WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest wood chips

  1. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  2. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  3. Least cost supply strategies for wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark.......The abstract presents a study based on a geographical information system, which produce  cost-supply curves by location for forest woods chips in Denmark....

  4. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  5. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2003-01-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of November

  6. Wood chip delivery and research project at Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, a large-scale energywood production chain was started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. Over 60 000 m 3 (about 46 000 MWh of energy) of forest processed chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 60 % of these chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 51 FIM/m 3 (68 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 40 FIM/m 3 (53 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of wood chips could compete with those of fuel peat only in the most favourable cases. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of forestry plans. According to the study, there is enough raw material for permanent, large-scale delivery of forest processed chips (up to 250 000 m 3 /a) in the forests located at a distance of under 40 road kilometers from the Pursiala heat and power plant. The following project stages will involve further development of the wood chip delivery chain logistics, as well as improvement of logging and chipping equipment and methods in energywood and logging waste production. Also the effects of wood energy production on the economy and environment of the whole Mikkeli region will be studied. (author)

  7. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Forest biomass and wood waste resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Skog; P. Lebow; D.. Dykstra; P.. Miles; B.J. Stokes; R.D. Perlack; M. Buford; J. Barbour; D. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides estimates of forest biomass and wood waste quantities, as well as roadside costs (i.e., supply curves) for each county in the contiguous United States. Roadside price is the price a buyer pays for wood chips at a roadside in the forest, at a processing mill location in the case of mill residue, or at a landfill for urban wood wastes prior to any...

  9. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  10. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m 3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m 3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m 3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m 3 /ha

  11. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6.5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40% at terminals

  12. Supply systems of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips, stump wood chips, and chips from small-diameter thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2009. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2009 by these suppliers was 8,4 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected from March-May, 2010. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-diameter thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply system in Finland in 2009. The chipping at plant supply system was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. Nearly 70 % of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 28 % at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply system was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-diameter wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, similarly roughly 70 % of chips were comminuted at plants and 23 % at terminals. (orig.)

  13. Supply chains of forest chip production in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The Metsaeteho study investigated how logging residue chips. stump wood chips, and chips from small-sized thinning wood and large-sized (rotten) roundwood used by heating and power plants were produced in Finland in 2008. Almost all the major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. The total volume of forest chips supplied in 2008 by these suppliers was 6,5 TWh. The study was implemented by conducting an e-mail questionnaire survey and telephone interviews. Research data was collected in March-May 2009. The majority of the logging residue chips and chips from small-sized thinning wood were produced using the roadside chipping supply chain in Finland in 2008. The chipping at plant supply chain was also significant in the production of logging residue chips. 70% of all stump wood chips consumed were comminuted at the plant and 29% at terminals. The role of the terminal chipping supply chain was also significant in the production of chips from logging residues and small-sized wood chips. When producing chips from large-sized (rotten) roundwood, nearly a half of chips were comminuted at plants and more than 40 % at terminals. (orig.)

  14. Instrument for measuring moisture in wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, L

    1980-06-01

    A method to determine the moisture content in wood chips, in batch and on-line, has been investigated. The method can be used for frozen and non frozen chips. Samples of wood chips are thawn and dryed with microwaves. During the drying the sample is weighed continously and the rate of drying is measured. The sample is dried t 10 percent moisture content. The result is extrapolated to the drying rate zero. The acccuracy at the method is 1.6 to 1.7 percent for both frozen and non frozen chips. The accuracy of the method is considered acceptable, but sofisticated sampling equipment is necessary. This makes the method too complex to make the instrument marketable.

  15. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood (models)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    Trained models for UDPipe used to produce our final submission to VarDial 2017 shared task (https://bitbucket.org/hy-crossNLP/vardial2017) and described in a paper by the same authors titled Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood.

  16. Firing with wood chips in heating and cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The document was produced for use as detailed teaching material aimed at spreading information on the use of wood chips as fuel for heating and cogeneration plants. It includes information and articles on wood fuels generally, combustion values, chopping machines, suppliers, occupational health hazards connected with the handling of wood chips, measuring amounts, the selection of types, prices, ash, environmental aspects and information on the establishment of a wood-chip fired district heating plant. (AB)

  17. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region; Puuhakkeen hankinta- ja tutkimusprojekti Mikkelin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, T. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Auvinen, P. [Mikkeli city (Finland). Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry

    1996-12-31

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m{sup 3} (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m{sup 3} (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m{sup 3} (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m{sup 3}/ha

  18. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region; Puuhakkeen hankinta- ja tutkimusprojekti Mikkelin seudulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, T [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Suonenjoki (Finland). Suonenjoki Research Station; Auvinen, P [Mikkeli city (Finland). Dept. of Agriculture and Forestry

    1997-12-31

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m{sup 3} (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m{sup 3} (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m{sup 3} (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m{sup 3}/ha

  19. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  20. Production of wood fuels from young forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpilahti, A.

    1998-01-01

    National forest invention data shows that more than 200 000 ha of thinnings should be carried out annually. The stemwood accumulation corresponding to this is about 13 million m 3 . The share of industrial wood is about 5.7 million m 3 , so the energy wood potential is about 7.0 million m 3 . Because the growing stock can use the nutrients liberated from logging residues the topwood mass should not be totally harvested, and at the barren areas it should not be harvested at all. Even the difficult terrain restricts in some extent the harvesting of logging residues. After these reductions the economically harvestible energy wood potential has been estimated to be 5.1 million m 3 corresponding to about 0.9 million toe. The amount of first thinnings has during the last few years been only about one third of the need. The accumulation in the first thinning phase could be about 40-80 m 3 /ha. The annual young stand treatment area has usually been about 200 000 ha, but during the last few years it has remained to a little over 100 000 ha. Harvesting of wood fuels from young stands, based on a lot-chipping method and the traditional production chains, was investigated in the national Bioenergy Research Programme. Equipment of suitable size and price are needed for harvesting of small-diameter trees. The profitability of mechanized harvesting can be improved significantly if the single-tree processing is replaced with multi- tree processing. Multi-tree harvesting can be carried out in all production chains, felling-bunching, in partial and pulpwood harvesting, as well as with bare felling machines and harvesters. About 60 % of the stems were processed with a prototype machine, tested in treatment of young forests. About 70 % of fellings in felling-bunching, already in commercial use, was processed as multi- tree processing, and about 80 % in the partial-tree harvesting. The felling of pulpwood as partial trees was about 25-30 % faster as multi-tree processing than with

  1. Methods for size classification of wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter [Forest and Landscape FLD, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Temmerman, Michaeel; Rabier, Fabienne [Centre wallon de Recherches agronomiques CRA-W Departement Genie rural, 146, Chaussee de Namur, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Golser, Michael [Holzforschung Austria HFA Franz Grill-Stra beta e 7, A-1031 Wien (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Methods for size classification of wood chips were analysed in an international round robin using 13 conventional wood chip samples and two specially prepared standard samples, one from wood chips and one from hog fuel. The true size distribution of these two samples (according to length, width and height) had been determined stereometrically (reference method) using a digital calliper gauge and by weighing each of the about 7000 wood particles per sample. Five different horizontal and three rotary screening devices were tested using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63mm, round holes). These systems are compared to a commercially available continuously measuring image analysis equipment. The results show that among the devices of a measuring principle-horizontal and rotary screening-the results are quite comparable, while there is a severe incompatibility when distributions are determined by different measuring principles. Highest conformity with the reference values is given for measurements with an image analysis system, whereas for all machines with horizontal screens the median value of the size distribution only reached between one-third to half of the reference median value for the particle length distribution. These deviations can be attributed to a higher particle misplacement, which is particularly found in the larger fractions. Such differences decrease when the particle's shape is more roundish (i.e. sphericity closer to one). The median values of length distributions from screenings with a rotary classifier are between the measurements from an image analysis and horizontal screening devices. (author)

  2. First Nation partner in wood-chip cogen project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Ginoogaming First Nation is working with Long Lake Forest Products to develop a cogeneration plant at a local mill which would burn wood chips and waste wood to produce heat and electrical energy for the mill and the community. The plan is part of a larger development project by the community that calls for the construction of new infrastructure, services and business for the town of 250 people near Thunder Bay, Ontario. It is a widely held view that energy is a major factor in achieving self reliance for First Nations especially in remote communities. Concern was expressed by Ontario Hydro that if the town takes over its own electricity production, Ontario Hydro may still be legally required to maintain back up generation. The preferred remedy would be to lift Ontario Hydro's obligation to provide all power to remote communities of Ontario

  3. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  4. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  5. Machinery for Forest Chip Production in Finland in 2007 and in the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Metsaeteho Oy's study consisted of a survey of the production machinery for forest chips used by energy plants in 2007. The major forest chip suppliers in Finland were involved in the study. In addition, the machinery and equipment stocked by the manufacturers and vendors of energy wood harvester heads, stump lifting devices, and chippers were also surveyed. The study provided also an estimate of future machinery requirements for forest chip production in Finland. The study estimated that a total of 1,100 machine and truck units were employed in the production of forest chips for energy plants in 2007. A total of 770 machine and truck units were contracted for the major forest chip suppliers in 2007. Increasing forest chip consumption will considerable increase the demand for additional forest chip production resources in the future. If the consumption of forest chips by energy plants in 2015 reaches 15 TWh, i.e. about 7.5 mill. m3, then the forest machine and truck requirement will be over 1,700 units. The corresponding machinery requirement at an energy plant with a forest chip consumption of 25 TWh (approx. 12.5 mill. m3), will be close to 2,300 machine and truck units

  6. Biomass energy from wood chips: Diesel fuel dependence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, Dave; Mejia, Cesar Viteri

    2010-01-01

    Most renewable energy sources depend to some extent on use of other, non-renewable sources. In this study we explore use of diesel fuel in producing and transporting woody biomass in the state of New Hampshire, USA. We use two methods to estimate the diesel fuel used in woody biomass production: 1) a calculation based on case studies of diesel consumption in different parts of the wood chip supply chain, and 2) to support extrapolating those results to a regional system, an econometric study of the variation of wood-chip prices with respect to diesel fuel prices. The econometric study relies on an assumption of fixed demand, then assesses variables impacting supply, with a focus on how the price of diesel fuel affects price of biomass supplied. The two methods yield similar results. The econometric study, representing overall regional practices, suggests that a $1.00 per liter increase in diesel fuel price is associated with a $5.59 per Mg increase in the price of wood chips. On an energy basis, the diesel fuel used directly in wood chip production and transportation appears to account for less than 2% of the potential energy in the wood chips. Thus, the dependence of woody biomass energy production on diesel fuel does not appear to be extreme. (author)

  7. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  8. Determining wood chip size: image analysis and clustering methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Febbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the standard methods for the determination of the size distribution of wood chips is the oscillating screen method (EN 15149- 1:2010. Recent literature demonstrated how image analysis could return highly accurate measure of the dimensions defined for each individual particle, and could promote a new method depending on the geometrical shape to determine the chip size in a more accurate way. A sample of wood chips (8 litres was sieved through horizontally oscillating sieves, using five different screen hole diameters (3.15, 8, 16, 45, 63 mm; the wood chips were sorted in decreasing size classes and the mass of all fractions was used to determine the size distribution of the particles. Since the chip shape and size influence the sieving results, Wang’s theory, which concerns the geometric forms, was considered. A cluster analysis on the shape descriptors (Fourier descriptors and size descriptors (area, perimeter, Feret diameters, eccentricity was applied to observe the chips distribution. The UPGMA algorithm was applied on Euclidean distance. The obtained dendrogram shows a group separation according with the original three sieving fractions. A comparison has been made between the traditional sieve and clustering results. This preliminary result shows how the image analysis-based method has a high potential for the characterization of wood chip size distribution and could be further investigated. Moreover, this method could be implemented in an online detection machine for chips size characterization. An improvement of the results is expected by using supervised multivariate methods that utilize known class memberships. The main objective of the future activities will be to shift the analysis from a 2-dimensional method to a 3- dimensional acquisition process.

  9. Low-NO{sub x}, wood chip combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J.; Oravainen, H.; Haemaelaeinen, J.; Paakkinen, K. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The regulations for nitrogen oxide emissions vary in different countries, but the general trend in the future will probably be that the emissions limits will be lowered also for wood combustion plants, which are small or medium size units. Thus, the development of wood chip burning furnaces (grate furnaces, fluidized bed combustors, stoker furnaces) with lower nitrogen oxide emissions, is important. The wood used in the combustor, its particle size, moisture and fuel properties (nitrogen content) affect the nitrogen emissions. The nitrogen oxide release is also much affected by the design and operation of the combustor (air staging, fuel air preheat, flue gas circulation, air to fuel mass ratio). The fate of nitrogen compounds originally in the virgin wood depends much on the design of the combustor system and by proper planning it is possible to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Basic knowledge of the release of nitrogen compounds from single wood particles is attained. The release of gaseous nitrogen compounds from wood particles during pyrolysis and combustion is studied experimentally and by modelling. Nitrogen release is studied experimentally by two ways, by analysing the gas and by quenching the particle and analysing the char residue. Formation of nitrogen oxide emissions in a fuel bed is studied by modelling and by combustion experiments with a pot furnace. This research gives general information of nitrogen oxide formation in wood bunting especially in fixed beds. The development of a horizontal stoker burner for wood chips with low emissions is the practical aim of the research. (orig.)

  10. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  11. Low temperature fluidized wood chip drying with monoterpene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridget N. Bero; Alarick Reiboldt; Ward Davis; Natalie Bedard; Evan Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the drying of ponderosa pine wood chips at low (20°C and 50°C) temperatures using a bench-scale batch pulsed fluidizer to evaluate both volatile pine oils (monoterpenes) and moisture losses during drying.

  12. Wood chip production technology and costs for fuel in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.

    2007-12-15

    This work has been done in the project where the main target is to evaluate the technology and economy to use bush biomass for power production in Namibia. The project has been financed by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry of the Republic of Namibia. The target of this study is to calculate the production costs of bush chips at the power plant using the current production technology and to look possibilities to develop production technology in order to mechanize production technology and to decrease the production costs. The wood production costs are used in feasibility studies, in which the technology and economy of utilization of wood chips for power generation in 5, 10 and 20 MW electric power plants and for power generation in Van Eck coal fired power plant in Windhoek are evaluated. Field tests were made at Cheetah Conservation Farm (CCF) in Otjiwarongo region. CCF is producing wood chips for briquette factory in Otjiwarongo. In the field tests it has been gathered information about this CCF semi-mechanized wood chip production technology. Also new machines for bush biomass chip production have been tested. A new mechanized production chain has been designed on the basis of this information. The production costs for the CCF semi-mechanized and the new production chain have been calculated. The target in the moisture content to produce wood chips for energy is 20 w-%. In the semi-mechanized wood chip production chain the work is done partly manually, and the supply chain is organized into crews of 4.8 men. The production chain consists of manual felling and compiling, drying, chipping with mobile chipper and manual feeding and road transport by a tractor with two trailers. The CCF production chain works well. The chipping and road transport productivity in the semimechanized production chain is low. New production machines, such as chainsaw, brush cutter, lawn mover type cutter, rotator saw in skid

  13. Combined heat and power unit using renewable raw materials. A cogeneration power plant with wood chips and pellets; BHKW auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe. KWK mit Holzhackschnitzeln und Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    The combined heat and power units of the next generation operate with renewable resources. The plants working with wood chips or pellets now are ready for mass production. So, farmers and foresters, trade and municipalities may pile in the decentralized, energetic self-sufficiency. Two companies have developed procedures with which combined heat and power plants based can be operated on wood chips or pellets.

  14. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  15. Airtight storage of wood chips for use as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamond, W.J.; Graham, R.; Boyd, J.E.L.; Harling, R.; Lowe, J.F.

