Argentina were studied by monitoring the establishment of four alien tree species in remnant grassland and cultivated forest stands. We tested whether disturbances facilitated tree seedling recruitment and survival once seeds of invaders were made available by hand sowing. Seed addition to grassland failed to produce seedlings of two study species, Ligustrum lucidum and Ulmus pumila, but did result in abundant recruitment of Gleditsia triacanthos and Prosopis caldenia. While emergence was sparse in intact grassland, seedling densities were significantly increased by canopy and soil disturbances. Longer-term surveys showed that only Gleditsia became successfully established in disturbed grassland. These results support the hypothesis that interference from herbaceous vegetation may play a significant role in slowing down tree invasion, whereas disturbances create microsites that can be exploited by invasive woody plants. Seed sowing in a Ligustrum forest promoted the emergence of all four study species in understorey and treefall gap conditions. Litter removal had species-specific effects on emergence and early seedling growth, but had little impact on survivorship. Seedlings emerging under the closed forest canopy died within a few months. In the treefall gap, recruits of Gleditsia and Prosopis survived the first year, but did not survive in the longer term after natural gap closure. The forest community thus appeared less susceptible to colonization by alien trees than the grassland. We conclude that tree invasion in this system is strongly limited by the availability of recruitment microsites and biotic interactions, as well as by dispersal from existing propagule sources.

  1. Shifts in soil testate amoeba communities associated with forest diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, Anatoly A; Zaitsev, Andrei S; Wolters, Volkmar

    2015-05-01

    We studied changes of testate amoeba communities associated with the conversion of spruce monocultures into mixed beech-fir-spruce forests in the Southern Black Forest Mountains (Germany). In this region, forest conversion is characterized by a gradual development of beech undergrowth within thinned spruce tree stands leading to multiple age continuous cover forests with a diversified litter layer. Strong shifts in the abundance of testate amoeba observed in intermediate stages levelled off to monoculture conditions again after the final stage of the conversion process had been reached. The average number of species per conversion stage (i.e., local richness) did not respond strongly to forest conversion, but the total number of species (i.e., regional richness) was considerably higher in the initial stage than in the mixed forests, due to the large number of hygrophilous species inhabiting spruce monocultures. Functional diversity of the testate amoeba community, however, significantly increased during the conversion process. This shift was closely associated with improved C and N availability as well as higher niche diversity in the continuous cover stands. Lower soil acidity in these forests coincided with a higher relative abundance of eurytopic species. Our results suggest that testate amoeba communities are much more affected by physicochemical properties of the soil than directly by litter diversity.

  2. 茂兰喀斯特森林主要树种的繁殖更新对策%THE REPRODUCTIVE AND REGENERATIVE COUNTERMEASURES OF THE MAIN WOODY SPECIES IN MAOLAN KARST FOREST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘济明

    2000-01-01

    There are four reproductive and regenerative countermeasures of the main woody species in MaoLan Karst Forest.(1)The seed has shorter life span.The ripe seeds germinate rapidly to form seedling when it has fallen into the soil. The seedlings grow slowly to wait till the gap emerges.The seedlings grow rapidly and join in the present population as soon as the gap emerges.(2)The seed has shorter life span.The ripe seeds germinate rapidly to form seedling when it has fallen into the soil.If there are gaps in the forest the seedling grow rapidly and join in the present population,the seedlings will die speedly.(3)The seed has shorter life span.If there are gaps in the forest,the ripe seeds germinate when it has fallen into the soil and grow rapidly to join in the present population,otherwise,the seeds will lose their germination ability.(4)The seed has longer life span.If there are gaps in the forest,the ripe seeds germinate when it has fallen into the soil and grow rapidly to join in the present population,otherwise, the seeds in the soil will wait till the gap emerges.The main woody species of MaoLan Karst Forest adopt one of the four countermeasures,or both at the same time.

  3. Titling indigenous communities protects forests in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Allen; Corral, Leonardo; Lima, Eirivelthon Santos; Asner, Gregory P

    2017-04-18

    Developing countries are increasingly decentralizing forest governance by granting indigenous groups and other local communities formal legal title to land. However, the effects of titling on forest cover are unclear. Rigorous analyses of titling campaigns are rare, and related theoretical and empirical research suggests that they could either stem or spur forest damage. We analyze such a campaign in the Peruvian Amazon, where more than 1,200 indigenous communities comprising some 11 million ha have been titled since the mid-1970s. We use community-level longitudinal data derived from high-resolution satellite images to estimate the effect of titling between 2002 and 2005 on contemporaneous forest clearing and disturbance. Our results indicate that titling reduces clearing by more than three-quarters and forest disturbance by roughly two-thirds in a 2-y window spanning the year title is awarded and the year afterward. These results suggest that awarding formal land titles to local communities can advance forest conservation.

  4. The Place of Community Forest Management in the REDD+ Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Pelletier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Community forest management (CFM is identified by many actors as a core strategy for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+. Others however see REDD+ as a danger to CFM. In response to these contrasting views, we carried out a systematic review of CFM case studies to look at CFM’s potential role in achieving forest carbon benefits and social co-benefits for forest communities. We evaluated the potential impacts of REDD+ on CFM. Our review showed that there is strong evidence of CFM’s role in reducing degradation and stabilizing forested landscapes; however, the review also showed less evidence about the role of CFM in reducing deforestation. For social benefits, we found that CFM contributes to livelihoods, but its effect on poverty reduction may be limited. Also, CFM may not deal adequately with the distribution of benefits within communities or user groups. These insights are important for CFM-based REDD+ intervention; measures should be adopted to overcome these gaps. Innovative incentive structures to existing CFM are discussed. The recognition of rights for forest communities is one first step identified in promoting CFM. We call for sound empirical impact evaluations that analyze CFM and CFM-based REDD+ interventions by looking at both biophysical and social outcomes.

  5. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  6. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Perceptions of climate change risk to forest ecosystems and forest-based communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, T.B.; Parkins, J.R.; McFarlane, B.L. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    A study examining the perceptions of researchers and government experts about the risks posed by climate change to forest ecosystems and forest-based communities was presented. The aim of the study was to provide an indication of institutional behaviours, attitudes and perspectives concerning climate change. Data were collected by questionnaires from participants at a climate change and forestry workshop. Perceived risk to forest ecosystems was assessed by means of a subset of scales previously identified as relevant to climate change. Ten scales were selected to assess perceptions of certainty, controllability, predictability, adaptability, and knowledge of climatic change impacts. Each scale was assessed on the basis of a 7 point rating. Another set of 12 scales was used to assess perceived risk to forest-based communities. Eight statements were used to assess general beliefs about climate change. Social influences were assessed according to age, sex, level of education, place of residence and type of employer. Results indicated that forestry experts were concerned about the impacts of climate change and were not opposed to preparation and adaptation strategies. Respondents indicated that the effects of climate change on forests and forest-based communities are not well understood by the general pubic or forest managers. It was suggested that there was a relatively high level of uncertainty about the effects of climate change, particularly with respect to forest-based communities. The results suggested that a greater awareness of climate change risks is needed, as well as more research and monitoring efforts targeted at reducing levels of uncertainty about future impacts at local scales. If communities can begin to diversify their economies and rely on several key economic drivers, they will be better positioned to absorb future climate change impacts. It was concluded that the presence of human agency can have important implications for the future control of

  8. Are Adolescents from a Forest Community Well-Informed about Forest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mallen, Isabel; Barraza, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The indigenous community of San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Mexico has been engaged in a successful Community Forest Enterprise employing sustainable management practices since 1981. These environmental practices do not seem to be reflected in the educational programmes developed at school. In this study, the environmental knowledge and interest…

  9. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  10. Benefit sharing and community participation dynamics in forest management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antony, Bindu; Treue, Thorsten; Salim, Shyam S.

    2014-01-01

    on the dynamics of participation in forest management, especially on the link between distribution of benefits, and the level of participation of members, by exploring the process of institutional management and community governance. The study was undertaken in 178 households of Kankali community forestry......Community forestry has a significant role in the lives of people in Nepal as it serves the livelihood security of people to a greater extent. It is central in ensuring community participation in all the stages of CF (Community forestry) process and thus reach the objectives of sustainable forest......, in Chitwan district of Nepal. The results revealed that availabilty of the benefits do not have direct relation with neither paricipation in activities nor in decision making. Though motivation is a prerequisite to activate participation of people in any activity, other methods of persuasion is also vital...

  11. Is the contribution of community forest users financially efficient? A household level benefit-cost analysis of community forest management in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar Rai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Community forestry in Nepal is considered an exemplary forest management regime. However, the economics behind managing a community forest is not fully studied. This study examines whether the benefits generated from community forest management justify the contributions of forest users. The study is based on a survey of community forest users in Chitwan, Nepal. A household level benefit-cost analysis was performed to quantify and compare the costs and benefits from community forest management. Only direct benefits were included in the analysis. The study shows that older forest user groups derive more benefits to households compared to more recently established ones. The extent of timber harvesting also substantially influences the size of the household benefits. In addition, redistribution of benefits at the household level, in terms of income generating activities and payment for involvement in forest management activities, also enhances household benefits. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the current practice of community forest management enhances the welfare of rural households in this subsistence community. However, this finding is sensitive to assumptions regarding the opportunity cost of time. The study also found that the household costs of community forest management depend upon two factors – the area of community forest and the size of the forest area relative to the number of households.

  12. Dominance and Diversity of Bird Community in Floodplain Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Poprach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed to assessment of diversity and structure of bird community in floodplain forest ecosystem. Authors present results of analyses data on bird communities obtained at two transects in the Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic in the period 1998–2012. Research of bird communities was carried out using the point-count method. The article deals with qualitative and quantitative representation of breeding bird species, including their relation to habitat type (closed floodplain forest, ecotone. Altogether 63 breeding species were recorded at the Vrapač transect and 67 at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. To be able to detect all recorded species, 11 out of 14 years of monitoring were needed at the Vrapač transect and all 8 years of monitoring at the Litovelské luhy transect, respectively. Authors show that the values in dominant bird species change significantly among the particular census dates within one season, mainly with respect to their activity and detectability. Results are discussed in the frame of sustainable forest management in floodplain forest ecosystems. The presented article can promote to discussion aimed to management strategy for floodplain forest ecosystems, which ranks among natural habitat types of Community interest protected under the Natura 2000 European network.

  13. A botanical inventory of forest on karstic limestone and metamorphic substrate in the Chiquibul Forest, Belize, with focus on woody taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Maria; Särkinen, Tiina; Conde, Dalia Amor

    2016-01-01

    The Chiquibul Forest Reserve and National Park in Belize is a priority conservation area within the ‘Maya Forest’ in Central America. Although taxonomic data are essential for the development of conservation plans in the region, there is limited knowledge of the existing species in the area. Here...

  14. A botanical inventory of forest on karstic limestone and metamorphic substrate in the Chiquibul Forest, Belize, with focus on woody taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Maria; Särkinen, Tiina; Conde, Dalia Amor

    2016-01-01

    The Chiquibul Forest Reserve and National Park in Belize is a priority conservation area within the ‘Maya Forest’ in Central America. Although taxonomic data are essential for the development of conservation plans in the region, there is limited knowledge of the existing species in the area. Here...

  15. Elevational zonation of afrotropical forest bird communities along a homogeneous forest gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romdal, Tom Skovlund; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Aim This study analyses the distribution and abundance of birds from a forested tropical gradient in order to determine whether elevationally distinct communities are detectable in this habitat. Location An avifaunal census was carried out on a single transect within the tropical forest...... of the Udzungwa Mountains in the Eastern Arc, Tanzania, covering a range in elevation from 300 to 1850 m. Methods Two complementary data sets on forest birds were analysed, encompassing (1) data derived from standardized 20-ha spot-mapping censuses performed at nine elevations over 175-m intervals from 400...

  16. Community phylogenetics at the biogeographical scale: cold tolerance, niche conservatism and the structure of North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Bradford A; Rueda, Marta; Rangel, Thiago F; Field, Richard; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Linder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    AimThe fossil record has led to a historical explanation for forest diversity gradients within the cool parts of the Northern Hemisphere, founded on a limited ability of woody angiosperm clades to adapt to mid-Tertiary cooling. We tested four predictions of how this should be manifested in the phylogenetic structure of 91,340 communities: (1) forests to the north should comprise species from younger clades (families) than forests to the south; (2) average cold tolerance at a local site should be associated with the mean family age (MFA) of species; (3) minimum temperature should account for MFA better than alternative environmental variables; and (4) traits associated with survival in cold climates should evolve under a niche conservatism constraint. LocationThe contiguous United States. MethodsWe extracted angiosperms from the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database. MFA was calculated by assigning age of the family to which each species belongs and averaging across the species in each community. We developed a phylogeny to identify phylogenetic signal in five traits: realized cold tolerance, seed size, seed dispersal mode, leaf phenology and height. Phylogenetic signal representation curves and phylogenetic generalized least squares were used to compare patterns of trait evolution against Brownian motion. Eleven predictors structured at broad or local scales were generated to explore relationships between environment and MFA using random forest and general linear models. ResultsConsistent with predictions, (1) southern communities comprise angiosperm species from older families than northern communities, (2) cold tolerance is the trait most strongly associated with local MFA, (3) minimum temperature in the coldest month is the environmental variable that best describes MFA, broad-scale variables being much stronger correlates than local-scale variables, and (4) the phylogenetic structures of cold tolerance and at least one other trait

  17. Community Participation in Forest Resource Management in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keshav L. Maharjan

    2005-01-01

    Livelihood of the people in Nepal hills depends much upon forest resources in addition to farming as forest plays a critical role in the well being of the farming households where access to alternative sources, such as energy for cooking, nutrition for animals, materials for fertilizer and constructing materials for shelter, are limited. Thus, the well being of the people in the hills is directly affected by the management of these forest resources. This issue was addressed in this paper by examining the forest resource management practices and its effect on well being of rural people in two different stages in a village lying in the steep hill of Mahabharat Range in the southern hills of Kathmandu valley, Lalitpur District. The main ethnic/caste groups in the village are Brahmin/Chhetri (high Hindu caste),Magar/Tamang (Tibeto Burmans) and Kami (occupational caste: cobbler). Currently there are four community forest users groups, with mixed ethnic membership, organized to manage the forest resources. The endowments, weak institutional settings, before 1990 helped the Bhramins, Magars and Tamangs to get access into the private forest endowment, which made them easy to get access to the forest resources, mainly fuel wood, fodder and timber in 1990 and enhanced their well beings. But the socially backward Kami could not get benefit from the institutions that existed during that time and had less chance to enhance their well beings. After the set up of different endowments during late 1990s, i.e.,hand over of forest management to users groups in line with the concept of community forest,environment to use the forest resources became better for all the groups, along with the management of the forest. This enhanced the well beings of all the groups in the study village. However, the ability of Kami to use the forest resources to enhance their well beings was still lacking behind. The reason was partially due to the difference in endowments carried over from the

  18. UNIQUE FOREST COMMUNITIES OF STATE NATURE RESERVE ‘KISLUHINSKY’ (ALTAI TERRITORY)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A review of the history of the study of forest communities GPKZ regional significance "Kisluhinsky" dedicated largely to the Big Warm. A complete geobotanical characteristic of unique natural complexes: 1) spruce forests that are at the limit of its distribution in terms of the West Siberian Plain; 2) Community reference shrub-grass and herbal pine forests. 3) the reference and the unique community of the floodplain (sogra).Key words: spruce forests, pine forests, warm, Kisluhinsky Reserve, s...

  19. Who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal’s community forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Baral, Keshab; Bhandari, Nirmala Singh

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal's community forests. The objectives of the study are two-fold; to document who benefits from community forestry user groups' (CFUG) financing of investments in public services and infrastructure and pro......-poor initiatives and to explore whether biases against certain groups in investments coincide with biases in their participation in decision-making. The paper is based upon data on taxation income and revenue expenditures of 45 community-forest user groups (CFUG) and on data from 1111 CFUG member households...... on socio-economic status and participation in and perceptions of CFUG management. The results indicate an overall bias against poor and Dalit households in terms of access to CFUG funded public infrastructure. This overall picture conceals important variation; including that poor CFUG members have a higher...

  20. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Koorem; Price, Jodi N; Mari Moora

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest--evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two specie...

  1. Symbiosis with AMF and leaf Pi supply increases water deficit tolerance of woody species from seasonal dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosi, Gabriella; Barros, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mariana; Ramos, Diego G; Maia, Leonor C; Santos, Mauro G

    2016-12-01

    In seasonal dry tropical forests, plants are subjected to severe water deficit, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or inorganic phosphorus supply (Pi) can mitigate the effects of water deficit. This study aimed to assess the physiological performance of Poincianella pyramidalis subjected to water deficit in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and leaf inorganic phosphorus (Pi) supply. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of 2 water levels (+H2O and -H2O), 2 AMF levels (+AMF and -AMF) and 2Pi levels (+Pi and -Pi). Leaf primary metabolism, dry shoot biomass and leaf mineral nutrients were evaluated. Inoculated AMF plants under well-watered and drought conditions had higher photosynthesis and higher shoot biomass. Under drought, AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi plants showed metabolic improvements in photosynthesis, leaf biochemistry and higher biomass compared to the plants under water deficit without AMF or Pi. After rehydration, those plants submitted to drought with AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi showed a faster recovery of photosynthesis compared to treatment under water deficit without AMF or Pi. However, plants under the drought condition with AMF showed a higher net photosynthesis rate. These findings suggest that AMF, Pi or AMF+Pi increase the drought tolerance in P. pyramidalis, and AMF associations under well-watered conditions increase shoot biomass and, under drought, promoted faster recovery of photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing Woody Species Diversity for Sustainable Limestone Quarry Reclamation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anne Naeth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability of post mined limestone quarries often requires reclamation to a diverse woody plant community. Woody species diversity may be severely limited if only nursery stock is relied on for propagation material; thus other sources must be evaluated. To address woody species establishment and survival from different propagule sources at a limestone quarry in western Canada, native trees (4 and shrubs (3 were seeded and transplanted into amended substrates (wood shavings, clean fill, unamended control in two seasons (spring, fall. Plant sources were nursery stock, local forest wildlings, seeds and forest soil (LFH mineral soil mix. Plant emergence, survival, height, health and browsing were evaluated over four years. Survival was greater with fall transplanted seedlings than with spring transplanted. Survival was greater for Picea glauca, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides from nursery than local source stock. Seedlings from seeds and LFH did not survive for any of the species. Growth and survival were affected by bighorn sheep. Amendments did not improve plant establishment. Diversity of the woody plant community was increased at the quarry in spite of the severe conditions.

  3. Changes in Orchid Bee Communities Across Forest-Agroecosystem Boundaries in Brazilian Atlantic Forest Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Aguiar, Willian Moura; Sofia, Silvia H; Melo, Gabriel A R; Gaglianone, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation has dramatically reduced the extent of Atlantic Forest cover in Brazil. Orchid bees are key pollinators in neotropical forest, and many species are sensitive to anthropogenic interference. In this sense understanding the matrix permeability for these bees is important for maintaining genetic diversity and pollination services. Our main objective was to assess whether the composition, abundance, and diversity of orchid bees in matrices differed from those in Atlantic forest. To do this we sampled orchid bees at 4-mo intervals from 2007 to 2009 in remnants of Atlantic Forest, and in the surrounding pasture and eucalyptus matrices. The abundance, richness, and diversity of orchid bees diminished significantly from the forest fragment toward the matrix points in the eucalyptus and pasture. Some common or intermediate species in the forest areas, such as Eulaema cingulata (F.) and Euglossa fimbriata Moure, respectively, become rare species in the matrices. Our results show that the orchid bee community is affected by the matrices surrounding the forest fragments. They also suggest that connections between forest fragments need to be improved using friendly matrices that can provide more favorable conditions for bees and increase their dispersal between fragments. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar N Hesse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 75,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  5. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Cedar N; Mueller, Rebecca C; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Zak, Donald R; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  6. Structural diversity of forest communities on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The structural diversity of forests on Baihuashan Mountain,Beijing,was surveyed by a plotless method combined with branch and leaf coverage estimation in the different layers.New structural indices were constructed,calculated and compared among different communities.On the basis of previous work,structural diversity of forest communities at the stand level was described by a vertical complexity index and a horizontal heterogeneity index.From a correlational analysis among the new indices and other commonly used biodiversity indices,we concluded that the new indices are closely related to a tree height inequality index and the Shannon-Wiener index of the tree and shrub layer,which indicated that the new indices were good at indicating structural diversity in the different forests on Baihuashan Mountain.The results show that,in natural forests,structural diversity of pioneer communities is much lower than in late successive communities.In plantations,structural diversity is determined by the stage of development and tree species.Tending would increase horizontal heterogeneity and decrease vertical complexity.

  7. Community ecology of tropical forest snails: 30 years after Solem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical fo

  8. Soil bacterial community structure responses to precipitation reduction and forest management in forest ecosystems across Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsmann, Katja; Baudis, Mathias; Gimbel, Katharina; Kayler, Zachary E; Ellerbrock, Ruth; Bruelheide, Helge; Bruehlheide, Helge; Bruckhoff, Johannes; Welk, Erik; Puhlmann, Heike; Weiler, Markus; Gessler, Arthur; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbial communities play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, but how climate change will affect the community composition and consequently bacterial functions is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of reduced precipitation with the aim of simulating realistic future drought conditions for one growing season on the bacterial community and its relation to soil properties and forest management. We manipulated precipitation in beech and conifer forest plots managed at different levels of intensity in three different regions across Germany. The precipitation reduction decreased soil water content across the growing season by between 2 to 8% depending on plot and region. T-RFLP analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used to study the total soil bacterial community and its active members after six months of precipitation reduction. The effect of reduced precipitation on the total bacterial community structure was negligible while significant effects could be observed for the active bacteria. However, the effect was secondary to the stronger influence of specific soil characteristics across the three regions and management selection of overstorey tree species and their respective understorey vegetation. The impact of reduced precipitation differed between the studied plots; however, we could not determine the particular parameters being able to modify the response of the active bacterial community among plots. We conclude that the moderate drought induced by the precipitation manipulation treatment started to affect the active but not the total bacterial community, which points to an adequate resistance of the soil microbial system over one growing season.

  9. Tree plant organic matter stocks in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Manov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of organic matter in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall was investigated. Phytomass of Piceetum hylocomiosum stand is 51.8 t • ha-1, and Pinetum cladinosum stand is 7.5 t • ha-1. Phytomass in the disturbed stands is 3.5 times less than in undisturbed spruce forest and 15 times less than in undisturbed pine forest. The undergrowth accumulates 2.8 t • ha-1 in spruce forest, and 0.9 t • ha-1 in pine forest after windfall. Number of trees, volume of wood, stock of organic matter was determined in coarse woody debris subject to decay class. Most of the dead trees (77–97 % belong to the second decay class. Reduced competition for light and mineral nutrients influences the intensity of organic matter accumulation by tree plants. We detected that increasing radial growth of spruce and fir began before windfall. This demonstrates the stand drying. However, maximal rate of annual ring increment (2.03–2.17 mm for spruce and 3.98–4.07 mm for fir was observed in 2009–2010 years. After windfall radial growth of undergrowth increased 2 times in Piceetum hylocomiosum and 7.7 times in Pinetum cladinosum. Height increment of spruce and fir understorey increased 2.2–2.6 times in spruce forest. As compared with undisturbed ecosystems height increment of pine understorey is 1.2–2.0 times higher on windbreak in Pinetum cladinosum.

  10. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mecanismos de dispersão de diásporos e recrutamento de plântulas evitam a competição intra-específica e possibilitam a colonização de novos ambientes. Em áreas de transição entre florestas e vegetação campestre esses processos não são aleatórios, e sim associados muitas vezes a indivíduos lenhosos isolados em tais áreas de campo ou a formações arbustivas. No sul do Brasil, as Florestas com Araucária formam mosaicos com áreas campestres e observa-se o avanço da floresta sobre os campos. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais associadas a áreas de ecótonos de Floresta com Araucária e campos e a indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Os estudos foram realizados no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata PUCRS, em São Francisco de Paula, RS, em vegetação campestre excluída de fogo e de pastejo há 16 anos, circundada por florestas. A chuva de sementes foi avaliada mensalmente por um período de oito meses com o uso de coletores que foram posicionados em ecótonos de floresta e campos com diferentes fisionomias e sob indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Tais ambientes foram comparados através de análise de variância univariada e multivariada para verificar padrões de chuva de sementes. Os resultados indicaram que a dispersão de sementes em áreas campestres ocorre preferencialmente associada a indivíduos isolados de Araucaria angustifolia e a formações arbustivas de Baccharis uncinella e que tais ambientes funcionariam como extensões de condições mais semelhantes à floresta na matriz campestre.Mechanisms of seed dispersal and recruitment avoid intraspecific competition and allow plants to colonize new habitats. In transition areas between forest and grassland, these processes are not spatially random, but are often associated with isolated woody individuals in the grassland or with areas of continuous shrub cover. In

  11. Microbial community shifts influence patterns in tropical forest nitrogen fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Nemergut, Diana R

    2010-10-01

    The role of biodiversity in ecosystem function receives substantial attention, yet despite the diversity and functional relevance of microorganisms, relationships between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remain largely unknown. We used tropical rain forest fertilization plots to directly compare the relative abundance, composition and diversity of free-living nitrogen (N)-fixer communities to in situ leaf litter N fixation rates. N fixation rates varied greatly within the landscape, and 'hotspots' of high N fixation activity were observed in both control and phosphorus (P)-fertilized plots. Compared with zones of average activity, the N fixation 'hotspots' in unfertilized plots were characterized by marked differences in N-fixer community composition and had substantially higher overall diversity. P additions increased the efficiency of N-fixer communities, resulting in elevated rates of fixation per nifH gene. Furthermore, P fertilization increased N fixation rates and N-fixer abundance, eliminated a highly novel group of N-fixers, and increased N-fixer diversity. Yet the relationships between diversity and function were not simple, and coupling rate measurements to indicators of community structure revealed a biological dynamism not apparent from process measurements alone. Taken together, these data suggest that the rain forest litter layer maintains high N fixation rates and unique N-fixing organisms and that, as observed in plant community ecology, structural shifts in N-fixing communities may partially explain significant differences in system-scale N fixation rates.

  12. An approach for the evaluation of rural governance in Cameroon: are community forests really forests for the communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaire NKENGFACK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the contribution of the traditionalexploitation of timber, in a community framework, to the respect of governanceprinciples in actions for the fight against poverty in some rural communities inCameroon. In 1990, the government of Cameroon adopted laws on the freedomof association that authorised teaming up for the search of possibilities for abetter economic welfare of populations. It is in line with this that in 1994, a newforest law which authorises willing communities to organise themselves andrequest the government to grant them a portion of the national forest of thepublic domain to be managed by them and for their personal interest. Also, andwith the help of the international community, Cameroon elaborated in 1998 itsfirst poverty reduction strategy paper that encouraged amongst others,community actions in the search of solutions to the economic crisis that strokethe country. Through the application of a logit model to the responses collectedthrough a survey carried out on a sample of 200 individuals of the East regionof Cameroon, it was noticed that timber exploitation in a community frameworkdoes not necessarily lead to the strengthening of the links of belonging to acommon community, and to the equitable redistribution of revenues from theexploitation of the community forest.

  13. Engineering developments for small-scale harvest, storage and combustion of woody crops in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P.; Ouellet-Plamondon, C.; Morissette, R.; Preto, F. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although wood remains an important source of energy for cooking and heating in developing countries, it has been largely replaced by fossil fuels, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power in developed countries. Given the need to diversify sources of energy, wood energy is being revitalized in developed countries. This paper reported on a current research program on woody crops at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The research involves the development of a woody crop harvester to collect small size trees in plantations as well as in natural growth. The harvested package is a small round bale that enables natural drying from about 50 per cent moisture at harvest, down to 30 and 20 per cent after 4 to 6 months of storage outside and under shelter, respectively. The combustion value of woody crops averaged 19.4 GJ/t on a dry matter basis with little variation. The woody crops can be pulverized into fine particles, dried artificially to 10 per cent moisture content and processed into pellets for combustion. In a practical trial, more than 7.5 MJ/t DM were needed to produce pellets without providing more energy than coarse wood chips. The rural applications for this biomass include heating community and farm buildings and drying crops. These applications can use locally grown woody crops such as willow, or forest residues such as branches and bark in the form of chips to replace fossil energy sources.