    1993-11-01

    This study was carried out to see if airtight storage was a possible alternative to drying as a procedure for the successful storage of chipped wood for fuel. Twelve insulated bins, with a capacity of approximately 0.1 m{sup 3} each, were filled with freshly cut Sitka Spruce wood chips. Ten of these bins were sealed immediately after filling and the remaining two left unsealed for the duration of the experiment (12 months). The programme of sampling for gas, moisture content, mycology and bacteriology is described. The results showed that sealed storage reduced the overall dry matter loss in the bins to around 1% per month compared to 2% for the unsealed bins. This compares favourably with losses of around 3% per month which have been reported for open stacks of chips with much lower initial moisture contents than that used in these experiments. There was a slight reduction in the colorific value of oven dried chips between the initial and after storage samples. The moisture content of the chips in all the bins increased over the storage period. The average energy loss was 2.9% per month for sealed and 2.0% per month for unsealed treatment. A typical ecological succession was shown by the chips, commencing with field fungi and terminating with a dominant yeast population. Potential costs for suitable stores vary from Pounds 1.27 per m{sup 3} per year for a plastic covered outdoor stack to Pounds 11.72 per m{sup 3} per year for a vitreous enamel silo. (UK)

  16. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  17. CO{sub 2}-EQ emissions of forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, Arto; Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWh in 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho Oy's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 230,000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 73 million litres and petrol 1.7 million litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 17 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Less than 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.026 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.019 to 0.038 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant

  18. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  19. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  20. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  1. Characterization of volatile constituents in commercial oak wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Muiño, Iria; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-09-08

    The volatile composition of the different oak wood pieces (chips of Quercus spp.) that can be found on the market to be used as alternatives to barrels for aging wines, as well as of chips of Quercus pyrenaica which are being introduced, was studied, evaluating the contents of volatile phenols, lactones, furanic compounds, pyranones, phenolic aldehydes, phenolic ketones, and others. In regard to the overall results, the volatile composition of these products varies widely and has not been clearly laid out according to either the oak species or the wood toasting intensity. Taking into account that the different characteristics of alternatives to barrel products are reflected in the wine treated with them and that an oenological profile based on these variables (origin and toasting level) cannot be defined, only an appropriate chemical analysis would reveal the quality of alternative-to-barrel products and allow us to attempt to foresee its effects on the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of the wines treated with them. On the other hand, the Q. pyrenaica alternative products are very similar to those of other species, with some aromatic particularities, such as their high levels of furanic compounds, eugenol, Furaneol, and cis-whiskylactone, and low levels of vanillin.

  2. Quality wood chips - an alternative to pellets; Alternative zu Pellets. Qualischnitzel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, A.

    2008-07-01

    This article takes a look at a new wood-chip product that features wood-chips that are dryer than traditional ones. The new 'quality chips' are also of a calibrated size and are supplied dust-free. Their low water content permits their use in the same areas as wood pellets, where, especially in summer, low water-content is important. The increasing use of pellets and the growing shortages of clean sawdust and shavings for their production is commented on, as is the use of forestry wastes in pellet production. The new wood-chip product is further discussed as being a direct alternative to pellets. The low 'grey energy' content for tree-felling, hacking, transport and the drying of the chips is quoted as being less than 5% of the energy in the chippings.

  3. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  4. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A. [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1996-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  5. Logistics of in-wood chipping and trucking of chips; Palstahaketuksen logistinen ketju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuuja, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Forestry; Asikainen, A [Metsaeosaamiskeskus, Joensuu (Finland). Joensuu Science Park

    1997-12-31

    In this study a in wood chipper and truck transport of chips were modelled and studied by discrete-event simulation. The input data, which included stand characteristics and information about transport distances was compiled by GRASS-program. This data based on the inventory done by Forestry Center TAPIO. With the model various transport alternatives were compared and the effect of work condition factors were studied. It was find out, that a long distance transport with interchangeable container truck gives better productivity than a truck with a trailer. This results from shorter loading time for the interchangeable container truck

  6. Granulated wood ash to forest soil - Ecological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Eriksson, H.; Clarholm, M.; Lundkvist, H.; Rudebeck, A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research concerning ecological effects of wood ash recycling to forest soils. The main part of the minerals in the wood fuels are retained in the ashes after combustion. By returning the ashes back to the cleared forest areas, the mineral losses can be reduced. Adding ashes and limestone is a method to vitalize acidified forest soils and restore the production capacity. 48 refs, 26 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylitalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    A specific Action Plan for Renewable Energy was introduced in 1999 in order to increase the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Finland. The Plan was renewed in 2002, taking into account a revision of the goals defined in the statements given by the Parliament in the de-bate on national Climate Strategy and the decision on building a new nuclear power plant. The main reason for increasing the consumption of renewable energy is the aim of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases caused by fossil fuels. The renewed Action Plan includes aims and means of how to increase the consumption of renewable energy in practice in the future. Specific goals for separate renewable energy sources were set for the years 2005, 2010 and 2025. Proportional targets were set for the consumption of forest chips: in 2010 consumption is expected to be four times larger than in 2001 and in 2025 seven times larger. In Finland, the most important source for renewable energy is wood and wood waste, which currently makes up approximately 20 per cent of total energy consumption. Wood waste (incl. waste liquor and solid wood waste) produced by the forest industries can be considered as being fully utilized at the moment. Therefore, the most important means of increasing the consumption of wood energy in the future is in the utilisation of forest chips resources. Since 2000, the Finnish Forest Re-search Institute has compiled statistics on the consumption of forest chips and forest industry by-products used in energy generation. One aim of these statistics is to monitor the fruition of the Action Plan mentioned. In 2003, the volume of forest chips consumed in energy generation was 2.1 mill. m3, i.e. approximately five per cent of all energy sources consumed. According to the statistics, the consumption of forest chips has doubled during the period 2000-2003 with an annual average increase of 0.4 mill. m 3 . The goals set in the Action Plan can be considered to be high. In order to achieve

  8. Production of chips in the forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V S; Potapova, L A; Stepin, A V; Savostina, T I; Osipov, A A

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of schemes developed in the USSR for the production of chips in the forest, for two particular cases, viz. (a) the conversion of young low-grade stands, and (b) thinnings. Scheme (a) involves two fellers with chain-saws (or one LP-17 machine), one LT-168 forwarder, one LO-63 chipper, and containers (for removal by lorry). Scheme (b) involves two fellers with chain-saws, two T-40 tractors with power-driven semi-trailer, one LT-168 forwarder, one LO-63 chipper, and containers (for removal by lorry). The organizational lay-out of both schemes is illustrated and discussed. Output with scheme (a) was approximately 6 or 7 cubic meters/man-day, and with scheme (b) it was 4 cubic meters/man-day.

  9. Dead wood for biodiversity - foresters torn between mistrust and commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuffic, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Dead wood is a key element in forest biodiversity, which is used as one of the indicators for sustainable development of forests. A survey was conducted among foresters and users in the Landes de Gascogne and ile-de-France areas so as to assess practises and social representations associated with dead wood. From the results of the survey, it appears that there is a diversity of practices and divergences about the implications connected with dead wood. The 64 respondents can be divided into roughly six groups (G1: 'industrial foresters', G2: the 'silvicultural foresters', G3: the 'remote foresters', G4: the 'environmentalist foresters', G5: the 'naturalists' and G6: the 'users'). Among other things, they can be differentiated by their management practises, their degree of knowledge about and concern with ecology, their social networks, their aesthetic judgment, their perception of risks and their economic requirements. While underscoring the scarce popularity on average of the biodiversity-related issues, this sociological survey also highlights: the need for a minimal regulatory framework to achieve integrated retention of dead wood, the serious concern of forest managers in the Landes with plant health risks associated with dead wood, and the need for a functional justification for keeping dead wood in the ecosystem. (authors)

  10. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  11. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  12. Production of dry wood chips in connection with a district heating plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjölä Jukka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and its variation in wood chips make the control of burning in small scale heating appliances difficult resulting in emissions and loss of efficiency. If the quality of wood chips would be better, i. e. dried and sieved fuel with more uniform size distribution would be avail able, the burning could be much cleaner and efficiency higher. In addition higher power out put could be obtained and the investment costs of the burning appliances would be lower. The production of sieved and dried wood chip with good quality could be accomplished in connection with a district heating plant. Then the plant would make profit, in addition to the district heat, from the dried wood chips sold to the neighboring buildings and enterprises sep a rated from the district heating net using wood chips in energy production. The peak power of a district heating plant is required only a short time during the coldest days of the winter. Then the excess capacity during the milder days can be used as heat source for drying of wood chips to be marketed. Then wood chips are sieved and the fuel with best quality is sold and the reject is used as fuel in the plant it self. In a larger district heating plant, quality of the fuel does not need to be so high In this paper the effect of moisture on the fuel chain and on the boiler is discussed. Energy and mass balance calculations as a tool of system design is described and the characteristics of proposed dry chips production method is discussed.

  13. The operational efficiency of waterway transport of forest chips on Finland's Lake Saimaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Ranta, T. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, LUT Savo Sustainable Technologies, Mikkeli (Finland); Vaatainen, K.; Asikainen, A. [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi

    2012-11-01

    New and cost-efficient methods for use in supply chains for energy wood should be found, to reach the targets of the renewable energy utilisation set by the European Union. The long-distance waterway transportation of forest fuels should be thoroughly investigated, especially in areas where the transport distance is long and waterways could provide a feasible method of conveying forest fuel. In comparison to transport of forest chips by truck, barge-based waterway transport shows a competitive advantage due to the larger loads and higher bulk density of chips it allows. The cost-efficiency of waterway transportation operations related to forest chips in Finland's Lake Saimaa region was studied using practical demonstrations and discrete-event simulation. The varying demand for fuel wood in three separate bio-power plants on the Saimaa lakeside (near the cities of Varkaus, Mikkeli, and Savonlinna) was addressed in several barge transportation scenarios. Finally, the economy of barge transportation was compared to the economy of truck transportation as a function of transportation distance and in terms of the annual performance of the transportation methods examined. The waterway supply chain of forest chips was cost-competitive to road transport by truck after 100-150 km. According to the simulation study, the most economical waterway transport options were based on fixed barge system and shift-independent harbor logistics where loading and unloading of barges were carried-out with a wheeled loader and a belt conveyor. Total supply chain costs including the best waterway logistics from road side storage to power plant ranged from 10.75 euros to 11.64 euros/MWh in distances of 100-150 km by waterways. The energy-density of forest chips in the barge load was found to be, on average, 25% higher than that in truck hauling, because of the better compaction of chips. Waterway transport is a viable option for long-distance transportation of forest chips in Eastern

  14. Forecasting forest chip energy production in Finland 2008-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy measures aim to increase energy production from forest chips in Finland to 10 TWh by year 2010. However, on the regional level production differences are large, and the regional estimates of the potential base of raw materials for the production of forest chips are heterogeneous. In order to analyse the validity of the above target, two methods are proposed to derive forecasts for region-level energy production from forest chips in Finland in the years 2008-2014. The plant-level data from 2003-2007 gives a starting point for a detailed statistical analysis of present and future region-level forest chip production. Observed 2008 regional levels are above the estimated prediction 95% confidence intervals based on aggregation of plant-level time averages. A simple time trend model with fixed-region effects provides accurate forecasts for the years 2008-2014. Forest chip production forecast confidence intervals cover almost all regions for the 2008 levels and the estimates of potential production levels for 2014. The forecast confidence intervals are also derived with re-sampling methods, i.e. with bootstrap methods, to obtain more reliable results. Results confirm that a general materials shortfall is not expected in the near future for forest chip energy production in Finland.

  15. Sustainable production of wood and non-wood forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Gary L. Benson; James L. Chamberlain

    2003-01-01

    The International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) All Divisions 5 Conference in Rotorua, New Zealand, March 11-15, 2003, focused on issues surrounding sustainable foest management and forest products research. As the conference title "Forest Products Research: Providing for Sustainable Choices" suggests, the purpose of the conference was to...

  16. Energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} -eq emissions of forest chip supply chains in Finland 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, A.; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi, Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWhin 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho OY's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 245000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 79 million litres and petrol 1,5 millions litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 15 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Some 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.030 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.022 to 0.044 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant. (orig.)

  17. Importance of wood from planted forests for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Almeida De Araujo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The manufactured wood products are essential to modern society, since they are made from renewable and recyclable raw material, characterizing a sustainable input. The objective of this study was to elucidate the importance of wood from planted forests in forest products manufacture of higher added value, addressing forest and wood contexts of topics related to education, resources, products, industry, government incentives, public policies and markets. Different from Europe, it was verified that Brazil does not support positively this important industrial sector, nevertheless it still presents growth potential due to range of wooden-based products. Thus, wood could reach a prominent position in Brazilian economy, if strategies and incentives were defined by rules and public policies..

  18. Forest management and the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Glen R. Stanosz; Harold H. Burdsall

    1999-01-01

    Since the summer of 1996, a project has been underway at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,Dept. of Plant Pathology, to determine how different forest management regimes can affect the diversity of fungi found in northern hardwood forests. This report is an introduction to this project's goals, objectives and methods. A particular group of fungi, the wood-...

  19. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  20. Ashes from straw and wood-chip fired plants for agricultural usage. Pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsing, M.; Westborg, S.

    1994-08-01

    The content of nutrients and heavy metals in ashes from the combustion of straw and wood chips at district heating plants is studied, on the basis of results of analyses from Danish municipalities, to determine whether such ashes are suitable for use as fertilizers. Results of the analysis of ashes from 9 wood-chip fired and 26 straw-fired plants are presented. They show significant variations in nutrient and heavy metal content which could be caused by combustion and operational conditions and/or testing methods. On condition that the phosphorous content of straw and wood-chip ashes amount to 1% of the dry matter, 50%-75% of the straw ashes and under 50% of wood chip ashes analyses are within the limit for cadmium stipulated in the Danish Ministry of the Environment's Executive Order no. 736 on the use of wastes for agricultural purposes. This is found to be unsatisfactory. It is suggested that a closer investigation should be undertaken in order to determine which amount of straw and wood-chip ashes can be accepted for use as fertilizers in consideration of the stipulated limits for cadmium content of wastes to be used for agricultural purposes. In addition the technological and economic potentials of dosing of these ashes for this use should be investigated. Fly ash and slag were also included in the analysis results studied and it was found that the cadmium content of slag did not prevent its use as fertilizer, but that the distribution of cadmium in slag, in fly ash and in slam from flue gas cleaning systems related to the combustion of wood chips should be further investigated. (AB)

  1. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  2. Solving wood chip transport problems with computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Bradley; Sharon A. Winsauer

    1976-01-01

    Efficient chip transport operations are difficult to achieve due to frequent and often unpredictable changes in distance to market, chipping rate, time spent at the mill, and equipment costs. This paper describes a computer simulation model that allows a logger to design an efficient transport system in response to these changing factors.

  3. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails: machado@ufv.br, amaury@ufv.br, cleverson@ufv.br; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail: fseixas@esalq.usp.br

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  4. Linear equations on thermal degradation products of wood chips in alkaline glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    Wood chips of 0.3 and 2 mm depth from poplar and spruce wood samples, respectively, were degraded by using glycerol as a solvent and alkaline glycerol with and without Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH catalysts at different degradation temperatures: 440, 450, 460, 470, 480, 490 and 500 K. By products from the degradation processes of the ligno celluloses include lignin degradation products. Lignin and its degradation products have fuel values. The total degradation degree and cellulose degradation of the wood chips were determined to find the relationship, if any, between the yields of total degradation degree (YTD) and degradation temperature (T). There is a good linear relationship between YTD or the yields of cellulose degradation (YCD) and T (K). For the wood samples, the regression equations from NaOH (10%) catalytic runs for 0.3 mm x 15 mm x 15 mm chip size are: For poplar wood: (YTD=0.7250T-267.507) (YCD=0.1736T-71.707) For spruce wood: (YTD=0.2650T-105.979) (YCD=0.0707T-27.507) For Eqs., the square of the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) were 0.9841, 0.9496, 0.9839 and 0.9447, respectively

  5. World trade in forest products and wood fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    2006-01-01

    Wood fuel is a strategic resource for future energy supply and is usually utilised locally. Traditional use of wood fuel and other bioenergy has a share of 10-15% energy supply, used mainly for the household sector. The utilisation for industrial purposes is much smaller but is a strategic resource in the effort to fulfil the Kyoto agreement to replace fossil fuels and to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many industrialised countries already use a significant share of biofuels in their energy supply e.g. Nordic countries while others like some other European Union countries are planning to increase their use. Production and use of biofuels need to be carried out sustainable. Official statistics do not report trade in such detail that international trade in different biomass types can be fully identified. However, FAO and European Forestry Institute are important sources. In some countries, there is a growing interest in the international trade, because the trade can provide biofuels at lower prices, larger quantities and better quality than domestic alternatives. The first signs of an international market price for wood fuel are indicated in Europe. For the future both the use and the trade of wood fuel is expected to increase. Analyses for trade in charcoal, wood chips, fuel wood and wood residues made in this report identify 'hot' trade spots in Europe, in south East Asia and in North America

  6. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  7. Forest production dynamics along a wood density spectrum in eastern US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; K. Zhu; S.S. Saatchi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging plant economics spectrum theories were confirmed across temperate forest systems of the eastern US where the use of a forest stand's mean wood density elucidated forest volume and biomass production dynamics integrating aspects of climate, tree mortality/growth, and rates of site occupancy.

  8. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...

  9. Effect of oxalic acid pretreatment of wood chips on manufacturing medium-density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) wood chips pretreatment prior to refining, which is done to reduce energy used during the refining process. Selected mechanical and physical performances of medium-density fiberboard (MDF) – internal bonding (IB), modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), water absorption (WA)...

  10. Investigating Potential Toxicity of Leachate from Wood Chip Piles Generated by Roadside Biomass Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Roadside processing of wood biomass leaves chip piles of varying size depending upon whether they were created for temporary storage, spillage, or equipment maintenance. Wood chips left in these piles can generate leachate that contaminates streams when processing sites are connected to waterways. Leachate toxicity and chemistry were assessed for pure aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl., hybrid white spruce (Picea engelmannii x glauca Parry, and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton as well as from two wood chipping sites using mixes of lodgepole pine and hybrid or black spruce. Leachate was generated using rainfall simulation, a static 28-day laboratory assay, and a field-based exposure. Leachate generated by these exposures was analyzed for organic matter content, phenols, ammonia, pH, and toxicity. Findings indicate that all wood chip types produced a toxic leachate despite differences in their chemistry. The consistent toxicity response highlights the need for runoff management that will disconnect processing sites from aquatic environments.

  11. State forests deal cards for future of wood-industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Sobinkovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    A decision to be made by Director of state-owned company Lesy SR Banska Bystrica (Slovak Forests), Karol Vins and the company management will influence the development of Slovak wood-processing industry for many years to come. He has to decide who will belong to an elite group of Slovak wood-processing companies. Those will be given a strategic advantage compared to their competitors: middle-term contracts for deliveries of wood from state forests. Majority of local wood-processing companies do not have longer than quarterly contracts signed for deliveries of wood from state-owned forests. And so they would like to introduce new business rules for Lesy SR by the end of this year. But K. Vins claims that the decision about key customers has to be made by Ministries of Economy and Land Management. Lesy SR cut about 50 percent of all wood cut in Slovakia and are therefore the most important supplier of this material on the market. And so all the major companies on the market focusing on immediate processing of wood are interested in it. . In general their prices are a few percent below the level as the volumes they offer are also lower. And so consumers complain mainly about high prices and the fact that they are not allowed to sign long-term contracts for wood deliveries. They also complain that the management of Lesy SR is not able to set realistic wood prices as it does not know the actual costs of wood and cutting price per 1 cubic meter of wood. Lesy SR are facing a major transformation. The management asked for a change organisation of the company, concentration of sale of wood, decreasing the number of staff by 3 600 people. The sale of redundant property should earn the company 1,4 bn Sk (35.03 mn Eur). The final decision on how the organization and economy of the company will change has to be made by the cabinet

  12. Toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessie, K. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Since the early to mid 1990s, many companies have composted invert (diesel) drilling muds with wood chips/bark chips in the green (forestry) zone as a method of drilling mud treatment. This presentation addressed the toxicity of invert drilling muds composted with wood/bark chips and provided some background on composted invert drilling mud (CIDM). EBA Engineering monitored 22 third-party sites in 2002, some of which were biopiles, and others land treatment areas (LTAs). Active treatment started between 1995 and 1999 and some LTAs were seeded with varying degrees of success. Composted materials had hydrocarbon odour and staining and were very moist. Materials exceeded Alberta Environment guidelines for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and sometimes barium. Most sites were within areas that had forestry production/wildlife as end land use. Receptors included plants, soil invertebrates by soil contact, and wildlife by ingestion. Stakeholder meetings were held for their input and an ecotoxicity study was developed. Material tested, tests and species used as well as results of the ecotoxicity study were presented. A comparison of results to other EBA composting studies was also given. It was concluded that CIDM affects the reproduction of earthworms and springtails, and plant growth; wood/barks chips themselves can be ecotoxic; and, other compost studies with finely ground sawdust and no bark chips had less ecotoxicity. tabs., figs.

  13. Marketing of non-wood forest products: Case study of the enterprise for forest mushroom processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the impact of climate changes it is increasingly obvious that forestry should rely more strongly on the multi­functional character of the managed resources. In addition to wood, there is a series of non­wood products and services offered by forests. Non­wood forest products and services consist of various fruits of forest trees and shrubs, mushrooms, various objects made of non­wood material, and especially forest social services, such as recreation, tourism, hunting, photo­safari, etc. This paper presents a marketing analysis on the example of the enterprise dealing with the purchase, processing and sale of wild mushrooms and products made of mushrooms. The study applies a modern methodological approach implemented in similar researches.

  14. Mountain forest wood fuel supply chains: comparative studies between Norway and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, Clara; Spinelli, Raffaele; Hillring, Bengt Gunnar; Solberg, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains from Norway and Italy are presented and compared. Results from previous studies in which greenhouse gas emissions and costs were evaluated using life cycle assessment and cost analysis respectively, are compared. The supply chain is more mechanized in Norway than Italy. Steeper terrain and low road density partly explain the persistence of motor-manual felling in the Italian case. Mechanized forest harvesting can increase productivity and reduce costs, but generates more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than motor-manual harvesting. In both cases, the main sources of GHG emissions are truck transportation and chipping. The total emissions are 22.9 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Norway) and 13.2 kg CO 2 /m 3 s.o.b. (Italy). The Norwegian case has higher costs than the Italian one, 64 €/m 3 s.o.b. and 41 €/m 3 s.o.b. respectively, for the overall supply chain. The study shows that mountain forests constitute an interesting source for fuel biomass in both areas, but are a rather costly source, particularly in Norway. The study also exemplifies the care needed in transferring LCA results between regions and countries, particularly where forest biomass is involved. - Highlights: • We compare two mountain forest wood fuel supply chains in Norway and in Italy. • Transportation by truck generate the highest emissions in both case studies. • The energy use of the Norwegian supply chain was approximately twice as high as the Italian one. • Changes in fuel consumption affect significantly emissions and energy use from transportation and chipping operations. • Cable yarding and transportation by truck were the most expensive phases respectively in the Italian and Norwegian supply chain

  15. An innovative container supply chain for forest chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, Kalle; Korpinen, Olli-Jussi; Laettilae, Lauri; Foehr, Jarno; Ranta, Tapio [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)], e-mail: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi

    2012-11-01

    Most forest chips are transported by trucks with a solid frame. Forest-chip volumes will at least double before 2020, which means longer transport distances from the supply areas to the largest demand sites in Finland. The study concentrates on an innovative container solution based on a channel composite structure, creating a lighter, temperature-isolated, and more durable structure. In addition to the structural benefits, the container includes an innovative supply chain with a beneficial handling operation, interchangeability and maximising of the payload capacity, resulting in an energy- and cost-efficient solution. This innovative-container-based supply chain for forest chips has been studied via cost analysis, GIS analysis, and discrete-event simulation methods. The purpose of the study was to compare a truck of interchangeable containers with solid-frame trucks. The option of interchangeable containers allows combining truck logistics with other modes of transport, such as trains and waterways. The study showed the cost-efficiency potential of container truck logistics, stemming from the cost and payload savings and the supply-chain productivity advantages over solid-frame trucks. The innovative solution for interchangeable-container logistics is an option for large-scale supply of forest chips.

  16. Forests between global warming and local wood use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of extended energetic wood use in atmospheric burners is questioned because it accelerates global warming for decades and often intensifies local air pollution with serious health impacts. Forest developments in Denmark and Austria are compared, the latter including data...

  17. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  18. Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunggul Butarbutar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs. The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. We develop two scenarios to quantify the magnitude of CO2 emissions by (1 energetic utilization, and (2 energetic and material utilization of harvested timber and compare the substitution effects for different fossil energy sources. Results The direct energetic use of harvested timber does not compensate for the losses of forest carbon stock. Logging residuals and displacement factors reflecting different wood use constitute by far the most important factor in potential emission reductions. Substitution effects resulting from energetic use of mill residuals and from HWPs have only a subordinated contribution to the total emissions as well as the type of fossil fuel utilized to quantify substitution effects. Material substitution effects associated with harvested wood products show a high potential to increase the climate change benefits. Conclusions The observation and perception of REDD+ should not be restricted to sustainable management and reduced impact logging practices in the forest domain but should be extended to the utilization of extracted timber. Substitution effects from material and energetic utilization of harvested timber result in considerable emission reductions, which can compensate for the loss of forest carbon, and eventually contribute to the overall climate change mitigation benefits from forestry sector.

  19. Sales of wood from state forests in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Office National des Forets

    2013-01-01

    The economic environment in 2012 was adverse, with the consequences of the crisis in sovereign debts in the Euro zone and an 18% decrease in housing starts in France. The drop in sales these conditions entail has in turn led to a 4% decrease in logging volumes from state forests and a 7% decrease in those from community-owned forests. Similarly, the average price has dropped 5%. As a result, the turnover for state forest timber sales has declined by 12%. Consolidated timber supply contracts cover 21% of the volumes and their annual average prices are stable. Finally, stave-wood and fuelwood markets have maintained their vigour. (authors)

  20. Production, Cost and Chip Characteristics of In-Woods Microchipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Thompson; W. Sprinkle

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for biomass have increased the interest in producing microchips in the field. As a component of a large United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded project, microchipping has been trialed on a limited scale. The goal of the research was to evaluate the production, cost and chip characteristics of a mobile disc chipper configured to produce...

  1. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  2. Effects of wood chip ash fertilization on soil chemistry in a Norway spruce plantation on a nutrient-poor soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Hansen, Mette; Pedersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    of wood chip ash application on soil chemistry in a 44-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantation on a nutrient-poor soil in Denmark and to investigate the effect of applying different ash types and doses. Soil samples were collected and analyzed 2.5years (3 growing seasons) after ash application....... This study shows that, regardless of ash formulation, preparation or dose, application of wood ash to forest soil has a liming effect in the O-horizon manifested as an increase in CECe, BS and pH. This effect was not seen in the mineral soil within the time frame of this study. At the same time, an increase...... in Cd was found in the O-horizon, corresponding to the amount added in the ashes. Generally, no other increase in soil contents of the heavy metals was seen. Hardening of the wood ash did not decrease the chemical impact on the soil chemistry as compared to non-treated ash whereas an increase in ash...

  3. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  4. THE PLANNING OF WOOD TRANSPORT ON THE FOREST ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, needs for forest and raw wood materials has been increasing with the economic developments of the societies. But, the forest areas have been decreasing because of the pressures of the societies on forest especially in developing countries. In such regions, forest areas were on high mountainous areas. This situation is the same in Turkey, especially east Black Sea region. In Turkey, forest roads are still B forms of secondary roads. The wide of these roads are minimum 4 meters, generally minimum curve radius of them are 10 meters, and some times less then that. These roads do not have pavement and maintenance works were not made there too. And these roads are not suitable for transportation with truck-trailer. The transhipment problems form a typical example of the linear programming method. When this method applied, as well as solving transportation problems, distribution problems are solved related to transhipment.

  5. Forest Management for Non-Wood Forest Products and Services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFPs) and services in livelihood support has been reviewed. Quite a number of NWFPs are also important articles of commerce and contribute significantly to the economies various African countries. The non-consumptive role of forests has been examined in terms of ...

  6. Forests and wood consumption on the carbon balance. Carbon emission reduction by use of wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkema, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Until now studies on the greenhouse effect paid much attention to carbon fixation by forests, while the entire CO2 cycle of forests and forest products remained underexposed. Utilization of wood products instead of energy-intensive materials (plastics/steel) and fossil fuels (coal) proves to play an important role as well. The effect of utilization is even greater than that of fixation. In all, additional forests together with the multiple use of trees can contribute substantially to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The contribution can run from 5.3 ton CO2/ha/yr for a mixed forest of oak/beech to 18.9 ton CO2/ha/yr for energy plantations (poplar). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture cont...... of the torrefied pellets was higher and the particle size distribution after grinding the pellets was more uniform compared to conventional wood pellets....

  8. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease.

  9. Investigation of ESEM/EDX to measure liquor penetration and diffusion in Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grzeskowiak, V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray (ESEM/EDX) was optimised to measure the penetration and diffusion of cooking liquor into Eucalyptus grandis wood chips during kraft pulping. The moisture content...

  10. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    Harpsund is well-known for being the representation residence for the Swedish prime minister. Besides this function, it is also a production unit for milk and meat, with a livestock of about 500 animals. At Harpsund, a new production plant for heating and domestic hot water with a new distribution net was built by the Swedish authorities. Wood chips from the forests belonging to the estate are used for the heat production, together with wood pellets and solar heat. The old heating system was based on a technique with local production in each building and was in need of modernization. The new plant has been designed very attractively - great care has been taken to make it fit into the atmosphere of the surroundings. The solar collectors are placed on the roof of a garage for farming machines. The heat central contains three burners: one for wood chips with thermal power 250 kW, one 400 kW burner for pellets and one small 25 kW burner for pellets. The smallest unit is intended to support the solar system during the summer season. From the garage with the 327 m{sup 2} Aquasol Big AR solar collectors the solar heated glycol/ water is transported to the heat central in a culvert. The distance is 150 m. At the heat central, there is also a heat accumulator with a volume of 40 m{sup 3} of water. This is used both for the burners and for the solar heat. The monitoring and analysis of the plant show that it has good reliability and it is evident that the production capacity is adequate for all conceivable climate conditions. During one year of monitoring, the heat central produced 1,494 MWh of which 86 % came from wood chips, 9 % from pellets and 5 % from solar heat. It is unfavourable that the solar heat has to work against the return temperature of the heat distribution system. Also, the collector area seems to be somewhat too large for the demand for domestic hot water. The result for the specific investment for solar heat is therefore high: 13.21 SEK/kWh,year. It might

  11. Planning wood extraction in a forest coppice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Civitarese V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cartographic models of analysis have been elaborated through the softwares ArcView GIS (ESRI 2002 and Surfer 8 (Golden software 2002 to find optimal work systems for the wood extraction in an oak coppice, located on the Monti della Tolfa, near Rome, Italy. The main factors analyzed were the morphology of the territory and the roads characteristics. The methodological procedure followed was applied on the different classes of slope, the direction of water outflow, the presence of ditches and channels, the principal and secondary roads, the wood cover and the clearings. The possibility to employ tractors with cages, polyethylene chutes, mules and cable cranes has been examined, also identifying the fittest areas to their use. This first analytical phase was followed by a second phase dedicated to the evaluation of the technical feasibility. The proposed method contributes to a rational planning of the work site. The advantage could be the planning of extraction operations on the map, but it will be necessary to verify the method in field studies. Although this method has been developed on limited extensions of territories, it could be applicable to situations of greater complexity, representing the base for the creation of a tool that may be employed in ampler territorial contexts, such as Comunità Montane and hydrographic basins.

  12. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Designing Wood Supply Scenarios from Forest Inventories with Stratified Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Kilham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest growth and wood supply projections are increasingly used to estimate the future availability of woody biomass and the correlated effects on forests and climate. This research parameterizes an inventory-based business-as-usual wood supply scenario, with a focus on southwest Germany and the period 2002–2012 with a stratified prediction. First, the Classification and Regression Trees algorithm groups the inventory plots into strata with corresponding harvest probabilities. Second, Random Forest algorithms generate individual harvest probabilities for the plots of each stratum. Third, the plots with the highest individual probabilities are selected as harvested until the harvest probability of the stratum is fulfilled. Fourth, the harvested volume of these plots is predicted with a linear regression model trained on harvested plots only. To illustrate the pros and cons of this method, it is compared to a direct harvested volume prediction with linear regression, and a combination of logistic regression and linear regression. Direct harvested volume regression predicts comparable volume figures, but generates these volumes in a way that differs from business-as-usual. The logistic model achieves higher overall classification accuracies, but results in underestimations or overestimations of harvest shares for several subsets of the data. The stratified prediction method balances this shortcoming, and can be of general use for forest growth and timber supply projections from large-scale forest inventories.