  14. Effect of Severe Winter Cold on the Photosynthetic Potentials of Three Co-occurring Evergreen Woody Species in a Mediterranean Forest, Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Dominik; Gracia, Carlos; Peñuelas, Josep; Sabaté, Santi

    2013-04-01

    Evergreen tree species in the Mediterranean region have to cope with a wide range of environmental stress conditions from summer drought to winter cold. The winter period can lead to photoinhibition due to a combination of high solar irradiances and chilling temperatures which can reduce the light saturation point. However, Mediterranean winter mildness can lead periodically to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for positive carbon balance benefitting evergreen woody species in contrast to winter deciduous species. The advantage of being able to photosynthesis all year round with a significant fraction in the winter month is compensating for the lower photosynthetic potentials during spring and summer in comparison to deciduous species. In this work, we investigated the physiological behaviour of three evergreen tree species (Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis, Arbutus undeo) co-occurring in a natural and mature Mediterranean forest after a period of mild winter conditions and their response to a sudden period of intense cold weather. Therefore, we examined in each period the photosynthetic potentials by estimating the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and the maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) through gas exchange measurements. The results indicate that all species exhibited extraordinary high photosynthetic potentials during the first period of measurement as a response to the mild conditions. However, the sudden cold period affected negatively the photosynthetic potentials of Quercus ilex and A. unedo with reduction ranging between 37 to 45 %, whereas they were observed to be only insignificantly reduced in Pinus halepensis. Our results can be explained by previous classifications into photoinhibition-avoiding (P. halpensis) and photoinhibition-tolerant (Q. ilex, A. undeo) species on the basis of their susceptibility to dynamic photoinhibition (Martinez Ferri 2000). Photoinhibition tolerant species are characterised with a more dynamic

  15. Equity, Inclusion and Conflict in Community Based Forest Management: A Case of Salghari Community Forest in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Acharya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The equity and inclusion issues are widely observed in Community Based Forest Management (CBFM and Community Forestry (CF is not an exception. Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs are portrayed as robust grassroots institutions for forest management and group governance. However, many contemporary researches have shown that CFUGs are still governed by some influential local elites who hardly practice equity and inclusion. In this context, objectives of this paper are: to explore how equity and inclusion issues lead CFUGs fall into internal conflicts; and to demonstrate how CFUGs are able to address such issues locally. The study was carried out in Salghari CFUG of Ratnechaur, Myagdi. Semi-structured interview and focused group discussion were key tools used for data collection. Livelihoods and Social Inclusion Framework and Equity Framework are used for data analysis. The findings of the research revealed that dalits and non-dalits of Salghari fall into internal conflict regarding the use of forest products. The conflict was then managed through amendments in CF provisions and change in CF leadership. This paper concludes that execution of equity and inclusion provisions in CF, secures access to assets for disadvantaged people from CBFM. However, this demands empowerment of these people and facilitating role of external agency.

  16. Vertebrate dispersal syndromes along the Atlantic forest: broad-scale patterns and macroecological correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Neto, Mário; Campassi, Flávia; Galetti,Mauro; JORDANO, Pedro; Oliveira-Filho, Ary

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the geographical variation in the relative importance of vertebrates, and more specifically of birds and mammals, as seed dispersal agents in forest communities, and to evaluate the influence of geographical and climatic factors on the observed trends. Location One hundred and thirty-five forest communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Methods We collected data on dispersal modes for 2292 woody species. By combining species × site with species × trait matrices, w...

  17. Effect of forest ecotourism on socioeconmic conditions of local community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsana Kausar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is having scarcity of forests, with the total area covered under forest being 5%, while it must be 25%. Inspite of the fact that we have to protect and expand our forests, many other alternative land cover and land use practices are going to be more common. Current study is a part of that effort. To have panel discussion and interviews of activists and key persons of the rural areas in the vicinity of major ecotourism spots that is Mall, Bhurban, Patriata 2-3 workshops were arranged in which a semi structured questionnaire was followed to assess the role of ecotourism in the livelihood and socioeconomic conditions of the local community. This study shows that most of the people get 5000-10000 ($49.30-98.60, rupees increase in the income per month while some earn 11000-20000 ($108.45-197.19. Even (4%, who have rented houses and restaurants think that the raise of income is PKR 21000-50000($207.5-492.98. The local villager’s perceptions about the ecological negative and positive aspects of ecotourism show that the forest based tourism has more positive effects on the lives of people as well as for biodiversity and nature conservation, as it develops the wildlife reserves, promotes the awareness of forests, environment and biodiversity, it also proves a good source of knowledge and motivation of visitors that increases the stewardship, to love and conserve natural resources.

  18. Community strategy for mangrove forest conservation: Conquista Campesina Conservation Easement

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The drafting of a community plan for mangrove forest conservation in the communal land of Conquista Campesina (Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico) is part of a more ambitious project aimed at establishing a protected wetlands corridor in the coastal region of the state of Chiapas. The purpose is to guarantee the conservation, protection and restoration of priority wetlands, placing special emphasis on vulnerable ecosystems. With the technical support of Pronatura Sur A. C. and after signing a conserv...

  19. 尖峰岭热带山地雨林海南特有木本植物群落结构%Community structure of endemic woody plants in tropical montane rainforest of Jianfengling,Hainan Island, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛大勇; 庄雪影; 许涵; 李意德; 胡跃华; 时雷雷; 骆土寿; 陈德祥; 林明献

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to understand the endemic woody species and their distribution, population structure, and roles in maintaining the biodiversity of the montane rain forest of Hainan, China. Methods We surveyed a 4.8 hm2 permanent plot in the primary montane rain forest of Jianfengling, Hainan and analyzed the species composition, importance value, abundance, and size-class distribution of the community. ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in three diversity indices before and after removing the endemic species. Important findings A total of 36 481 woody plants with diameter at breast height (DBH)≥1.0 cm were recorded. They belong to 65 families, 134 genera, and 247 species. Of these, 24 tree and shrub species are endemic to Hainan Island, comprising 9.7% of the total number of trees in the plot. Most of the endemic species have small abundance and sparse distribution, having minor status in the community composition. Most endemic species had preference to specific habitats, narrow distributions, and their seeds were dispersed mainly by animals. The Mar-galef and Shannon-Wiener indices declined significantly (p < 0.01) after removing the endemic species, but the Simpson and Pielou indices showed no significant differences. Despite their minor roles in the community, the endemic species are important in maintaining the floristic diversity of the tropical montane rainforest. They are of value for scientific research and conservation.%以海南尖峰岭4.8 hm2的热带山地雨林原始林为研究对象,分析了群落内海南特有乔、灌木植物(以下简称特有种)的物种组成、特有种种群的多度和径级结构特点,分析了保留和剔除特有种对群落物种多样性指数的影响.结果表明,在4.8hm2样地中,共记录了胸径≥1.0 cm的个体36 481株,隶属于65科134属247种;其中,24种为特有种,占样地内总种数的9.7%;大多数特有种多度较小,在群落发展中居从属地位.多数特有种对生境具

  20. Managing woody bamboos for carbon farming and carbon trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jyoti Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on identifying cost-effective managed ecosystems that can substantially remove atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2 while providing essential societal benefits has gained momentum since the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. Carbon farming allows farmers and investors to generate tradable carbon offsets from farmlands and forestry projects through carbon trading. Carbon trading is pertinent to climate negotiations by decelerating the climate change phenomenon. Thus, the objective of this article is to describe the potential of woody bamboos in biomass carbon storage and as an option for carbon farming and carbon trading. Bamboo is an important agroforestry and forest plant managed and used by the rural communities in several countries of the Asia-Pacific region for generating diverse economic and socio-environmental needs. Mean carbon storage and sequestration rate in woody bamboos range from 30–121 Mg ha−1 and 6–13 Mg ha−1  yr−1, respectively. Bamboo has vigorous growth, with completion of the growth cycle between 120 and 150 days. Because of its rapid biomass accumulation and effective fixation of CO2, it has a high carbon sequestration capacity. Over and above the high biomass carbon storage, bamboo also has a high net primary productivity (12–26 Mg ha−1  yr−1 even with regular selective harvesting, thus making it a standing carbon stock and a living ecosystem that continues to grow. Despite its high potential in carbon storage and sequestration and its important role in livelihood of millions of rural poor’s worldwide, prospects of bamboo ecosystems in CDM (Clean Development Mechanism and REDD (Reduced Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation schemes remain to be explored. Thus, there is an urgent need to recognize ecosystem services that woody bamboo provides for well-being of rural communities and nature conservancy. Present synthesis suggests that bamboo offers tremendous opportunity for carbon farming and

  1. Learning Through New Approaches to Forest Governance: Evidence from Harrop-Procter Community Forest, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egunyu, Felicitas; Reed, Maureen G.; Sinclair, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Collaborative forest governance arrangements have been viewed as promising for sustainable forestry because they allow local communities to participate directly in management and benefit from resource use or protection. Such arrangements are strengthened through social learning during management activities that can enhance capacity to solve complex problems. Despite significant research on social learning in collaborative environmental governance, it is not clear how social learning evolves over time, who influences social learning, and whether learning influences management effectiveness. This study investigates how social learning outcomes change over time, using an in-depth study of a community forest in Canada. Personal interviews, focus group meetings, and participant observation revealed that most participants started engaging in community forestry with limited knowledge and learned as they participated in management activities. However, as the community forest organization became effective at complying with forestry legislation, learning opportunities and outcomes became more restricted. Our results run contrary to the prevalent view that opportunities for and outcomes of social learning become enlarged over time. In our case, learning how to meet governmental requirements increased professionalism and reduced opportunities for involvement and learning to a smaller group. Our findings suggest the need to further test propositions about social learning and collaborative governance, particularly to determine how relationships evolve over time.

  2. Chapter 10: Avian community responses to forest thinning and prescribed surface fire, alone and in combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hurteau; Brett G. Dickson; Thomas D. Sisk; William M. Block

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service and other federal agencies treated more than 2.8 million ha of forested land between 2001 and 2003 under the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (USDA Forest Service 2004). Because many more areas across our landscape are slated for fuel reduction treatments, understanding how wildlife communities will respond is essential to conserving biodiversity...

  3. Forest dependence and community well-being: a segmented market approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Overdevest; Gary P. Green

    1994-01-01

    Forestry activities, such as timber production and processing, are important economic activities in many rural communities. Yet the research on the relationship between forest dependence and community economic well-being is inconclusive. This article examines the relationship between forest dependence and county per capita income and poverty in rural Georgia. Forest...

  4. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY..., State and Private Forestry, Cooperative Forestry staff, published a document in the Federal Register of... Conservation Program (Community Forest Program or CFP). The document contained incorrect funding information...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST AND LANDSCAPE RESOURCE FOR COMMUNITY AROUND GUNUNG LUMUT PROTECTED FOREST, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murniati Murniati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest of Gunung  Lumut  in Pasir District,  East Kalimantan was designated  for a protection  forest in 1983. It is surrounded  by 15 villages  and one settlement  lies inside it. Communities in those villages are dependent upon the landscape and forest resources mainly for non timber forest products. This study was focused on the perception of the communities on the importance of the landscape and forests. The study was conducted in two settlements, located  in and outside  (near  the protection  forest,  namely  Rantau  Layung  Village  and Mului  Sub-Village.  Data collection  was undertaken through  general field observations, key- informant personal  interviews and focus group  discussions.  In Rantau  Layung, the most important land  type  was rice  field, whereas  in Mului  was forest.  There  were  13 and 14 use categories  of landscape  resources  in Rantau  Layung  and Mului,  respectively, such as food, medicine,  constructions and source of income.  People in Rantau  Layung  and Mului ranked  plants  to be more  important than  animals.  People  also considered  products  from wild  resources  to be more  important than  those from cultivated  and purchased  sources. Communities living  in both  settlements  considered  the future  uses of forests to be the most important as compared to those of the present and past. They  suggested that sungkai (Peronema canescens and telien (Eusideroxylon zwageri to be the most important plants while payau  (Cervus unicolor and telaus (Muntiacus muntjak to be the most important animals. People used the wildlife mainly for food and source of income. They also identified important and potential  resources for economic  development in the area, i.e. ecotourism  and hydro- power for electric  generator.

  6. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  7. The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the Middle Hills of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    income contributed 5.8% to total household income, ranging from 3.8% in the top income quartile to 17.4% in the lowest quartile. Analyses of poverty indices and Gini decomposition showed that incorporating forest incomes in total household income reduces measured rural poverty and income inequality...... realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level....

  8. Parlin Creek large woody debris placement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry W. Collins

    1999-01-01

    In August 1996 the Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JSDF) completed a fish habitat rehabilitation project in a 2.5 mile reach of Parlin Creek, a tributary to the Noyo River in Mendocino County, California. The purse of the project was to introduce large woody material to the stream channel to determine if higher quality habitat could be produced for anadromous...

  9. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suz, Laura M; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; García, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklós; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; Sánchez, Gerardo; Schröck, Hans Werner; Schubert, Alfred; Verheyen, Kris; Verstraeten, Arne; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics.

  10. Implications of community based management of woody vegetation around sedentarised pastoral areas in the arid northern Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Warui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses effectiveness of Environmental Management Committees (EMCs in managing woody resources in pastoral villages in northern Kenya. The effectiveness is assessed in the realm of participation in sustainable use of the vegetation, predicted based on gender of the resource users and extent of contact with development agents. Marsabit Development Programme (MDP largely supported formation of EMCs, in Marsabit District of northern Kenya, where the study was carried out. Both social data based on a questionnaire survey and biological data on physical availability of vegetation on the ground were generated. Results of both data sets showed more sustainable harvesting practices of woody vegetation in villages that MDP had high presence.  It is therefore concluded that MDP influenced woody resources utilization practices of the pastoralists in Marsabit district.Cet article concerne l’efficacité des Comités de gestion environnementale (CGE en matière de gestion des ressources boisées dans les villages de gardiens de troupeaux du nord du Kenya. L’efficacité est évaluée en termes de participation à l’utilisation durable de la végétation qui est prédite sur la base du sexe des utilisateurs des ressources et sur la fréquence des contacts avec les agents de développement. Le programme de développement Marsabit (MDP a largement soutenu la formation des CGE dans la région de Marsabit au nord du Kenya où a été réalisée l’étude. Des données sociales basées sur un questionnaire et des données biologiques basées sur la disponibilité physique de la végétation sur le terrain ont été générées. L’analyse de ces données a montré une utilisation plus large de pratiques durables de récolte de végétation boisée dans les villages où le MDP était bien implanté. Il a été conclu par conséquent que le MDP influençait les pratiques d’utilisation des ressources boisées des gardiens de troupeaux dans la r

  11. Effects of community succession dynamics on forest biodiversity in eastern mountainous area of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Plant, insect and forest structures of 25 forest communities were investigated in Mao'ershan Experimental Forest Farm and Liangshui Experimental Forest Farm during 1994-1995. The paper used continuum index (Ci) as a parameter, to quantitatively describe forest community succession stage. Relationships between the biodiversity and continuum index of forest community were studied. The annual species and family diversities in forest plant community showed nonlinear correlation with continuum index, and the largest diversities were during the middle stage of succession. The diversities of total insect community and herbivorous insect group were negatively related with Ci, that of spide group and parasitic insect group was positively related. The pattern diversity and coverage weight diversity index foliage height increased with continuum index.

  12. Certification of community forestry enterprises: experiences with incorporating community forestry in a global system for forest governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.; Humphries, S.; Bommel, van S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the history and present status of community forest certification as an illustration of the growing interactions between global and local processes in forest governance. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification system is analyzed as an illustrative case of the trend

  13. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future.

  14. Understanding community engagement in plantation forest management : Insights from practitioner and community narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) processes are an essential component of modern forest management practices. Required under law and in line with modern business paradigms, CE processes need to produce positive social as well as operational outcomes, a balance that is often complicated and idealistic. This

  15. Understanding community engagement in plantation forest management : Insights from practitioner and community narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    Community engagement (CE) processes are an essential component of modern forest management practices. Required under law and in line with modern business paradigms, CE processes need to produce positive social as well as operational outcomes, a balance that is often complicated and idealistic. This

  16. 百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的克隆繁殖特性%Clonal propagation characteristics of woody species in Baishanzu broad-leaved evergreen forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娇; 王伟; 叶珍林; 陈晓慧; 蒋清玲; 丁炳扬

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants, which are generated through both sexual reproduction and vegetative propagation (clonal growth) in nature, can affect species distribution patterns and dynamics, as well as the species composition and diversity of communities. Clonal plants with ability to adapt to the harsh environment have strong competence for survival, and thus play an important role in regeneration and revegetation of the forest dynamics. Based on the investigation of the root-sprouting situation of shrubs and woody vines with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm or height ≥ 2 m and trees in Baishanzu permanent plot, the objective of this study was to research the sprouting ability of different species with different growth forms, the relationship between root-sprouting rate and DBH of parent-ramet and the association between sprouting rate and habitats. A 5-hm2 plot in Baishanzu Mountain was divided into 2 000 quadrats (5 m ×5 m) to survey species identity, DBH, root-sprouting number and root-sprouting DBH / basal diameter for shrubs and woody vines with DBH ≥ 1 cm and all trees. Species in the plot were classified into canopy trees, sub-canopy trees, understory trees, shrubs and vines to survey the differences of their root-sprouting capacity. The relationship between root-sprouting rate and DBH of parent-ramet was analyzed based on six common species with the number of mother plant ≥ 400 and root-sprouting rate ≥ 1.0. According to the differences of slope, convexity and elevation among quadrates, the plot was divided into four habitats, including ridge, less-steep slope, steep slope and gully to analyze the association between sprouting rate and habitats. The results showed that: 1) The total parent-ramet and sprout in the plot were 36 769 and 34 786 respectively, thus the sprouting rate of the species in the plot was 0.94 (Table 1); 2) the sprouting rates of species with different growth forms were different with the descending order of canopy species, sub

  17. 茂兰喀斯特森林不同地形部位木本植物种间联结性分析%Interspecific Association of Woody Plant Species at Different Topography Sites in Maolan Karst Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑振宇; 龙翠玲

    2014-01-01

    选择茂兰国家级喀斯特森林自然保护区内木本植被为研究对象,对区内3种地形(槽谷、坡地、漏斗)中的植被进行群落学调查。通过重要值计算结果在每个地形群落中各选取了42个优势种,运用多物种总体联结性,各物种间联结性、联结系数、共同出现百分率等指数,对不同地形部位群落的种间联结性进行分析。结果表明:1)研究区群落总体呈不显著正联结关系,与种对间联结性特征一致,群落中各种群趋于独立出现,群落处于比较稳定的阶段。2)不同地形部位群落的种间联结性存在一定差异。槽谷、漏斗群落总体呈不显著正联结,正联结种对较多;坡地群落总体呈不显著负联结,负联结和无联结种对较多。3)槽谷、漏斗群落种间联结性较高,群落结构较稳定,坡地群落种间联结性较低,群落结构不稳定。由以上群落种间联结特征推断植物种间松散的联结关系是喀斯特森林物种的共存机制之一,这种共存机制在不同地形部位群落中有不同的表现形式。%Based on investigation on the communities,the woody plant species at three topography sites in Maolan National Nature Reserve were selected as the object of research.Through the calculation of impor-tant values,forty-two dominant species were selected in each communities.Overall association,interspecif-ic association,percentage co-occurrence (PC)and association coefficient(AC)were used to analyze the interspecific association of these dominant species.The results showed that:(1 )overall association of community in research area was insignificant positive association and it was in accord with interspecific association.Populations were easy to arise independently.Community was in a relatively stable stage.(2) the interspecific associations of communities at different topography sites were different.In funnel and val-ley communities

  18. Soil Properties and Plant Community Changes along a Goat Grazing Intensity Gradient in an Open Canopy Oak Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimilia LEMPESI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the management practices of silvopastoral systems affect the long-term sustainability of oak ecosystems and what their influence is on nutrient cycling and plant community, is of great interest. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of relative grazing intensity on soil properties and on vegetation characteristics in an open canopy oak forest dominated by Quercus frainetto. The research was conducted in the area of Pentalofos, which is located in Evros region, north-eastern Greece and is grazed by goats. The distance from a goat corral was used to represent relative grazing intensity. In June 2011, soil and vegetation samples were collected along transects placed at 50, 150, 300, 600 and 1200 m from the goat corral, running perpendicular to three replicates. Soil measurements included pH, phosphorous (P and nitrogen (N concentrations while vegetation measurements included plant cover, species composition and diversity. Plant cover was not significantly different among grazing intensities. Species diversity, especially of the woody vegetation layer, was significantly higher in the light grazing intensity in comparison to both the heavy and the very light grazing. Heavy grazing reduced soil organic matter while it increased total nitrogen. Grazing intensity did not affect available P and soil pH. Light to moderate goat grazing could ameliorate floristic diversity and increase sustainability of oak forests in the Mediterranean region.

  19. Bacteria in a woody fungal disease: characterization of bacterial communities in wood tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eBruez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Esca is a grapevine trunk disease (GTD associated with different pathogenic fungi inhabiting the woody tissues. Bacteria can also be found in such tissues and they may interact with these fungal colonizers. Although such types of microbial interaction have been observed for wood diseases in many trees, this has never been studied for grapevine. In this study, the bacterial microflora of different vine status (esca-symptomatic and asymptomatic, different anatomical part (trunk and cordon and different type of tissues (necrotic or not have been studied. Based on Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP analyses, data showed that (i specific complexes of bacterial microflora colonize the wood of both necrotic and non-necrotic tissues of esca-foliar symptomatic and asymptomatic vines, and also that (ii depending on the anatomical part of the plant, cordon or trunk, differences could be observed between the bacterial communities. Such differences were also revealed through the Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP with Biolog Ecoplates™. Two hundred seventeen bacterial strains were also isolated from plants samples and then assigned to bacterial species based on the 16S rRNA genes. Although Bacillus spp. and Pantoea agglomerans were the two most commonly isolated species from all kinds of tissues, various other taxa were also isolated. Inoculation of vine cuttings with 14 different bacterial species, and one GTD fungus, Neofusicoccum parvum, showed no impact of these bacteria on the size of the wood necroses caused by N. parvum. This study showed, therefore, that bacterial communities differ according to the anatomical part (trunk or cordon and/or the type of tissue (necrotic or non necrotic of wood of grapevine plants showing external symptoms of esca disease. However, research into bacteria having a role in GTD development needs further studies.

  20. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  1. 伊犁河谷北坡野果林木本植物种间关系及环境解释%Interspecific and environmental relationships of woody plant species in wild fruit-tree forests on the north slope of Ili Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田中平; 庄丽; 李建贵; 程模香

    2011-01-01

    伊犁河谷北坡野果林是天山山脉中一个重要的植被类型,对其种间关系进行研究将有助于揭示野果林群落的动态特征.我们于2009年在野果林的不同群落中设置了10个样地,记录了群落的物种组成以及环境因子,包括海拔、坡度和坡向,测定了土壤含水率和有机质等土壤参数.采用x2检验、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数检验等方法,对野果林乔木层和灌木层种间关联性进行了研究.结果表明:Pearson相关检验优于x2检验,Spearman 秩相关检验比Pearson相关检验更加灵敏;乔木和灌木优势种绝大多数种对的联结关系未达到显著水平,群落结构较为松散,表明各群落可能处于演替的早期阶段;在影响物种分布的环境因子中,海拔起决定性的作用,其次是坡向、土壤含水率、有机质、全氮和pH值.%The wild fruit-tree forest on the north slope of the Ili Valley is a living testament to the vegetative history of the Tianshan region.It is a type of broad-leaved forest appearing in the desert region.However, little is known about interspecific relationships among the major woody species or their process of succession.In 2009, we sampled 10 typical communities and investigated the abundance, height and coverage of woody plants as well as the topographical and soil conditions within each quadrat (20 m×20 m quadrats for trees, 10 m×l0 m for shrubs).Interspecific associations were analyzed using continuity corrected X2 test, Pearson correlation and Spearman rank correlation.DCCA (detrended canonical correspondence analysis) was used to identify topographical and soil factors that affected woody plant distributions.The network diagram based on Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients displayed interspecific relationships clearly.There were negative associations among overall tree or shrub species, indicating a strong independent relationship between species.However, correlation

  2. [Response of forest bird communities to forest gap in winter in southwestern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Dong; Wu, Ying-Huan; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Guang-Wei; Zhou, Fang

    2013-06-01

    Although forest gap ecology is an important field of study, research remains limited. By plot setting and point counted observation, the response of birds to forest gaps in winter as well as bird distribution patterns in forest gaps and intact canopies were studied in a north tropical monsoon forest of southwestern China from November 2011 to February 2012 in the Fangcheng Golden Camellia National Nature Reserve, Guangxi. The regression equation of bird species diversity to habitat factor was Y1=0.611+0.002 X13+0.043 X2+0.002 X5-0.003 X8+0.006 X10+0.008 X1 and the regression equation of bird species dominance index to habitat factor was Y3=0.533+0.001 X13+0.019 X2+0.002 X3-0.017 X4+0.002 X1. There were 45 bird species (2 orders and 13 families) recorded in the forest gap, accounting for 84.9% of all birds (n=45), with an average of 9.6 species (range: 2-22). Thirty-nine bird species (5 orders and 14 families) were recorded in non-gap areas, accounting for 73.6% of all birds (n=39), with an average of 5.3 species (range: 1-12). These results suggested that gap size, arbor average height (10 m from gap margin), arbor quantity (10 m from gap margin), shrub quantity (10 m from gap margin), herbal average coverage (1 m from gap margin) and bare land ratio were the key forest gap factors that influenced bird diversities. On the whole, bird diversity in the forest gap was greater than in the intact canopy. Spatial distributions in the forest gaps were also observed in the bird community. Most birds foraged in the "middle" and "canopy" layers in the vertical stratification. In addition, "nearly from" and "close from" contained more birds in relation to horizontal stratification. Feeding niche differentiation was suggested as the main reason for these distribution patterns.

  3. Effectiveness of community forest management at reducing deforestation in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Jenkins, Clinton N.;

    2015-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) is a widespread conservation approach in the tropics. It is also promoted as a means by which payment for ecosystem services schemes can be implemented. However, evidence on its performance is weak. We investigated the effectiveness of CFM at reducing deforestation...... restricted the sample to only where information suggests effective CFM implementation on the ground. Likewise, we cannot detect an effect of CFM where commercial use of natural resources is allowed. However, we can detect a reduction in deforestation in CFM that does not permit commercial uses, compared...

  4. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two

  5. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two yea

  6. Characterization of humus microbial communities in adjacent forest types that differ in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, S E; Prescott, C E; Grayston, S J; Neufeld, J D; Mohn, W W

    2004-07-01

    To address the link between soil microbial community composition and soil processes, we investigated the microbial communities in forest floors of two forest types that differ substantially in nitrogen availability. Cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) forests are both common on northern Vancouver Island, B.C., occurring adjacently across the landscape. CH forest floors have low nitrogen availability and HA high nitrogen availability. Total microbial biomass was assessed using chloroform fumigation-extraction and community composition was assessed using several cultivation-independent approaches: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the bacterial communities, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of the bacterial and fungal communities, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of the whole microbial community. We did not detect differences in the bacterial communities of each forest type using DGGE and RISA, but differences in the fungal communities were detected using RISA. PLFA analysis detected subtle differences in overall composition of the microbial community between the forest types, as well as in particular groups of organisms. Fungal PLFAs were more abundant in the nitrogen-poor CH forests. Bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests than CH in the lower humus layer, and Gram-positive bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests irrespective of layer. Bacterial and fungal communities were distinct in the F, upper humus, and lower humus layers of the forest floor and total biomass decreased in deeper layers. These results indicate that there are distinct patterns in forest floor microbial community composition at the landscape scale, which may be important for understanding nutrient availability to forest vegetation.

  7. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: 1 quantify...

  8. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: (1) quantify...

  9. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: (1) quantify...

  10. Bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian region: their habitat associations and responses to forest management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report documents project activities for bird communities of coniferous forests in the Acadian Region. The objectives of this project are to: 1 quantify...

  11. Turnover of Species and Guilds in Shrub Spider Communities in a 100-Year Postlogging Forest Chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Takashi F; Tayasu, Ichiro

    2016-02-01

    Disturbance of forests by logging and subsequent forest succession causes marked changes in arthropod communities. Although vegetation cover provides important habitat for arthropods, studies of the changes in their community structure associated with forest succession have been conducted mostly at ground level. To evaluate how forests of different ages contribute to arthropod biodiversity in shrub habitat, spiders were collected from shrubs in 12 forests ranging in age from 1 to 107 yr after logging. We found marked changes in spider community structure about 10 yr after logging: the number of species and individuals declined rapidly after this time. These changes were likely caused by a decrease in shrub cover in association with forest succession. Changes in spider species composition associated with stand age were small in forests at least 11 yr old and were not clustered by forest age. After the exclusion of species of which we sampled only one or two individuals incidentally, just 0.9 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD) species were unique to these older forests. The other 41.2 ± 4.3 species found in these forests were common to both older and young forests, although some of these species in common were found mainly in forests at least 11 yr old. These results suggest that preservation of old-growth forests contributes to the abundance of these common species, although old-growth forests contribute little to species diversity.

  12. Do Community-Managed Forests Work? A Biodiversity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Terborgh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-managed reserves (CMRs comprise the fastest-growing category of protected areas throughout the tropics. CMRs represent a compromise between advocates of nature conservation and advocates of human development. We ask whether CMRs succeed in achieving the goals of either. A fixed reserve area can produce only a finite resource supply, whereas human populations exploiting them tend to expand rapidly while adopting high-impact technologies to satisfy rising aspirations. Intentions behind the establishment of CMRs may be admirable, but represent an ideal rarely achieved. People tied to the natural forest subsist on income levels that are among the lowest in the Amazon. Limits of sustainable harvesting are often low and rarely known prior to reserve creation or respected thereafter, and resource exhaustion predictably follows. Unintended consequences typically emerge, such as overhunting of the seed dispersers, pollinators, and other animals that provide services essential to perpetuating the forest. CMRs are a low priority for governments, so mostly operate without enforcement, a laxity that encourages illegal forest conversion. Finally, the pull of markets can alter the “business plan” of a reserve overnight, as inhabitants switch to new activities. The reality is that we live in a hyperdynamic world of accelerating change in which past assumptions must continually be re-evaluated.

  13. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  14. Original Paper Floristic and structural changes in secondary forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after recovery, large trees were insufficient and basal area was about 60% of ..... sity (tre es/ha. ) dbh classes (cm). SF1. Lonchocarpus sericeus skewness = 0.89 ..... Woody vegetation spatial patterns in semi-arid savanna of Burkina-Faso. ... Plant communities, forest site identfication and classification in Toffo reserve, South ...

  15. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  16. Trait assembly of woody plants in communities across sub-alpine gradients: Identifying the role of limiting similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, B.; Zhang, J.; Liu, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, X.; Yang, W.; Prinzing, A.

    2012-01-01

    Questions - Plant species can be assembled into communities through habitat filtering or species competition, but their relative roles are still debated. We do not know whether there is limited similarity between co-existing species when accounting for the parallel effect of abiotic habitat filterin

  17. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  18. Community ecology and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Feroz; Md Rabiul Alam; Prokash Das; Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition, woody species diversity and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracks, Bangladesh. We recorded 25 families, 37 genera, 40 species and 1771 woody individuals in a 0.09 ha plot. Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae were the most species-rich families, and Castanopsis, Ficus and Terminalia were the most species-rich genera. Bursera serrata Wall. ex Colebr. was the dominant species in terms of highest importance value (13%). Trema orientalis (L.) Bl was typically a light demanding species as it appeared in the top can-opy with only one individual having the seventh highest IV, but had no regeneration. The expected maximum number of species (Smax) was 140, indicating that many species may invade the forest as the Smax is greater than the recorded total number of species. The nature of the disappear-ance and appearance of species in the present forest reflects instability of floristic composition. The values of Shannon’s index H′ and Pielou’s index J′ (evenness) were 3.36 bit and 0.63, respectively. These values show moderately high species diversity as compared to other subtropical forests in the tropics. In addition, a sample area of 200 m2 in this forest would be sufficient for measuring the diversity indices H′ and J′ , whereas the trend of J′may indicate the rate of equality of individuals among the different species decreased with increasing area. The distribu-tion pattern for the total stand was completely random. However, the dominant species showed aggregate distribution for small areas, but random distribution for large areas. The spatial association between species showed that the strongest positive interspecific association oc-curred between Streblus asper Lour. and Castanea indica Roxb. (ω =0.51). As a whole, most species were weakly associated with each other, of which 58%species associations were completely negative. The result of

  19. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  20. 78 FR 52900 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... final program rule as: (i) Economic benefits such as timber and non-timber products; (ii) Environmental... purpose of the program is to establish community forests by protecting forest land from conversion to non... also be threatened by conversion to non-forest uses, must not be held in trust by the United States on...

  1. Formal institutions, local arrangements and conflicts in Northern Bolivian communities after forest governance reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano Cardona, W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, community forest management (CFM) has become an alternative to reach important objectives related to forests sustainability and the improvement of forest dwellers’ wellbeing. In many countries the recognition and development of specific CFM models has been closely related to soc

  2. Invariant community structure of soil bacteria in subtropical coniferous and broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Zou, Xiaoming; Liu, Tao; Zhou, Lixia; Wan, Songze; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei

    2016-01-12

    Soil bacteria may be influenced by vegetation and play important roles in global carbon efflux and nutrient cycling under global changes. Coniferous and broadleaved forests are two phyletically distinct vegetation types. Soil microbial communities in these forests have been extensively investigated but few studies have presented comparable data regarding the characteristics of bacterial communities in subtropical forests. We investigated soil bacterial biomass and community composition in three pairs of coniferous and broadleaved forests across a subtropical climatic gradient. We found that bacterial biomass differed between the coniferous and broadleaved forests across the subtropical climate gradient; however, this difference disappeared at some individual sites. In contrast, the same 90 bacterial genera were found in both forest types, and their relative abundances didn't differ between the forest types, with the exception of one genus that was more abundant in broadleaved forests. Soil nitrogen or moisture was associated with bacterial groups in the coniferous and broadleaved forests, respectively. Thus, we inferred that these forests can respond differently to future changes in nitrogen deposition or precipitation. This study highlights soil bacterial invariant community composition in contrasting subtropical forests and provides a new perspective on the potential response and feedback of forests to global changes.

  3. Shifts in resident bird communities associated with cloud forest patch size in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael Rueda-Hernandez; Ian MacGregor-Fors; Katherine Renton

    2015-01-01

    .... We evaluated species richness, bird community density, community composition, and dominance as indicators of the response to fragment size in a fragmented cloud forest landscape in central Veracruz, Mexico...

  4. Facilitation contributes to Mediterranean woody plant diversity but does not shape the diversity-productivity relationship along aridity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Pedro J; Alcántara, Julio M; Manzaneda, Antonio J; Sánchez-Lafuente, Alfonso M

    2016-07-01

    The diversity-productivity relationship (humped-back model (HBM)) and the stress-gradient (SGH) hypotheses may be connected when productivity is limited primarily by aridity. We analytically connect both hypotheses and assess the contribution of facilitation to woody plant richness along the aridity gradient of the Western Mediterranean floristic region. We monitored regeneration niches of woody plants, obtaining rarefied species richness and plant relative interaction indices in 54 forests and scrublands in a 1750-km geographical range across Spain, Morocco and the Canary Islands. We verified the monotonic increase in facilitation with aridity postulated by SGH and the humped-shape pattern of species richness expected from HBM, which became manifest after expanding the aridity gradient or crossing vegetation types. Along the gradient, interaction balance turned into facilitation earlier in forest than in scrublands. The effects of aridity and interaction balance on species diversity were additive rather than interdependent. Facilitation is an important driver of woody species richness at macroecological scales because it added up to diversity in most sites, with enhanced contribution with increased stress. The HBM was not shaped by species interactions. Results suggest that facilitation may act in Mediterranean vegetation buffering against critical transitions between states allowing woody plant communities to cope with the rise in aridity expected with global warming.

  5. Impacts of Community Forest Management on human economic well-being across Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Ferraro, Paul J.; Ruta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Community Forest Management (CFM) devolves forest management to local communities to achieve conservation and human well-being goals. Yet, the evidence for CFM's impacts is mixed and difficult to interpret because of inadequate attention to rival explanations for the observed empirical patterns. ...

  6. Learning from the past: Trends and dynamics in livelihoods of Bolivian forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenteno, M.; Jong, de W.; Boot, R.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    We use social ecological systems theory (SES) to analyse change in forest communities in the northern Bolivian Amazon. SES characterizes interdependent dynamics of social and ecological systems and we hypothesized it to be a useful frame to grasp dynamics of forest communities affected by changes in

  7. Epiphytic Macrolichen Community Composition Database—epiphytic lichen synusiae in forested areas of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah. Jovan

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program's Lichen Communities Indicator is used for tracking epiphytic macrolichen diversity and is applied for monitoring air quality and climate change effects on forest health in the United States. Started in 1994, the Epiphytic Macrolichen Community Composition Database (GIVD ID NA-US-012) now has over 8,000 surveys of...

  8. Linking biodiversity to mutualistic networks – woody species and ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic interactions are currently mapped by bipartite networkswith particular architecture and properties. The mycorrhizae connectthe trees and permit them to share resources, therefore relaxing thecompetition. Ectomycorrhizal macrofungi associated with woody species(Quercus robur, Q. cerris, Q. petraea, Tilia tomentosa, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, and Q. pubescens growing in a temperate, broadleaved mixed forest, from a hilly area near the city of Cluj–Napoca, central Romania were included in a bipartite mutualistic network. Community structure was investigated using several network metrics, modularity and nestedness algorithms in conjunction with C-score index cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (the Kulczynski similarity was index used as most appropriate metric selected by minimal stress criterion. The results indicate that the network presents high asymmetry (hosts are outnumbered by mycobionts at a great extent, high connectance, low modularity, andhigh nestedness, competition playing a secondary role in community assemblage (non significant difference between simulated and observed Cscore.The nestedness pattern is non-random and is comparable to previouslypublished results for other similar interactions containing plants. Inthe proposed network, woody species function exclusively as generalists. Modularity analysis is a finer tool were identifying species roles than centrality measures, however, the two types of algorithms permit the separation of species according to their roles as for example connectors (generalist species and ultraperipheral species (specialists. Supergeneralist woody species function as hubs for the diverse ectomycorrhizal community while supergeneralistectomycorrhizal fungi glue the hubs into a coherent aggregate.

  9. The Efficiency of Community Forests: Successful and Unsuccessful Examples From Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dangi, Resham B.

    2000-01-01

    This study suggests that transfer of State forests to the local communities is the least cost policy option to improve prevailing deforestation problem in Nepal. However, there are few problems at operational, institutional, and policy levels, which are restricting community forest (CF) transformation. The critical review of seven representative case studies and modern forest policy of Nepal identifies following important issues in CF transformation in Nepal. They are low marginal flexibility...

  10. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  11. Soil organic matter quantity and quality shape microbial community compositions of subtropical broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang; Wang, Mengmeng; Sun, Xin; Cong, Jing; Deng, Ye; Lu, Hui; Yuan, Tong; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    As two major forest types in the subtropics, broadleaved evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forests have long interested ecologists. However, little is known about their belowground ecosystems despite their ecological importance in driving biogeochemical cycling. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S rRNA gene and a microarray named GeoChip targeting functional genes to analyse microbial communities in broadleaved evergreen and deciduous forest soils of Shennongjia Mountain of Central China, a region known as 'The Oriental Botanic Garden' for its extraordinarily rich biodiversity. We observed higher plant diversity and relatively richer nutrients in the broadleaved evergreen forest than the deciduous forest. In odds to our expectation that plant communities shaped soil microbial communities, we found that soil organic matter quantity and quality, but not plant community parameters, were the best predictors of microbial communities. Actinobacteria, a copiotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved evergreen forest, while Verrucomicrobia, an oligotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forest. The density of the correlation network of microbial OTUs was higher in the broadleaved deciduous forest but its modularity was smaller, reflecting lower resistance to environment changes. In addition, keystone OTUs of the broadleaved deciduous forest were mainly oligotrophic. Microbial functional genes associated with recalcitrant carbon degradation were also more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forests, resulting in low accumulation of organic matters. Collectively, these findings revealed the important role of soil organic matter in shaping microbial taxonomic and functional traits.

  12. Long-term forest soil warming alters microbial communities in temperate forest soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M DeAngelis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes are major drivers of soil carbon cycling, yet we lack an understanding of how climate warming will affect microbial communities. Three ongoing field studies at the Harvard Forest Long-term Ecological Research (LTER site (Petersham, MA have warmed soils 5oC above ambient temperatures for 5, 8 and 20 years. We used this chronosequence to examine soil microbial communities in response to chronic warming. Bacterial community composition was studied using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and bacterial and fungal abundance were assessed using quantitative PCR. Only the 20-year warmed site exhibited significant change in bacterial community structure in the organic soil horizon, with no significant changes in the mineral soil. The dominant taxa, abundant at 0.1% or greater, represented 0.3% of the richness but nearly 50% of the observations (sequences. Individual members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria showed strong warming responses, with one Actinomycete decreasing from 10% to 2% relative abundance with warming. We also observed a significant decrease in mean bacterial ribosomal RNA gene copy number in warming plots compared to controls, a trait linked to maximum growth rate or trophic strategy among bacteria. Increased bacterial alpha diversity, shifting beta diversity, decreased fungal abundance and increased abundance of bacteria with low rRNA operon copy number, including Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria suggest that more or alternative niche space is being created over the course of long-term warming.

  13. Investigating the effects of forest structure on the small mammal community in frequent-fire coniferous forests using capture-recapture models for stratified populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahel Sollmann; Angela M. White; Beth Gardner; Patricia N. Manley

    2015-01-01

    Small mammals comprise an important component of forest vertebrate communities. Our understanding of how small mammals use forested habitat has relied heavily on studies in forest systems not naturally prone to frequent disturbances. Small mammal populations that evolved in frequent-fire forests, however, may be less restricted to specific habitat conditions due to the...

  14. Long-term forest soil warming alters microbial communities in temperate forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Kristen M; Pold, Grace; Topçuoğlu, Begüm D; van Diepen, Linda T A; Varney, Rebecca M; Blanchard, Jeffrey L; Melillo, Jerry; Frey, Serita D

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes are major drivers of soil carbon cycling, yet we lack an understanding of how climate warming will affect microbial communities. Three ongoing field studies at the Harvard Forest Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site (Petersham, MA) have warmed soils 5°C above ambient temperatures for 5, 8, and 20 years. We used this chronosequence to test the hypothesis that soil microbial communities have changed in response to chronic warming. Bacterial community composition was studied using Illumina sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, and bacterial and fungal abundance were assessed using quantitative PCR. Only the 20-year warmed site exhibited significant change in bacterial community structure in the organic soil horizon, with no significant changes in the mineral soil. The dominant taxa, abundant at 0.1% or greater, represented 0.3% of the richness but nearly 50% of the observations (sequences). Individual members of the Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria showed strong warming responses, with one Actinomycete decreasing from 4.5 to 1% relative abundance with warming. Ribosomal RNA copy number can obfuscate community profiles, but is also correlated with maximum growth rate or trophic strategy among bacteria. Ribosomal RNA copy number correction did not affect community profiles, but rRNA copy number was significantly decreased in warming plots compared to controls. Increased bacterial evenness, shifting beta diversity, decreased fungal abundance and increased abundance of bacteria with low rRNA operon copy number, including Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, together suggest that more or alternative niche space is being created over the course of long-term warming.

  15. Phylogenetic community structure during succession: evidence from three Neotropical forest sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letcher, S.G.; Chazdon, R.L.; Andrade, A.; Bongers, F.; Breugel, van M.; Finegan, B.; Laurance, S.G.; Mesquita, R.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; Williamson, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic structure of communities can reveal forces shaping community assembly, but the vast majority of work on phylogenetic community structure has been conducted in mature ecosystems. Here, we present an analysis of the phylogenetic structure of three Neotropical rain forest communities u

  16. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  17. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  18. 上海海湾国家森林公园木本蔬菜与草本野菜开发%Development of Woody Vegetables and Edible Wild Herbs in Shanghai Gulf National Forest Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗清连

    2012-01-01

    According to the present situation and planning of Gulf National Forest Park, in order to reasonably use the available resources and raise economic benefits, the paper worked out the Forest Industry Development Scheme for Woody Vegetables and Wild Herbs. Based on the investigation and analysis of the technical and economic indicators of products, the investment budget and so on, the paper put forward the main risk factors and precautionary measures.%根据海湾国家森林公园现状及规划,为合理利用现有资源、提高经济效益,制定木本疏菜及草本野菜的林间产业开发方案,在调查分析产品的技术经济指标、投资概算等的基础上,提出主要风险因子及防范措施。

  19. Genetic diversity of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LI; Zexin JIN; Wenyan LOU; Junmin LI

    2008-01-01

    By using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique,this paper studied the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities (con-iferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest) with different succes-sion stages in Tiantai Mountain in Zhejiang Province.The results showed that a total of 173 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of L. Harlandii by 12 random primers, among which, 152 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%. The average percentage of polymorphic loci of the popula-tions was 65.32%, and their total genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index was 0.4529,with an average of 0.3458,while that judged from Nei's index was 0.3004, with an average of 0.2320. The percentage of polymorphic loci, Shannon information index, and Nei's index of the populations were in the sequence of coniferous forest community coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community evergreen broad-leaved forest community. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 72.85% of genetic variance was found within the populations,and 27.15% of genetic variance resided among the populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.2277, and the gene flow was 1.6949. The genetic structure of L. Harlandii was influenced not only by the biological characteristics of this species, but also by the micro-environment of different communities. The mean of genetic identity among three populations of L. Harlandii was 0.8662, and the mean of their genetic distance was 0.1442. The genetic similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community and evergreen broad-leaved forest community was the highest, while that between evergreen broad-leaved forest community and coniferous forest community was the lowest.The unweighted pair group method with arithmeticmean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic

  20. Occupancy dynamics in a tropical bird community: unexpectedly high forest use by birds classified as non-forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Zipkin, Elise F.; Dhondt, Andre A.

    2010-01-01

    1. Worldwide loss of biodiversity necessitates a clear understanding of the factors driving population declines as well as informed predictions about which species and populations are at greatest risk. The biggest threat to the long-term persistence of populations is the reduction and changes in configuration of their natural habitat. 2. Inconsistencies have been noted in the responses of populations to the combined effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. These have been widely attributed to the effects of the matrix habitats in which remnant focal habitats are typically embedded. 3. We quantified the potential effects of the inter-patch matrix by estimating occupancy and colonization of forest and surrounding non-forest matrix (NF). We estimated species-specific parameters using a dynamic, multi-species hierarchical model on a bird community in southwestern Costa Rica. 4. Overall, we found higher probabilities of occupancy and colonization of forest relative to the NF across bird species, including those previously categorized as open habitat generalists not needing forest to persist. Forest dependency was a poor predictor of occupancy dynamics in our study region, largely predicting occupancy and colonization of only non-forest habitats. 5. Our results indicate that the protection of remnant forest habitats is key for the long-term persistence of all members of the bird community in this fragmented landscape, including species typically associated with open, non-forest habitats. 6.Synthesis and applications. We identified 39 bird species of conservation concern defined by having high estimates of forest occupancy, and low estimates of occupancy and colonization of non-forest. These species survive in forest but are unlikely to venture out into open, non-forested habitats, therefore, they are vulnerable to the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Our hierarchical community-level model can be used to estimate species-specific occupancy dynamics for focal

  1. Double inequity? The social dimensions of deforestation and forest protection in local communities in Northern Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Chea, Lily

    2013-01-01

    In Cambodia, numerous powerful drivers of land-use change threaten the remaining natural for-est and the livelihoods of local communities living on the forest periphery. In an attempt to protect remaining forests, Community Forestry (CF) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest...... disproportionately affect the poorest households, which are more reliant on forest products due to less land and more insecure tenure. Meanwhile, the benefits from CF/REDD+ hardly reach these vulnerable households since their access to forest resources is constrained by physical barriers and a lack of resources...... governance, contested tenure arrangements, high agricultural dependency, and power discrepancies, this paper analyzes and critically discusses this ‘double inequity’ of deforestation and forest protection in Cambodia, and recommendations on how to ensure more equitable distribution of costs and benefits...

  2. Distinct carbon sources indicate strong differentiation between tropical forest and farmland bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferger, Stefan W; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Oelmann, Yvonne; Schleuning, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    The conversion of forest into farmland has resulted in mosaic landscapes in many parts of the tropics. From a conservation perspective, it is important to know whether tropical farmlands can buffer species loss caused by deforestation and how different functional groups of birds respond to land-use intensification. To test the degree of differentiation between farmland and forest bird communities across feeding guilds, we analyzed stable C and N isotopes in blood and claws of 101 bird species comprising four feeding guilds along a tropical forest-farmland gradient in Kenya. We additionally assessed the importance of farmland insectivores for pest control in C(4) crops by using allometric relationships, C stable isotope ratios and estimates of bird species abundance. Species composition differed strongly between forest and farmland bird communities. Across seasons, forest birds primarily relied on C(3) carbon sources, whereas many farmland birds also assimilated C(4) carbon. While C sources of frugivores and omnivores did not differ between forest and farmland communities, insectivores used more C(4) carbon in the farmland than in the forest. Granivores assimilated more C(4) carbon than all other guilds in the farmland. We estimated that insectivorous farmland birds consumed at least 1,000 kg pest invertebrates km(-2) year(-1). We conclude that tropical forest and farmland understory bird communities are strongly separated and that tropical farmlands cannot compensate forest loss for insectivorous forest understory birds. In tropical farmlands, insectivorous bird species provide a quantitatively important contribution to pest control.

  3. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-12-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting.

  4. Fungal communities in barren forest soil after amendment with different wood substrates and their possible effects on trees’, pathogens, insects and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Monika

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers had been spread over the surface of barren forest soil before planting with Scots pine. The effects of the Scots pine sawdust, composted bark or coarse, post-harvest woody debris from conifers on the abundance and diversity of culturable fungi were investigated. The amendments were aimed at increasing the soil suppressiveness to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. The classical soil-dilution method was chosen for qualitative and quantitative analyses of fungal communities in soils because of its proven reliability and consistency. The soil was inhabited by saprotrophic fungi from Ascomycota and Zygomycota, including species known to be potential antagonists of Armillaria or H. annosum (i.e. Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., Penicillium commune, P. daleae, P. janczewskii or stimulants of Armillaria (i.e. Pseudogymnoascus roseus, Trichocladium opacum. Eleven years after treatment, the abundance and diversity of fungi, the abundance of P. commune, and locally the abundance of P. janczewskii increased, while Clonostachys + Trichoderma spp., and locally, P. daleae and T. opacum decreased. Amending the barren soil with organic matter does not guarantee effective, long-term suppressiveness of the sandy loam soil to Armillaria and Heterobasidion. Increased abundance of entomopathogenic and nematophagous species, 11 years after treatment, does suggest the long-term possibility of insect or nematode control in soil.

  5. Ecosystem services of woody crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee; Gary S. Ba??uelos; Amir Hass

    2016-01-01

    Short-rotation woody crops are an integral component of regional and national energy portfolios, as well as providing essential ecosystem services such as biomass supplies, carbon sinks, clean water, and healthy soils. We review recent USDA Forest Service Research and Development efforts from the USDA Biomass Research Centers on the provisioning of these ecosystem...

  6. Final Report. Forest County Potawatomi Community, Community-Scale Solar Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, Sara M. [Forest County Potawatomi Community, Crandon, WI (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (“FCPC” or “Tribe”) is a federally recognized Indian tribe with a membership of over 1400. The Tribe has a reservation in Forest County, Wisconsin, and also holds tribal trust and fee lands in Milwaukee, Oconto, and Fond du Lac Counties, Wisconsin. The Tribe has developed the long-term goal of becoming energy independent using renewable resources. In order to meet this goal, the Tribe has taken a number of important steps including energy audits leading to efficiency measures, installation of solar PV, the construction of a biodigester and the purchase of Renewable Energy Certificates to offset its current energy use. To further its energy independence goals, FCPC submitted an application to the Department of Energy (“DOE”) and was awarded a Community-Scale Clean Energy Projects in Indian Country grant, under funding opportunity DE-FOA-0000852. The Tribe, in collaboration with Pewaukee, Wisconsin based SunVest Solar Inc. (SunVest), installed approximately 922.95 kW of solar PV systems at fifteen tribal facilities in Milwaukee and Forest Counties. The individual installations ranged from 9.0 kW to 447.64 kW and will displace between 16.9% to in some cases in excess of 90% of each building’s energy needs.

  7. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forestsCommunity teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  8. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  9. Assessing the sustainability of forest management: an application of multi-criteria decision analysis to community forests in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balana, Bedru Babulo; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart

    2010-06-01

    Continuous deterioration of the natural resource base has become a serious threat to both the ecological systems and economic production in Ethiopia. Many of these problems have been attributed directly or indirectly to the rapid dwindling of the country's forest cover which is associated with unsustainable forest use and management. Closing community woodlands from human and livestock intervention to promote natural regeneration of forests has been one of the environmental restoration strategies pursued in the degraded highland areas of northern Ethiopia. However, local pressure to use reforested community lands for economic benefit has become a major threat to forest sustainability. Using locally identified sets of criteria and indicators for sustainable community forest management, this paper applies a multi-criteria decision analysis tool to evaluate forest management problems in the northern province of Tigray, Ethiopia. Three MCA methods - ranking, pair-wise comparison, and scoring - were used in evaluating the sets of criteria and indicators and alternative forest management scenarios. Results from the study indicate a number of noteworthy points: 1) MCA techniques both for identifying local level sustainability criteria and indicators and evaluating management schemes in a participatory decision environment appear to be effective tools to address local resource management problems; 2) Evaluated against the selected sets of criteria and indicators, the current forest management regime in the study area is not on a sustainable path; 3) Acquainting local people with adequate environmental knowledge and raising local awareness about the long-term consequences of environmental degradation ranked first among the set of sustainability criteria; and 4) In order to harmonize both environmental and economic objectives, the present 'ecological-biased' forest management regime needs to be substituted by an appropriate holistic scheme that takes into account

  10. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Borba-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  11. Impacts of Prescribed Fire Frequency on Coarse Woody Debris Volume, Decomposition and Termite Activity in the Longleaf Pine Flatwoods of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Dale D. Wade; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems have been reduced dramatically throughout their range. Prescribed burning is considered the best way to restore and maintain plant communities associated with longleaf pine, but little is known about its effects on coarse woody debris and associated organisms. We conducted a 5-year study on the Osceola National Forest in northeastern Florida to determine how dormant-season prescribed burns at different frequencies (annual, bienni...

  12. Development and evaluation of local communities incentive programs for improving the traditional forest management:A case study of North-ern Zagros forests, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jalal Henareh Khalyani; Manouchehr Namiranian; S. M. Heshmatol Vaezin; Jahangir Feghhi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the local community incentive programs to improve traditional forest management in three forested villages in Baneh city, Kurdistan province in the northern Zagros forests of western Iran. Zagros forests cover 6.07 million ha and support rich plant and animal diversity. Changes in local community social and economic sys-tems and the inefficiency of traditional forest management led to a criti-cal situation in the stability of forest regeneration in recent decades. Due to a shortage of productive and arable lands and resulting unemployment and poverty, people overexploited the Zagros forests. Outside interven-tion in traditional forest management creates conflicts between local peoples and forest management organizations. To achieve sustainable forest management, including forest resources conservation and im-provement of natural resource based livelihoods of communities, it is desirable to implement Forestry Incentive Programs (FIP) based on the important functions of forests. Detailed information on the so-cio-economics of communities, the effect of forests on local livelihoods, and lists of products extracted from the forest were obtained from a sur-vey of local communities though questionnaire, interview and observa-tion. We studied 276 households in three villages and completed 76 ques-tionnaires by householders in the quantitative analysis. Sampling was performed by simple random sampling (SRS). The needs of rural com-munities, such as livestock husbandry, mainly arise from the characteris-tics and environmental features of villages. We identified the driving forces, pressures, status, impacts and responses (DPSIR) to design incen-tive programs, by DPSIR analysis and interaction analysis. Evaluation of local community benefits from forests showed that in order to improve forest management, 319 dollars per year would be needed by each family as an incentive in 2010 to prevent lopping and firewood collecting, the main causes of forest degradation.