  14. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M.; Pankakari, P. [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  15. Flexible production and logistics of wood chips; Joustava hakkeen valmistus ja logistiikka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemaelaeinen, M; Pankakari, P [Metsaeenergia Meter Ky, Louhi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The target of the project was to develop a multi-purpose chipper-lorry (MOHA), which could be used both as chipping and transportation unit. MOHA is capable of chipping trees directly from the lot, so the size of the storage plays no role. Even though the MOHA-unit can be used as an individual transportation unit, it can also be used for feeding any further dispatch unit equipped with interchangeable container system e.g. when the transportation distances are long and the ordered volumes of wood chips are large. Previous projects concerning chipping-logistics are based on various intermediate storage models, but the MOHA delivers the chips strait from the lot to the site of utilization. The raw material short-distance haulage is reduced from previous 150 - 250 m to 1 - 50 m. In this new delivery model chips are bunkered only at largest heating plants. At smaller heating plants no bunker storages are needed. MOHA collects self the load, delivers it, brings, if controlled properly, back-haul, and delivers it to another site of utilization

  16. Colorimetric characterization of three wood species from the amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Valéria dos Santos Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze wood color variability in the (radial, tangential and transversal anatomic sections of Breu-vermelho, Tauari-vermelho and Pequiarana species through quantitative colorimetry using CIELAB color system. Such species come from a forest sustainable area of Thousand Precious Woods Company, located in Itacoatiara in the Amazon region of Brazil. Five wood samples from each species were selected so as to determine the following colorimetric parameters: L*, a*, b*, C e h*. In addition, 225 measurements were carried out with Konica Minolta CM-5 spectrophotometer connected to the computer. Results pointed out to statistical differences in the colorimetric parameters and also a low saturation in a* in the analyzed species. According to the cluster gathering, Breu-vermelho wood presents olive and/or grayish pink color, Tauari-vermelho is pinkish-gray and Pequiarana is grayish-pink and/or pinkish-gray. Such species presented differences in color among the three anatomic sections cited above and were also influenced by the yellow color defined in b* parameter. To summarize, colorimetric analysis to establish wood color is a simple procedure which may be used from the sawing of the logs until their final exploitation enabling value aggregation to the final product.

  17. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2016-01-01

    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  18. Instream wood loads in montane forest streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies examine instream wood loads and associated geomorphic effects in streams of subalpine forests in the U.S. Southern Rocky Mountains, little is known of instream wood loads in lower elevation, montane forests of the region. We compare instream wood loads and geomorphic effects between streams draining montane forest stands of differing age (old growth versus younger) and disturbance history (healthy versus infested by mountain pine beetles). We examined forest stand characteristics, instream wood load, channel geometry, pool volume, and sediment storage in 33 pool-riffle or plane-bed stream reaches with objectives of determining whether (i) instream wood and geomorphic effects differed significantly among old-growth, younger, healthy, and beetle-infested forest stands and (ii) wood loads correlated with valley and channel characteristics. Wood loads were standardized to drainage area, stream gradient, reach length, bankfull width, and floodplain area. Streams flowing through old-growth forests had significantly larger wood loads and logjam volumes (pairwise t-tests), as well as logjam frequencies (Kruskal-Wallis test), residual pool volume, and fine sediment storage around wood than streams flowing through younger forests. Wood loads in streams draining beetle-infested forest did not differ significantly from those in healthy forest stands, but best subset regression models indicated that elevation, stand age, and beetle infestation were the best predictors of wood loads in channels and on floodplains, suggesting that beetle infestation is affecting instream wood characteristics. Wood loads are larger than values from subalpine streams in the same region and jams are larger and more closely spaced. We interpret these differences to reflect greater wood piece mobility in subalpine zone streams. Stand age appears to exert the dominant influence on instream wood characteristics within pool-riffle streams in the study area rather than beetle

  19. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.

    1996-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  20. Wood harvesting as chunkwood chips and multi-stage chipping; Puun korjuu palahakkeena ja monivaiheinen lastuaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H; Seppaenen, V

    1997-12-31

    The task for the year 1995 was to define the preliminary results of the previous years, to measure the productivity of a harvester, designed for production of chunkwood, and the properties of the chunks. The costs of the PALAPUU method from the felling site to pulpwood chips were to be examined on this basis. Because the prototype of the harvester was not yet available for field tests, the costs were partially calculated on the basis of previous measurements, completed by productivity data obtained from the time-consumption measurements of a multi-tree harvester, applied with minor alteration for this purpose. According to the calculations the PALAPUU method cannot compete with partial-tree or shortwood methods. The profitability of the method could be improved by adding the transportation density and the productivity of the harvester. It is also possible to procure timber to the mill as partial-trees and to chunk it while feeding it into the drum. Chipping tests were made using the steel-frame-chipper owned by VTT Construction Technology. The blade construction of the chipper was changed so, that it was possible to adjust the cutting thickness of the chips to 4 mm, while in the previous mill-tests it had been 6 mm. The chips were used for cooking tests in the Department of Chemistry of the University of Jyvaeskylae. The results showed that the thinner chips were cooked further under the same cooking conditions. By using the chunkwood method it is possible to harvest 10-70 more biomass for the mills, than it is possible in the pulpwood harvesting

  1. DecAID advisor: a tool for managing snags, down wood and wood decay in PNW forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Grant Gunderson; Kim Mellen; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Past tools for modeling and setting guidelines for snag and down wood management have been based on theory, professional judgment, models of wildlife species use as habitat and empirical data. However, recent studies reveal that guidelines for amounts of snags and down wood on national forests of Washington and Oregon may have been lower than the new field data on use...

  2. Incorporating biopulping technology into wood yard operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Scott; Eric. Horn; Masood. Akhtar; Ross E. Swaney; Michael J. Lentz; David F. Shipley

    1998-01-01

    Biopulping is the treatment of wood chips and other lignocellulosic materials with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Ten years of industry-sponsored research has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the technology for mechanical pulping at a laboratory scale. Two 50-ton outdoor chip pile trials recently conducted at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products...

  3. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  4. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  5. Assessing socioeconomic impacts of climate change on U.S. forests, wood-product markets, and forest recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland; Darius Adams; Ralph Alig; Carter J. Betz; Chi-Chung Chen; Mark Hutchins; Bruce A. McCarl; Ken Skog; Brent L. Sohngen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problems of projecting social and economic changes affecting forests and review recent efforts to assess the wood-market impacts of possible climate changes. To illustrate the range of conditions encountered in projecting socioeconomic change linked to forests, we consider two markedly different uses: forest products markets and forest...

  6. Harvesting techniques for energy wood of forest owners; Metsaenomistajien energiapuun korjuutekniikat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)] Ihonen, M. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop harvesting techniques and methods for small-wood and logging residues, suitable for use by forest owners and small-scale entrepreneurs. Examples of such methods are piling of logging residues at site and forest transport with farm tractors. The project is carried out by field experiments with new machines and methods and by work-studies at sites in practice. A cost-accounting model for firewood production will also be revised. The work study of the harvesting method of first- thinning wood and energy wood based on the use of SykeNaarva logging equipment was carried out as part of chips supply to Perho Energy Co-operative. The productivity of logging was in practice significantly higher than in previous field tests with the prototype equipment. The costs were lower than in manual logging. Field experiments were also carried out with manual logging with a chain saw equipped with felling grips (Reo-Tuote Ky). Operation experiments with a chain-limbing device for farm tractors (Eskon Paja Oy), related to product development, were also carried out. A literature study, specialist interviews and field experiments were carried out on the transports of logging residues with farm factors. A four-drive tractor equipped with a timber loader and a trailer is suited technically for this work. Productivity is reduced by slow loading and in particular by a small load size when operating with the basic fleet. The costs are reduced by small capital costs and by rapid transports between the sites. To improve the economy of harvesting logging residues, inexpensive technical solutions were studied for farm tractors in co-operation with engineering works

  7. Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewluan, Sommas; Pipatmanomai, Suneerat

    2011-01-01

    Experiments of rubber wood chip gasification were carried out in a 100-kW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier to investigate the effect of air to fuel ratio (represented as equivalence ratio - ER) on the yield and properties of synthesis gas. For all experiments, the flow rate of ambient air was fixed, while the feed rate of rubber wood chip was adjusted to vary ER in the range of 0.32-0.43. Increasing ER continuously raised the bed temperature, which resulted in higher synthesis gas yield and lower yield of ash and tar. However, higher ER generally gave synthesis gas of lower heating value, partly due to the dilution of N 2 . Considering the energy efficiency of the process, the optimum operation was achieved at ER = 0.38, which yielded 2.33 Nm 3 of synthesis gas per kg of dry biomass at the heating value of 4.94 MJ/Nm 3 . The calculated carbon conversion efficiency and gasification efficiency were 97.3% and 80.2%, respectively. The mass and energy balance of the gasification process showed that the mass and energy distribution was significantly affected by ER and that the energy losses accounted for ∼25% of the total output energy. The economical assessment of synthesis gas utilisation for heat and electricity production based on a 1-MW th bubbling fluidised bed gasifier and the operational data resulting from the rubber wood chip gasification experiments in this study clearly demonstrated the attractiveness of replacing heavy fuel oil and natural gas by the synthesis gas for heat applications in terms of 70% and 50% annual saving of fuel cost, respectively. However, the case of electricity production does not seem a preferable option due to its current technical and non-technical barriers.

  8. Development of stoker-burner wood chip combustion systems for the UK market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The document makes a case for the development of a design of wood chip stoker-burner more suited to the UK than those currently imported from Sweden and Finland. The differences would centre on market conditions, performance and cost-effectiveness and the devices would be manufactured or part-manufactured in the UK. Econergy Limited was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to design and construct an operational prototype stoker-burner rated at 120 kWth. A test rig was built to: (i) study modified burner heads and (ii) develop control hardware and a control strategy. Both (i) and (ii) are described. Tests brought about an increase in performance of the burner head and its wet wood performance. It was considered that further improvements are achievable and six areas for future study were suggested.

  9. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  10. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  11. Life?cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life?cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. Results The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main p...

  12. Forest certification in Calabria (Italy: attitudes, preferences and willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was born in the early 90s of the twentieth century in order to protect tropical and sub-tropical forests against a progressive deforestation and degradation. Forest certification is a valuable instrument for environmental protection and a useful tool of green marketing for forest-wood chain enterprises. In the last decades, in developed countries there has been increased consumer awareness of environmental protection and environmentally friendly wood products. This consumers’ attitude is related to the consumers’ willingness to pay a premium price for environmentally friendly wood products. In the international literature, some studies have investigated the consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for several certified wood products with different prices, while few studies have analyzed the willingness to pay of manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain for certified wood products. In addition, in the international literature there is a knowledge gap concerning the manufactures or consumers’ willingness to pay for local wood products compared to equivalent products from other geographical areas. Starting from these considerations, the main aims of this study are: (1 to analyze the wood manufactures’ willingness to pay a premium price for certified wood products; (2 to investigate the wood manufactures’ attitudes and willingness to pay for regional/local wood products. The study was conducted as part of the “Ambi.Tec.Fil.Legno” project involving 127 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain located in Calabria region. At the end of the questionnaire survey, the information provided by 40 manufactures and enterprises of forest-wood chain were processed and analyzed (response rate 31.5%. The results show that the main factors that influence the purchase decisions of enterprises are the trust in the seller and the durability of the product. Concerning the manufactures’ willingness to pay for certified

  13. Insight into tradeoff between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake Olson; Andrea Aerts; Fred Asiegbu; Lassaad Belbahri; Ourdia Bouzid; Anders Broberg; Bjorn Canback; Pedro M. Coutinho; Dan Cullen; Kerstin Dalman; Giuliana Deflorio; Linda T.A. van Diepen; Christophe Dunand; Sebastien Duplessis; Mikael Durling; Paolo Gonthier; Jane Grimwood; Carl Gunnar Fossdal; David Hansson; Bernard Henrissat; Ari Hietala; Kajsa Himmelsrand; Dirk Hoffmeister; Nils Hogberg; Timothy Y. James; Magnus Karlsson; Annegret Kohler; Ursula Kues; Yong-Hwan Lee; Yao-Cheng Lin; Marten Lind; Erika Lindquist; Vincent Lombard; Susan Lucas; Karl Lunden; Emmanuelle Morin; Claude Murat; Jongsun Park; Tommaso Raffaello; Pierre Rouze; Asaf Salamov; Jeremy Schmutz; Halvor Solheim; Jerry Stahlberg; Heriberto Velez; Ronald P. deVries; Ad Wiebenga; Steve Woodward; Igor Yakovlev; Matteo Garbelotto; Francis Martin; Igor V. Grigoriev; Jan. Stenlid

    2012-01-01

    • Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. • We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript...

  14. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2008-01-01

    This analysis quantifies projected carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests. The large-scale forest C budget model, FORCARB-ON, was applied to estimate HWP C stock changes using the production approach defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Harvested wood volume was converted to C mass and allocated to...

  15. Recent activities in flame retardancy of wood-plastic composites at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Nicole M. Stark; Nadir Ayrilmis

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, wood-plastic composite (WPC) products are widely available for some building applications. In applications such as outdoor decking, WPCs have gained a significant share of the market. As an option to improve the efficient use of wood fiber, the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), has an extensive research program on WPCs....

  16. Chemical changes and increased degradability of wheat straw and oak wood chips treated with the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Río, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Ruijter, de Norbert C.A.; Cone, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat straw and oak wood chips were incubated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes for 8 weeks. Samples from the fungal treated substrates were collected every week for chemical characterization. L. edodes continuously grew during the 8 weeks on both wheat straw and oak wood chips,

  17. LCA of forest chips versus diesel boilers in the Mediterranean region

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Dalmau, Bernat; Baquero Armans, Grau; Puig Vidal, Rita; Riba Ruiz, Jordi-Roger; Rius Carrasco, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Obtaining energy from forest chips is a technology widely used in many regions. There are currently many studies and applications on the use of forest biomass [1,2], mainly promoted by policies aimed to reduce greenhouse gases. The forests of the Mediterranean area are characterized by a mountain relief. This orography makes difficult the selective biomass extraction from the forest. Thus, the biomass is accumulated in the forest and becomes a serious danger for wildfires. Forest fi...

  18. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  19. Environmental assessment of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification: The case study of Barcelona metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puy, Neus; Rieradevall, Joan; Bartroli, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    An energy and environmental analysis of post-consumer wood and forest residues gasification in metropolitan areas is carried out to determine the most critical stages of their life cycle. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology is used to identify the environmental load of three defined scenarios: (1) Post-consumer wood from recycling points; (2) Post-consumer wood from bulky wastes; and (3) Forest residues. The stages considered are biomass pre-treatment, transport and gasification. Biomass pre-treatment comprise different steps: separation, chipping, sifting, post-chipping for all the scenarios; except for the drying step which is only entailed to Scenario 3. The midpoint impact categories taken into account are: abiotic depletion (AD), global warming (GW), ozone layer depletion (ODP), human toxicity (HT), acidification (A) and eutrophication (E). Results show that, due to the high physical requirements for biomass gasification, the most appropriate biomass is that of Scenario 1, since forest residues require a drying stage, which involves high energy consumption and high environmental impact. Energy consumption in biomass pre-treatment and transport stages is low compared to the energy obtained from gasification, which represents the 5% in Scenario 1; 7% in Scenario 2; and 13% in Scenario 3. Biomass pre-treatment is associated to an important contribution in AD and ODP impact categories, calculated as 71% and 98% of the overall impact. The transport stage is of no significant influence either in the scenarios or in the impact categories (less than 24% of the overall impact). Finally, gasification represents an impact of 3-78% of the different impact categories. (author)

  20. The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van Sandra J.A.; Sonnenberg, Anton S.M.; Baars, Johan J.P.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Cone, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass by stimulating the colonization. Wheat straw and wood chips were treated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes with various amounts of colonized millet grains (0.5, 1.5 or 3.0 % per g

  1. Modeling future U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in wood energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Do-il Yoo; V. Alaric Sample

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a...