  13. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Influence of persistent monodominance on functional diversity and functional community assembly in African tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Beeckman, Hans; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2015-04-01

    Lowland tropical rainforest are taxonomically diverse and complex systems, although not all tropical communities are equally diverse. Naturally occuring monodominant patches of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found across Central Africa alongside higher diversity forests. Nevertheless, a low taxonomical diversity does not necessarily indicate an equivalently low functional diverse system. We investigate the functional diversity and functional community assembly of mixed and monodominant tropical forests in a central region of the Congo Basin in D. R. Congo using 15 leaf and wood traits covering 95% of all species within each community. This unique dataset allows us to investigate differences in functional diversity and ecosystem functioning between mixed and monodominant forest types. Functional richness, functional divergence and functional evenness are three functional diversity measures providing different aspects of functional diversity. The largest difference between the two forest types was found for functional richness, with a lower functional richness in the monodominant forest indicating a higher amount of niche space filled in the mixed forest. The mixed forest also had a higher species richness and Simpson diversity index, indicating that the higher species richness increases the functional niche space. Subsequently, we identified whole community trait shifts within the monodominant forest compared to the mixed forest. The dominance of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei, for which a distinct niche is found for most traits, presented a significant influence on the entire (trait) community expressing fundamental differences in ecosystem functioning. More detailed investigation of species unique within the monodominant forest and species occurring in both forest types provide more insight into the influence of Gilbertiodendron dewevrei. Both the unique and the shared species showed significant shifts in leaf nutrients, specific leaf area and water use

  15. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary

  16. Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, Julien; Archaux, Frédéric; Deconchat, Marc; van Halder, Inge; Jactel, Hervé; Barbaro, Luc

    2016-08-01

    A major conservation challenge in mosaic landscapes is to understand how trait-specific responses to habitat edges affect bird communities, including potential cascading effects on bird functions providing ecosystem services to forests, such as pest control. Here, we examined how bird species richness, abundance and community composition varied from interior forest habitats and their edges into adjacent open habitats, within a multi-regional sampling scheme. We further analyzed variations in Conservation Value Index (CVI), Community Specialization Index (CSI) and functional traits across the forest-edge-open habitat gradient. Bird species richness, total abundance and CVI were significantly higher at forest edges while CSI peaked at interior open habitats, i.e., furthest from forest edge. In addition, there were important variations in trait- and species-specific responses to forest edges among bird communities. Positive responses to forest edges were found for several forest bird species with unfavorable conservation status. These species were in general insectivores, understorey gleaners, cavity nesters and long-distance migrants, all traits that displayed higher abundance at forest edges than in forest interiors or adjacent open habitats. Furthermore, consistently with predictions, negative edge effects were recorded in some forest specialist birds and in most open-habitat birds, showing increasing densities from edges to interior habitats. We thus suggest that increasing landscape-scale habitat complexity would be beneficial to declining species living in mosaic landscapes combining small woodlands and open habitats. Edge effects between forests and adjacent open habitats may also favor bird functional guilds providing valuable ecosystem services to forests in longstanding fragmented landscapes.

  17. Pre-dispersal seed predation in a species-rich forest community: Patterns and the interplay with determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue Xu; Zehao Shen; Daoxin Li; Qinfeng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Pre-dispersal seed predation (PDSP) is commonly observed in woody plants, and recognized as a driver of seed production variability that is critical for successful regeneration. Earlier studies on PDSP and its determinants were mostly species specific, with community- level PDSP rarely estimated; and the interactions between the temporal...

  18. Interactive community-based tropical forest monitoring using emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth’s land surface and have played an indispensable role in the human development and preserving natural resources. At the moment, more than 300 million people are directly dependent on these forests and their resources. Forests also provide habitats

  19. 76 FR 65121 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... recreation and exercise; forests protect public water supplies and may provide financial benefits from forest... the CFP may address a variety of outcomes such as protecting a municipal water supply, providing... resources to purchase important parcels of privately owned forest land as the parcels are offered for sale...

  20. Interactive community-based tropical forest monitoring using emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth’s land surface and have played an indispensable role in the human development and preserving natural resources. At the moment, more than 300 million people are directly dependent on these forests and their resources. Forests also provide habitats fo

  1. Interactive community-based tropical forest monitoring using emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Forests cover approximately 30% of the Earth’s land surface and have played an indispensable role in the human development and preserving natural resources. At the moment, more than 300 million people are directly dependent on these forests and their resources. Forests also provide habitats fo

  2. A Multisector Framework for Assessing Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Raik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Community-based forest management has proliferated throughout Africa as national governments have decentralized the administration of public forestry. Community-based forestry has taken multiple forms, depending on the assortment of land-tenure systems, forest-use norms, wood demand, and social organization, among others factors. Nature, Wealth, and Power is an analytical framework that has been developed from experiences in natural resource management in Africa. In this paper, we amend the framework to People, Nature, Wealth, and Power (PNWP, and propose it as an analytical lens for community-based forest management initiatives. We use the PNWP framework to assess the responsiveness of contractual forest management in the Menabe region of Madagascar to the interests of local communities, the state forest agency, and conservation nongovernmental organizations. Findings indicate that members of each of the three groups hold some differing interests, which may result in conflict over time. Specifically, interests converge around the Nature and Wealth categories and diverge around the People and Power categories. Also, the contract mechanism for community-based forest management currently being implemented in Menabe does not account for the People and Wealth interests held by any of the three groups. More research is needed, but our inquiry indicates the PNWP framework holds promise for assessing community-based forest management initiatives.

  3. Effect of Small-Scale Variations in Environmental Factors on the Distribution of Woody Species in Tropical Deciduous Forests of Vindhyan Highlands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Chaturvedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in the composition of mature, naturally established and unmanaged TDF in response to small-scale variations in environmental factors. All woody species with a minimum circumference of 10 cm at 1.37 m height were surveyed in forty-five 20×50 m plots distributed over 5 sites in the TDF of Vindhyan highlands, India. Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups of plots. Group 1 plots had higher soil moisture content (SMC, clay, organic C, total N, total P, and light attenuation than group 2 plots. A total of 48 native species belonging to 25 families were encountered in the sampled area. High eigenvalues for the first two Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA axes indicated the occurrence of species in distinct groups, and significant correlations of the axes with environmental variables indicated the effect of these variables on species grouping. In conclusion, patchiness in the soil resources needs to be considered in restoration efforts. The results of this study are expected to facilitate the decision regarding choice of species in afforestation programmes for restoring the TDF.

  4. Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest-savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lloyd, J.; Domingues, T.F.; Schrodt, F.; Ishida, F.Y.; Feldpausch, T.R.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C.A.; Schwarz, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Gilpin, M.; Marimon, B.S.; Marimon-Junior, B.H.; Ratter, J.A.; Grace, J.; Nardoto, G.B.; Veenendaal, E.; Arroyo, L.; Villarroel, D.; Killeen, T.J.; Steininger, M.; Phillips, O.L.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling along a precipitation gradient in tropical South America extending from ca. 0.8 to 2.0 m ag-1, savanna soils had consistently lower exchangeable cation concentrations and higher C/N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged

  5. Impact of Logging and Forest Conversion to Oil Palm Plantations on Soil Bacterial Communities in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P.; Tripathi, Binu M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

  6. Distinctive tropical forest variants have unique soil microbial communities, but not always low microbial diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu M Tripathi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been little study of whether different variants of tropical rainforest have distinct soil microbial communities and levels of diversity. We compared bacterial and fungal community composition and diversity between primary mixed dipterocarp, secondary mixed dipterocarp, white sand heath, inland heath, and peat swamp forests in Brunei Darussalam, northwest Borneo by analyzing Illumina Miseq sequence data of 16S rRNA gene and ITS1 region. We hypothesized that white sand heath, inland heath and peat swamp forests would show lower microbial diversity and relatively distinct microbial communities (compared to MDF primary and secondary forests due to their distinctive environments. We found that soil properties together with bacterial and fungal communities varied significantly between forest types. Alpha and beta-diversity of bacteria was highest in secondary dipterocarp and white sand heath forests. Also, bacterial alpha diversity was strongly structured by pH, adding another instance of this widespread pattern in nature. The alpha diversity of fungi was equally high in all forest types except peat swamp forest, although fungal beta-diversity was highest in primary and secondary mixed dipterocarp forests. The relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal (EcM fungi varied significantly between forest types, with highest relative abundance observed in MDF primary forest. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacterial and fungal communities in these forest types are to a certain extent predictable and structured by soil properties, but that diversity is not determined by how distinctive the conditions are. This contrasts with the diversity patterns seen in rainforest trees, where distinctive soil conditions have consistently lower tree diversity.

  7. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogoro Fujiki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+ requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs, each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS. Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to

  8. Forest soil microbial communities: Using metagenomic approaches to survey permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; Jane E. Stewart; John W. Hanna; John D. Shaw; Andrew T. Hudak; Theresa B. Jain; Robert J. Denner; Russell T. Graham; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2014-01-01

    Forest soil ecosystems include some of the most complex microbial communities on Earth (Fierer et al. 2012). These assemblages of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and protists play essential roles in biogeochemical cycles (van der Heijden et al. 2008) and account for considerable terrestrial biomass (Nielsen et al. 2011). Yet, determining the microbial composition of forest...

  9. Carbon Sequestration in Tropical and Subtropical Plant Species in Collaborative and Community Forests of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plant species have different capacity of carbon sequestration but it is not assessed yet in Nepal. Therefore, this study was done to assess the species-wise carbon sequestration in two periods in forests. Three collaborative and three community forests were selected for the study. The selected forests were surveyed using GPS and mapped and stratified into tree, pole, and regeneration. Specifically 32, 33, and 31 samples were collected from Banke-Maraha, Tuteshwarnath, and Gadhanta-Bardibash collaborative forests, respectively, while 30, 25, and 22 samples were collected from Chureparwati, Buddha, and Chyandanda community forests correspondingly. The sample plots were of 25 m × 20 m for tree strata. The diameter and height of plants were measured and samples were collected for three consecutive years. The estimated carbon stock of Shorea robusta was the highest 35.93 t ha−1 in 2011 which was slightly decreased to 34.43 t ha−1 in 2012 and reached 32.02 t ha−1 in 2013 in Banke-Maraha collaborative forest but it was the least 7.97, 8.92, and 10.29 t ha−1 in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, in Chyandanda community forest. The highest carbon sequestration was recorded about 5.02 t ha−1 of Shorea robusta in Chyandanda community forest in between t2013 and t2012.

  10. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darold P. Batzer; Susan E. Dietz-Brantley; Barbara E. Taylor; Adrienne E. DeBiase

    2005-01-01

    Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5...

  11. Nematode communities of natural and managed beech forests - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandmark, Lisa Bjørnlund; Madsen, Mette Vestergård; Johansson, Sanne

    2002-01-01

    forests is discussed. We suggest dead wood input to be the driving variable leading to the observed differences in the nematode community between managed and natural forests of Zealand, Denmark. The marked site differences found in this study emphasizes the need to carefully choose reference areas where...

  12. Aerial arthropod communities of native and invaded forests, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erin N; Bakker, Jonathan D; Gara, Robert I

    2010-08-01

    Invasive species significantly contribute to biological change and threaten biodiversity, with a growing body of evidence that plant invasions affect higher trophic levels. We explored the relative importance of plant invasion and forest structure on aerial arthropod abundance, diversity, and composition on Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. We used flight intercept traps to sample aerial arthropods within distinct canopy strata of native and invaded forests over 3-mo periods in 2006 and 2007. Arthropod abundance and diversity were higher in native than invaded forest, and arthropod communities were distinct between forest types. In both forest types, arthropod abundance was highest in the lower canopy, and canopy strata exhibited some differences in arthropod community composition. Several morphospecies were distinctly associated with each forest type. The strong differences in aerial arthropod communities associated with the invasion of native forest by non-native plants may affect other trophic levels, such as insectivorous birds. Steps to stop invasive plant spread and to restore native forest composition and structure are needed to safeguard the integrity of native communities, from plants to higher-level consumers.

  13. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  14. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  15. A community based approach to improving resilience of forests and water resources: A local and regional climate adaptation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Thaler; Gwen Griffith; Nancy Gilliam

    2014-01-01

    Forest-based ecosystem services are at risk from human-caused stressors, including climate change. Improving governance and management of forests to reduce impacts and increase community resilience to all stressors is the objective of forest-related climate change adaptation. The Model Forest Policy Program (MFPP) has applied one method designed to meet this objective...

  16. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela White; Patricia Manley; Gina Tarbill; T. W. Richardson; R. E. Russell; H. D. Safford; S. Z. Dobrowski

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire...

  17. Are forest incomes sustainable? Firewood and timber extraction and productivity in community managed forests in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Lack of combined forest productivity and income studies means there is scant evidence for the sustainability of rural household-level forest incomes in developing countries. This study examines levels and patterns of forest increment, wood product extraction, and household-level incomes in three...

  18. Relationships Between Bird Communities and Forest Age, Structure, Species Composition and Fragmentation in the West Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson

    1997-01-01

    Bird communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain are strongly influenced by the stage of forest succession, species composition of understory and overstory vegetation, and forest structure. Alteration of plant communities through forest management and natural disturbances typically does not eliminate birds as a fauna1 group from the area affected, but will replace some...

  19. Vertical and seasonal dynamics of fungal communities in boreal Scots pine forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santalahti, Minna; Sun, Hui; Jumpponen, Ari; Pennanen, Taina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-11-01

    Fungal communities are important for carbon (C) transformations in boreal forests that are one of the largest C pools in terrestrial ecosystems, warranting thus further investigation of fungal community dynamics in time and space. We investigated fungal diversity and community composition seasonally and across defined soil horizons in boreal Scots pine forest in Finland using 454 pyrosequencing. We collected a total of 120 samples from five vertical soil horizons monthly from March to October; in March, under snow. Boreal forest soil generally harbored diverse fungal communities across soil horizons. The communities shifted drastically and rapidly over time. In late winter, saprotrophs dominated the community and were replaced by ectomycorrhizal fungi during the growing season. Our studies are among the first to dissect the spatial and temporal dynamics in boreal forest ecosystems and highlights the ecological importance of vertically distinct communities and their rapid seasonal dynamics. As climate change is predicted to result in warmer and longer snow-free winter seasons, as well as increase the rooting depth of trees in boreal forest, the seasonal and vertical distribution of fungal communities may change. These changes are likely to affect the organic matter decomposition by the soil-inhabiting fungi and thus alter organic C pools. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparison of soil bacterial communities in a natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantations in perhumid subtropical low mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Te; Hu, Hsueh-Wen; Whitman, William B; Coleman, David C; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial community of forest soils is influenced by environmental disturbance and/or meteorological temperature and precipitation. In this study, we investigated three bacterial communities in soils of a natural hardwood forest and two plantations of conifer, Calocedrus formosana and Cryptomeria japonica, in a perhumid, low mountain area. By comparison with our previous studies with similar temperature and/or precipitation, we aimed to elucidate how disturbance influences the bacterial community in forest soils and whether bacterial communities in similar forest types differ under different climate conditions. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries revealed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the three forest soil communities, with similar relative abundance of various bacterial groups. However, UniFrac analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed differences of bacterial communities between natural hardwood forest and coniferous plantation soils. The diversities of bacterial communities of the replanted Calocedrus and Cryptomeria forests were higher than that in natural hardwood forest. The bacterial diversity of these three forest soil were all higher than those in the same forest types at other locations with less precipitation or with lower temperature. In addition, the distribution of some of the most abundant operational taxonomic units in the three communities differed from other forest soils, including those related to Acidobacteria, α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Reforestation could increase the bacterial diversity. Therefore, soil bacterial communities could be shaped by the forestry management practices and climate differences in warm and humid conditions.

  1. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Carlo; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2014-01-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models...

  2. Effects of gaps on regeneration of woody plants:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaojun Zhu; Deliang Lu; Weidong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Forest gaps, openings in the canopy caused by death of one or more trees, have a profound effect on forest regeneration and drive the forest growth cycle. It is therefore necessary to understand the effects of forest gaps on regeneration for modern forest management. In order to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of forest gaps on regen-eration of woody plants, we conducted this review of gap effects on woody plant regeneration on the basis of 527 observations from 42 indi-vidual papers, and reported the results of these data in a meta-analysis. Overall, densities of regenerated woody plants were significantly greater (359%) in forest gaps than on the closed-canopy forest floor. The regen-eration density in gaps of plantation forests was significantly greater (P<0.05) than that of natural forest because the regeneration in gaps of plan-tation forests was improved by both gap effects and experimental meas-ures. Similarly, in comparison to natural gaps, regeneration was better enhanced in artificial gaps. Regeneration density exhibited a significantly positive correlation with gap size, but a negative correlation with gap age because the gap size decreased with increasing gap age. Shade tolerance of woody plants affected regeneration density in gaps and understory. Average regeneration density of shade-tolerant species exhibited a sig-nificantly positive response to gaps but densities remained lower in total than those of intermediate and shade-intolerant species. Gap effects on regeneration decreased in response to increasing temperature and pre-cipitation because of the limiting effects of lower temperature and moisture on woody plant regeneration. In summary, forest gaps enhance woody plant regeneration, and the effects of gaps varied by forest type, gap characteristics, environmental factors and plant traits. The results of this meta-analysis are useful for better understanding the effects and roles of gaps on forest regeneration and forest

  3. Aspen increase soil moisture, nutrients, organic matter and respiration in Rocky Mountain forest communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Joshua R; St Clair, Samuel B

    2012-01-01

    Development and change in forest communities are strongly influenced by plant-soil interactions. The primary objective of this paper was to identify how forest soil characteristics vary along gradients of forest community composition in aspen-conifer forests to better understand the relationship between forest vegetation characteristics and soil processes. The study was conducted on the Fishlake National Forest, Utah, USA. Soil measurements were collected in adjacent forest stands that were characterized as aspen dominated, mixed, conifer dominated or open meadow, which includes the range of vegetation conditions that exist in seral aspen forests. Soil chemistry, moisture content, respiration, and temperature were measured. There was a consistent trend in which aspen stands demonstrated higher mean soil nutrient concentrations than mixed and conifer dominated stands and meadows. Specifically, total N, NO(3) and NH(4) were nearly two-fold higher in soil underneath aspen dominated stands. Soil moisture was significantly higher in aspen stands and meadows in early summer but converged to similar levels as those found in mixed and conifer dominated stands in late summer. Soil respiration was significantly higher in aspen stands than conifer stands or meadows throughout the summer. These results suggest that changes in disturbance regimes or climate scenarios that favor conifer expansion or loss of aspen will decrease soil resource availability, which is likely to have important feedbacks on plant community development.

  4. 藓类-兴安落叶松林木质物残体贮量及组成%Storage and composition of coarse woody debris in natural SPhagnum-Bryum-Larix gmelinii forests of Daxing’anling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋良; 王飞; 李小梅; 张凤鹤; 青梅; 高娃

    2013-01-01

      以大兴安岭藓类-兴安落叶松林为研究对象,估算木质物残体(WD)的贮量及组成,分析WD随着龄组的动态变化趋势。WD 又可分为粗木质残体(CWD)和细木质残体(FWD),随着对 CWD 研究的不断深入,CWD 的直径划分标准有了改进,美国学者把直径大于10 cm的WD定为CWD,但我国大多学者的研究仍然沿用以往的直径大于2.5 cm的标准,致使研究结果与国际研究无法进行比较。鉴于此,采用新的 CWD划分标准,分析CWD的物种组成、径级结构、腐烂等级及树种组成等特征,揭示CWD密度、体积和生物量贮量及特征随着龄组的变化趋势。结果表明,(1)WD体积和生物量为2.09~151.03 m3·hm-2和1.57~55.11 t·hm-2。从组成上来看,中龄林以倒木和小枝为主(占73.00%),近熟林以枯立木和倒木为主(占96.04%),过熟林以枯立木为主(93.18%)。从类型上来看,中龄林均为FWD,近熟林和过熟林中CWD生物量达75%以上。(2)龄组显著影响着藓类-兴安落叶松林WD和CWD的生物量和组成。随着龄组的增加,WD生物量和枯立木比例逐渐增加,倒木和大枝比例减小。CWD 生物量和体积随着龄组的增大而逐渐增加。(3)近熟林中 CWD密度、体积和生物量(217株·hm-2、40.51 m3·hm-2、20.61 t·hm-2)均小于过熟林(258株·hm-2、138.82 m3·hm-2、48.88 t·hm-2)。(4)近熟林CWD体积和生物量均以Ⅱ-Ⅲ级腐烂为主(两者之和分别占90.81%和89.01%),过熟林以Ⅲ级腐烂为主(占36.15%和41.23%)。(5)过熟林CWD密度、体积和生物量均以10~20 cm为主,且以枯立木居多。%The storage of woody debris (WD) and the dynamic of WD with age groups were analyzed in SPhagnum-Bryum-Larix gmelinii forest of Daxing’ an mountains. WD may be divided into the coarse woody debris (CWD) and fine wood residues (FWD). The diameter larger than 10 cm for WD was

  5. Endurance and Adaptation of Community Forest Management in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Ellis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite regional deforestation threats, the state of Quintana Roo has maintained over 80% of its territory in forests. Community forest management (CFM has played a pivotal role in forest cover and biodiversity conservation in the region. In this article, we present the institutional, socioeconomic and environmental conditions under which community-based forest management has been consolidated in the tropical state of Quintana Roo, which occupies the eastern half of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. With a focus on management for timber and other market-based development strategies, we then examine the institutional and socioeconomic factors, as well as biophysical shocks, that have constrained community forestry development in the past 25 years, challenging its persistence. Following, we discuss how forest communities and institutions have responded and adapted to changing forest policies and markets as well as major environmental shocks from hurricanes and fires. CFM in Quintana Roo has shown resiliency since its institutionalization 30 years ago. Future challenges and opportunities include biodiversity conservation, carbon management through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ initiatives, market strengthening, business management training as well as the implementation of alternative silvicultural systems, particularly to manage sustainable populations of commercial timber species.

  6. Community characteristics of tropical montane evergreen forest and tropical montane dwarf forest in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenxing Long; Runguo Zang; Yi Ding

    2011-01-01

    Both tropical montane evergreen forest (TMEF) and tropical montane dwarf forest (TMDF) are typical tropical cloud forests on Hainan Island. To compare community structure and species diversity be-tween these two forest types, we established eight and ten plots (each with 2,500 m2 in area) in TMEF and TMDF, respectively, in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China. We investigated each individual plant with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm including trees, shrubs a...

  7. Community perceptions of state forest ownership and management: a case study of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anjan Kumer Dev; Alam, Khorshed; Gow, Jeff

    2013-03-15

    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is the world's largest mangrove forest and it provides livelihoods to 3.5 million forest-dependent people in coastal Bangladesh. The first study aim was to analyse the efficacy of the state property regime in managing the forest through a close examination of the relationship between property rights and mangrove conservation practices. The second study aim was to explore forest-dependent communities' (FDCs) perceptions about their participation in management and conservation practices. The Schlager and Ostrom theoretical framework was adopted to examine the role of potential ownership variations in a common property resource regime. A survey of 412 FDC households was undertaken. Current management by the Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) does not result in implementation of mandated mangrove conservation practices. It was found that allocation of property rights to FDCs would be expected to increase conservation practices. 92% of respondents expressed the view that the evidenced rapid degradation over the past 30 years was due primarily to corruption in the BFD. About half of FDCs (46%) surveyed are willing to participate in mangrove conservation through involvement in management as proprietors. Consistent with Schlager and Ostrom's theory, the results indicate the necessity for de facto and de jure ownership and management change from a state to common property regime to ensure FDCs' participation in conservation practices.

  8. Fast changes in seasonal forest communities due to soil moisture increase after damming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Santiago do Vale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Local changes caused by dams can have drastic consequences for ecosystems, not only because they change the water regime but also the modification on lakeshore areas. Thus, this work aimed to determine the changes in soil moisture after damming, to understand the consequences of this modification on the arboreal community of dry forests, some of the most endangered systems on the planet. We studied these changes in soil moisture and the arboreal community in three dry forests in the Araguari River Basin, after two dams construction in 2005 and 2006, and the potential effects on these forests. For this, plots of 20m x10m were distributed close to the impoundment margin and perpendicular to the dam margin in two deciduous dry forests and one semi-deciduous dry forest located in Southeastern Brazil, totaling 3.6ha sampled. Besides, soil analysis were undertaken before and after impoundment at three different depths 0-10, 20-30 and 40-50cm. A tree minimum DBH of 4.77cm community inventory was made before T0 and at two T2 and four T4 years after damming. Annual dynamic rates of all communities were calculated, and statistical tests were used to determine changes in soil moisture and tree communities. The analyses confirmed soil moisture increases in all forests, especially during the dry season and at sites closer to the reservoir; besides, an increase in basal area due to the fast growth of many trees was observed. The highest turnover occurred in the first two years after impoundment, mainly due to the higher tree mortality especially of those closer to the dam margin. All forests showed reductions in dynamic rates for subsequent years T2-T4, indicating that these forests tended to stabilize after a strong initial impact. The modifications were more extensive in the deciduous forests, probably because the dry period resulted more rigorous in these forests when compared to semideciduous forest. The new shorelines created by damming increased soil

  9. The attractiveness of forests: Preferences and perceptions in a mountain community in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela De Meo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the perception and preferences of local communities is a fundamental aspect to increase the social sustainability and to reduce the conflicts between forest users. The knowledge of people’s perception of forest resources is important for decision makers, when implementing management strategies and this is particularly relevant in mountainous area, characterized by a strong link between local communities and forest. The paper focuses on the analysis of people’s perception and preferences regarding the recreational value of forests. The research has been carried out by means of a case study, the Municipality of Trento, located in the Centre East sector of the Italian Alps. This area was chosen on the grounds of its geographical location and of the historical links that exist between local communities and forest resources. The sample included 1,000 randomly selected families and the method of investigation used was a structured selfreported questionnaire. The data were processed taking into account the relationship between people’s perception and the main social characteristics of respondents (gender and age; this allowed statistical differences among groups to be highlighted. Forest attractiveness has been investigated considering: (i forest accessibility, (ii forest stand characteristics, (iii visitor facilities and infrastructures. The results show that people prefer the open mixed forests with an irregular structure and some visitor facilities such as paths and refreshment points. Besides, people like to have facilities in the forests, but at the same time would like these forests to be little frequented by other visitors, in order to have a greater feeling of naturalness.

  10. Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Rempel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options

  11. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.

    2014-09-01

    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  12. Mite communities (Acari: Mesostigmata) in young and mature coniferous forests after surface wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamczyc, Jacek; Urbanowski, Cezary; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia

    2017-06-01

    Density, diversity and assemblage structure of Mesostigmata (cohorts Gamasina and Uropodina) were investigated in Scots pine forests differing in forest age (young: 9-40 years and mature: 83-101 years) in which wildfire occurred. This animal group belongs to the dominant acarine predators playing a crucial role in soil food webs and being important as biological control agents. In total, six forests (three within young and three within mature stands) were inspected in Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest Complex in May 2015. At each forest area, sampling was done from burned and adjacent control sites with steel cylinders for heat extraction of soil fauna. Data were analyzed statistically with nested ANOVA. We found a significant effect on mite density of both fire and forest age, with more mites in mature forests and control plots. In total, 36 mite taxa were identified. Mite diversity differed significantly between forest ages but not between burned versus control. Our study indicated that all studied forests are characterized by unique mite species and that the mite communities are dominated by different mite species depending on age forest and surface wildfire occurrence. Finally, canonical correspondence analysis ranked the mite assemblages from control mature, through burned young and burned mature, away from the control young.

  13. Carbon allocation to biomass production of leaves, fruits and woody organs at seasonal and annual scale in a deciduous- and evergreen temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon taken up by the forest canopy is allocated to tree organs for biomass production and respiration. Because tree organs have different life span and decomposition rate, the tree C allocation determines the residence time of C in the ecosystem and its C cycling rate. The study of the carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. Previous studies mostly focused on comparison of the annual NPP-GPP ratio among forests of different functional types, biomes and age. In this study, we extend the current knowledge by assessing (i the annual NPP-GPP ratio and its interannual variability (for five years for five tree organs (leaves, fruits, branches, stem and coarse roots, and (ii the seasonal dynamic of NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and stems, for two stands dominated by European beech and Scots pine.

    The average NPP-GPP ratio for the beech stand (38% was similar to previous estimates for temperate deciduous forests, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio for the pine stand (17% is the lowest recorded till now in the literature. The proportion of GPP allocated to leaf NPP was similar for both species, whereas beech allocated a remarkable larger proportion of GPP to wood NPP than pine (29% vs. 6%, respectively. The interannual variability of the NPP-GPP ratio for wood was substantially larger than the interannual variability of the NPP-GPP ratio for leaves, fruits and overall stand and it is likely to be controlled by previous year air temperature (both species, previous year drought intensity (beech and thinning (pine. Seasonal pattern of NPP-GPP ratio greatly differed between beech and pine, with beech presenting the largest ratio in early season, and pine a more uniform ratio along the season. For beech, NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and stems peaked during the same period in the early season, whereas they peaked in opposite periods

  14. Changes in fungal communities along a boreal forest soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, Erica; Bahr, Adam; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Clemmensen, Karina E; Lindahl, Björn D

    2015-09-01

    Boreal forests harbour diverse fungal communities with decisive roles in decomposition and plant nutrition. Although changes in boreal plant communities along gradients in soil acidity and nitrogen (N) availability are well described, less is known about how fungal taxonomic and functional groups respond to soil fertility factors. We analysed fungal communities in humus and litter from 25 Swedish old-growth forests, ranging from N-rich Picea abies stands to acidic and N-poor Pinus sylvestris stands. 454-pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons was used to analyse community composition, and biomass was estimated by ergosterol analysis. Fungal community composition was significantly related to soil fertility at the levels of species, genera/orders and functional groups. Ascomycetes dominated in less fertile forests, whereas basidiomycetes increased in abundance in more fertile forests, both in litter and humus. The relative abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in the humus layer remained high even in the most fertile soils. Tolerance to acidity and nitrogen deficiency seems to be of greater importance than plant carbon (C) allocation patterns in determining responses of fungal communities to soil fertility, in old-growth boreal forests. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Estate Crops More Attractive than Community Forests in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Langston

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers and indigenous communities must cope with the opportunities and threats presented by rapidly spreading estate crops in the frontier of the agricultural market economy. Smallholder communities are subject to considerable speculation by outsiders, yet large-scale agriculture presents tradeoffs that they must navigate. We initiated a study in Sintang, West Kalimantan in 2012 and have returned annually for the last four years, building the baselines for a longer-term landscape approach to reconciling conservation and development tradeoffs in situ. Here, the stakeholders are heterogeneous, yet the land cover of the landscape is on a trajectory towards homogenous mono-cropping systems, primarily either palm oil or rubber. In one village on the frontier of the agricultural market economy, natural forests remain managed by the indigenous and local community but economics further intrude on forest use decisions. Conservation values are declining and the future of the forest is uncertain. As such, the community is ultimately attracted to more economically attractive uses of the land for local development oil palm or rubber mono-crop farms. We identify poverty as a threat to community-managed conservation success in the face of economic pressures to convert forest to intensive agriculture. We provide evidence that lucrative alternatives will challenge community-managed forests when prosperity seems achievable. To alleviate this trend, we identify formalized traditional management and landscape governance solutions to nurture a more sustainable landscape transition.

  16. Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Short Summary Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS) Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods Community-based natural resour

  17. Community composition, diversity and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes in differently-aged temperate forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoke; Guan, Pingting; Wang, Yaolei; Li, Qi; Zhang, Shixiu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Liang, Wenju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil nematode communities can provide important information about soil food web structure and function. However, how soil nematode communities and their metabolic footprints change over time in temperate forests is not well known. We examined the changes in the composition, diversity and me

  18. Bird, mammal, and vegetation community surveys of research natural areas in the Tongass National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Smith; M.J. Stotts; B.A. Andres; J.M. Melton; A. Garibaldi; K. Boggs

    2001-01-01

    In June 1977, we surveyed seven research natural areas (RNAs) in the Tongass National Forest (Tongass). We documented the composition of biotic communities using rare plant and tidal community surveys, targeted searches for rare animals, and samples of permanent vegetation plots. Birds were sampled once along each transect with 10-minute point counts at stations 8...

  19. Effects of forest management practices in temperate beech forests on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Jariyavidyanont, Katalee; Kaunzner, Jennifer; Juncheed, Kantida; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rudloff, Renate; Schulz, Elke; Hofrichter, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk; Buscot, François

    2015-05-01

    Forest management practices (FMPs) significantly influence important ecological processes and services in Central European forests, such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Changes in leaf litter diversity, and thus, its quality as well as microbial community structure and function induced by different FMPs were hypothesized to be the main drivers causing shifts in decomposition rates and nutrient release in managed forests. In a litterbag experiment lasting 473 days, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMPs (even-aged timber management, selective logging and unmanaged) on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation over time. Our results showed that microbial communities in leaf litter were strongly influenced by both FMPs and sampling date. The results from nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination revealed distinct patterns of bacterial and fungal successions over time in leaf litter. We demonstrated that FMPs and sampling dates can influence a range of factors, including leaf litter quality, microbial macronutrients, and pH, which significantly correlate with microbial community successions.

  20. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Daniela F; Silver, Whendee L; Torn, Margaret S; Burton, Sarah D; Firestone, Mary K

    2011-03-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect the amount and chemical quality of carbon (C) in soils. Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in N-rich tropical forests, is likely to change the composition and behavior of microbial communities and feed back on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of mechanistic links between microbial responses to N deposition and shifts in soil organic matter (SOM) quality and quantity. We used phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and microbial enzyme assays in soils to assess microbial community responses to long-term N additions in two distinct tropical rain forests. We used soil density fractionation and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to measure related changes in SOM pool sizes and chemical quality. Microbial biomass increased in response to N fertilization in both tropical forests and corresponded to declines in pools of low-density SOM. The chemical quality of this soil C pool reflected ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition. In the lower-elevation forest, there was an increase in gram-negative bacteria PLFA biomass, and there were significant losses of labile C chemical groups (O-alkyls). In contrast, the upper-elevation tropical forest had an increase in fungal PLFAs with N additions and declines in C groups associated with increased soil C storage (alkyls). The dynamics of microbial enzymatic activities with N addition provided a functional link between changes in microbial community structure and SOM chemistry. Ecosystem-specific changes in microbial community composition are likely to have far-reaching effects on soil carbon storage and cycling. This study indicates that microbial communities in N-rich tropical forests can be sensitive to added N, but we can expect significant variability in how ecosystem structure and function respond to N deposition among tropical forest types.

  1. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands in the Arkansas Valley Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    as significant under the Ramsar Treaty H Areas supporting rare or unique plant communities C, H Areas designated as Sole Source Groundwater... Biodiversity and coarse woody debris in southern forests. GTR-SE-94, J. W. McMinn and D. A. Crossley, ed., 108–18, U.S. Depart- ment of Agriculture

  2. Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest-savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Schrodt, F.; Ishida, F. Y.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Saiz, G.; Quesada, C. A.; Schwarz, M.; Torello-Raventos, M.; Gilpin, M.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Ratter, J. A.; Grace, J.; Nardoto, G. B.; Veenendaal, E.; Arroyo, L.; Villarroel, D.; Killeen, T. J.; Steininger, M.; Phillips, O. L.

    2015-11-01

    Sampling along a precipitation gradient in tropical South America extending from ca. 0.8 to 2.0 m a-1, savanna soils had consistently lower exchangeable cation concentrations and higher C / N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged leaf traits with savanna trees typically having higher leaf mass per unit area but lower mass-based nitrogen (Nm) and potassium (Km). Both Nm and Km also increased with declining mean annual precipitation (PA), but most area-based leaf traits such as leaf photosynthetic capacity showed no systematic variation with PA or vegetation type. Despite this invariance, when taken in conjunction with other measures such as mean canopy height, area-based soil exchangeable potassium content, [K]sa , proved to be an excellent predictor of several photosynthetic properties (including 13C isotope discrimination). Moreover, when considered in a multivariate context with PA and soil plant available water storage capacity (θP) as covariates, [K]sa also proved to be an excellent predictor of stand-level canopy area, providing drastically improved fits as compared to models considering just PA and/or θP. Neither calcium, nor magnesium, nor soil pH could substitute for potassium when tested as alternative model predictors (ΔAIC > 10). Nor for any model could simple soil texture metrics such as sand or clay content substitute for either [K]sa or θP. Taken in conjunction with recent work in Africa and the forests of the Amazon Basin, this suggests - in combination with some newly conceptualised interacting effects of PA and θP also presented here - a critical role for potassium as a modulator of tropical vegetation structure and function.

  3. Edaphic, structural and physiological contrasts across Amazon Basin forest-savanna ecotones suggest a role for potassium as a key modulator of tropical woody vegetation structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lloyd

    2015-05-01

    C/N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged leaf traits with savanna trees typically having higher leaf mass per unit area but lower mass-based nitrogen (Nm and potassium (Km. Both Nm and Km also increased with declining mean annual precipitation (PA, but most area-based leaf traits such as leaf photosynthetic capacity showed no systematic variation with PA or vegetation type. Despite this invariance, when taken in conjunction with other measures such mean canopy height, area-based soil exchangeable potassium content, [K]sa, proved to be an excellent predictor of several photosynthetic properties (including 13C isotope discrimination. Moreover, when considered in a multivariate context with PA and soil plant available water storage capacity (θP as covariates, [K]sa also proved to be an excellent predictor of stand-level canopy area, providing drastically improved fits as compared to models considering just PA and/or θP. Neither calcium, magnesium nor soil pH could substitute for potassium when tested as alternative model predictors (ΔAIC > 10. Nor for any model could simple soil texture metrics such as sand or clay content substitute for either [K]sa or θP. Taken in conjunction with recent work in Africa and the forests of the Amazon Basin this suggests – in combination with some newly conceptualised interacting effects of PA and θP also presented here – a critical role for potassium as a modulator of tropical vegetation structure and function.

  4. Gasification of Woody Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jianjun; Saayman, Jean; Grace, John R; Ellis, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Interest in biomass to produce heat, power, liquid fuels, hydrogen, and value-added chemicals with reduced greenhouse gas emissions is increasing worldwide. Gasification is becoming a promising technology for biomass utilization with a positive environmental impact. This review focuses specifically on woody biomass gasification and recent advances in the field. The physical properties, chemical structure, and composition of biomass greatly affect gasification performance, pretreatment, and handling. Primary and secondary catalysts are of key importance to improve the conversion and cracking of tars, and lime-enhanced gasification advantageously combines CO2 capture with gasification. These topics are covered here, including the reaction mechanisms and biomass characterization. Experimental research and industrial experience are investigated to elucidate concepts, processes, and characteristics of woody biomass gasification and to identify challenges.

  5. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  6. Life History Traits Reflect Changes in Mediterranean Butterfly Communities Due to Forest Encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slancarova, Jana; Bartonova, Alena; Zapletal, Michal; Kotilinek, Milan; Faltynek Fric, Zdenek; Micevski, Nikola; Kati, Vasiliki; Konvicka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Southern Balkans, part of the Mediterranean global biodiversity hot-spot, is threatened by land use intensification and abandonment, the latter causing forest encroachment of formerly open habitats. We investigated the impact of forest encroachment on butterfly species richness, community species composition and the representation of life history traits by repeated seasonal visits of 150 one-hectare sites in five separate regions in three countries-Greece, Bulgaria, and the Republic of Macedonia (FYROM-the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)- 10 replicates for each habitat type of grasslands, open formations and scrub forest within each region. Grasslands and open formations sites hosted in average more species and more red-listed species than scrub forest, while no pattern was found for numbers of Mediterranean species. As shown by ordination analyses, each of the three habitat types hosted distinct butterfly communities, with Mediterranean species inclining either towards grasslands or open formations. Analysing the representation of life history traits revealed that successional development from grasslands and open formations towards scrub forest shifts the community composition towards species overwintering in earlier stages, having fewer generations per year, and inhabiting large European or Eurosiberian (e.g. northern) ranges; it decreases the representation of Mediterranean endemics. The loss of grasslands and semi-open formations due to forest encroachment thus threatens exactly the species that should be the focus of conservation attention in the Mediterranean region, and innovative conservation actions to prevent ongoing forest encroachment are badly needed.

  7. Quantifying the Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbances on Forest Carbon Pools and Fluxes in the Western US using the NCAR Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edburg, S. L.; Hicke, J. A.; Lawrence, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.

    2009-12-01

    Forest disturbances, such as fire, insects, and land-use change, significantly alter carbon budgets by changing carbon pools and fluxes. The mountain pine beetle (MPB) kills millions of hectares of trees in the western US, similar to the area killed by fire. Mountain pine beetles kill host trees by consuming the inner bark tissue, and require host tree death for reproduction. Despite being a significant disturbance to forested ecosystems, insects such as MPB are typically not represented in biogeochemical models, thus little is known about their impact on the carbon cycle. We investigate the role of past MPB outbreaks on carbon cycling in the western US using the NCAR Community Land Model with Carbon and Nitrogen cycles (CLM-CN). CLM-CN serves as the land model to the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), providing exchanges of energy, momentum, water, carbon, and nitrogen between the land and atmosphere. We run CLM-CN over the western US extending to eastern Colorado with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and a half hour time step. The model is first spun-up with repeated NCEP forcing (1948-1972) until carbon stocks and fluxes reach equilibrium (~ 3000 years), and then run from 1850 to 2004 with NCEP forcing and a dynamic plant functional type (PFT) database. Carbon stocks from this simulation are compared with stocks from the Forest Inventory Analysis (FIA) program. We prescribe MPB mortality area, once per year, in CLM-CN using USFS Aerial Detection Surveys (ADS) from the last few decades. We simulate carbon impacts of tree mortality by MPB within a model grid cell by moving carbon from live vegetative pools (leaf, stem, and roots) to dead pools (woody debris, litter, and dead roots). We compare carbon pools and fluxes for two simulations, one without MPB outbreaks and one with MPB outbreaks.

  8. Changes in ground beetle diversity and community composition in age structured forests (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Riley

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined diversity, community composition, and wing-state of Carabidae as a function of forest age in Piedmont North Carolina. Carabidae were collected monthly from 396 pitfall traps (12×33 sites from March 2009 through February 2010, representing 5 forest age classes approximately 0, 10, 50, 85, and 150 years old. A total of 2,568 individuals, representing 30 genera and 63 species, were collected. Carabid species diversity, as estimated by six diversity indices, was significantly different between the oldest and youngest forest age classes for four of the six indices. Most carabid species were habitat generalists, occurring in all or most of the forest age classes. Carabid species composition varied across forest age classes. Seventeen carabid species were identified as potential candidates for ecological indicators of forest age. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS showed separation among forest age classes in terms of carabid beetle community composition. The proportion of individuals capable of flight decreased significantly with forest age.

  9. Proceedings: linking healthy forests and communities through Alaska value-added forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg; Bridget K. Brady

    2000-01-01

    The Alaska forest products industry is experiencing significant changes in its structure due to economic, ecological, and social pressures. Papers presented at this workshop brought together technical specialists and exhibitors from forest products industry, associations, universities, and private, state, and federal land management agencies. Topics included: policy...

  10. Livelihood strategies and forest dependence: New insights from Bolivian forest communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zenteno, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Jong, de W.; Boot, R.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Total income and income from forest resources among rural dwellers in tropical forest regions are influenced not only by market access, prices, but also organizational, institutional, and social factors. These factors influence the diversity of resources to which the poor have access and result in s

  11. Human-Induced Disturbance Alters Pollinator Communities in Tropical Mountain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schleuning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain forest ecosystems in the Andes are threatened by deforestation. Increasing fire frequencies lead to fire-degraded habitats that are often characterized by a persistent fern-dominated vegetation. Little is known about the consequences of these drastic changes in habitat conditions for pollinator communities. In a rapid diversity assessment, we collected individuals of two major groups of insect pollinators (bees and butterflies/moths with pan traps and compared pollinator diversities in a spatial block design between forest interior, forest edge and adjacent fire-degraded habitats at eight sites in the Bolivian Andes. We found that bee species richness and abundance were significantly higher in fire-degraded habitats than in forest habitats, whereas species richness and abundance of butterflies/moths increased towards the forests interior. Species turnover between forest and fire-degraded habitats was very high for both pollinator groups and was reflected by an increase in the body size of bee species and a decrease in the body size of butterfly/moth species in fire-degraded habitats. We conclude that deforestation by frequent fires has profound impacts on the diversity and composition of pollinator communities. Our tentative findings suggest shifts towards bee-dominated pollinator communities in fire-degraded habitats that may have important feedbacks on the regenerating communities of insect-pollinated plant species.

  12. Forest restoration and parasitoid wasp communities in montane Hawai'i.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle K Gould

    Full Text Available Globally, most restoration efforts focus on re-creating the physical structure (flora or physical features of a target ecosystem with the assumption that other ecosystem components will follow. Here we investigate that assumption by documenting biogeographical patterns in an important invertebrate taxon, the parasitoid wasp family Ichneumonidae, in a recently reforested Hawaiian landscape. Specifically, we test the influence of (1 planting configurations (corridors versus patches, (2 vegetation age, (3 distance from mature native forest, (4 surrounding tree cover, and (5 plant community composition on ichneumonid richness, abundance, and composition. We sampled over 7,000 wasps, 96.5% of which were not native to Hawai'i. We found greater relative richness and abundance of ichneumonids, and substantially different communities, in restored areas compared to mature forest and abandoned pasturelands. Non-native ichneumonids drive these differences; restored areas and native forest did not differ in native ichneumonid abundance. Among restored areas, ichneumonid communities did not differ by planting age or configuration. As tree cover increased within 120 m of a sampling point, ichneumonid community composition increasingly resembled that found in native forest. Similarly, native ichneumonid abundance increased with proximity to native forest. Our results suggest that restoration plantings, if situated near target forest ecosystems and in areas with higher local tree cover, can facilitate restoration of native fauna even in a highly invaded system.

  13. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  14. Phylogenetic structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of western hemlock changes with forest age and stand type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, SeaRa; Berbee, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    On Vancouver Island, British Columbia, fertilization with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) following clearcutting increases growth of western hemlock. To explore whether fertilization also resulted in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities that were more or less similar to neighboring unlogged stands, we sampled roots from western hemlock from three replicate plots from each of five different, well-characterized, forest stand types that differed in site type, and in logging and fertilization history. We harvested four samples of 100 ectomycorrhizal root tips from each plot, a total of 60 samples per stand type. From each sample, we analyzed fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and 28S DNA, sequencing 15-29 clones per sample and 60-116 clones per plot. We detected 147 fungal operational taxonomic units among a total of 1435 sequences. Craterellus tubaeformis was frequently present and resulted in a pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion in the fungal communities. Fungal species composition was strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen concentration. However, other site quality factors were also important because the fertilized regenerating hemlock and mature hemlock-amabilis fir forests had similar foliar nitrogen content but little overlap in fungal species. Compared with unfertilized regenerating forests, fungal communities in N + P-fertilized regenerating forests had significantly more species overlap with old growth forests. However, the fungal communities of all regenerating forest were similar to one another and all differed significantly from older forests. By correlating fungal clades with habitats, this research improves understanding of how forest management can contribute to maintaining diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across a landscape.

  15. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  16. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Cindy M; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2006-07-01

    European earthworms are colonizing earthworm-free northern hardwood forests across North America. Leading edges of earthworm invasion provide an opportunity to investigate the response of understory plant communities to earthworm invasion and whether the species composition of the earthworm community influences that response. Four sugar maple-dominated forest sites with active earthworm invasions were identified in the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota, USA. In each site, we established a 30 x 150 m sample grid that spanned a visible leading edge of earthworm invasion and sampled earthworm populations and understory vegetation over four years. Across leading edges of earthworm invasion, increasing total earthworm biomass was associated with decreasing diversity and abundance of herbaceous plants in two of four study sites, and the abundance and density of tree seedlings decreased in three of four study sites. Sample points with the most diverse earthworm species assemblage, independent of biomass, had the lowest plant diversity. Changes in understory plant community composition were most affected by increasing biomass of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus. Where L. rubellus was absent there was a diverse community of native herbaceous plants, but where L. rubellus biomass reached its maximum, the herbaceous-plant community was dominated by Carex pensylvanica and Arisaema triphyllum and, in some cases, was completely absent. Evidence from these forest sites suggests that earthworm invasion can lead to dramatic changes in the understory community and that the nature of these changes is influenced by the species composition of the invading earthworm community.

  17. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  18. Experimental warming effects on the microbial community of a temperate mountain forest soil

    OpenAIRE

    Schindlbacher, A.; Rodler, A.; Kuffner, M.; Kitzler, B.; Sessitsch, A; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil microbial communities mediate the decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The amount of carbon (C) that is respired leaves the soil as CO2 (soil respiration) and causes one of the greatest fluxes in the global carbon cycle. How soil microbial communities will respond to global warming, however, is not well understood. To elucidate the effect of warming on the microbial community we analyzed soil from the soil warming experiment Achenkirch, Austria. Soil of a mature spruce forest was ...

  19. Community perceptions towards the establishment of an urban forest plantation: a case of Dzivaresekwa, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mureva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of urban forest communities not only depend on the government and nongovernmental organizations, but also strongly rely on local community stewardship. A study was carried out to assess community perceptions on the establishment of an urban forest plantation among urban residents in Dzivaresekwa, an urban area in Harare. Randomized systematic sampling was used to select 150 households and one resident per household was interviewed using a pretested questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The objectives of the study were to determine how age and gender and employment status variables, were related to the urban residents’ perceptions towards establishment of a forest plantation in an urban area. Most females (58.3% viewed the plantation as a threat while most men (51.7% viewed the plantation as a recreational area. The highest proportion (61.9% of the middle age group (21-40 years perceived the plantation as a source of employment. There was a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.040 between gender and the general perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. However, there was no statistically significant relationship (p = 0.203 between age groups and the perception of establishing a forest plantation in the urban area. It is concluded that the community had diverse perceptions on urban community forestry.

  20. Evaluation of state and community/private forests in Punjab, Pakistan using geospatial data and related techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naeem Shahzad; UrooJSaeed; Hammad Gilani; Sajid Rashid Ahmad; Irfan Ashraf; Syed Muhammad Irteza

    2015-01-01

    Background:Forests are fundamental in maintaining water supplies, providing economic goods, mitigating climate change, and maintaining biodiversity, thus providing many of the world’s poorest with income, food and medicine. Too often, forested lands are treated as“wastelands”or“free”and are easily cleared for agricultural and infrastructure expansion. Methods:In this paper, the sustainability of two forest ecosystems (state and community/private owned) was evaluated using SPOT-5 satellite images of 2005 and 2011. This study was conducted in a sub-watershed area covering 468 km2, of which 201 km2 is managed by the state and 267 km2 by community/private ownership in the Murree Gal iat region of Punjab Province of Pakistan. A participatory approach was adopted for the delineation and demarcation of forest boundaries. The Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) technique was used for identification and mapping of ten Land Cover (LC) features. Results:The results show that between the years 2005 to 2011, a total of 55 km2 (24 km2 in state-owned forest and 31 km2 in community/private forest) was converted from forest to non-forest. The conclusion is that conservation is more effective in state-owned forests than in the community/private forests. Conclusions:These findings may help to mobilize community awareness and identify effective initiatives for improved management of community/private forest land for other regions of Pakistan.

  1. Institutional arrangement and typology of community forests of Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland of North-East India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.Tiwari; H.Tynsong; M.M.Lynrah; E.Lapasam; S.Deb; D.Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Most community forests in hill regions of northeast India have been managed by traditional local institutions for centuries and most of these institutions remain functional even today.Higher forest coverage on private and community lands as compared to government land indicates that traditional institutions effectively manage community forests in the region.The present study was conducted through a survey of literature and field work using participatory research tools viz.,PRA exercises,group discussions and questionnaire interviews with key informants in northeast India.We categorized the institutions involved in conservation and management of forests into three major types:traditional,quasi-traditional and modern.Traditional institutions with hierarchal structure were found in all states and are intact and functional in the state of Meghalaya.Quasi-traditional institutions,a blend of traditional and modern institutions were prevalent in Nagaland while moderninstitutions have almost replaced traditional institutions in Mizoram.We recorded at least eleven types of community forests viz.,group of village forest,village forest,restricted forest,sacred forest,clan forest,cemetery forest,regeneration forest,bamboo forest,recreation forest,village reserved forest and medicinal plantation in villages of three states.The tribal people,through long-term trial and error experiments,have developed an elaborate,functional and generally democratic system of conservation and management of forests and associated natural ecosystems.Several forest and natural resource management lessons can be learnt from the institutional structure and decision making system of the evolving and dynamic institutions of tribal communities of the region.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  3. Environmental species sorting dominates forest-bird community assembly across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan; Svenning, J.-C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    metacommunity structure in a 1200-km2 forested landscape (Istranca Forests) in Turkish Thrace at the margin of the Western Palaearctic (WP) temperate-forest biome. First, we used spatial regressions and Mantel tests to assess the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors as drivers of local......-environmental spatial factors had also an important joint role. Null model analyses on randomized communities showed that species' occupancy across the metacommunity was strongly determined by species' environmental niches, with occupancy being related to niche position marginality. Species' metacommunity...... of the Istranca Forest' bird metacommunity was predominantly controlled by environmental species sorting in a manner consistent with the broader WP region. However, variability in local community structure was also linked to purely spatial factors, albeit more weakly....

  4. Soil fertility and the impact of exotic invasion on microbial communities in Hawaiian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Balser, Teri C

    2008-07-01

    Exotic plant invasions into Hawaiian montane forests have altered many important nutrient cycling processes and pools. Across different ecosystems, researchers are uncovering the mechanisms involved in how invasive plants impact the soil microbial community-the primary mediator of soil nutrient cycling. We examined whether the invasive plant, Hedychium gardnerianum, altered microbial community composition in forests dominated by a native tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, under varying soil nutrient limitations and soil fertility properties within forest plots of the Hawaii long-term substrate age gradient (LSAG). Microbial community lipid analysis revealed that when nutrient limitation (as determined by aboveground net primary production [ANPP]) and soil fertility were taken into account, plant species differentially altered soil microbial community composition. Microbial community characteristics differed under invasive and native plants primarily when N or P was added to the older, highly weathered, P-limited soils. Long-term fertilization with N or P at the P-limited site led to a significant increase in the relative abundance of the saprophytic fungal indicator (18:2 omega 6c,9c) under the invasive plant. In the younger, N-limited soils, plant species played a minor role in influencing soil microbial community composition. We found that the general rhizosphere microbial community structure was determined more by soil fertility than by plant species. This study indicates that although the aggressive invasion of a nutrient-demanding, rapidly decomposable, and invasive plant into Hawaiian forests had large impacts on soil microbial decomposers, relatively little impact occurred on the overall soil microbial community structure. Instead, soil nutrient conditions were more important determinants of the overall microbial community structure within Hawaii's montane forests.

  5. Life cycle and regeneration niches of herbaceous plants in forest communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dubrovnaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The criterion for steady state species in the community is the possibility of a complete turnover generation. Ontogenetic structure of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations in phytocenoses of different seral stages of forest community depended on the ecological-coenotic conditions. Cenopopulations of species with a high frequency of individuals of generative period were formed on disturbed forest communities, however, Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea seedlings in disturbed forest areas were not present. For these species, regeneration niches or microbioloby were the optimal conditions for seed germination and successful completion of the initial stages of ontogenesis, dedicated to the cenopopulations of phytocenoses climax serial stages. In holistic forest communities, species showed strategy type of patients. This allowed the species to be kept on a previously developed site. Invasive-regressive ontogenetic structure of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea cenopopulations was formed in climax stages of forest communities. However, this type of ontogenetically structure of cenopopulations reflected the survival of seedlings of species in the community, but did not represent, the tenuous state of the population. The stages of the life cycle of Fragaria vesca and Trientalis europaea were confined to different cenopopulations, where they developed the necessary conditions for the flow of the hotel stages of ontogenesis. A set of populations, within which is carried out the full turnover of the generation of Frsagaria vesca and Trientalis europaea, formed a correct idea about the status of the species in the community. In terms of a mosaic of phytocenosis cenopopulation of Platanthera bifolia was presented cenopopulations loci. The development of plants within loci differed. A variety of factors in heterogeneous pine forest determined by the separation in space of the processes of formation of seeds and survival of

  6. Characterizing Forest Change Using Community-Based Monitoring Data and Landsat Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Ben; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the issue of deforestation and degradation in the tropics has resulted in efforts to monitor forest resources in tropical countries. Advances in satellite-based remote sensing and ground-based technologies have allowed for monitoring of forests with high spatial, temporal and thematic detail. Despite these advances, there is a need to engage communities in monitoring activities and include these stakeholders in national forest monitoring systems. In this study, we analyzed activity data (deforestation and forest degradation) collected by local forest experts over a 3-year period in an Afro-montane forest area in southwestern Ethiopia and corresponding Landsat Time Series (LTS). Local expert data included forest change attributes, geo-location and photo evidence recorded using mobile phones with integrated GPS and photo capabilities. We also assembled LTS using all available data from all spectral bands and a suite of additional indices and temporal metrics based on time series trajectory analysis. We predicted deforestation, degradation or stable forests using random forest models trained with data from local experts and LTS spectral-temporal metrics as model covariates. Resulting models predicted deforestation and degradation with an out of bag (OOB) error estimate of 29% overall, and 26% and 31% for the deforestation and degradation classes, respectively. By dividing the local expert data into training and operational phases corresponding to local monitoring activities, we found that forest change models improved as more local expert data were used. Finally, we produced maps of deforestation and degradation using the most important spectral bands. The results in this study represent some of the first to combine local expert based forest change data and dense LTS, demonstrating the complementary value of both continuous data streams. Our results underpin the utility of both datasets and provide a useful foundation for integrated forest

  7. Long-term successional forest dynamics: species and community responses to climatic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Question: Are tree dynamics sensitive to climatic variability, and do tree species differ in their responses to climatic variability? Hence, is vulnerability of forest communities to climatic variability depending on stand composition? Location: Mixed young forest at Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, East-Tennessee, USA. Methods: Using a long-term data set (1967-2006), we analyzed temporal forest dynamics at the tree and species level, and we analyzed community dynamics for forest stands that different in their initial species composition (i.e., Chestnut Oak, Oak-Hickory, Pine, and Yellow poplar stands). Using summer drought and growing season temperature as defined climate drivers, we evaluated relationships between forest dynamics and climate across levels of organization. Results: Over the 4-decade studied period, forest communities underwent successional change and substantially increased their biomass. Variation in summer drought and growing season temperature contributed to temporal biomass dynamics for some tree species, but not for others. Stand-level responses to climatic variability were shown to be related to responses of specific component species; however, not for Pine stands. Pinus echinata, the dominant species in stands initially identified as Pine stands, decreased over time due to periodical outbreaks of the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). The outbreaks on Walker Branch could not be directly related to climatic conditions. Conclusions: Our results imply that vulnerability of developing forests to predicted climate conditions is stand-type dependent, and hence, is a function of species composition. Autogenic successional processes (or insect outbreaks) were found to prevail over climatic variability in determining long-term forest dynamics for stands dominated by sensitive species, emphasizing the importance of studying interactions between forest succession and climate change.