  2. Important Non-Wood Forest Products in Turkey: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wood resources obtained from forest and non-wood forest products (NWFP have gained great importance recently as their economic values keeps increasing by the day. In this study, forecasting of Turkish Non-Wood Forest Products such as thyme, bay leaves, salvia and pine nut export amounts was carried out using a linear regression analysis method for the next fifteen years based on the data for the years between 1990 and 2009. Moreover, estimated import values and actual import values from the last years were compered and analyzed. Finally, predictions on future trends were made.

  3. Estimating dead wood during national forest inventories: a review of inventory methodologies and suggestions for harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Jacques Rondeux; Pieter J. Verkerk; G& #246; ran St& #229; hl

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to assess forest ecosystem carbon stocks, biodiversity, and fire hazards have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem dead wood (DW) components around the world. Currently, information regarding the prevalence, status, and methods of DW inventories occurring in the world's forested landscapes is scattered. The goal of this study...

  4. Factors influencing the role of Non-Wood Forest Products and Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, G.; Ottitsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the light of social and economic developments, forest functions other than timber production have gained international importance and recognition. Resulting from this development, Non-Wood Forest Products and Services (NWFPS) are becoming more important, both for the general public as for forest

  5. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE MOISTURE EFFECT ON GASEOUS PRODUCTS OF SELF-HEATING OF WOOD CHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana VĚŽNÍKOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are stored in large quantities and may be susceptible to self-ignition. The possible methods of indication of temperature increase include the analysis of the gaseous products of heating where concentrations of certain gases may increase with increasing temperature. Gas release is also affected by the moisture of the material given that the moisture level changes surface accessibility for oxygen on the one side and serves as a catalyst of the oxidation reactions on the other. The present project analysed the effect of temperature and moisture on gaseous products of heating of wood chips, one of frequently used biofuels, with the aim to determine a suitable gaseous indicator of beginning self-ignition.

  7. Under What Circumstances Do Wood Products from Native Forests Benefit Climate Change Mitigation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Keith

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation benefits from the land sector are not being fully realised because of uncertainty and controversy about the role of native forest management. The dominant policy view, as stated in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, is that sustainable forest harvesting yielding wood products, generates the largest mitigation benefit. We demonstrate that changing native forest management from commercial harvesting to conservation can make an important contribution to mitigation. Conservation of native forests results in an immediate and substantial reduction in net emissions relative to a reference case of commercial harvesting. We calibrated models to simulate scenarios of native forest management for two Australian case studies: mixed-eucalypt in New South Wales and Mountain Ash in Victoria. Carbon stocks in the harvested forest included forest biomass, wood and paper products, waste in landfill, and bioenergy that substituted for fossil fuel energy. The conservation forest included forest biomass, and subtracted stocks for the foregone products that were substituted by non-wood products or plantation products. Total carbon stocks were lower in harvested forest than in conservation forest in both case studies over the 100-year simulation period. We tested a range of potential parameter values reported in the literature: none could increase the combined carbon stock in products, slash, landfill and substitution sufficiently to exceed the increase in carbon stock due to changing management of native forest to conservation. The key parameters determining carbon stock change under different forest management scenarios are those affecting accumulation of carbon in forest biomass, rather than parameters affecting transfers among wood products. This analysis helps prioritise mitigation activities to focus on maximising forest biomass. International forest-related policies, including negotiations under the UNFCCC, have failed to recognize

  8. Wood phenology, not carbon input, controls the interannual variability of wood growth in a temperate oak forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpierre, Nicolas; Berveiller, Daniel; Granda, Elena; Dufrêne, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Although the analysis of flux data has increased our understanding of the interannual variability of carbon inputs into forest ecosystems, we still know little about the determinants of wood growth. Here, we aimed to identify which drivers control the interannual variability of wood growth in a mesic temperate deciduous forest. We analysed a 9-yr time series of carbon fluxes and aboveground wood growth (AWG), reconstructed at a weekly time-scale through the combination of dendrometer and wood density data. Carbon inputs and AWG anomalies appeared to be uncorrelated from the seasonal to interannual scales. More than 90% of the interannual variability of AWG was explained by a combination of the growth intensity during a first 'critical period' of the wood growing season, occurring close to the seasonal maximum, and the timing of the first summer growth halt. Both atmospheric and soil water stress exerted a strong control on the interannual variability of AWG at the study site, despite its mesic conditions, whilst not affecting carbon inputs. Carbon sink activity, not carbon inputs, determined the interannual variations in wood growth at the study site. Our results provide a functional understanding of the dependence of radial growth on precipitation observed in dendrological studies. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Wood fuel supply as a function of forest owner preferences and management styles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, F.; Roos, A.

    2002-01-01

    The commercial demand for wood fuel is rapidly increasing in Sweden, and the domestic supply comes primarily from private non-industrial forest owners. A model was developed to analyse decision-making among these private forest owners. The model covers five factors: economics, transaction costs, concerns about soil fertility, forestry, and previous experience. It was applied in a survey among forest owners in four communities in central Sweden in 1999. Wood fuels had been sold from 60% of the estates. Analysis suggests that the price paid had little influence on the decision to sell. Transaction costs had been alleviated by the traditional timber buyer organizing the fuel trade, and by minimizing measurement in the forest. The primary reason for selling wood fuel was that the harvesting operation cleared the ground of debris. There is a general concern for loss in soil fertility due to wood fuel harvesting which is why some owners do not sell forest fuels. Two types of fuel-selling forest owners were identified: (1) an active manager seeking different gains from wood fuel harvest, and (2) an owner who primarily relies on the advice of the timber buyer. The findings indicate that large-scale traders of wood fuels have to be active in increasing supply, making direct contact with forest owners, and connecting trade with information on ecological and silvicultural effects. Offering ash recycling may enhance supply more than marginal price increases. (author)

  10. Wood strength loss as a measure of decomposition in northern forest mineral soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Jurgensen; David Reed; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Peter Laks; Anne Collins; Glenn Mroz; Marek Degorski

    2006-01-01

    Wood stake weight loss has been used as an index of wood decomposition in mineral soil, but it may not give a reliable estimate in cold boreal forests where decomposition is very slow.Various wood stake strength tests have been used as surrogates of weight loss, but little is known on which test would give the best estimate of decomposition over a variety of soil...

  11. Testing painted wood : past practices at the Forest Products Laboratory and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2009-01-01

    A brief history of paint research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wisconsin, sets the stage for a discussion of testing paint on wood and wood products. Tests include laboratory and outdoor tests, and I discuss them in terms of several degradation mechanisms (loss of gloss and fading, mildew growth, extractives bleed, and cracking, flaking, and...

  12. Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation : knowns and unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lippke; Elaine Oneil; Rob Harrison; Kenneth Skog; Leif Gustavsson; Roger Sathre

    2011-01-01

    This review on research on life cycle carbon accounting examines the complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. Recent objectives to increase the use of renewable fuels have raised policy questions, with respect to the sustainability of managing our forests as well as the impacts of how best to use wood from our...

  13. Leaf photosynthetic traits scale with hydraulic conductivity and wood density in Panamanian forest canopy trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.S. Santiago; G. Goldstein; F.C. Meinzer; J.B. Fisher; K. Maehado; D. Woodruff; T. Jones

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how water transport capacity, wood density and wood anatomy were related to leaf photosynthetic traits in two lowland forests in Panama. Leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity (kL) of upper branches was positively correlated with maximum rates of net CO2, assimilation per unit leaf area (Aarea...

  14. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  15. Numerical analysis of the interaction between high-pressure resin spray and wood chips in a vapour stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Milani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the interaction between the resin spray and the wood chips in a vapour stream using a multi-phase multi-component computational fluid dynamics approach. The interaction between the spray and the chips is one of the main issues in the industrial process for manufacturing medium density fibre boards. Thus, the optimization of this process can lead to important benefits, such as the reduction in the emission of formaldehyde-based toxic chemicals, the reduction in energy consumption in the blending process and energy saving in the fibreboard drying process. First step of the study is the numerical analysis of the resin injector in order to extend the experimental measurements carried out with water to the resin spray. The effects of the injector’s geometrical features on the spray formation are highlighted under different injection pressure values and needle displacements. Afterwards, the results obtained in the analysis of the single injector are used for the complete simulation of multi-injector rail where the mixing of the resin spray and wood chips takes place. The influence of the main operating conditions, such as the vapour and the wood chip flow rates, on the resin distribution is addressed in order to optimize the resination process.

  16. Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands. Final report; Systemstudier ungskogsbraensle. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, J.E. [Dalarna Univ., Falun (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    The three-year project 'Studies of wood fuel systems with raw material from young forest stands' has been carried out during the period March 1998 to February 2001. New technology for harvesting small trees has created a possibility to develop efficient wood fuel systems using raw material from young forest stands. This possibility coincides with a great demand for tending of young stands from a silvicultural point of view. The main aim of the project has been to analyse and assess wood fuel systems based on this concept. The spectrum of criteria for assessment has been broad, including productivity, profitability, safety and health aspects, employment and environmental impact. As an example of a new technology which has been developed and studied during the project period can be mentioned a new felling head which can be used for cutting and handling several trees at the same time. The weight of the felling head is only about 270 kg, which has done it possible to use it on smaller base-machines as well as larger machines. The productivity has shown to be about 150-250 trees/hour in stands with a diameter of 5-10 cm. The productivity, expressed as biomass, is about 2-3 tonnes dry substance/hour. In the design of production system, bundling of trees early in the process is considered to be especially promising. The development of such a system is ongoing, but is not at the market yet. Some experimental studies have been done on transportation, storing and chipping of such bundles with varying size and varying tree-species. The calculated cost of this system will be lower then for traditional chipping-systems, because of the higher density for the handle units. It is much easier to handle bundles than small non-bundled trees, the chipping-productivity will be high and the transportation can be done with regular timber trucks. The calculation cost for the bundle-system will be about 120-130 SEK/MWh in stands with a diameter of some 7-10 cm, which can be

  17. Machinery and labour force requirements for forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Strandsroem, M. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: markus.strandstrom@metsateho.fi; Lahtinen, P.; Elo, J. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com, Email: juha.elo@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy estimated how much machinery and labour would be needed for large-scale forest chip production if the use of forest chips increases extensively in Finland during the coming decade. If the production and consumption of forest chips are 25 to 30 TWh in Finland 2020, then 1,900 to 2,200 machinery units, i.e. machines and trucks, would be needed. This would mean total investments in production machinery of 530 to 630 million euro (VAT 0 %). The labour demand would be 3,400 to 4,000 machine operators and drivers, and 4,200 to 5,100 labour years including indirect labour. Respectively, if the production and consumption of forest chips is 15 to 20 TWh in Finland in 2020, then the production machinery requirement would be 1,100 to 1,500 machines and trucks. The total machinery investment cost would be 320 to 420 million euro (VAT 0 %) and the calculated labour demand 2,000 to 2,700 machine operators and drivers (2,500 to 3,400 labour years). The results of the study indicated that forest chip production resources will be a major bottleneck in reaching the consumption target of 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh of forest chips in Finland by 2020. (orig.)

  18. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutilainen, Katja; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-10-01

    The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness. Fungal diversity in other broadleaved forest habitat types is poorly known. Traditional wood pastures and man-made afforested fields are novel habitats that could potentially be important for wood-inhabiting fungi. This study compares species richness and fungal community composition across the aforementioned habitat types, based on data collected for wood-inhabiting fungi occupying all deadwood diameter fractions. Corticioid and polyporoid fungi were surveyed from 67 130 deadwood particles in four natural herb-rich forests, four birch-dominated wood pastures, and four birch-dominated afforested field sites in central Finland. As predicted, natural herb-rich forests were the most species-rich habitat. However, afforested fields also had considerably higher overall species richness than wood pastures. Many rare or rarely collected species were detected in each forest type. Finally, fungal community composition showed some divergence not only among the different habitat types, but also among deadwood diameter fractions. Synthesis and applications : In order to maintain biodiversity at both local and regional scales, conserving threatened natural habitat types and managing traditional landscapes is essential. Man-made secondary woody habitats could provide the necessary resources and serve as surrogate habitats for many broadleaved deadwood

  19. MARKET OF NON-WOOD FOREST PRODUCTS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Afonso

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the main non-wood forest products from Brazilian savanna. We studied the behavior and the growth rates of production and prices of almond of babaçu, oil of copaiba, fiber of buriti, leaf of jaborandi, bark of barbatimão, bark of angico, fruit of mangaba, almonds of pequi, from 1982 to 2005. All the products exhibited decreasing production, with exception of the oil of copaiba and almonds of pequi, which showed positive growth rates: 12.9% and 8.5%, respectively. The analysis of prices for most products was not significant, except for barks of barbatimão and angico, and almonds of pequi, which showed positive trends: 10.9%, 6.7%, and 4.6%, respectively. We believe that results were not significant due to the severe variations of the Brazilian currency in the period. We conclude that pequi is the main product from savanna and that oil of copaiba has the biggest increase in the production because most of the production comes from the whole Brazilian Amazon region.

  20. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  1. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  2. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  3. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Intermountain Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  4. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  5. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  6. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Eastern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  7. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Alaska Region, 1910-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  8. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southwestern Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  9. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  10. THE QUANTITY AND TURNOVER OF DEAD WOOD IN PERMANENT FOREST PLOTS IN SIX LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  11. Regional and forest-level estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Anderson; J. Young; K. Stockmann; K. Skog; S. Healey; D. Loeffler; J.G. Jones; J. Morrison

    2013-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  12. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  14. Logistics of long-distance truck transportation of forest chips; Metsaehakkeen autokuljetuksen logistiikka - PUUT20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T.; Halonen, P.; Frilander, P. [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Asikainen, A. [Finnish Forest Research Centre, Joensuu (Finland); Lehikoinen, M.; Vaeaetaeinen, K. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the project was to develop the long-distance transportation of forest chips by means of better transport economy and control of logistics activities. Different loading methods were tested to make the load sufficiently compact and to intensify the use of load space of the chip trucks. The usability of mobile positioning devices was tested in the operational environment of forest chips procurement. The arrivals and inbound logistics activities of power plant were modeled by aid of simulation model to estimate the queuing time of chip trucks with alternative course of action. According to the follow-up study of chip trucks and simulation of receiving activities substantial developing potential was found to decrease the terminal 1.19 times of trucks both in loading stage at forest terminal and unloading stage at power plant receiving area. By trucks with interchangeable containers terminal times can be decreased by developing the logistics of production chain for example by means of the pilot production control system evaluated in the project or by dimensioning the capacity of whole chain to match better for prevailing operational environment. With shorter distances the number of containers or the trailer size can be designed for smaller volume whereas with longer distances the transport economy will be emphasized. The capacity of weight limited the load size except for summer period alongside with dry forest chips. Instead of maximize the load volume, more essential will be to decrease the unloaded weight and effectiveness of loading and unloading stage. Loading method, where belt conveyor was equipped with mechanical ejector, compressed the load some 15% compared with blowing device. The energy consumption was also essentially lower. The pilot-period of production control system showed that the mobile positioning devices and digital maps will improve the planning and control activities of forest chip production. When the procurement amounts of forest

  15. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabien H. Wagner; Bruno Herault; Damien Bonal; Clement Stahl; Liana O. Anderson; Timothy R. Baker; Gabriel Sebastian Becker; Hans Beeckman; Danilo Boanerges Souza; Paulo Cesar Botosso; David M. J. S. Bowman; Achim Brauning; Benjamin Brede; Foster Irving Brown; Jesus Julio Camarero; Plinio Barbosa Camargo; Fernanda C. G. Cardoso; Fabricio Alvim Carvalho; Wendeson Castro; Rubens Koloski Chagas; Jerome Chave; Emmanuel N. Chidumayo; Deborah A. Clark; Flavia Regina Capellotto Costa; Camille Couralet; Paulo Henrique da Silva Mauricio; Helmut Dalitz; Vinicius Resende de Castro; Jacanan Eloisa de Freitas Milani; Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira; Luciano de Souza Arruda; Jean-Louis Devineau; David M. Drew; Oliver Dunisch; Giselda Durigan; Elisha Elifuraha; Marcio Fedele; Ligia Ferreira Fedele; Afonso Figueiredo Filho; Cesar Augusto Guimaraes Finger; Augusto Cesar Franco; Joao Lima Freitas Junior; Franklin Galvao; Aster Gebrekirstos; Robert Gliniars; Paulo Mauricio Lima de Alencastro Graca; Anthony D. Griffiths; James Grogan; Kaiyu Guan; Jurgen Homeier; Maria Raquel Kanieski; Lip Khoon Kho; Jennifer Koenig; Sintia Valerio Kohler; Julia Krepkowski; Jose Pires Lemos-Filho; Diana Lieberman; Milton Eugene Lieberman; Claudio Sergio Lisi; Tomaz Longhi Santos; Jose Luis Lopez Ayala; Eduardo Eijji Maeda; Yadvinder Malhi; Vivian R. B. Maria; Marcia C. M. Marques; Renato Marques; Hector Maza Chamba; Lawrence Mbwambo; Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaco; Hooz Angela Mendivelso; Brett P. Murphy; Joseph O' Brien; Steven F. Oberbauer; Naoki Okada; Raphael Pelissier; Lynda D. Prior; Fidel Alejandro Roig; Michael Ross; Davi Rodrigo Rossatto; Vivien Rossi; Lucy Rowland; Ervan Rutishauser; Hellen Santana; Mark Schulze; Diogo Selhorst; Williamar Rodrigues Silva; Marcos Silveira; Susanne Spannl; Michael D. Swaine; Jose Julio Toledo; Marcos Miranda Toledo; Marisol Toledo; Takeshi Toma; Mario Tomazello Filho; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hernandez; Jan Verbesselt; Simone Aparecida Vieira; Gregoire Vincent; Carolina Volkmer de Castilho; Franziska Volland; Martin Worbes; Magda Lea Bolzan Zanon; Luiz E. O. C. Aragao

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68 include aboveground wood productivity measurements and 35 litter...