  8. An analysis of illegal mining on the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana: Implications on community livelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Boadi, Samuel; Nsor, Collins Ayine; Antobre, Osei Owusu; Acquah, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Mining in tropical countries contributes significantly to the global minerals supplies but unregulated mining activities in reserved forests is associated with destruction, loss of habitats and loss of biodiversity. This study determined the area of the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana, degraded through illegal mining (galamsey) and the impacts on the livelihoods of fringe communities. Thirty-two (32) coordinates were recorded around the peripheries of disturbed site in the reserve usi...

  9. Branchfall as a Demographic Filter for Epiphyte Communities: Lessons from Forest Floor-Based Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Sarmento Cabral

    Full Text Available Local variation in the abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes is often attributed to environmental characteristics such as substrate and microclimate. Less is known, however, about the impacts of tree and branch turnover on epiphyte communities. To address this issue, we surveyed branches and epiphytes found on the forest floor in 96 transects in two forests (Atlantic rainforest in Brazil and Caribbean rainforest in Panama. In the Brazilian forest, we additionally distinguished between edge and core study sites. We quantified branch abundance, epiphyte abundance, richness and proportion of adults to investigate the trends of these variables over branch diameter. Branches 90% of all branches on the forest floor. Abundance and richness of fallen epiphytes per transect were highest in the Brazilian core transects and lowest in the Panamanian transects. The majority of epiphytes on the floor (c. 65% were found attached to branches. At all three study sites, branch abundance and branch diameter were negatively correlated, whereas epiphyte abundance and richness per branch, as well as the proportion of adults were positively correlated with branch diameter. The relationship between branch diameter and absolute epiphyte abundance or richness differed between study sites, which might be explained by differences in forest structure and dynamics. In the Panamanian forest, epiphytes had been previously inventoried, allowing an evaluation of our surveying method by comparing canopy and forest floor samplings. Individuals found on the forest floor corresponded to 13% of all individuals on branches <10 cm in diameter (including crowns, with abundance, richness and composition trends on forest floor reflecting canopy trends. We argue that forest floor surveys provide useful floristic and, most notably, demographic information particularly on epiphytes occurring on the thinnest branches, which are least accessible. Here, branchfall acts as an important

  10. Structure and composition of altered riparian forests in an agricultural Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Brando, Paulo; Quintino, Raimundo Mota; do Nascimento, Sebastiâo Aviz

    2015-09-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation influence the microclimate, vegetation structure, and composition of remaining patches of tropical forest. In the southern Amazon, at the frontier of cropland expansion, forests are converted and fragmented in a pattern that leaves standing riparian forests whose dimensions are mandated by the Brazilian National Forest Code. These altered riparian forests share many characteristics of well-studied upland forest fragments, but differ because they remain connected to larger areas of forest downstream, and because they may experience wetter soil conditions because reduction of forest cover in the surrounding watershed raises groundwater levels and increases stream runoff. We compared forest regeneration, structure, composition, and diversity in four areas of intact riparian forest and four areas each of narrow, medium, and wide altered riparian forests that have been surrounded by agriculture since the early 1980s. We found that seedling abundance was reduced by as much as 64% and sapling abundance was reduced by as much as 67% in altered compared to intact riparian forests. The most pronounced differences between altered and intact forest occurred near forest edges and within the narrowest sections of altered riparian forests. Woody plant species composition differed and diversity was reduced in altered forests compared to intact riparian forests. However, despite being fragmented for several decades, large woody plant biomass and carbon storage, the number of live or dead large woody plants, mortality rates, and the size distribution of woody plants did not differ significantly between altered and intact riparian forests. Thus, even in these relatively narrow forests with high edge: area ratios, we saw no evidence of the increases in mortality and declines in biomass that have been found in other tropical forest fragment studies. However, because of the changes in both species community and reduced regeneration, it is unclear how long

  11. Variations of Soil Microbial Community Structures Beneath Broadleaved Forest Trees in Temperate and Subtropical Climate Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sihang; Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Wang, Mengmeng; Zhao, Mengxin; Lu, Hui; Xie, Changyi; Yang, Caiyun; Yuan, Tong; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Gu, Baohua; Yang, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Global warming has shifted climate zones poleward or upward. However, understanding the responses and mechanism of microbial community structure and functions relevant to natural climate zone succession is challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we examined soil microbial community in three broadleaved forests located in the Wulu Mountain (WLM, temperate climate), Funiu Mountain (FNM, at the border of temperate and subtropical climate zones), or Shennongjia Mountain (SNJ, subtropical climate). Although plant species richness decreased with latitudes, the microbial taxonomic α-diversity increased with latitudes, concomitant with increases in soil total and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Phylogenetic NRI (Net Relatedness Index) values increased from -0.718 in temperate zone (WLM) to 1.042 in subtropical zone (SNJ), showing a shift from over dispersion to clustering likely caused by environmental filtering such as low pH and nutrients. Similarly, taxonomy-based association networks of subtropical forest samples were larger and tighter, suggesting clustering. In contrast, functional α-diversity was similar among three forests, but functional gene networks of the FNM forest significantly (P < 0.050) differed from the others. A significant correlation (R = 0.616, P < 0.001) between taxonomic and functional β-diversity was observed only in the FNM forest, suggesting low functional redundancy at the border of climate zones. Using a strategy of space-for-time substitution, we predict that poleward climate range shift will lead to decreased microbial taxonomic α-diversities in broadleaved forest.

  12. Communities, property rights and forest decentralisation in Kenya: Early lessons from participatory forestry management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephine Mogoi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of participatory forestry management (PFM in Kenya has led to the formation of community forest associations (CFAs. Data collected from 12 forests over a decade indicate that most associations are confederating to manage shared forests through the Forests Act of 2005. Emerging findings indicate that associations are responsible for diverse management activities in forest protection, monitoring, and management, yet access to decision-making, revenue streams, and overall resource control rights are vested in the Kenya Forestry Service. Still, this is an improvement as CFAs perform most governance functions autonomously, including the crafting of resource harvesting rules, the choice of leadership, and conflict resolution. In order to balance community incentives with the burdens and responsibilities they bear, rights to revenue streams generated from forest resources must be shared with communities to ensure continued commitment to the PFM process. Furthermore, the viability of CFAs is threatened by power struggles, leadership wrangles, and the splintering of groups. Negotiation support to moderate conflicting interests, and strengthen internal conflict resolution and governance is necessary.

  13. Use of multi-criteria analysis (MCA for supporting community forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadka C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable forest management usually involves the use of criteria and indicators (C&I allowing the monitoring, reporting and assessment of management activities at national, regional and forest management unit levels. Experiences of such concepts are scarce in Nepal, particularly with regard to the evaluation of management activities within a Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA framework. In this contribution we describe how a MCA approach can be used to efficiently exploit information, knowledge, and preferences of stakeholders to address community forest management problems. Beside rating and ranking techniques, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to examine the importance of six criteria and forty-four indicators in a sustainable forest management context with a broad range of stakeholder groups. An evaluation of four management strategies in the Shree Gyneshwar community forest user group allows to demonstrate the relevance of changing priorities for different criteria. A passive adaptive management strategy focusing on a multiple use of natural resources and the introduction of production-oriented measures were identified as the most preferable option. The results of this study show that the multi-criteria analysis approach, and in particular the AHP, can assist decision-makers in efficiently evaluating management problems and generating ideas for the long-term strategic planning process of community forest management, even under complex socio-economic and ecological conditions. In that context, compromise solutions enjoy a higher possibility of being successful, taking into account the different views of stakeholder groups.

  14. Coastal Communities WTA Compensation for conservation of mangrove forests: a choice experiment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashayekhi Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of mangrove forests entails the decrease and restriction of their injudicious uses by local people and therefore imposes opportunity costs on poor local communities, which often depend on these forest resources for their subsistence. This study aims to quantify the economic opportunity cost of conservation for coastal communities living in areas adjacent to mangrove forests in the southern coasts of Iran. The main commercial uses of the mangrove forests in this area are restricted to fishing, tourist boating trips, and limited leaves cutting. We applied a choice experiment method to measure the costs of the forest exploitation reduction under hypothetical protection scenarios in which local users would receive monetary compensation to lessen or forgo mangrove forest utilization. The results showed that local communities are willing to accept lower compensation when the protection is meant to decrease the frequency of Hara cutting and fishing, as opposed to banning recreational opportunities. The mean WTA was estimated to be 55 662 500 IRR.hsld-1.yr-1 (2026 USD, which was generally lower than opportunity costs in the form of foregone income. Before implementing any policies related to equity, our findings can provide policymakers with useful prior knowledge and prescription.

  15. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951–2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500–1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500–2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  16. Ecological contingency in the effects of climatic warming on forest herb communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Damschen, Ellen I; Grace, James B

    2010-11-09

    Downscaling from the predictions of general climate models is critical to current strategies for mitigating species loss caused by climate change. A key impediment to this downscaling is that we lack a fully developed understanding of how variation in physical, biological, or land-use characteristics mediates the effects of climate change on ecological communities within regions. We analyzed change in understory herb communities over a 60-y period (1949/1951-2007/2009) in a complex montane landscape (the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon) where mean temperatures have increased 2 °C since 1948, similar to projections for other terrestrial communities. Our 185 sites included primary and secondary-growth lower montane forests (500-1.200 m above sea level) and primary upper montane to subalpine forests (1,500-2,100 m above sea level). In lower montane forests, regardless of land-use history, we found multiple herb-community changes consistent with an effectively drier climate, including lower mean specific leaf area, lower relative cover by species of northern biogeographic affinity, and greater compositional resemblance to communities in southerly topographic positions. At higher elevations we found qualitatively different and more modest changes, including increases in herbs of northern biogeographic affinity and in forest canopy cover. Our results provide community-level validation of predicted nonlinearities in climate change effects.

  17. Exploring the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z.L. Walton; N.C. Poudyal; J. Hepinstall; C. Johnson Gaither; B.B. Boley

    2015-01-01

    While the growing literature on forest ecosystem services has examined the value and significance of a range ofservices, our understanding of the health-related benefits of ecosystem services from forests is still limited. Tocharacterize the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate...

  18. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion

    2010-01-01

    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  19. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  20. DIVERSITY OF TUBER CROPS AND ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE FUNGI (AMF UNDER COMMUNITY FOREST STAND IN SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of agroforestry system in community forest that incorporate local species Vitex cofassus (bitti, Toona sinensis (suren, Tectona grandis (teak and Aleurites moluccana (candlenut with seasonal crops such as tuber crops would create opportunities for local  people to improve the economic and food security. Tuber crops as the understory could be expected to reduce the rate of soil erosion and expand habitat of beneficia soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The research aims to determine the diversity of tuber crops and AMF in the rhizosphere of tuber crops grown under community forest stands of bitti, suren, teak and candlelnut in South Sulawesi. Results showed that (1 there are 12 kinds of tuber crops that grow under community forest stands in which the 7 types are as alternative food sources, (2 Amorphophallus campanulatus (iles-iles/suweg and Xanthosoma violaceum (kimpul are species of tuber crops that is found growing under all of the commnunity forest stands, (3 all kinds of tuber crops that grow under the community forest stand associated with AMF, in which there are 3 AMF genus i.e Glomus sp. Acaulospora sp. and Gigaspora sp.with low spore density.

  1. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  2. Simulation of the shallow groundwater-flow system in the Forest County Potawatomi Community, Forest County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Saad, David A.; Juckem, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The shallow groundwater system in the Forest County Potawatomi Comminity, Forest County, Wisconsin, was simulated by expanding and recalibrating a previously calibrated regional model. The existing model was updated using newly collected water-level measurements, inclusion of surface-water features beyond the previous near-field boundary, and refinements to surface-water features. The updated model then was used to calculate the area contributing recharge for seven existing and three proposed pumping locations on lands of the Forest County Potawatomi Community. The existing wells were the subject of a 2004 source-water evaluation in which areas contributing recharge were calculated using the fixed-radius method. The motivation for the present (2012) project was to improve the level of detail of areas contributing recharge for the existing wells and to provide similar analysis for the proposed wells. Delineated 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge for existing and proposed wells extend from the areas of pumping to delineate the area at the surface contributing recharge to the wells. Steady-state pumping was simulated for two scenarios: a base-pumping scenario using pumping rates that reflect what the Community currently (2012) pumps (or plans to in the case of proposed wells), and a high-pumping scenario in which the rate was set to the maximum expected from wells installed in this area, according to the Forest County Potawatomi Community Natural Resources Department. In general, the 10-year areas contributing recharge did not intersect surface-water bodies. The 5- and 10-year areas contributing recharge simulated at the maximum pumping rate at Bug Lake Road may intersect Bug Lake. At the casino near the Town of Carter, Wisconsin, the 10-year areas contributing recharge intersect infiltration ponds. At the Devils Lake and Lois Crow Drive wells, areas contributing recharge are near cultural features, including residences.

  3. An assessment of the impacts of the REDD+ pilot project on community forests user groups (CFUGs) and their community forests in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, T N; Neupane, P R; Lopez-Casero, F; Cadman, T

    2014-04-01

    REDD+ has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, meet climate stabilisation targets and protect biological diversity. Consequently, millions of dollars are being channelled into developing countries rich in forests, for pilot projects that will provide data for the design of REDD+ projects that are based on incentives and performance. This paper evaluates the impacts of REDD+ pilot projects on community forests and associated user groups (CFUGs) in Nepal. A field study targeted eight CFUGs that participated in a REDD+ pilot project funded by the Forest Carbon Trust Fund in Nepal. The pilot project increased the participation of Dalit, Indigenous people, women and the poor, and was able to provide some social safeguards. However, when all the additional costs and foregone benefits of the project are considered, REDD+ is not an attractive market-based option for Nepalese CFUGs. A better approach would be a bilateral or multilateral approach that is not market based, but provides incentives beyond environmental and social safeguards. The results of this study will be useful in designing REDD+ policies and programmes for community forest-based REDD+ stakeholders in developing countries.

  4. Shale gas development effects on the songbird community in a central Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Laura S.; Wood, Petra; Sheehan, James; George, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, unconventional drilling for natural gas from the Marcellus-Utica shale has increased exponentially in the central Appalachians. This heavily forested region contains important breeding habitat for many neotropical migratory songbirds, including several species of conservation concern. Our goal was to examine effects of unconventional gas development on forest habitat and breeding songbirds at a predominantly forested site from 2008 to 2015. Construction of gas well pads and infrastructure (e.g., roads, pipelines) contributed to an overall 4.5% loss in forest cover at the site, a 12.4% loss in core forest, and a 51.7% increase in forest edge density. We evaluated the relationship between land-cover metrics and species richness within three avian guilds: forest-interior, early-successional, and synanthropic, in addition to abundances of 21 focal species. Land-cover impacts were evaluated at two spatial extents: a point-level within 100-m and 500-m buffers of each avian survey station, and a landscape-level across the study area (4326 ha). Although we observed variability in species-specific responses, we found distinct trends in long-term response among the three avian guilds. Forest-interior guild richness declined at all points across the site and at points impacted within 100 m by shale gas but did not change at unimpacted points. Early-successional and synanthropic guild richness increased at all points and at impacted points. Our results suggest that shale gas development has the potential to fragment regional forests and alter avian communities, and that efforts to minimize new development in core forests will reduce negative impacts to forest dependent species.

  5. Detrimental effects of low atmospheric humidity and forest fire on a community of western Himalayan butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Smetacek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to previous years, the period from October 2008 to March 2009 showed marked reductions in species number and population size in the butterfly community of the Maheshkhan Reserve Forest, Nainital District, Uttarakhand. Desiccation of pupae due to abnormally low atmospheric humidity after the failure of seasonal rains appears to have been a major cause of this reduction. The drop in humidity also appears to be linked to the unusual spread of fires affecting broadleaf forests, one of which in May 2009 wiped out the remaining Maheshkhan butterfly community.

  6. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pinno, Bradley D.; Ruth C. Errington

    2016-01-01

    Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant im...

  7. Managed citizenship: global forest governance and democracy in Russian communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.; Henry, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine the political implications of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification and its requirements for participatory governance by focusing on three case studies in Russia and drawing upon qualitative research data from 2002 to 2014. We argue that one of the unintended by-pr

  8. 76 FR 744 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... 1500-1508 as well as the Council on Environmental Quality's NEPA procedures at 40 CFR 1500-1508. CFP... of Grant Requirements with the deed in the lands records of the local county or municipality. (2... include: improved water quality, wildlife and fish habitat, forest based educational programs including...

  9. Our Forests Forever? Language and Ideology in Community Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maureen

    1995-01-01

    Using critical pedagogy and metaphor analysis, New South Wales government materials on forestry are examined. Results suggest they are not intended to provide information but to propagate the notion of forests as a source of economic value rather than an ecosystem. (SK)

  10. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation: Friends or Strangers ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a meta-study of local management experiences in developing countries from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. In international organisations and NGOs there is a general accepted agreement that collective management will yield success in forest conservation. However th...

  11. Fungal community composition in neotropical rain forests: the influence of tree diversity and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Krista L; Fierer, Noah; Bateman, Carling; Treseder, Kathleen K; Turner, Benjamin L

    2012-05-01

    Plant diversity is considered one factor structuring soil fungal communities because the diversity of compounds in leaf litter might determine the extent of resource heterogeneity for decomposer communities. Lowland tropical rain forests have the highest plant diversity per area of any biome. Since fungi are responsible for much of the decomposition occurring in forest soils, understanding the factors that structure fungi in tropical forests may provide valuable insight for predicting changes in global carbon and nitrogen fluxes. To test the role of plant diversity in shaping fungal community structure and function, soil (0-20 cm) and leaf litter (O horizons) were collected from six established 1-ha forest census plots across a natural plant diversity gradient on the Isthmus of Panama. We used 454 pyrosequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to evaluate correlations between microbial community composition, precipitation, soil nutrients, and plant richness. In soil, the number of fungal taxa increased significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation, but not with plant richness. There were no correlations between fungal communities in leaf litter and plant diversity or precipitation, and fungal communities were found to be compositionally distinct between soil and leaf litter. To directly test for effects of plant species richness on fungal diversity and function, we experimentally re-created litter diversity gradients in litter bags with 1, 25, and 50 species of litter. After 6 months, we found a significant effect of litter diversity on decomposition rate between one and 25 species of leaf litter. However, fungal richness did not track plant species richness. Although studies in a broader range of sites is required, these results suggest that precipitation may be a more important factor than plant diversity or soil nutrient status in structuring tropical forest soil fungal communities.

  12. Environmental species sorting dominates forest-bird community assembly across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan; Svenning, J.-C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Environmental species sorting and dispersal are seen as key factors in community assembly, but their relative importance and scale dependence remain uncertain, as the extent to which communities are consistently assembled throughout their biomes. To address these issues, we analysed bird metacomm...... of the Istranca Forest' bird metacommunity was predominantly controlled by environmental species sorting in a manner consistent with the broader WP region. However, variability in local community structure was also linked to purely spatial factors, albeit more weakly.......Environmental species sorting and dispersal are seen as key factors in community assembly, but their relative importance and scale dependence remain uncertain, as the extent to which communities are consistently assembled throughout their biomes. To address these issues, we analysed bird...... metacommunity structure in a 1200-km2 forested landscape (Istranca Forests) in Turkish Thrace at the margin of the Western Palaearctic (WP) temperate-forest biome. First, we used spatial regressions and Mantel tests to assess the relative importance of environmental and spatial factors as drivers of local...

  13. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  14. Woody biomass logistics [Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Keefe; Nathaniel Anderson; John Hogland; Ken Muhlenfeld

    2014-01-01

    The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material is often quite low, sometimes near zero. However, the cost of harvesting, collection, processing, storage, and transportation from the harvest site to end...

  15. Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Stringer, Lindsay C; Leventon, Julia; Riddell, Mike; Rueff, Henri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Butt, Edward

    2012-11-19

    Climate finance investments and international policy are driving new community-based projects incorporating payments for ecosystem services (PES) to simultaneously store carbon and generate livelihood benefits. Most community-based PES (CB-PES) research focuses on forest areas. Rangelands, which store globally significant quantities of carbon and support many of the world's poor, have seen little CB-PES research attention, despite benefitting from several decades of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) projects. Lessons from CBNRM suggest institutional considerations are vital in underpinning the design and implementation of successful community projects. This study uses documentary analysis to explore the institutional characteristics of three African community-based forest projects that seek to deliver carbon-storage and poverty-reduction benefits. Strong existing local institutions, clear land tenure, community control over land management decision-making and up-front, flexible payment schemes are found to be vital. Additionally, we undertake a global review of rangeland CBNRM literature and identify that alongside the lessons learned from forest projects, rangeland CB-PES project design requires specific consideration of project boundaries, benefit distribution, capacity building for community monitoring of carbon storage together with awareness-raising using decision-support tools to display the benefits of carbon-friendly land management. We highlight that institutional analyses must be undertaken alongside improved scientific studies of the carbon cycle to enable links to payment schemes, and for them to contribute to poverty alleviation in rangelands.

  16. Species composition of forested natural communities near freshwater hydrological features in an urbanizing watershed of west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa H Friedman; Michael G.  Andreu; Wayne Zipperer; Rob J.  Northrop; Amr  Abd-Elrahman

    2015-01-01

    Natural communities near freshwater hydrological features provide important ecosystem functions and services. As human populations increase, forested landscapes become increasingly fragmented and deforested, which may result in a loss of the functions and services they provide. To investigate the current state of forested natural communities in the rapidly urbanizing...

  17. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  18. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleandson Ferreira Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  19. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Borges, Magno

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil. Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models. Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition. This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.

  20. Separating the effects of forest type and elevation on the diversity of litter invertebrate communities in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBARA A. RICHARDSON; MICHAEL J. RICHARDSON; FELIPE N. SOTO-ADAMES

    2005-01-01

    1. The primary effects of climatic conditions on invertebrate litter communities, and the secondary effects of different forest types, were distinguished by using the sierra palm as a control in a natural experiment along an elevational gradient in the Luquillo Mountains. These mountains have three well-defined forest types along the gradient, with the palm occurring...

  1. Annual Cash Income from Community Forest Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Challenges for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Community forest management (CFM is considered an alternative way to protect forests while providing income for smallholders. Since the mid-1990s, the number of CFM projects has rapidly increased in the Brazilian Amazon, although most of them still face several difficulties. In this paper, we discuss the obstacles to the financial viability of CFM in this region and propose some ways to overcome them. Based on evidence from five case studies, we assess the extent to which sustainable forest management for commercial timber production contributes to smallholder income. We show that harvesting timber only provides a limited cash income to smallholders, even though forest covers 80% of their landholding. Market access to timber is very uncertain and smallholder communities often fail to make a profit from their timber. Minimum remunerative public prices and support for timber marketing are thus needed. Simpler and more flexible procedures are required to reduce the high transaction costs of obtaining a permit and increase smallholder involvement in legal forest management for commercial purposes. Finally, a better assessment of timber potential in smallholder forest reserves through systematic inventories would be useful to avoid arousing false expectations.

  2. Does forest certification enhance community engagement in Australian plantation management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dare, Melanie (Lain); Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-01-01

    The rapid expansion of timber plantations across Australia has been contentious, with ongoing debate in rural communities about the social, economic and environmental impacts of plantations. The need for effective and ongoing community engagement (CE) has been highlighted by this ongoing contention

  3. The role of communities in sustainable land and forest management: The case of Nyanga, Zvimba and Guruve districts of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Matsvange

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest benefit analysis is vital in ensuring sustainable community-based natural resources management. Forest depletion and degradation are key issues in rural Zimbabwe and strategies to enhance sustainable forest management are continually sought. This study was carried out to assess the impact of forests on communities from Nyanga, Guruve and Zvimba districts of Zimbabwe. It is based on a Big Lottery Fund project implemented by Progressio-UK and Environment Africa. Itfocuses on identifying replicable community forest and landmanagement strategies and the level of benefits accruing to the community. Analysis of change was based on the Income and Food Security and Forest benefits, which also constitutes the tools used during the research. The study confirms the high rate of deforestation and the increased realisation by communities to initiate practical measures aimed at protecting and sustaining forest and land resources from which they derive economic and social benefits. The results highlight the value of community structures (Farmer Field Schools and Environmental Action Groups as conduits for natural resource management. The interconnectivity among forests, agricultural systems and the integral role of people are recognised as key to climate change adaptation.Keywords: Forest benefits; sustainability,;livelihoods; farmer field schools

  4. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  5. Impact of livestock on a mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cleandson Ferreira Santos; Magno Borges

    2015-01-01

    AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CO...

  6. Vegetation and Lepidoptera in Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests. Community structure along climate zones, forest succession and seasonality in the Southern Yucatán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Essens, T.; Leyequien, E.; Pozo, C. (Cándido)

    2010-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests are worldwide recognized as important ecosystems for biodiversity conservation. Increasing agricultural activities (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture) leads to a heterogeneous landscape matrix; and as ecological succession takes over in abandoned fields, plant and animal communities endure shifts in species richness and composition. This book presents the analysis on plant and Lepidoptera (caterpillar) communities and their species turnover along forest successi...

  7. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Santos, Larissa; Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S; Talora, Daniela C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil's remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future.

  8. Ecosystemic forest management approach to ensure forest sustainability and socio-economic development of forest dependent communities: Evidence from Southeast Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mbairamadji

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide a full spectrum of goods and services that contribute to the socio-economic development of forest dependent communities. In tropical countries, the diversity of stakeholders depending on forests with their divergent interests and expectations, make sustainable forest management (SFM difficult to achieve. Although several studies advocate the decentralization of forest management and public participation as important processes for SFM, little has been done to demonstrate how these processes could contribute to forest sustainability and socioeconomic development of forest dependent communities. Moreover, almost no seminal paper has demonstrated how to integrate the ecological, economical and social issues of forest management, which have nevertheless been recognized as essential for sustainable forest management. This study develops an ecosystemic forest management approach based on “Stakeholder-Resource-Usage-Institution” dynamics as an appropriate framework for ensuring forest sustainability and socio-economic development. This approach is supported with lessons drawn on the limitations and pitfalls of the traditional forest management approach in Southeast Cameroon.Les forêts fournissent toute une gamme de biens et de services qui contribuent au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendantes de la forêt. Dans les régions tropicales, la diversité des parties prenantes qui dépendent des forêts rend la gestion durable des forêts difficile du fait d’attentes et d’intérêts divergents. Bien que plusieurs études estiment la décentralisation de la gestion des forêts et la participation publique comme importantes pour la gestion durable des forêts, peu d’initiatives ont été prises pour démontrer la manière dont ces actions pourraient contribuer à la durabilité de la forêt et au développement socio-économique des communautés dépendant de la forêt. En outre, aucun article majeur n’a d

  9. Genetic diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmin LI; Zexin JIN; Qiping GU; Wenyan LOU

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between population succession and its genetic behavior, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Quercu glandulifera var.brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages (coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest). The results showed that 145 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of Q. glandulifera using 11 primers, among which 120 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 82.76% with an average of 64.14%. Estimated by the Shannon information index, the total genetic diversity of the three populations was 0.4747, with an average of 0.3642, while it was 0.3234, with an average of 0.2484, judged from the Nei index. Judged from percentage of polymorphic loci,Shannon inform at ion index and Nei index, the genetic diversity followed a decreasing order: coniferous forest >broad-leaved mixed forest > evergreen broad-leaved for-est. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69.73% of the genetic variance existed within populations and 30.27% of the genetic variance existed among popu-lations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.2319 and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.6539. The mean of genetic identity among populations of Q. glandulifera was 0.8501 and the mean of genetic distance was 0.1626. The genetic identity between the Q. glandulifera population in the coniferous forest and that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest was the highest. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the population in the coniferous forest gathered with that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest firstly, then with that in the evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genetic structure of Q. glandulifera was not only characteristic of the biological characteristics of this species, but was also influenced by the

  10. Species composition and correlation of understory woody plants in Chinese fir plantation in the lower subtropical area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Bing; LIU Shirong; CAI Daoxiong; WEN Yuanguang

    2006-01-01

    There are 71 species in the shrub layer of the Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation after natural succession.The species richness and diversity have increased with slight anthropogenic disturbance.The status and function of tmderstory woody species were judged by the analysis of the important value (IV).X2 statistics and r test were used for testing the significance of interspecific association and correlation among 25 main understory woody plants selected from the woody population.The results clearly showed their interspecific relationships and their differences in resource utilization.Species-pairs of positive association were in the majority.Most species were accommodated in the shady habitat.There was a positive correlation between the IV of the species and the interspecific association.The higher the IV of the species,the closer and more significant was the interspecific association.Based on analytical results of interspecitic association and correlation,25 woody plants in the shrub layer could be divided into four ecological species groups:I.Ficus hispida +Antidesma bunius+Mallotus barbatus+Ficus cunia+Saurauia tristyla+Mallotus philippinensis+Maesa japonica +Ficus hirta+Alchornea rugosa+Ficus fulva+Mallotus apelta;II.Cudrania tricuspidata+Schefflera octopylla;III.Cunninghamia lanceolata+Clerodendron cytophyllum +Millettia semicastrata+Randia spinosa+Litsea cubeba +Litsea pungens;IV.Ardisia japonica+Psychotria rubra +Vitex quinata+Cephalanthus occidentalis+ Pithecellobium lucidum+Mycetia sinensis.If species group III or II is the advantaged species in the shrub layer,the community would change from a coniferous forest to a sparse evergreen broad-leaved forest.For group IV,the community would be relatively stable.For group I,the coniferous forest would be mixed with coniferous-broad leaved forest.The classification of ecological species groups would provide a theoretical basis on judging its ecological function,adjusting the stand structure of the plantation and

  11. Modelling Vulnerability and Range Shifts in Ant Communities Responding to Future Global Warming in Temperate Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung; Li, Fengqing; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chun, Jung Hwa; Park, Young-Seuk

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is likely leading to species' distributional shifts, resulting in changes in local community compositions and diversity patterns. In this study, we applied species distribution models to evaluate the potential impacts of temperature increase on ant communities in Korean temperate forests, by testing hypotheses that 1) the risk of extinction of forest ant species would increase over time, and 2) the changes in species distribution ranges could drive upward movements of ant communities and further alter patterns of species richness. We sampled ant communities at 335 evenly distributed sites across South Korea and modelled the future distribution range for each species using generalized additive models. To account for spatial autocorrelation, autocovariate regressions were conducted prior to generalized additive models. Among 29 common ant species, 12 species were estimated to shrink their suitable geographic areas, whereas five species would benefit from future global warming. Species richness was highest at low altitudes in the current period, and it was projected to be highest at the mid-altitudes in the 2080s, resulting in an upward movement of 4.9 m yr-1. This altered the altitudinal pattern of species richness from a monotonic-decrease curve (common in temperate regions) to a bell-shaped curve (common in tropical regions). Overall, ant communities in temperate forests are vulnerable to the on-going global warming and their altitudinal movements are similar to other faunal communities.

  12. Community-Based Tourism - Option for Forest-Dependent Communities in 1A IUCN Protected Areas? Cameroon Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgin Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, ‘exponential’ growth in IUCN protected lands has occurred in the last 25 years. Approximately 6% of protected areas are ‘Strict Nature Reserve[s]’ (1A with emphasis on conservation and strict restrictions on human access. Before Bakossi Forest Reserve (Cameroon had 1A protection, 95% of local families used the Reserve for their livelihood. They farmed cash crops, collected fire wood, timber, and food with incomes equivalent to US$35,000/annually/family. Post-protection, the Reserve’s local communities lacked support to develop alternative livelihoods, and 75% reported being intercepted illegally trespassing by Reserve guards. Without illegal activity economic impacts would have been substantially greater. Protection has also meant foregone national income from timber and coffee exports. We used Bakossi Forest Reserve as a case study to identify issues facing local communities excluded from the Reserve that traditionally provided their livelihood. We also investigated potential alternative family livelihoods based on critical evaluation of the literature. We identified ‘exceptional’ community-based tourism potential. We also found that Cameroon was the first African country to develop community-based forestry with the dual roles of conservation and poverty alleviation. Using this model, community-based tourism could be a cost-effectively initiative to deliver the same dual roles as community-based forestry.

  13. Does the edge effect influence plant community structure in a tropical dry forest? O efeito de borda influencia a estrutura da comunidade vegetal em uma floresta tropical seca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gallo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Edge effects are considered a key factor in regulating the structure of plant communities in different ecosystems. However, regardless to few studies, edge influence does not seem to be decisive in semiarid regions such as the Brazilian tropical dry forest known as Caatinga but this issue remains inconclusive. The present study tests the null hypothesis that the plant community of shrubs and trees does not change in its structure due to edge effects. Twenty-four plots (20 x 20 m were set up in a fragment of Caatinga, in which 12 plots were in the forest edges and 12 plots were inside the fragment. Tree richness, abundance and species composition did not differ between edge and interior plots. The results of this study are in agreement with the pattern previously found for semiarid environments and contrasts with previous results obtained in different environments such as Rainforests, Savanna and Forest of Araucaria, which indicate abrupt differences between the border and interior of the plant communities in these ecosystems, and suggest that the community of woody plants of the Caatinga is not ecologically affected by the presence of edges.Efeitos de borda são considerados fator-chave na regulação da estrutura de comunidades vegetais em diferentes ecossistemas. Entretanto, apesar dos poucos estudos relacionados, o efeito de borda parece não ser determinante em regiões semiáridas, como a floresta tropical seca brasileira, conhecida como Caatinga. Este estudo testou a hipótese nula de que a comunidade vegetal arbustivo-arbórea não sofre alterações em sua estrutura, riqueza e composição devido ao efeito de borda. Foram instaladas 24 parcelas (20 x 20 m em um fragmento de Caatinga arbórea, sendo 12 parcelas na borda do fragmento e 12 parcelas no seu interior. A riqueza, abundância e composição das espécies não diferiram estatisticamente entre as parcelas de borda e interior. Os resultados deste estudo corroboram um possível padr

  14. Branchfall as a Demographic Filter for Epiphyte Communities: Lessons from Forest Floor-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento Cabral, Juliano; Petter, Gunnar; Mendieta-Leiva, Glenda; Wagner, Katrin; Zotz, Gerhard; Kreft, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Local variation in the abundance and richness of vascular epiphytes is often attributed to environmental characteristics such as substrate and microclimate. Less is known, however, about the impacts of tree and branch turnover on epiphyte communities. To address this issue, we surveyed branches and epiphytes found on the forest floor in 96 transects in two forests (Atlantic rainforest in Brazil and Caribbean rainforest in Panama). In the Brazilian forest, we additionally distinguished between edge and core study sites. We quantified branch abundance, epiphyte abundance, richness and proportion of adults to investigate the trends of these variables over branch diameter. Branches 90% of all branches on the forest floor. Abundance and richness of fallen epiphytes per transect were highest in the Brazilian core transects and lowest in the Panamanian transects. The majority of epiphytes on the floor (c. 65%) were found attached to branches. At all three study sites, branch abundance and branch diameter were negatively correlated, whereas epiphyte abundance and richness per branch, as well as the proportion of adults were positively correlated with branch diameter. The relationship between branch diameter and absolute epiphyte abundance or richness differed between study sites, which might be explained by differences in forest structure and dynamics. In the Panamanian forest, epiphytes had been previously inventoried, allowing an evaluation of our surveying method by comparing canopy and forest floor samplings. Individuals found on the forest floor corresponded to 13% of all individuals on branches epiphytes occurring on the thinnest branches, which are least accessible. Here, branchfall acts as an important demographic filter structuring epiphyte communities.

  15. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  16. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxu Zhao

    Full Text Available Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height, while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  17. Chronic N-amended soils exhibit an altered bacterial community structure in Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi A. Turlapati; Rakesh Minocha; Premsai S. Bhiravarasa; Louise S. Tisa; William K. Thomas; Subhash C. Minocha

    2013-01-01

    At the Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, the impact of 20 years of annual ammonium nitrate application to the mixed hardwood stand on soil bacterial communities was studied using 16S rRNA genes pyrosequencing. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes was done using DNA extracted from 30 soil samples (three treatments x two horizons x five subplots) collected from untreated (...

  18. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were

  19. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  20. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE

  1. Changes in microbial community structure following herbicide (glyphosate) additions to forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice W. Ratcliff; Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate applied at the recommended field rate to a clay loam and a sandy loam forest soil resulted in few changes in microbial community structure. Total and culturable bacteria, fungal hyphal length, bacterial:fungal biomass, carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG), and bacterial and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were unaffected 1, 3, 7, or 30 days...

  2. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...

  3. Structure of the epiphyte community in a tropical montane forest in SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingxu; Geekiyanage, Nalaka; Xu, Jianchu; Khin, Myo Myo; Nurdiana, Dian Ridwan; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are an understudied and particularly important component of tropical forest ecosystems. However, owing to the difficulties of access, little is known about the properties of epiphyte-host tree communities and the factors structuring them, especially in Asia. We investigated factors structuring the vascular epiphyte-host community and its network properties in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Vascular epiphytes were surveyed in six plots located in mature forests. Six host and four micro-site environmental factors were investigated. Epiphyte diversity was strongly correlated with host size (DBH, diameter at breast height), while within hosts the highest epiphyte diversity was in the middle canopy and epiphyte diversity was significantly higher in sites with canopy soil or a moss mat than on bare bark. DBH, elevation and stem height explained 22% of the total variation in the epiphyte species assemblage among hosts, and DBH was the most important factor which alone explained 6% of the variation. Within hosts, 51% of the variation in epiphyte assemblage composition was explained by canopy position and substrate, and the most important single factor was substrate which accounted for 16% of the variation. Analysis of network properties indicated that the epiphyte host community was highly nested, with a low level of epiphyte specialization, and an almost even interaction strength between epiphytes and host trees. Together, these results indicate that large trees harbor a substantial proportion of the epiphyte community in this forest.

  4. Adoption of community engagement in the corporate culture of Australian forest plantation companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, M.; Lockwood, M.; Schirmer, Jacki; Vanclay, F.; Hanson, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides practical insight into what can be done to improve the adoption of community engagement (CE) in the corporate culture of two Australian forest plantation companies. Previous research has identified that CE can be limited by corporate cultures that promote a narrow range of CE ben

  5. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  6. Understory plant communities and the functional distinction between savanna trees, forest trees, and pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldman, Joseph W.; Mattingly, W. Brett; Brudvig, Lars A.

    2013-02-01

    Although savanna trees and forest trees are thought to represent distinct functional groups with different effects on ecosystem processes, few empirical studies have examined these effects. In particular, it remains unclear if savanna and forest trees differ in their ability to coexist with understory plants, which comprise the majority of plant diversity in most savannas. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and data from 157 sites across three locations in the southeastern United States to understand the effects of broadleaf savanna trees, broadleaf forest trees, and pine trees on savanna understory plant communities. After accounting for underlying gradients in fire frequency and soil moisture, abundances (i.e., basal area and stem density) of forest trees and pines, but not savanna trees, were negatively correlated with the cover and density (i.e., local-scale species richness) of C4 graminoid species, a defining savanna understory functional group that is linked to ecosystem flammability. In analyses of the full understory community, abundances of trees from all functional groups were negatively correlated with species density and cover. For both the C4 and full communities, fire frequency promoted understory plants directly, and indirectly by limiting forest tree abundance. There was little indirect influence of fire on the understory mediated through savanna trees and pines, which are more fire tolerant than forest trees. We conclude that tree functional identity is an important factor that influences overstory tree relationships with savanna understory plant communities. In particular, distinct relationships between trees and C4 graminoids have implications for grass-tree coexistence and vegetation-fire feedbacks that maintain savanna environments and their associated understory plant diversity.

  7. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Peter

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter. In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore

  8. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  9. Effects of Local Tree Diversity on Herbivore Communities Diminish with Increasing Forest Fragmentation on the Landscape Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G.; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  10. Discourses of information in community forest user groups in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banjade, M.R.; Schanz, H.; Leeuwis, C.

    2006-01-01

    Community forestry involves different stakeholders with diverse perspectives and interests in series of decisions and translating these decisions into actions. In decision-making processes, information plays an important role, but information perspectives differ across the users with different socia

  11. Effects of phosphorus addition on soil microbial biomass and community composition in three forest types in tropical China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lei; Gundersen, Per; Zhang, Tao;

    2012-01-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition in humid tropical regions may aggravate phosphorus (P) deficiency in forest on old weathered soil found in these regions. From January 2007 to August 2009, we studied the responses of soil microbial biomass and community composition to P addition (in two monthly...... portions at level of 15 g P m-2 yr-1) in three tropical forests in southern China. The forests were an old-growth forest and two disturbed forests (mixed species and pine dominated). The objective was to test the hypothesis that P addition would increase microbial biomass and change the composition...... of the microbial community, and that the old-growth forests would be more sensitive to P addition due to its higher soil N availability. Microbial biomass C (MBC) was estimated twice a year and the microbial community structure was quantified by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis at the end of the experiment...

  12. Soil Collembola communities within Plešné Lake and Čertovo Lake catchments, the Bohemian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuchta, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The soil Collembola communities were studied for three years in disturbed spruce forest stands in the catchments areas of Čertovo and Plešné Lakes in the Bohemian Forest, Czech Republic. The study was focused on the impact of the windthrow, bark beetle outbreak damage and consecutive changes in the forest stands including soil environment. Four different treatments were selected for the study on both study areas: undamaged (control) forest stands, "dead" forest stands damaged by bark beetle, slightly managed windthrown forest stands left for the natural succession, and freshly harvested windthrown stands. After two years of research a total of 7,294 Collembola specimens were recorded belonging to 93 species. We recorded the highest collembolan abundance and species richness in the reference stands within catchments of both lakes, while both given parameters were considerably lower in harmed forest stands. To summarize, the disturbance led to a general decrease of Collembola communities.

  13. The role of non-timber forest products to communities living in the Northern periphery of the Korup National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afungang Ngwatung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-timber forest products (NTFPs extraction and trade is considered an income generating activity for subsistence livelihood in rural forest communities in Cameroon. This paper is to ascertain whether Non-timber forest products exploitation and commercialization is economically profitable to livelihood or just a customary activity promoted by economic hardship. Surveys involving 184 households, parcel inventories, interviews and reviews were used revealing that Non-timber forest products exploitation and farming occupy 90.8% and 80.4% respectively of the total work force. Agricultural contribute 66% against 31% for Non-timber forest products to the local economy. Policy changes like the institutionalization of community forest and decentralizations in 1997 and the transfer of authoritative regulation to peripheral actors in the mid-1990s permitted local benefit from Non-timber forest products resources.

  14. Pyrosequencing reveals changes in soil bacterial communities after conversion of Yungas forests to agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S Montecchia

    Full Text Available The Southern Andean Yungas in Northwest Argentina constitute one of the main biodiversity hotspots in the world. Considerable changes in land use have taken place in this ecoregion, predominantly related to forest conversion to croplands, inducing losses in above-ground biodiversity and with potential impact on soil microbial communities. In this study, we used high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene to assess whether land-use change and time under agriculture affect the composition and diversity of soil bacterial communities. We selected two areas dedicated to sugarcane and soybean production, comprising both short- and long-term agricultural sites, and used the adjacent native forest soils as a reference. Land-use change altered the composition of bacterial communities, with differences between productive areas despite the similarities between both forests. At the phylum level, only Verrucomicrobia and Firmicutes changed in abundance after deforestation for sugarcane and soybean cropping, respectively. In cultivated soils, Verrucomicrobia decreased sharply (~80%, while Firmicutes were more abundant. Despite the fact that local diversity was increased in sugarcane systems and was not altered by soybean cropping, phylogenetic beta diversity declined along both chronosequences, evidencing a homogenization of soil bacterial communities over time. In spite of the detected alteration in composition and diversity, we found a core microbiome resistant to the disturbances caused by the conversion of forests to cultivated lands and few or none exclusive OTUs for each land-use type. The overall changes in the relative abundance of copiotrophic and oligotrophic taxa may have an impact in soil ecosystem functionality. However, communities with many taxa in common may also share many functional attributes, allowing to maintain at least some soil ecosystem services after forest conversion to croplands.

  15. The impact of selective-logging and forest clearance for oil palm on fungal communities in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Lee, Junghoon; Edwards, David P; Adams, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging, and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil fungi, which play vital roles in the soil ecosystem functioning and services, is a major conservation frontier. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the ITS1 region of extracted soil DNA, we compared communities of soil fungi between unlogged, once-logged, and twice-logged rainforest, and areas cleared for oil palm, in Sabah, Malaysia. Overall fungal community composition differed significantly between forest and oil palm plantation. The OTU richness and Chao 1 were higher in forest, compared to oil palm plantation. As a proportion of total reads, Basidiomycota were more abundant in forest soil, compared to oil palm plantation soil. The turnover of fungal OTUs across space, true β-diversity, was also higher in forest than oil palm plantation. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungal abundance was significantly different between land uses, with highest relative abundance (out of total fungal reads) observed in unlogged forest soil, lower abundance in logged forest, and lowest in oil palm. In their entirety, these results indicate a pervasive effect of conversion to oil palm on fungal community structure. Such wholesale changes in fungal communities might impact the long-term sustainability of oil palm agriculture. Logging also has more subtle long term effects, on relative abundance of EcM fungi, which might affect tree recruitment and nutrient cycling. However, in general the logged forest retains most of the diversity and community composition of unlogged forest.

  16. Trade-offs between savanna woody plant diversity and carbon storage in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Adam F A; Socolar, Jacob B; Elsen, Paul R; Giam, Xingli

    2016-10-01

    Incentivizing carbon storage can be a win-win pathway to conserving biodiversity and mitigating climate change. In savannas, however, the situation is more complex. Promoting carbon storage through woody encroachment may reduce plant diversity of savanna endemics, even as the diversity of encroaching forest species increases. This trade-off has important implications for the management of biodiversity and carbon in savanna habitats, but has rarely been evaluated empirically. We quantified the nature of carbon-diversity relationships in the Brazilian Cerrado by analyzing how woody plant species richness changed with carbon storage in 206 sites across the 2.2 million km(2) region at two spatial scales. We show that total woody plant species diversity increases with carbon storage, as expected, but that the richness of endemic savanna woody plant species declines with carbon storage both at the local scale, as woody biomass accumulates within plots, and at the landscape scale, as forest replaces savanna. The sharpest trade-offs between carbon storage and savanna diversity occurred at the early stages of carbon accumulation at the local scale but the final stages of forest encroachment at the landscape scale. Furthermore, the loss of savanna species quickens in the final stages of forest encroachment, and beyond a point, savanna species losses outpace forest species gains with increasing carbon accumulation. Our results suggest that although woody encroachment in savanna ecosystems may provide substantial carbon benefits, it comes at the rapidly accruing cost of woody plant species adapted to the open savanna environment. Moreover, the dependence of carbon-diversity trade-offs on the amount of savanna area remaining requires land managers to carefully consider local conditions. Widespread woody encroachment in both Australian and African savannas and grasslands may present similar threats to biodiversity.

  17. Estimating above-ground biomass by fusion of LiDAR and multispectral data in subtropical woody plant communities in topographically complex terrain in North-eastern Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sisira Ediriweera; Sumith Pathirana; Tim Danaher; Doland Nichols

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a strategy to improve predicting capacity of plot-scale above-ground biomass (AGB) by fusion of LiDAR and Land-sat5 TM derived biophysical variables for subtropical rainforest and eucalypts dominated forest in topographically complex landscapes in North-eastern Australia. Investigation was carried out in two study areas separately and in combination. From each plot of both study areas, LiDAR derived structural parameters of vegetation and reflectance of all Landsat bands, vegetation indices were employed. The regression analysis was carried out separately for LiDAR and Landsat derived variables indi-vidually and in combination. Strong relationships were found with LiDAR alone for eucalypts dominated forest and combined sites compared to the accuracy of AGB estimates by Landsat data. Fusing LiDAR with Landsat5 TM derived variables increased overall performance for the eucalypt forest and combined sites data by describing extra variation (3% for eucalypt forest and 2% combined sites) of field estimated plot-scale above-ground biomass. In contrast, separate LiDAR and imagery data, and fusion of LiDAR and Landsat data performed poorly across structurally complex closed canopy subtropical rainforest. These findings reinforced that obtaining accurate estimates of above ground biomass using remotely sensed data is a function of the complexity of horizontal and vertical structural diversity of vegetation.

  18. Climate change threatens coexistence within communities of Mediterranean forested wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses.

  19. Climate change threatens coexistence within communities of Mediterranean forested wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Di Paola

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive, are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses.

  20. Importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation – A case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ham, C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available forestry, South Africa The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small-scale Entrepreneurs and Indigenous Forest Conservation A case study Cori Ham ii The Importance of Woodlots to Local Communities, Small Scale Entrepreneurs... by the financial support of the UK Department for International Development and the European Commission iii Citation: Ham, C. 2000. The importance of woodlots to local communities, small scale entrepreneurs and indigenous forest conservation– A case study...

  1. Ecological indicator values of forest communities in Çitdere Region (Yenice-Karabük

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Çoban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species system, which has been used widely in Europe, has many advantages in vegetation analysis. It allows quick interpretation of ecological conditions using floristic data without doing any measurements about site conditions. Considering the amount of phytosociological studies carried out in Turkey, this system may provide important information about plants or plant communities if required modifications are done. In this study, Pignatti-Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs modified for the check list of Flora Europea were used to analyse and compare forest communities of Çitdere region in terms of light (radiation, temperature, moisture, continentality, soil reaction and soil nutrient in order to test how effectively mean EIVs indicate ecological conditions. Main differences were found between communities which occur on sunny and shady exposures in terms of moisture, soil nutrient, light and temperature indicator values. When normal and original permutation tests were used, all of six indicator values were significant. With the modified permutation test, only mean temperature and light indicator values showed significant differences among 8 forest communities of the region. Pinus sylvestris and Quercus petraea forest communities which have relatively narrow distribution area showed higher correlation with temperature and continentality indicator values when weighted average by species cover was used.

  2. Soil resources and topography shape local tree community structure in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeck, Claire A; Harms, Kyle E; Yavitt, Joseph B; John, Robert; Turner, Benjamin L; Valencia, Renato; Navarrete, Hugo; Davies, Stuart J; Chuyong, George B; Kenfack, David; Thomas, Duncan W; Madawala, Sumedha; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Gunatilleke, Savitri; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Yaacob, Adzmi; Supardi, Mohd N Nur; Dalling, James W

    2013-02-22

    Both habitat filtering and dispersal limitation influence the compositional structure of forest communities, but previous studies examining the relative contributions of these processes with variation partitioning have primarily used topography to represent the influence of the environment. Here, we bring together data on both topography and soil resource variation within eight large (24-50 ha) tropical forest plots, and use variation partitioning to decompose community compositional variation into fractions explained by spatial, soil resource and topographic variables. Both soil resources and topography account for significant and approximately equal variation in tree community composition (9-34% and 5-29%, respectively), and all environmental variables together explain 13-39% of compositional variation within a plot. A large fraction of variation (19-37%) was spatially structured, yet unexplained by the environment, suggesting an important role for dispersal processes and unmeasured environmental variables. For the majority of sites, adding soil resource variables to topography nearly doubled the inferred role of habitat filtering, accounting for variation in compositional structure that would previously have been attributable to dispersal. Our results, illustrated using a new graphical depiction of community structure within these plots, demonstrate the importance of small-scale environmental variation in shaping local community structure in diverse tropical forests around the globe.

  3. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCT UTILIZATIONS AND AWARENESS OF SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN FOREST COMMUNITIES-A CASE STUDY IN EAST KALIMANTAN

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    Eli Nur Nirmala Sari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A lack of livelihood to meet the needs has been one reason why forest communities have utilized non-timber forest products (NTFPs. For some communities living in or around forest areas, NTFPs have been a basic support for their small-scale industries, which could contribute to better income. This study focused on the utilization of NTFPs by forest communities and their awareness in terms of utilizing such products for handicrafts in small-scale industry. This study examined the NTFPs potentials, markets, and social benefits at the five villages in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The villages-surveyed were Batu Lidung, Punan Bengalun, Sesua, Mendupo, and Seputuk which were located in and near forest areas managed by PT Intracawood Manufacturing as a forest concessionaire. The method used was Participatory Rural Appraisal Techniques, and the data collection was based on primary data and household survey. The result suggested that among the five villages, the most remote area was Punan Bengalun. Forest community of Punan Bengalun has started selling the handicrafts made from NTFPs only in the last few years. Among the five villages-sur veyed, the forest community in Seputuk tended to be more active in utilizing NTFPs for small-scale industry rather than those in four other villages. Awareness in utilizing the NTFPs had been mostly depended on factor of forest distance from the villages. People living close to the district capital (where there was a wider variety of employment opportunities had less motivation to utilize NTFPs although there were available.

  4. Local wisdom of Ngata Toro community in utilizing forest resources as a learning source of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Sriyati, Siti; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-08-01

    Indonesian society is a pluralistic society with different cultures and local potencies that exist in each region. Some of local community still adherethe tradition from generation to generation in managing natural resources wisely. The application of the values of local wisdom is necessary to teach back to student to be more respect the culture and local potentials in the region. There are many ways developing student character by exploring local wisdom and implementing them as a learning resources. This study aims at revealing the values of local wisdom Ngata Toro indigenous people of Central Sulawesi Province in managing forest as a source of learning biology. This research was conducted by in-depth interviews, participant non-observation, documentation studies, and field notes. The data were analyzed with triangulation techniques by using a qualitative interaction analysis that is data collection, data reduction, and data display. Ngata Toro local community manage forest by dividing the forest into several zones, those arewana ngkiki, wana, pangale, pahawa pongko, oma, and balingkea accompanied by rules in the management of result-based forest conservation and sustainable utilization. By identifying the purpose of zonation and regulation of the forest, such values as the value of environmental conservation, balance value, sustainable value, and the value of mutual cooperation. These values are implemented as a biological learning resource which derived from the competences standard of analyze the utilization and conservation of the environment.

  5. Temporal variability of forest communities: empirical estimates of population change in 4000 tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Condit, Richard; Rahman, K Abd; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chen, Yu-Yun; Chuyong, George; Dattaraja, H S; Davies, Stuart; Ewango, Corneille E N; Gunatilleke, C V S; Nimal Gunatilleke, I A U; Hubbell, Stephen; Kenfack, David; Kiratiprayoon, Somboon; Lin, Yiching; Makana, Jean-Remy; Pongpattananurak, Nantachai; Pulla, Sandeep; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Sukumar, Raman; Su, Sheng-Hsin; Sun, I-Fang; Suresh, H S; Tan, Sylvester; Thomas, Duncan; Yap, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    Long-term surveys of entire communities of species are needed to measure fluctuations in natural populations and elucidate the mechanisms driving population dynamics and community assembly. We analysed changes in abundance of over 4000 tree species in 12 forests across the world over periods of 6-28 years. Abundance fluctuations in all forests are large and consistent with population dynamics models in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role. At some sites we identify clear environmental drivers, such as fire and drought, that could underlie these patterns, but at other sites there is a need for further research to identify drivers. In addition, cross-site comparisons showed that abundance fluctuations were smaller at species-rich sites, consistent with the idea that stable environmental conditions promote higher diversity. Much community ecology theory emphasises demographic variance and niche stabilisation; we encourage the development of theory in which temporal environmental variance plays a central role.

  6. Disentangling the diversity of arboreal ant communities in tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes, Petr; Fibich, Pavel; Idigel, Cliffson; Rimandai, Maling

    2015-01-01

    Tropical canopies are known for their high abundance and diversity of ants. However, the factors which enable coexistence of so many species in trees, and in particular, the role of foragers in determining local diversity, are not well understood. We censused nesting and foraging arboreal ant communities in two 0.32 ha plots of primary and secondary lowland rainforest in New Guinea and explored their species diversity and composition. Null models were used to test if the records of species foraging (but not nesting) in a tree were dependent on the spatial distribution of nests in surrounding trees. In total, 102 ant species from 389 trees occurred in the primary plot compared with only 50 species from 295 trees in the secondary forest plot. However, there was only a small difference in mean ant richness per tree between primary and secondary forest (3.8 and 3.3 sp. respectively) and considerably lower richness per tree was found only when nests were considered (1.5 sp. in both forests). About half of foraging individuals collected in a tree belonged to species which were not nesting in that tree. Null models showed that the ants foraging but not nesting in a tree are more likely to nest in nearby trees than would be expected at random. The effects of both forest stage and tree size traits were similar regardless of whether only foragers, only nests, or both datasets combined were considered. However, relative abundance distributions of species differed between foraging and nesting communities. The primary forest plot was dominated by native ant species, whereas invasive species were common in secondary forest. This study demonstrates the high contribution of foragers to arboreal ant diversity, indicating an important role of connectivity between trees, and also highlights the importance of primary vegetation for the conservation of native ant communities.