  16. Forest Products Laboratory : supporting the nation's armed forces with valuable wood research for 90 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. Risbrudt; Robert J. Ross; Julie J. Blankenburg; Charles A. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Founded in 1910 by the U.S. Forest Service to serve as a centralized, national wood research laboratory, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has a long history of providing technical services to other government agencies, including those within the Defense (DoD). A recent search of FPL’s library and correspondence files revealed that approximately 10,000...

  17. Findings on pollutant formation in wood and chip board combustion. Erkenntnisse zur Schadstoffbildung bei der Verbrennung von Holz und Spanplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marutzky, R.

    1991-10-01

    Combustion experiments were carried out using wood and several types of chip boards with binders on the basis of urea, melamine and phenol formaldehyde resins, polyureas, and PVC. The combustion process was observed, and the flue gas constituents in case of incomplete combustion were analyzed. The origins of the various organic and inorganic materials were discussed taking account of the results of pyrolysis experiments. (orig.).

  18. Carbon budget of Ontario's managed forests and harvested wood products, 2001–2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxin Chen; Stephen J. Colombo; Michael T. Ter-Mikaelian; Linda S. Heath

    2010-01-01

    Forest and harvested wood products (HWP) carbon (C) stocks between 2001 and 2100 for Ontario's managed forests were projected using FORCARB-ON, an adaptation of the U.S. national forest C budget model known as FORCARB2. A fire disturbance module was introduced to FORCARB-ON to simulate the effects of wildfire on C, and some of the model's C pools were re-...

  19. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  20. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  1. Branch Wood Decomposition of Tree Species in a Deciduous Temperate Forest in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsub Cha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Woody debris, which is supplied by branch litter, is an important component of forest ecosystems as it contains large quantities of organic matter and nutrients. We evaluated changes in branch wood dry weight and nutrient content of six common species (Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Pinus densiflora, Prunus sargentii, Quercus mongolica, Acer pseudosieboldianum, and Symplocos chinensis for. pilosa in a deciduous temperate forest in Korea for 40 months. Branch wood disk samples 1.4–1.6 cm thick were cut, and mass loss was measured over time using the litterbag method. No significant differences in mass loss were recorded among the six tree species. Further, mass loss was negatively correlated with initial lignin concentration and positively correlated with both initial cellulose concentration and wood density for each species. Species with high wood cellulose content had high wood density while the lignin content in wood was relatively low. Accordingly, cellulose contributed to wood density, creating a relatively lower lignin content, and the decreased lignin concentration increased the wood decomposition rate.

  2. Where will the wood come from? Plantation forests and the role of biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenning, Trevor M; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2002-07-01

    Wood is almost as important to humanity as food, and the natural forests from which most of it is harvested from are of enormous environmental value. However, these slow-growing forests are unable to meet current demand, resulting in the loss and degradation of forest. Plantation forests have the potential to supply the bulk of humanity's wood needs on a long-term basis, and so reduce to acceptable limits the harvest pressures on natural forests. However, if they are to be successful, plantation forests must have a far higher yield of timber than their natural counterparts, on much shorter rotation times. To achieve this in reasonable time, biotechnology must be applied to the tree-improvement process, for which large increases in public and private capital investment are needed. However, additional obstacles exist in the form of opposition to plantations, some forest ecocertification schemes, and concerns about aspects of forest biotechnology, especially genetic engineering. It is the intention of this article to explain, in detail, why plantation forests are needed to sustainably meet the world's demand for wood, why they are not being developed fast enough, and why the application of biotechnology to tree improvement is essential to speeding up this process.

  3. Addition of wood chips in red wine during and after alcoholic fermentation: differences in color parameters, phenolic content and volatile composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kyraleou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the time of wood chip addition on phenolic content, color parameters and volatile composition of a red wine made by a native Greek variety (Agiorgitiko was evaluated. For this purpose, chips from American, French, Slavonia oak and Acacia were added in the wine during and after fermentation. Various chemical parameters of wines were studied after one, two and three months of contact with chips. The results showed that the addition of oak chips during alcoholic fermentation did not favor ellagitannin extraction and the reactions involved in tannin condensation and anthocyanin stabilization. Moreover, wines fermented with wood chips contained higher contents of whiskey lactones, eugenol, ethyl vanillate and acetate esters while their ethyl ester content was lower compared with the wines where chip addition took place after fermentation. Practical Application: The outcomes of this study would be of practical interest to winemakers since they could improve the control over the wood extraction process. When chips are added after fermentation wines seem to have a greater ageing potential compared to the wines fermented with chips due to their higher ellagitannin content and enhanced condensation reactions. On the other hand, color stabilization and tannin polymerization occur faster when chips are added during fermentation resulting in shorter ageing periods suitable for early consumed wines.

  4. Partial debarking of energy wood stems in production of high quality fuel chips and fuel logs (DryMe); Runkopuun osittainen kuorinta metsaehakkeen ja pilkkeidentuotantoketjussa (DryMe) - PUUT58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikanen, L.; Roeser, D.; Tahvanainen, T.; Prinz, R. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland); Erkkilae, A.; Heikkinen, A.; Hillebrand, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    Small wood chip fueled heating plants require high quality chips in order to achieve low service need and problem free running. Low moisture content is considered to be the most important quality factor in wood based fuels. On the other hand, drying should be efficient and handy as a part of supply chain. Rapidly growing small-scale wood energy business needs new methods to ensure availability of high quality fuel. Partial debarking of both boreal broadleaved and coniferous species is known as effective method to dry timber during storing. Anyhow, proper place for storing and convenient weather conditions are needed. Partly debarked stems could be also the raw material for wood pellets. In Finnish studies, for example, storing over one summer took moisture content down from 40% to 27% with partly debarked birch logs. Some preliminary tests have been made also in Scotland and England with baled residues and small diameter logs without debarking. Even British climate seems to be suitable for natural drying of logs. In Central Europe, natural drying is crucial in order to achieve high quality of forest chips for heating. The aims of the DryMe-project are: (1) Remodify and study harvester head which is capable to debark energy wood stems. The aim is to create modified feeding rolls and delimbing knives or extra debarking device, which remove effectively 30-50% of bark during normal harvesting work. The success of debarking will be tested by field experiments and drying trials. Method should work with Silver Birch, Scots Pine and Lodgepole Pine. (2) Test different kinds of bark scarifying patterns and methods according to their capability to evaporate water out from the logs in natural drying. (orig.)

  5. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  6. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  7. Residential wood heating: The forest, the atmosphere and the public consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulland, J.F.; Hendrickson, O.Q.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally agreed by both energy and forestry scientists that, provided harvesting is conducted in a sustainable manner, the combustion of wood for energy production is essentially carbon dioxide neutral when the normal forest regeneration period is considered. When wood combustion replaces the consumption of fossil fuels, however, the net reduction in carbon dioxide release is almost immediate. In addition to the requirement of sustainable forestry practices, the maintenance of site biodiversity must also be considered. A preliminary review of the literature reveals that periodic selective harvesting can actually have a positive impact on the biodiversity of the forest. Despite the fact that the harvesting, processing and transportation of wood fuel invariably consumes fossil fuels, it has been shown in case studies that the energy return on investment can easily exceed a ratio of 25:1. Approximately 20 percent of the single family dwellings in Canada are heated to some extent with wood and the potential exists for an increasing contribution of wood fuel to residential energy requirements. However, there is evidence of confusion among the public regarding the environmental impact of woodburning, particularly as it relates to CO 2 emissions and carbon storage in forests. The confusion could impede the increased use of wood for residential heating because it calls into question the appropriateness of using wood for energy purposes. The forms of residential wood energy use that have evolved in rural North America provide important but neglected models of sustainable development. This could serve as the central theme of public information program to clarify the role of wood energy in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  8. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  9. Properties of Hungarian oak(quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Hilandar Monastery forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zdravko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study results of the basic physical and strength properties of Hungarian oak (Quercus conferta Kit. wood from the Kakovo Monastery forests of Hilandar Monastery in Greece. Wood properties were analyzed in detail, as an indispensable proof of wood quality and its use for joinery, interiors and wooden floors. The basic physical properties of wood (moisture content at the time of tree felling, density and volume porosity and the basic strength properties (compressive strength, bending strength and module of elasticity were researched. The results are presented in Tables and in Diagrams with statistical parameters and compared to the literature data. The correlation of the study properties of wood was also analyzed.

  10. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  11. Changes in mass and nutrient content of wood during decomposition in a south Florida mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L.M.; Smith, T. J.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    1 Large pools of dead wood in mangrove forests following disturbances such as hurricanes may influence nutrient fluxes. We hypothesized that decomposition of wood of mangroves from Florida, USA (Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle), and the consequent nutrient dynamics, would depend on species, location in the forest relative to freshwater and marine influences and whether the wood was standing, lying on the sediment surface or buried. 2 Wood disks (8-10 cm diameter, 1 cm thick) from each species were set to decompose at sites along the Shark River, either buried in the sediment, on the soil surface or in the air (above both the soil surface and high tide elevation). 3 A simple exponential model described the decay of wood in the air, and neither species nor site had any effect on the decay coefficient during the first 13 months of decomposition. 4 Over 28 months of decomposition, buried and surface disks decomposed following a two-component model, with labile and refractory components. Avicennia germinans had the largest labile component (18 ?? 2% of dry weight), while Laguncularia racemosa had the lowest (10 ?? 2%). Labile components decayed at rates of 0.37-23.71% month -1, while refractory components decayed at rates of 0.001-0.033% month-1. Disks decomposing on the soil surface had higher decay rates than buried disks, but both were higher than disks in the air. All species had similar decay rates of the labile and refractory components, but A. germinans exhibited faster overall decay because of a higher proportion of labile components. 5 Nitrogen content generally increased in buried and surface disks, but there was little change in N content of disks in the air over the 2-year study. Between 17% and 68% of total phosphorus in wood leached out during the first 2 months of decomposition, with buried disks having the greater losses, P remaining constant or increasing slightly thereafter. 6 Newly deposited wood from living trees was

  12. Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2012-10-01

    Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy from wood biomass: The experience of the Brazilian forest sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Graca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Floresta, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Wood biomass is one of the most significant renewable sources of energy in Brazil. Fuelwood and charcoal play a very important role not only for household energy consumption but also for the cement, iron and steel industries. Wood is used as an energy source by the pulp and paper, composite board and other industries of the country, mainly for steam and electricity generation. Ethanol, lignin-based coke and methanol from wood were produced at experimental units in Brazil but were not implemented on a commercial scale. Currently, a new experimental plant using a technology developed in the US is being built in the state of Bahia to generate electricity from Eucalyptus. This technology is a Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine process which is expected to make the use of wood biomass economically feasible for electricity generation. Forest plantations are the main source of wood biomass for energy consumption by the Brazilian industrial sector. Fiscal incentives in the 1960s helped the country to begin a massive reforestation program mainly using Eucalyptus and Pinus species. A native species, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) has also been used extensively for wood energy plantations in southern Brazil. Technical, economic, social and environmental impacts of these plantation forests are discussed along with a forecast of the future wood energy utilization in Brazil.

  14. Influence of large wood on channel morphology and sediment storage in headwater mountain streams, Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Erica L. Bishop; J. Michael Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Large fallen wood can have a significant impact on channel form and process in forested mountain streams. In this study, four small channels on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA, were surveyed for channel geometries and large wood loading, including the size, source, and characteristics of individual pieces. The study is part of a larger effort...

  15. Forest bioenergy or forest carbon? Assessing trade-offs in greenhouse gas mitigation with wood-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; Chen, Jiaxin; Mabee, Warren; MacLean, Heather L

    2011-01-15

    The potential of forest-based bioenergy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when displacing fossil-based energy must be balanced with forest carbon implications related to biomass harvest. We integrate life cycle assessment (LCA) and forest carbon analysis to assess total GHG emissions of forest bioenergy over time. Application of the method to case studies of wood pellet and ethanol production from forest biomass reveals a substantial reduction in forest carbon due to bioenergy production. For all cases, harvest-related forest carbon reductions and associated GHG emissions initially exceed avoided fossil fuel-related emissions, temporarily increasing overall emissions. In the long term, electricity generation from pellets reduces overall emissions relative to coal, although forest carbon losses delay net GHG mitigation by 16-38 years, depending on biomass source (harvest residues/standing trees). Ethanol produced from standing trees increases overall emissions throughout 100 years of continuous production: ethanol from residues achieves reductions after a 74 year delay. Forest carbon more significantly affects bioenergy emissions when biomass is sourced from standing trees compared to residues and when less GHG-intensive fuels are displaced. In all cases, forest carbon dynamics are significant. Although study results are not generalizable to all forests, we suggest the integrated LCA/forest carbon approach be undertaken for bioenergy studies.

  16. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  17. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.

    2012-03-12

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  18. Covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube forests grown in situ on a metal-silicon chip

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Johan R.; Bosaeus, Niklas; Kann, Nina; Å kerman, Bjö rn; Nordé n, Bengt; Khalid, Waqas

    2012-01-01

    We report on the successful covalent functionalization of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests, in situ grown on a silicon chip with thin metal contact film as the buffer layer between the CNT forests and the substrate. The CNT forests were successfully functionalized with active amine and azide groups, which can be used for further chemical reactions. The morphology of the CNT forests was maintained after the functionalization. We thus provide a promising foundation for a miniaturized biosensor arrays system that can be easily integrated with Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

  19. Energy and industrial wood harvesting from young forests; Energia- ja ainespuun korjuu nuorista metsistae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.; Jouhiaho, A. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    In the METKA Forest Energy Profitably project TTS (Work Efficiency Institute) compared methods suitable for the harvesting of energy wood and industrial wood. During the thinning of a young forest by a forest worker, the whole-tree logging method was one-third less expensive than the pulpwood method, including terrain transport. In harvesting whole trees as part of the thinning of young forests, methods based on combinations of manual and mechanized workproved to be several dozen per cent less expensive than the entirely mechanized method. When cutting energy wood with a Harveri small harwarder productivity was slightly higher when using 40-metre distances two cutting trails than when using 20-metre distances. When using a Tehojaetkae small harvester, creating two cutting trails in addition to the standard four-metre-wide cutting trail resulted in slightly higher productivity than creating three narrow cutting trails. A Risutec L3A energy head was used in tests involving both clearing and energy wood cutting. This method proved to be very promising, and it seems highly proable that advance clearing will no longer be needed in energy wood harvesting under all circumstances. When using traditional harvester-forwarder chains and a harvarder for first thinning in pine stands, the harvesting of entirely or partly non-delimbed trees was 20 to 40 per cent less expensive per harvested cubic meter than the harvesting of delimbed trees. In tests carried out using the Naarva RS25 harvester head for first thinning in pine stands, the integrated method resulted in approximately one-third productivity than the traditional cutting of industrial wood. In a spruce-dominant site with delayed first thinning, the unit costs of harvesting delimbed energy wood were 16 per cent lower than those of the harvesting of pulpwood. In the future development of machinery, it will be important to aim at continuous motion, at least in terms of cutting small trees. (orig.)

  20. Forest management strategies for producing wood for energy from conventional forestry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Puttock, G.D. (Silv-Econ Ltd., Newmarket, ON (CA)); Richardson, J. (Forestry Canada, Science and Sustainable Development, Ottowa, ON (CA))

    1992-01-01

    The report reviews the current developments in forest management planning and practices to integrate the production of biomass for energy along with more conventional forest management goals. Efforts are under way to adapt management practices and silvicultural treatments to biomass production. These begin at the planning stage with the development of management tools and more accurate forest inventory data. They include silvicultural treatments such as shelterwood thinning in mixed wood stands and the interplanting of various tree species with the dual purpose of producing energy wood and conventional forest products. Three systems are available for recovering residues at time of final harvesting. The postharvest recovery of residues area is commonly used in Europe but is generally uneconomic in North America where the harvesting of small stems and integrated harvesting are favoured. (author).

  1. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; M.B. Russell; B.F. Walters; A.W. D' Amato; S. Fraver; G.M. Domke

    2015-01-01

    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary...

  2. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  3. Modeling of electrodialytic and dialytic removal of Cr, Cu and As from CCA-treated wood chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Mateus, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    + and NO3 used as electrolyte solutions in the electrode compartments, and oxalate ions and protons incorporated with the oxalic acid solution during wood chips incubation. The model simulation also takes into account that OH generated on the cathode, during electrodialytic remediation, is periodically...... neutralized by addition of nitric acid in the cathode compartment. The anion and cation-exchange membranes are simply represented as ionic filters that preclude the transport of co-ions (the cations and anions respectively) with the exception of H+, which is retarded but considered to pass through the anion...

  4. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Chemical investigation on wood tree species in a temperate forest, east-northern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaca, C. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative evaluation of wood chemical components for some tree species in a forest area from east-northern Romania is presented here, through a comparative study from 1964 to 2000. Investigation upon the wood tree-rings in a Quercus robur L. tree species, as a dominant species, as regards its chemical composition and structure of the natural polymer constituents - cellulose and lignin - was also performed through chemical methods to separate the main wood components, FT-IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. Having in view the impact of climate and external factors (such as pollutant depositions, some possible correlations between wood chemical composition and its further use can be made. The FT-IR spectra give evidence of differences in the frequency domains of 3400-2900 cm-1 and 1730-1640 cm-1, due to some interactions between the chemical groups (OH, C=O. The crystallinity index of cellulose presents variations in the oak wood tree-rings. Thermogravimetry analyses show different behaviour of cellulose at thermal decomposition, as a function of radial growth and tree’s height. A preliminary chemical investigation of oak wood sawdust shows a relatively high content of mineral elements (ash, compared with a previous study performed in 1964, fact that may indicate an intense drying process of the oak tree, a general phenomenon present in European forests for this species.

  6. ToSIA-A tool for sustainability impact assessment of forest-wood-chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, M.; Suominen, T.; Palosuo, T.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Verweij, P.J.F.M.; Zudin, S.; Päivinen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Within the forest sector, the sustainability concept has evolved from a narrow focus on sustainable wood production to a much broader evaluation of environmental, social, and economic sustainability for whole value chains. A new software tool – ToSIA – has been developed for assessing sustainability

  7. Nesting Ecology of Wood Thrush (Turdidae: Passeriformes) in Hardwood Forests of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Sargent; John C. Kilgo; Brian R. Chapman; Karl V. Miller

    2003-01-01

    We studied nesting success of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) in bottomland and upland hardwood forests in South Carolina. Twenty-one of 26 nests (80.8%) were located in bottomland sites, and 76.2% of these nests were in narrow (

  8. Magnetic mapping of distribution of wood ash used for fertilization of forest soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Remeš, J.; Kapička, Aleš; Podrázský, V.; Grison, Hana; Borůvka, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 626, June (2018), s. 228-234 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : forest soil * wood ash * fertilizing * tree plants * iron oxides * rock magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  9. The role of natural wood constituents on the anaerobic treatability of forest industry wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra - Alvarez, R.

    1990-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment has been shown to be an efficient and energy conserving method for treating various types of readily biodegradable non-inhibitory forest industry wastewaters. However, the high toxicity of paper mill effluents derived from chemical wood processing operations has hampered

  10. Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Doreen Mann; D.P. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs...

  11. Sustainable wood use, decarbonisation of energetic metabolism and forest development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution from wood stoves with PAH, primary particles and chlorinated dioxins (reported according to national estimates of  Danish NERI) is presented as an insoluble problem because of dioxin de-novo-synthesis in chimneys, as it is known from municipal waste incinerators. A trade-off of this......Air pollution from wood stoves with PAH, primary particles and chlorinated dioxins (reported according to national estimates of  Danish NERI) is presented as an insoluble problem because of dioxin de-novo-synthesis in chimneys, as it is known from municipal waste incinerators. A trade......-off of this local pollution against alleged positive impacts of wood (as all biomass) combustion on global climate change because of 'zero carbon dioxide emissions' is rejected, although this resetting to zero is part of the Danish Law on CO2-quota of 2004. These emissions are, on the contrary, aggravated pr. unit...... of energy, when substituting for fossil fuels, whereas compensatory binding of carbon dioxide by tree growth over many decades is referred to an insecure future under global warming. Harvested wood products should rather not be used in atmospheric burners, but in product form. Otherwise an accelerated...

  12. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by Piloderma croceum was poor. In a

  13. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  14. An exploratory assessment of the attitudes of Chinese wood products manufacturers towards forest certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L; Kozak, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Interviews with Chinese forest products manufacturers were conducted to explore their attitudes towards forest certification and related issues. Participants comprised owners, CEOs, and managers in 20 Chinese wood products companies, including producers of furniture, doors, flooring, and various engineered wood products. The interviews were used to analyze the extent to which participants were considering adopting forest certification and what might motivate such a decision. This was done by assessing their awareness and knowledge of certification. The results indicated that participants' understanding of forest certification was extremely low, despite major efforts in China to raise awareness of the issue. Potential economic benefits were the most frequently cited reason to adopt certification, including gaining or maintaining competitive advantage over their industry counterparts, improved access to both domestic and export markets, better customer recognition, and enhanced corporate responsibility practices. Some interviewees (3 out of 20) considered that certification would become a mandatory requirement or industry standard, and that this would be the only viable motivation for certification given that the financial benefits were potentially limited. According to the participants, the main differences between certified and uncertified wood products operations related to improved market access and public image. Interviewees felt that cooperation between and support from governments and the forest industry would enable the enhanced awareness of certification amongst manufacturers and the general public. This, in turn, could serve to stimulate demand for certified products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interspecific interactions between wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes in boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, L.

    1996-05-01

    Studies of competition and succession in communities of wood-decomposing fungi were carried out using laboratory tests with different approaches. Based on results of these tests, an attempt to biologically control Heterobasidion annosum was made in field. Competitive interactions between six species of wood decay fungi were studied using a system of preinoculated wood blocks in unsterilized soil. Two of the species were root-rotting pathogens with a primary resource capture strategy, and four were primarily saprotrophic cord-forming species assumed to use secondary resource capture strategy. Of the species tested, Resinicium bicolor was the most successful in spreading through the soil, and it replaced other species, including the pathogens. When R. bicolor was absent other cord-forming species were able to expand their domain. A new system for measuring competitive success was developed. `Pie slices` were cut from round wood-discs, and after preinoculation, the pieces were paired in all possible combinations on water agar. In this way, inoculum size could be varied while the size of the contact area remained the same. Large mycelia had more competitive success than did smaller ones when paired with the same species. In a pilot study, R. bicolor was most successful in replacing the opposing species and H. annosum had the least success. In general, species found late in the succession were strong competitors, while earlier colonizers had less success. Species acting as selective replacers of primary decay species were found to be more competitive than the latter. 134 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  16. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  17. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  18. [Wood manufacture and dioxins: a case prospective study on maintenance of boilers powered by wood chips and shavings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Marco; Paciaccioni, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    to verify if a carpenter using wood scraps, treated or not, to operate the heating system may involve an exposure to dioxins in a given target of workers. the research was structured on literature sources analysis, study on field of the most relevant exposure, occurs through sampling. The results were recorded and plotted, and compared with the data available in literature. the study has involved maintenance workers of the heating system by means of wood refuse incineration. These workers were informed of the methods and aims of the sample. the results confirm a potential exposure to ash containing dioxins, presumably also in other similar situations, in this case not even evaluated by the employer. the average exposure to the light ash during the maintenance operations of the plant dust abatement in emissive phase is about 5 mg/m(3), with a consequent exposure to dioxins inferred, at about 20 pg. operators are exposed to dioxins: this implies that in some operations it is crucial to review the risk assessment and consequently the measures on prevention and health protection to activate.

  19. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood?inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests

    OpenAIRE

    Juutilainen, Katja; M?nkk?nen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood?associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood?inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In t...

  20. Covering of milled peat stockpile with wood chips; Jyrsinturveauman peittaeminen hakkeella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssila, T.; Leinonen, A.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is to research the applicability of wooden materials for protection of milled peat stockpile against losses during storaging. Water transmission features of sawdust, wastewood chip and whole tree chip were investigated in laboratory with raining experiments. The plan for raining experiments was made with experiment planning program and results were analysed with multivariate analysis. Freezing features were investigated thorough breaking tests with hydraulic piston vice. Laboratory experiments were completed with field tests in Laakasuo near Sotkamo. On the basis of results covering peat stockpiles with sawdust is fully competitive comparing to present covering methods. Chip materials are technically not as good covering materials as sawdust

  1. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  2. Edge effects on moisture reduce wood decomposition rate in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockatt, Martha E; Bebber, Daniel P

    2015-02-01

    Forests around the world are increasingly fragmented, and edge effects on forest microclimates have the potential to affect ecosystem functions such as carbon and nutrient cycling. Edges tend to be drier and warmer due to the effects of insolation, wind, and evapotranspiration and these gradients can penetrate hundreds of metres into the forest. Litter decomposition is a key component of the carbon cycle, which is largely controlled by saprotrophic fungi that respond to variation in temperature and moisture. However, the impact of forest fragmentation on litter decay is poorly understood. Here, we investigate edge effects on the decay of wood in a temperate forest using an experimental approach, whereby mass loss in wood blocks placed along 100 m transects from the forest edge to core was monitored over 2 years. Decomposition rate increased with distance from the edge, and was correlated with increasing humidity and moisture content of the decaying wood, such that the decay constant at 100 m was nearly twice that at the edge. Mean air temperature decreased slightly with distance from the edge. The variation in decay constant due to edge effects was larger than that expected from any reasonable estimates of climatic variation, based on a published regional model. We modelled the influence of edge effects on the decay constant at the landscape scale using functions for forest area within different distances from edge across the UK. We found that taking edge effects into account would decrease the decay rate by nearly one quarter, compared with estimates that assumed no edge effect. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Longevity of Wood-Forced Pools in an Old-Growth Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Woodsmith, R. D.; Johnson, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Wood debris plays an important role in scouring pools in forest channels and providing resultant habitat for aquatic organisms. We investigated the longevity of such pools in a gravel-bed river flowing through old-growth forest in southeastern Alaska by aging trees and “bear’s bread” fungi (Ganoderma applanatum, Fomitopsis pinicola) growing on pool-forming wood debris. Ages were determined by counting annual growth rings from cores and cross sections of trees and fungi growing on the wood debris. These ages are minimum values because they do not account for lag time between debris recruitment and seedling/spore establishment on the debris, nor do they account for flood scour that may periodically reset tree and fungi growth on the debris. The study stream has a gradient of about 1%, bankfull width and depth of 13.3 and 0.78 m, respectively, median grain size of 18 mm, a high wood loading (0.8 pieces/m), and a correspondingly low pool spacing (0.3 bankfull widths/pool), with 81% of the pools forced by wood debris. The size of wood debris in the study stream is large relative to the channel (average log length of 7.6 m and diameter of 0.35 m), rendering most debris immobile. Eighty-one pool-forming pieces of wood were dated over 1.2 km of stream length, with 28% of these pieces causing scour of more than one pool. In all, 122 wood-forced pools were dated, accounting for 38% of all pools at the site and 47% of the wood-forced pools. Fifty-three percent of the wood-forced pools lacked datable wood because these pieces either: were newly recruited; had been scoured by floods; or were contained below the active channel elevation, prohibiting vegetation establishment on the wood debris (the most common cause). The debris age distribution declined exponentially from 2 to 113 yrs., with a median value of 18 yrs. Similar exponential residence time distributions have been reported in other studies, but our analysis focused specifically on the ages of pool-forming wood

  4. Romanian legal management rules limit wood production in Norway spruce and beech forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Bouriaud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The quantitative impact of forest management on forests’ wood resource was evaluated for Picea and Fagus mixed forests. The effects on the productivity of tendering operations, thinnings and rotation length have seldom been directly quantified on landscape scale. Methods Two sites of similar fertility but subject to contrasted forest management were studied with detailed inventories: one in Germany, the other in Romania, and compared with the respective national forest inventories. In Romania, regulations impose very long rotations, low thinnings and a period of no-cut before harvest. In contrast, tending and thinnings are frequent and intense in Germany. Harvests start much earlier and must avoid clear cutting but maintain a permanent forest cover with natural regeneration. While Germany has an average annual wood increment representative for Central Europe, Romania represents the average for Eastern Europe. Results The lack of tending and thinning in the Romanian site resulted in twice as many trees per hectare as in the German site for the same age. The productivity in Romanian production forests was 20 % lower than in Germany despite a similar fertility. The results were supported by the data from the national forest inventory of each country, which confirmed that the same differential exists at country scale. Furthermore, provided the difference in rotation length, two crops are harvested in Germany when only one is harvested in Romania. The losses of production due to a lower level of management in Romania where estimated to reach 12.8 million m3.y-1 in regular mountain production forests, and to 15 million m3.y-1 if managed protection forest is included. Conclusions The productivity of Picea and Fagus mountain forests in Romania is severely depressed by the lack of tending and thinning, by overly long rotations and the existence of a 25-years no-cut period prior to harvest. The average standing volume in Germany was 50

  5. Study on the optimization of the pellet production and on the development of a forest-wood-pellet chain

    OpenAIRE

    Sgarbossa, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The biomass and biofuels markets have increased substantially in the last two decades, mainly driven by the national and European policy targets on green energy. The same positive trend is registered in particular for wood pellet markets. In comparison with other wooden biofuels (firewood or wood-chips) pellets have a number of positive aspects such as: - regular and optimized shape; - wide range of energetic applications (to produce thermal energy, syngas, electricity); - high so...

  6. Lessons Learnt on Rain Forest Management for Wood Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out with the aim of analyzing and establishing what lessons have been learnt from positive and negative experiences of various initiatives, projects and programmes aiming at sustainable management, use and conservation of rain forests in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lessons learnt from the case ...

  7. The effect of adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid to wheat straw and wood chips on lignin degradation by fungi and subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was optimizing Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Lentinula edodes pre-treatment of wheat straw and wood chips by adding urea, manganese and linoleic acid. Optimization was defined as more lignin degradation and an increase in in vitro gas

  8. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Rio, del José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungal
    treatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,
    differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8

  9. The effect of location and facility demand on the marginal cost of delivered wood chips from energy crops: A case study of the state of Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.; Liu, W.; Downing, M.; Noon, C.; Daly, M.; Moore, A.