  7. Disentangling the diversity of arboreal ant communities in tropical forest trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Klimes

    Full Text Available Tropical canopies are known for their high abundance and diversity of ants. However, the factors which enable coexistence of so many species in trees, and in particular, the role of foragers in determining local diversity, are not well understood. We censused nesting and foraging arboreal ant communities in two 0.32 ha plots of primary and secondary lowland rainforest in New Guinea and explored their species diversity and composition. Null models were used to test if the records of species foraging (but not nesting in a tree were dependent on the spatial distribution of nests in surrounding trees. In total, 102 ant species from 389 trees occurred in the primary plot compared with only 50 species from 295 trees in the secondary forest plot. However, there was only a small difference in mean ant richness per tree between primary and secondary forest (3.8 and 3.3 sp. respectively and considerably lower richness per tree was found only when nests were considered (1.5 sp. in both forests. About half of foraging individuals collected in a tree belonged to species which were not nesting in that tree. Null models showed that the ants foraging but not nesting in a tree are more likely to nest in nearby trees than would be expected at random. The effects of both forest stage and tree size traits were similar regardless of whether only foragers, only nests, or both datasets combined were considered. However, relative abundance distributions of species differed between foraging and nesting communities. The primary forest plot was dominated by native ant species, whereas invasive species were common in secondary forest. This study demonstrates the high contribution of foragers to arboreal ant diversity, indicating an important role of connectivity between trees, and also highlights the importance of primary vegetation for the conservation of native ant communities.

  8. ATLANTIC BATS: a dataset of bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Stevens, Richard D; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Mello, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro; Garbino, Guilherme Siniciato Terra; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Faria, Deborah; de Moraes Weber, Marcelo; Kerches Rogeri, Patricia; Regolin, André Luis; de Oliveira, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Barros, Marília A S; Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Crepaldi de Morais, Mara Ariane; Kavagutti, Vinicius Silva; Passos, Fernando C; Marjakangas, Emma-Liina; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Galetti, Mauro

    2017-09-06

    Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest. The dataset includes information on more than 90,000 captures of 98 bat species of 8 families. Species richness averaged 12.1 per site, with a median value of 10 species (ranging from 1 to 53 species). Six species occurred in more than 50% of the communities: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Glossophaga soricina, and Platyrrhinus lineatus. The number of captures divided by sampling effort, a proxy for abundance, varied from 0.000001 to 0.77 individuals/hour*m(2) (0.04+0.007 individuals/hour*m(2) ). Our dataset reveals a hyper-dominance of eight species that together that comprise 80% of all captures: Platyrrhinus lineatus (2.3%), Molossus molossus (2.8%), Artibeus obscurus (3.4%), Artibeus planirostris (5.2%), Artibeus fimbriatus (7%), Sturnira lilium (14.5%), Carollia perspicillata (15.6%), and Artibeus lituratus (29.2%). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A.; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users’ decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems. PMID:23878338

  10. The community resource management area mechanism: a strategy to manage African forest resources for REDD+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Rebecca A; Kyei, Andrew; Mason, John J

    2013-01-01

    Climate change poses a significant threat to Africa, and deforestation rates have increased in recent years. Mitigation initiatives such as REDD+ are widely considered as potentially efficient ways to generate emission reductions (or removals), conserve or sustainably manage forests, and bring benefits to communities, but effective implementation models are lacking. This paper presents the case of Ghana's Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) mechanism, an innovative natural resource governance and landscape-level planning tool that authorizes communities to manage their natural resources for economic and livelihood benefits. This paper argues that while the CREMA was originally developed to facilitate community-based wildlife management and habitat protection, it offers a promising community-based structure and process for managing African forest resources for REDD+. At a theoretical level, it conforms to the ecological, socio-cultural and economic factors that drive resource-users' decision process and practices. And from a practical mitigation standpoint, the CREMA has the potential to help solve many of the key challenges for REDD+ in Africa, including definition of boundaries, smallholder aggregation, free prior and informed consent, ensuring permanence, preventing leakage, clarifying land tenure and carbon rights, as well as enabling equitable benefit-sharing arrangements. Ultimately, CREMA's potential as a forest management and climate change mitigation strategy that generates livelihood benefits for smallholder farmers and forest users will depend upon the willingness of African governments to support the mechanism and give it full legislative backing, and the motivation of communities to adopt the CREMA and integrate democratic decision-making and planning with their traditional values and natural resource management systems.

  11. Lower within-community variance of negative density dependence increases forest diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Miranda

    Full Text Available Local abundance of adult trees impedes growth of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, a mechanism first proposed by Janzen and Connell to explain plant diversity in forests. While several studies suggest the importance of this mechanism, there is still little information of how the variance of negative density dependence (NDD affects diversity of forest communities. With computer simulations, we analyzed the impact of strength and variance of NDD within tree communities on species diversity. We show that stronger NDD leads to higher species diversity. Furthermore, lower range of strengths of NDD within a community increases species richness and decreases variance of species abundances. Our results show that, beyond the average strength of NDD, the variance of NDD is also crucially important to explain species diversity. This can explain the dissimilarity of biodiversity between tropical and temperate forest: highly diverse forests could have lower NDD variance. This report suggests that natural enemies and the variety of the magnitude of their effects can contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity.

  12. Lower within-community variance of negative density dependence increases forest diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, António; Carvalho, Luís M; Dionisio, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Local abundance of adult trees impedes growth of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, a mechanism first proposed by Janzen and Connell to explain plant diversity in forests. While several studies suggest the importance of this mechanism, there is still little information of how the variance of negative density dependence (NDD) affects diversity of forest communities. With computer simulations, we analyzed the impact of strength and variance of NDD within tree communities on species diversity. We show that stronger NDD leads to higher species diversity. Furthermore, lower range of strengths of NDD within a community increases species richness and decreases variance of species abundances. Our results show that, beyond the average strength of NDD, the variance of NDD is also crucially important to explain species diversity. This can explain the dissimilarity of biodiversity between tropical and temperate forest: highly diverse forests could have lower NDD variance. This report suggests that natural enemies and the variety of the magnitude of their effects can contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity.

  13. Are REDD+ community forest projects following the principles for collective action, as proposed by Ostrom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Razak Saeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forested countries in the global south that have agreed to engage in REDD+, a policy mechanism for addressing climate change, are receiving support to improve laws, policies, systems and structures. As a mechanism initiated at the global level and seeking to use forests to address a global commons crisis (atmospheric carbon concentration, understanding how REDD+ translates into implementation at the local level is essential. Therefore, using a systematic review approach, we examined 15 studies of REDD+ in the context of public and/or community managed forests, drawn from a comprehensive application of inclusion criteria to identify relevant published peer-reviewed empirical research. The common property resources literature was used to highlight the role of local institutions in REDD+ and to distil how REDD+ community forest projects conform to Ostrom’s collective action principles. The review revealed limited sharing of information and decision-making authority with communities; a general absence of FPIC; and a lack of defined benefit sharing and conflict resolution arrangements in many of the REDD+ projects.

  14. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  15. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7% were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area. More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

  16. Human Impacts Affect Tree Community Features of 20 Forest Fragments of a Vanishing Neotropical Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Miranda, Pedro L. S.; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  17. Fire severity filters regeneration traits to shape community assembly in Alaska's boreal forest.

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    Teresa N Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type- black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n = 87 sites and for a reduced subset of sites (n = 49 that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest

  18. Fire severity filters regeneration traits to shape community assembly in Alaska's boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Teresa N; Johnstone, Jill F; Bernhardt, Emily L; Chapin, F Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type- black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation) and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n = 87 sites) and for a reduced subset of sites (n = 49) that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest composition.

  19. Biodiversity assessment in incomplete inventories: leaf litter ant communities in several types of Bornean rain forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Biodiversity assessment of tropical taxa is hampered by their tremendous richness, which leads to large numbers of singletons and incomplete inventories in survey studies. Species estimators can be used for assessment of alpha diversity, but calculation of beta diversity is hampered by pseudo-turnover of species in undersampled plots. To assess the impact of unseen species, we investigated different methods, including an unbiased estimator of Shannon beta diversity that was compared to biased calculations. We studied alpha and beta diversity of a diverse ground ant assemblage from the Southeast Asian island of Borneo in different types of tropical forest: diperocarp forest, alluvial forest, limestone forest and heath forests. Forests varied in plant composition, geology, flooding regimes and other environmental parameters. We tested whether forest types differed in species composition and if species turnover was a function of the distance between plots at different spatial scales. As pseudo-turnover may bias beta diversity we hypothesized a large effect of unseen species reducing beta diversity. We sampled 206 ant species (25% singletons from ten subfamilies and 55 genera. Diversity partitioning among the four forest types revealed that whereas alpha species richness and alpha Shannon diversity were significantly smaller than expected, beta-diversity for both measurements was significantly higher than expected by chance. This result was confirmed when we used the unbiased estimation of Shannon diversity: while alpha diversity was much higher, beta diversity differed only slightly from biased calculations. Beta diversity as measured with the Chao-Sørensen or Morisita-Horn Index correlated with distance between transects and between sample points, indicating a distance decay of similarity between communities. We conclude that habitat heterogeneity has a high influence on ant diversity and species turnover in tropical sites and that unseen species

  20. Effects of soil water repellency on microbial community structure and functions in Mediterranean pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Elena; Grayston, Sue J.; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a property commonly observed in forest areas showing wettable and water repellent patches with high spatial variability. SWR can greatly influence the hydrology and the ecology of forest soils. The capacity of soil microorganisms to degrade different organic compounds depends upon species composition, so this may affect changes in SWR on the microsite scale (such as the presence of soil water repellent patches; Mülleret al., 2010). In the Mediterranean forest context, SWR has been found to be related to microbial community composition. The accumulation of different hydrophobic compounds might be causing the shifts in microbial community structure (Lozano et al., 2014). In this study we investigated the effects of SWR persistence on soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity under Pinus halepensis forest in three different sites: Petrer, Gorga and Jávea (Alicante, E Spain). Soil samples were classified into three different water repellency classes (wettable, slight or strongly water repellent samples) depending on the SWR persistence. The soil microbial community was determined through phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs). Enzyme activities chosen for this study were cellulase, β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminide (NAG). The relationships between microbiological community structure and some soil properties such as pH, Glomalin Related Soil Protein, soil organic matter content and soil respiration were also studied. Redundancy analyses and decomposition of the variances were performed to clarify how microbial community composition and enzyme activities are affected by SWR and soil properties. The effect of SWR on microbial community composition differed between locations. This effect was clearer in the Petrer site. Enzyme activity varied considerably depending on SWR persistence. The highest activities were found in slightly SWR samples and the lowest mostly in the strongly water repellent ones. These preliminary

  1. Changes in community perspectives on the roles and rules of church forests in northern Ethiopia: evidence from a panel survey of four Ethiopian Orthodox communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis William Reynolds

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the only Afromontane forest in northern Ethiopia today is on lands managed by followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, where for centuries priests and communities have conserved forest groves around church buildings. The ecological value of the thousands of church forests in Ethiopia has been widely acknowledged, but little is known about the diverse local institutions that govern these resources, or how such institutions might be changing in response to Ethiopia’s rapid recent economic development. This study uses a unique panel survey to explore changes in community perspectives on the social and ecological roles of church forests, and rules governing church forest use, in four Orthodox communities over time. Our sample consists of 122 household surveys conducted in 2002 and a further 122 surveys from 2014, with 71 households interviewed in both periods. We find that reported uses of church forests vary across forests and over time, with larger forests more likely to be used for extractive purposes such as firewood and construction timber, while smaller forests have become more restricted to renewable or non-extractive uses such as natural medicines, honey, and prayer. Results of logistic regression suggest church followers’ support for preserving church forests increases with age and access to alternative sources of firewood – including exotic Eucalyptus spp. plantations which are increasingly widespread in northern Ethiopia. We also observe a shift since 2002 away from an expectation that church followers themselves hold responsibility for rule enforcement in church forests to a perceived sharing of responsibility by church authorities (i.e. priests and government (i.e. police in 2014. Together the progressive introduction of exotic tree species in church forests combined with the erosion of religious norms surrounding local forest governance may threaten the integrity and diversity of these unique social-ecological systems.

  2. Lessons from a Community-Based Program to Monitor Forest Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; von Mühlen, Eduardo M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2017-09-01

    A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time.

  3. Lessons from a Community-Based Program to Monitor Forest Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; von Mühlen, Eduardo M; Venticinque, Eduardo M

    2017-09-01

    A large number of sustainable use reserves recently have been titled in the Brazilian Amazonia. These reserves require public participation in the design and implementation of management and monitoring programs. Species-monitoring programs that engage local stakeholders may be useful for assessing wildlife status over the long term. We collaborated on the development of a participatory program to monitor forest vertebrates in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve and to build capacity among the local people. We examined relations between the distance to the nearest human community and sighting rates of each species, and evaluated the program overall. Eighteen wildlife monitors received training in line transect and sign surveys and then conducted surveys along a total of ten transects. Sighting rates of most species in the Piagaçu-Purus Sustainable Development Reserve were higher than those reported in other Amazonian forests. Distance to the human community was not associated with the overall vertebrate sighting rate. Use of the trained monitors was successful in terms of data acquisition and engagement. The involvement of local people promoted discussions about regulation of hunting in the reserve. Implementation of community-based programs to monitor forest wildlife in Amazonian sustainable use reserves may empower local communities and assess the status of wildlife through time.

  4. Asynchronous responses of soil microbial community and understory plant community to simulated nitrogen deposition in a subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Liu, Wenfei; Fan, Houbao; Huang, Guomin; Wan, Songze; Yuan, Yinghong; Ji, Chunfeng

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition greatly affects ecosystem processes and properties. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the responses of both the above- and belowground communities to N deposition. Here, we investigated the effects of 8 years of simulated N deposition on soil microbial communities and plant diversity in a subtropical forest. The quantities of experimental N added (g of N m(-2) year(-1)) and treatment codes were 0 (N0, control), 6 (N1), 12 (N2), and 24 (N3). Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis was used to characterize the soil microbial community while plant diversity and coverage were determined in the permanent field plots. Microbial abundance was reduced by the N3 treatment, and plant species richness and coverage were reduced by both N2 and N3 treatments. Declines in plant species richness were associated with decreased abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, increased bacterial stress index, and reduced soil pH. The plasticity of soil microbial community would be more related to the different responses among treatments when compared with plant community. These results indicate that long-term N deposition has greater effects on the understory plant community than on the soil microbial community and different conservation strategies should be considered.

  5. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  6. Cutting edge: how community forest enterprises lead the way on poverty reduction and avoided deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2007-12-15

    Avoided deforestation has re-emerged as a tool to curb climate change. But how does paying poor countries to keep their forests intact tally with poverty reduction? Doing both at the same time is a challenge, but a necessary one. Forests are not just crucial in keeping the global environment stable; they are also a lifeline for hundreds of millions of the world's poor. Fortunately, a solution to both aims is already in place. Community forest enterprises, if run sustainably and democratically, can both avoid deforestation and pull people out of poverty. Large industrial concessions, on the other hand, generally do neither. The challenge is to overcome vested interests and pave the way for greater political support.

  7. Tradeoffs, competition, and coexistence in eastern deciduous forest ant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuble, Katharine L; Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano A; McCormick, Gail L; Jurić, Ivan; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2013-04-01

    Ecologists have long sought to explain the coexistence of multiple potentially competing species in local assemblages. This is especially challenging in species-rich assemblages in which interspecific competition is intense, as it often is in ant assemblages. As a result, a suite of mechanisms has been proposed to explain coexistence among potentially competing ant species: the dominance-discovery tradeoff, the dominance-thermal tolerance tradeoff, spatial segregation, temperature-based niche partitioning, and temporal niche partitioning. Through a series of observations and experiments, we examined a deciduous forest ant assemblage in eastern North America for the signature of each of these coexistence mechanisms. We failed to detect evidence for any of the commonly suggested mechanisms of coexistence, with one notable exception: ant species appear to temporally partition foraging times such that behaviourally dominant species foraged more intensely at night, while foraging by subdominant species peaked during the day. Our work, though focused on a single assemblage, indicates that many of the commonly cited mechanisms of coexistence may not be general to all ant assemblages. However, temporal segregation may play a role in promoting coexistence among ant species in at least some ecosystems, as it does in many other organisms.

  8. Livelihood Sustainability and Community Based Co-Management of Forest Resources in China: Changes and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyun; Shivakoti, Ganesh; Zhu, Ting; Maddox, David

    2012-01-01

    Community-based co-management (CBCM) has been applied in some communities near natural reserves in China. This paper uses Gansu Baishuijiang National Natural Reserve in China as a case study for livelihood improvements under CBCM projects. We demonstrate change from 2006 to 2010 in five classes of livelihood capital (social, human, natural, physical and financial capitals), illustrating the effectiveness of CBCM projects. Specifically, there are increases in mean family income and improvements in forest conservation. However, some problems in the design and implementation of CBCM projects remain, including the complicated social and political relationship between government and community, social exclusion and uneven application of benefits within communities, and the lack of integration of indigenous cultures and traditional beliefs. Attention for special groups in community and improving the design of CBCM Projects. Study shows that under the cooperation of government, CBCM projects and local community residents, the harmonious development of sustainable livelihood improvement and forest resources conservation will be an important trend in the future.

  9. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tainter, Frank, H.; McMinn, James, W.

    1999-02-16

    Tainter, F.H., and J.W. McMinn. 1999. Early deterioration of coarse woody debris. In: Proc. Tenth Bien. South. Silv. Res. Conf. Shreveport, LA, February 16-18, 1999. Pp. 232-237 Abstract - Coarse woody debris (CWD) is an important structural component of southern forest ecosystems. CWD loading may be affected by different decomposition rates on sites of varying quality. Bolts of red oak and loblolly pine were placed on plots at each of three (hydric, mesic. and xerlc) sites at the Savannah River Site and sampled over a I6-week period. Major changes were in moisture content and nonstructural carbohydrate content (total carbohydrates, reducing sugars, and starch) of sapwood. Early changes in nonstructural carbohydrate levels following placement of the bolts were likely due to reallocation of these materials by sapwood parenchyma cells. These carbohydrates later formed pools increasingly metabolized by bacteria and invading fungi. Most prevalent fungi in sapwood were Ceratocysfis spp. in pine and Hypoxy/on spp. in oak. Although pine sapwood became blue stained and oak sapwood exhibited yellow soft decay with black zone lines, estimators of decay (specific gravity, sodium hydroxide solubility, and holocellulose content) were unchanged during the 16-week study period. A small effect of site was detected for starch content of sapwood of both species. Fungal biomass in sapwood of both species, as measured by ergosterol content, was detectable at week zero, increased somewhat by week three and increased significantly by week 16.

  10. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    SummaryStemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600 m 2 ha -1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5 m × 5 m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α = 0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients

  11. An integrated study to analyze soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential in two forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Zhang

    Full Text Available Soil microbial metabolic potential and ecosystem function have received little attention owing to difficulties in methodology. In this study, we selected natural mature forest and natural secondary forest and analyzed the soil microbial community and metabolic potential combing the high-throughput sequencing and GeoChip technologies. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that one known archaeal phylum and 15 known bacterial phyla as well as unclassified phylotypes were presented in these forest soils, and Acidobacteria, Protecobacteria, and Actinobacteria were three of most abundant phyla. The detected microbial functional gene groups were related to different biogeochemical processes, including carbon degradation, carbon fixation, methane metabolism, nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization, sulfur cycling, etc. The Shannon index for detected functional gene probes was significantly higher (P<0.05 at natural secondary forest site. The regression analysis showed that a strong positive (P<0.05 correlation was existed between the soil microbial functional gene diversity and phylogenetic diversity. Mantel test showed that soil oxidizable organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and cellulose, glucanase, and amylase activities were significantly linked (P<0.05 to the relative abundance of corresponded functional gene groups. Variance partitioning analysis showed that a total of 81.58% of the variation in community structure was explained by soil chemical factors, soil temperature, and plant diversity. Therefore, the positive link of soil microbial structure and composition to functional activity related to ecosystem functioning was existed, and the natural secondary forest soil may occur the high microbial metabolic potential. Although the results can't directly reflect the actual microbial populations and functional activities, this study provides insight into the potential activity of the microbial community and associated feedback

  12. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renčo M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  13. Modeling Amazon forest vegetation dynamics and community response to increased wind disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, J. A.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Knox, R. G.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; McGroddy, M. E.; Urquiza-Muñoz, J. D.; Tello-Espinoza, R.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; Higuchi, N.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the drivers of tree mortality in Amazonia is a complex task, yet essential to reliable prediction of carbon storage in a warmer climate. Past studies have shown an east-west gradient of forest disturbance and rainfall amount across Amazonia. This study uses remote sensing and dynamic vegetation modeling to take a deeper look at drivers of tree mortality and community composition shifts associated with varying mortality rates. Our analysis, using 20 years of Landsat 5 images, showed that ever-wet Amazonia (located in north-west Amazonia, i.e. NWA) was more susceptible to windthrows than the Central Amazon (i.e. CA), which has a a well-defined dry season. The higher frequency of windthrows in NWA forest correlates with higher frequency and intensity of deep convection events in this region, observed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. While a combination of factors including: soil characteristics (and by proxy rooting depth) and community composition exacerbate the regional gradient of disturbance, wind was the mechanistic agent of disturbance. Using an individual-based gap model for tropical forests populated with the most representative NWA tree species and increased mortality rates, we found a decrease of biomass in this region and a slight increase in NPP compared to a control simulation, a pattern that is similar to observations. The model predicted which species had the largest response in basal area change due to elevated disturbance, but there was a non-significant shift in community composition in the NWA forests. However, analysis found strong differences in community composition between the modeled NWA and CA regions, consistent with observed results. When CA forests were subject to higher mortality rate similar to the current NWA region, dissimilarity in community composition continued to persist. In addition the model identified species-specific maximum tree height and maximum diameter as the most influential predictors of

  14. The System Dynamics of Forest Cover in the Developing World: Researcher Versus Community Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase forest cover in the developing world will only succeed if the root causes of deforestation are addressed. Researchers designing reforestation initiatives tend to emphasize macro-level drivers of deforestation, about which they have extensive data and knowledge. On the other hand, local people have contextually based knowledge of forest cover dynamics in their region—about which external researchers may be largely ignorant. This type of perception gap between researchers and community members has led to many failed or insufficiently implemented projects. An emerging tool—group model-building with system dynamics—shows promise in its ability to integrate different perspectives on a complex problem such as forest cover loss. In this study, I use system dynamics modeling methodology to compare causal loop diagrams of forest cover dynamics on Negros Island, Philippines generated by researchers working for the World Wildlife Fund with causal loop diagrams generated by community members in upland Negros. The diagrams were significantly different, with very few variables in common, but both illuminate critical aspects of the deforestation problem on the island. I conclude that reforestation initiatives in the Philippines would benefit from incorporating all relevant information into a single, coherent model.

  15. Multiple strategies for drought survival among woody plant species

    OpenAIRE

    Pivovaroff, AL; Pasquini, SC; De Guzman, ME; Alstad, KP; Stemke, JS; Santiago, LS

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 British Ecological Society Drought-induced mortality and regional dieback of woody vegetation are reported from numerous locations around the world. Yet within any one site, predicting which species are most likely to survive global change-type drought is a challenge. We studied the diversity of drought survival traits of a community of 15 woody plant species in a desert-chaparral ecotone. The vegetation was a mix of chaparral and desert shrubs, as well as endemic species that only occ...

  16. Enhancing voluntary participation in community collaborative forest management: a case of Central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Sri; Kotani, Koji; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines voluntary participation in community forest management, and characterizes how more participation may be induced. We implemented a survey of 571 respondents and conducted a case study in Central Java, Indonesia. The study's novelty lies in categorizing the degrees of participation into three levels and in identifying how socio-economic factors affect people's participation at each level. The analysis finds that voluntary participation responds to key determinants, such as education and income, in a different direction, depending on each of the three levels. However, the publicly organized programs, such as information provision of benefit sharing, are effective, irrespective of the levels of participation. Overall, the results suggest a possibility of further success and corrective measures to enhance the participation in community forest management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition. PMID:27511465

  18. Divergent habitat filtering of root and soil fungal communities in temperate beech forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schröter, Kristina; Pena, Rodica; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Polle, Andrea; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2016-08-01

    Distance decay, the general reduction in similarity of community composition with increasing geographical distance, is known as predictor of spatial variation and distribution patterns of organisms. However, changes in fungal communities along environmental gradients are little known. Here we show that distance decays of soil-inhabiting and root-associated fungal assemblages differ, and identify explanatory environmental variables. High-throughput sequencing analysis of fungal communities of beech-dominated forests at three study sites across Germany shows that root-associated fungi are recruited from the soil fungal community. However, distance decay is substantially weaker in the root-associated than in the soil community. Variance partitioning of factors contributing to the observed distance decay patterns support the hypothesis that host trees stabilize the composition of root-associated fungi communities, relative to soil communities. Thus, they not only have selective impacts on associated communities, but also buffer effects of changes in microclimatic and environmental variables that directly influence fungal community composition.

  19. Can lemmings control the expansion of woody plants on tundra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Olofsson, Johan; Virtanen, Risto; Hoset, Katrine; Tuomi, Maria; Kyrö, Kukka

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing expansion of woody vegetation in the arctic, due to global warming, creates a positive feed back loop. Increasing abundance of woody plants reduces surface albedo both directly and via speeding up snow melt. Thus a successively greater fraction of incoming solar radiation is absorbed and converted to heat. Browsing mammals - both big and small - can prevent this by consuming woody plants. However, the grazer/browser community of many tundra areas is dominated by brown/Norwegian lemmings (Lemmus spp.) which eat graminoids and mosses and cannot use woody plants as forage. It would seem a priori likely that in such areas, mammalian herbivores speed up the expansion of woody plants by improving the chances of their seedlings to get established. We studied the impact of lemmings on woody plants by constructing lemming proof exclosures within piece high-altitude tundra at Joatkanjávri, northernmost Norway. The exclosures were constructed in 1998, during a period of low lemming densities, in snow-beds, where Norwegian lemmings (L. lemmus) were the only ecologically significant herbivorous mammals. (Reindeer migrate through the area in May, when snow-beds are inaccessible for them; during the fall migration, the area represents a dead end and is therefore avoided.) We chose pairs of maximally similar vegetation patches of 0.5 by 0.5 m and randomly assigned one of each pair to become an exclosure while the other plot was left open. The initial state of the vegetation was documented by the point frequency method. In 2008, after the 2007 lemming outbreak, the same documentation was repeated; thereafter the plots were harvested, the vegetation was sorted to species, oven dried and weighed. Exclusion of lemmings resulted to pronounced increase in community level plant biomass. Evergreen woody plants were especially favored by the exclusion of lemming: their above-ground biomass in exclosures was 14 times as great as their biomass on open reference plots. The

  20. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  1. Radiocesium Transfer in Forest Insect Communities after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Seiji; Takamura, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    To understand radiocesium transfer in the forest insect food web, we investigated the activity concentrations of radiocesium in forest insects in the Fukushima and Ibaraki Prefectures approximately 1.5–2.5 years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. We analyzed 34 species of insects sampled from 4 orders and 4 feeding functional groups (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, and detritivore) from three sites in each prefecture. 137Cs activity concentrations were lowest in herbivorous species and were especially high in detritivorous and omnivorous species that feed on forest litter and fungi. Radiocesium activity concentrations in any given species reflected the degree of contamination of that species’ primary food sources since radiocesium activity concentrations were found to be the lowest in leaves and grass and the highest in litter, bark, and fungi. This study confirmed that litter and other highly contaminated forest components such as fungi, decaying wood, bryophytes, and lichens serve as sources of 137Cs transfer into the forest insect community. PMID:28125745

  2. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  3. Forest Plant community changes during 1989-2007 in response to climate warming in the Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, J.C.; Dupouey, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    reflecting the confounding influence of forest stand dynamics. Location: Jura Mountains (France and Switzerland). Methods: We assessed changes in plant community composition by surveying 154 Abies alba forest vegetation relevés (550-1,350 m a.s.l.) in 1989 and 2007. Over this period, temperatures increased...

  4. The experience of community residents in a fire-prone ecosystem: A case study on the San Bernardino National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Cvetkovich; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from a study of San Bernardino National Forest community residents’ experiences with and perceptions of fire, fire management, and the Forest Service. Using self-administered surveys and focus group discussions, we found that participants had personal experiences with fire, were concerned about fire, and felt knowledgeable about effective...

  5. Dry coniferous forest restoration and understory plant diversity: The importance of community heterogeneity and the scale of observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich Kyle Dodson; David W. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining understory plant species diversity is an important management goal as forest restoration and fuel reduction treatments are applied extensively to dry coniferous forests of western North America. However, understory diversity is a function of both local species richness (number of species in a sample unit) and community heterogeneity (beta diversity) at...

  6. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with hi