    1995-01-01

    Cost-supply curves for delivered wood chips from short rotation woody crops were calculated for 21 regularly-spaced locations spanning the state of Tennessee. These curves were used to systematically evaluate the combined effects of location and facility demand on wood chip feedstock costs in Tennessee. The cost-supply curves were developed using BRAVO, a GIS-based decision support system which calculates marginal cost of delivering wood chips to a specific location given road network maps and maps of farmgate prices and supplies of woody chips from short rotation energy crops. Marginal costs of delivered chips varied by both facility location in the state and facility demand. Marginal costs were lowest in central Tennessee unless the facility demand was greater than 2.7 million dry Mg per year (3 million dry tons per year) in which case west Tennessee was the lowest cost region. Marginal costs rose rapidly with increasing facility demand in the mountainous eastern portion of the state. Transportation costs accounted for 18 to 29% of the delivered cost and ranged between $8 and $18/dry Mg ($7 and $16/dry ton). Reducing the expected farmer participation rate from 100% to 50% or 25% dramatically raised the marginal costs of feedstock supply in the east and central regions of the state. The analysis demonstrates the need to use geographically-specific information when projecting the potential costs and supplies of biomass feedstock

  10. Nonindustrial private forest owners' opinions to and awareness of energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification. Results of a case study from Finnish Karelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Mei, Qu; Pelkonen, Paavo [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). School of Forest Sciences; Weckroth, Timo

    2012-12-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners (NIPFs) in Finland are important stakeholders of forest management and roundwood supply decisions. Their role will also be significant to supply energy wood to meet Finland's target for renewable energy in the future. The main objectives of this study were to explore the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to the energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification issues in Finland and their relevance for future bioenergy policies. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among NIPFs in Finnish Karelia (N = 79). NIPFs considered price as the main deciding factor in harvesting and selling of energy wood. The present low price of energy wood compared to pulpwood did not motivate them to increase harvesting and selling of energy wood. The NIPFs appeared to be unaware of the forest-based bioenergy certification. However, they expected that such certification schemes would be easy to follow, develop energy wood market, and promote environmentally sound forest management practices in Finland. Private forest owners' associations and personal information letters emerged as the most favored means to disseminate information on forest-based bioenergy certification to the Finnish NIPFs. The study explored the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to energy wood market and forest based bioenergy certification from Finnish Karelia. The conclusions derived from the study might be highly policy-relevant concerning the development of energy wood market and related certification schemes. Future studies should include larger sample size for increasing the representativeness of the findings. (orig.)

  11. Energy use of decayed wood; Lahopuun maeaerae, sisaeltoe ja hankintakustannukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, M; Lipponen, K [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    A study of the quality, amounts and delivery costs of decayed wood available for possible energy use will be carried out in co-operation by Metsaeteho and Forest Research Institute. The work will consist of the following sub-studies: Quality of decayed wood available for possible energy use, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use by municipalities in Western and Southern Finland, harvesting, transport and chipping costs of decayed wood in different delivery alternatives and as a practical example, quantities of decayed wood available for possible energy use in two potential consumption municipalities. (orig.)

  12. A Bayesian Belief Network approach to assess the potential of non wood forest products for small scale forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacik, Harald; Huber, Patrick; Hujala, Teppo; Kurtilla, Mikko; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    It is an integral element of the European understanding of sustainable forest management to foster the design and marketing of forest products, non-wood forest products (NWFPs) and services that go beyond the production of timber. Despite the relevance of NWFPs in Europe, forest management and planning methods have been traditionally tailored towards wood and wood products, because most forest management models and silviculture techniques were developed to ensure a sustained production of timber. Although several approaches exist which explicitly consider NWFPs as management objectives in forest planning, specific models are needed for the assessment of their production potential in different environmental contexts and for different management regimes. Empirical data supporting a comprehensive assessment of the potential of NWFPs are rare, thus making development of statistical models particularly problematic. However, the complex causal relationships between the sustained production of NWFPs, the available ecological resources, as well as the organizational and the market potential of forest management regimes are well suited for knowledge-based expert models. Bayesian belief networks (BBNs) are a kind of probabilistic graphical model that have become very popular to practitioners and scientists mainly due to the powerful probability theory involved, which makes BBNs suitable to deal with a wide range of environmental problems. In this contribution we present the development of a Bayesian belief network to assess the potential of NWFPs for small scale forest owners. A three stage iterative process with stakeholder and expert participation was used to develop the Bayesian Network within the frame of the StarTree Project. The group of participants varied in the stages of the modelling process. A core team, consisting of one technical expert and two domain experts was responsible for the entire modelling process as well as for the first prototype of the network

  13. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Organic emissions from co-combustion of RDF with wood chips and milled peat in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Raili; Flyktman, Martti

    1996-01-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been burned with wood chips and milled peat in a 4 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in flue gases expressed as TCDD-equivalents were significantly below the emission limit 0.1 ng/m 3 n I-TEQ (11 % O 2 ). Also the PCDD/F-concentrations of fly ashes separated by an electrostatic precipitator are significantly below the 1 ng/g I-TEQ limit for agricultural soil in Germany. The carbon monoxide content was rather high, but typical for many small district heating plants. The concentrations of other chlorinated aromatic compounds were also low, in some tests below the detection limit. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were rather high. The leachable metal content of the fly ash generated were analyzed using U.S. EPA TCLP test (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). All concentrations fell below boundary levels. (author)

  15. Wood chip drying in connection with combined heat and power or solar energy in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinne Samuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 20% of the Finnish district heating (DH power plant fuels are wood-based and the share is increasing. The wood fuel demand probably exceeds the potential supply in the future. The wood fuel drying with waste heat is one profitable opportunity to gain more wood fuel. If the drying energy can be produced with lower primary energy use than combusting the fuel directly, the drying potentially improves the system efficiency. In this study, the drying feasibility in the connection of a combined heat and power (CHP system, possibly with solar collectors, is calculated. The wood fuel heating can be increased profitably by 6%, using the heat from CHP for drying only when the marginal cost of the heat is low enough, i.e. the electricity price is high enough and there is free capacity after the DH demand. Although the drying is profitable, a larger heat storage can also increase the annual result similarly. The best investment choice depends on the plant properties. Here the optimal system enables 20% DH production cost savings. Solar heat may be profitable, when the solar heat has a 2–3% share of the annual heat demand. However, the dryer or larger storage tank are more profitable investments.

  16. Life cycle impacts of ethanol production from spruce wood chips under high-gravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Matty; Xiros, Charilaos; Tillman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Development of more sustainable biofuel production processes is ongoing, and technology to run these processes at a high dry matter content, also called high-gravity conditions, is one option. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of such a technology currently in development for the production of bio-ethanol from spruce wood chips. The cradle-to-gate LCA used lab results from a set of 30 experiments (or process configurations) in which the main process variable was the detoxification strategy applied to the pretreated feedstock material. The results of the assessment show that a process configuration, in which washing of the pretreated slurry is the detoxification strategy, leads to the lowest environmental impact of the process. Enzyme production and use are the main contributors to the environmental impact in all process configurations, and strategies to significantly reduce this contribution are enzyme recycling and on-site enzyme production. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between the ethanol yield of a configuration and its environmental impact is demonstrated, and the selected environmental impacts show a very strong cross-correlation ([Formula: see text] in all cases) which may be used to reduce the number of impact categories considered from four to one (in this case, global warming potential). Lastly, a comparison with results of an LCA of ethanol production under high-gravity conditions using wheat straw shows that the environmental performance does not significantly differ when using spruce wood chips. For this comparison, it is shown that eutrophication potential also needs to be considered due to the fertilizer use in wheat cultivation. The LCA points out the environmental hotspots in the ethanol production process, and thus provides input to the further development of the high-gravity technology. Reducing the number of impact categories based only on cross-correlations should be done with caution. Knowledge of the

  17. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  18. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  19. Sales of wood from state forests in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Office National des Forets

    2011-01-01

    After two years of diminishing demand in both volume and prices, all products experienced a recovery in 2010 that was significant for coniferous workable timber and for industrial timber but less so for deciduous workable timber particularly beech. Taking all species together, the supply of timber increased 10%, volumes sold went up 19% while the average unit price grew 12%. As a result, the overall turnover for French state-owned forests went up by 34%. Concerning the marketing channels for timber, supply contract volumes increased by 250,000 m 3 and accounted for 18% of overall volumes sold; their prices followed the general trends observed on the market. (authors)

  20. Ectomycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Shahid

    2000-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with tree roots and assist in nutrient-uptake and -cycling in forest ecosystems, thereby constituting a most significant part of the microbial community. The aims of the studies described in this thesis were to evaluate the potential of DNA-based molecular methods in below-ground ectomycorrhizal community studies and to investigate changes in ectomycorrhizal communities on spruce roots in sites with different N deposition, and in sites subjected to harvesting of forest residues or application of wood ash. The ability of selected ectomycorrhizal fungi to mobilise nutrients from wood ash and to colonise root systems in the presence and absence of ash was also studied. In total 39 ectomycorrhizal species were detected in the experimental forests located in southern Sweden. At each site five to six species colonised around 60% of the root tips. The dominant species, common to the sites, were Tylospora fibrillosa, Thelephora terrestris and Cenococcum geophilum. Differences between two sites with differing levels of N deposition suggested that community structure may be influenced by N deposition, although site history, location and degree of isolation may also influence species composition. Repeated harvesting of forest residues reduced numbers of mycorrhizal roots in the humus layer to approximately 50% of that in control plots but no shift in the ectomycorrhizal community could be detected. At another site, application of granulated wood ash induced a shift in ectomycorrhizal community structure and three ectomycorrhizal fungi ('ash fungi') were found to colonise ash granules. Two 'ash fungi' showed a superior ability to solubilise stabilised wood ash in laboratory experiments compared to other ectomycorrhizal isolates from the same site. In laboratory microcosms containing intact mycorrhizal mycelia, colonisation of wood ash patches by one 'ash fungus' was good whereas colonisation by

  1. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  2. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service's Sierra Nevada Bio-Regional Assessment Area of the Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  3. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  4. Using wood-based structural products as forest management tools to improve forest health, sustainability and reduce forest fuels : a research program of the USDA Forest Service under the National Fire Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Currently, after logging or thinning operations much of the low value timber is either left standing or is felled and left on the ground, chipped, or burned because most North American mills are not equipped to handle this material. In many areas of Western U.S., this forest residue does not decompose if felled and it soon becomes susceptible to forest insect or...

  5. Assessment of wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes for biokraft pulping of softwood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wolfaardt, F

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes have been screened for various applications in the pulp and paper industry and it is evident that different fungi need to be used to suit the specific requirements of each application. This study assessed...

  6. Availability and use of wood-based fuels in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Raesaenen, T.; Pajuoja, H. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: tapio.rasanen@metsateho.fi, Email: heikki.pajuoja@metsateho.fi; Elo, J.; Lahtinen, P. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: juha.elo@poyry.com, Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    In Finland the overall usage target set for forest chips is 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh by the year 2020. The objective of the research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy was to produce a total analysis as realistic as possible of the possibilities of increasing the use of wood-based fuels in Finland by 2020. The research shows that the growth objective set in the long-term Climate and Energy Strategy can be attained through the supply and demand for wood-based fuels. However, realizing this potential would require major investments in the entire forest chip production system, because the competitiveness of wood-based fuels in energy generation is currently not at a sufficient level. The emission trading has a strong influence on the competitiveness of wood-based fuels and the use of such fuels in energy plants. Increasing the proportion of wood-based fuels is very difficult at the current price level of the EU emission allowances (10 euro/t CO{sub 2}). A strong increase in the use of wood-based fuels would require a price level of over 25 euro/t CO{sub 2} of emission allowances. Considering the huge resources required by the forest chip production system and the current low competitiveness of forest chips, it is estimated that the use of forest chips in Finland will reach the level of 20 TWh at the earliest by the year 2020. (orig.)

  7. Typology of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies are characterized by a growing importance of cooperation and the creation of networks of enterprises, organizations and institutions, which are all part of a supply chain, in order to achieve competitive advantage in a market. The aim of this study was to determine the structure of the supply chains of non-wood forest products in selected forest areas of Central Serbia (Golijsko, Podrinjsko-kolubarsko, Posavsko-podunavsko, Rasinsko and Tarsko-zlatiborsko FAs. The comparative method was applied in this paper, along with the method of specialization (classification, the method of structural partial analysis (supply chain analysis and the statistical method (analysis of frequencies and two-step cluster. The data collection was conducted in 2011, by using the technique of door-to-door survey. The analysis of the basic types of the supply chains of non-wood forest products and their main stages (purchasing, processing and placement was conducted in the selected areas. A cluster analysis showed that there were six basic types of supply chains in the selected forest areas and one dominant type. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 443007/16 –III: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu -praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  8. The contribution of red wood ants to soil C and N pools and CO2 emissions in subalpine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita C. Risch; Martin F. Jurgensen; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2005-01-01

    Little information is available regarding red wood ant (RWA; Formica rufa group) impacts on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems. We found that RWA mound density (number per ha) was linked to forest tree species composition, slope aspect, and canopy closure. The size of RWA mounds was positively correlated with successional...

  9. National and global greenhouse gas dynamics of different forest management and wood use scenarios: a model-based assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Frank; Taverna, Ruedi; Hofer, Peter; Thuerig, Esther; Kaufmann, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    An increased use of wood products and an adequate management of forests can help to mitigate climate change. However, planning horizons and response time to changes in forest management are usually long and the respective GHG effects related to the use of wood depend on the availability of harvested wood. Therefore, an integral long-term strategic approach is required to formulate the most effective forest and wood management strategies for mitigating climate change. The greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics related to the production, use and disposal of wood products are manifold and show a complex time pattern. On the one hand, wood products can be considered as a carbon pool, as is the forest itself. On the other hand, an increased use of wood can lead to the substitution of usually more energy-intense materials and to the substitution of fossil fuels when the thermal energy of wood is recovered. Country-specific import/export flows of wood products and their alternative products as well as their processing stage have to be considered if substitution effects are assessed on a national basis. We present an integral model-based approach to evaluate the GHG impacts of various forest management and wood use scenarios. Our approach allows us to analyse the complex temporal and spatial patterns of GHG emissions and removals including trade-offs of different forest management and wood use strategies. This study shows that the contributions of the forestry and timber sector to mitigate climate change can be optimized with the following key recommendations: (1) the maximum possible, sustainable increment should be generated in the forest, taking into account biodiversity conservation as well as the long-term preservation of soil quality and growth performance; (2) this increment should be harvested continuously; (3) the harvested wood should be processed in accordance with the principle of cascade use, i.e. first be used as a material as long as possible, preferably in

  10. The value chain of small-sized energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Foehr, J.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland), LUT Energy), Email: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi, Email: jarno.fohr@lut.fi, Email: tapio.ranta@lut.fi; Ahtikoski, A. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi (Finland)), Email: anssi.ahtikoski@metla.fi; Valsta, L. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Economics), Email: lauri.valsta@helsinki.fi

    2009-07-01

    Finland has agreed to increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38% by the end of 2020. Most of the increase is to be based on bioenergy. According to the National Climate and Energy Strategy, the need for forest biomass will come to more than 20 TWh, or some 10 million cubic meters per year. Energy wood from young stand thinnings are the biomass resource with the most potential at the moment. The purpose of this study was to compare cost differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on traditional roundwood thinning. In addition, alternative supply chain costs for small-sized wood were studied. The results of the study show that it is worth considering the following points if the demand and average price for forest chips remain high. 1. Forest-owners: Forest management including energy wood thinning is financially feasible. 2. Supply chain: A terminal chipping chain enables large-scale procurement of small-sized energy wood. 3. Power plants: Currently, subsidies, emission trading, and decreasing pulpwood prices together enable large-scale use of small-sized wood for energy purposes. The value chain of small-sized energy wood in large-scale power plants could be mobilised. (orig.)

  11. Fifteen years of international trade in wood and forest-related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desclos, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Little is generally known about international trade in forest-related products in spite of the fact that a significant portion of world production is exported. Two irreversible trends underlie international trade in forest-related products. One is globalization while the other is adding as much value as possible locally by processing the materials to the greatest extent possible in the country of origin. Some of the more surprising recent developments are the growth in trade in wood as a source of energy and the dependency of Europe on its massive imports in this area. International trade in forest-related products is a continually changing sector that follows developments in the technical, economic, social and political spheres. Its growth has been spectacular and will remain strong in coming years. The greatest potential for development will come from environmental management, improved logistics and innovation. (authors)

  12. Strategies for the promotion of the forest-wood chain in Calabria (southern Italy: the stakeholders’ point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paletto A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, the value of bioeconomy is 251 billion € and more than 1.7 million of workforce is employed in this sector. The forest-wood chain cover about 15% of total value of bioeconomy. The consultation draft of Italian Bioeconomy Strategy was presented on November 22, 2016. This document identifies three macro-sectors (agrifood, marine bioeconomy, forestry and biobased industry with the respective objectives and priorities. In addition, some Italian regions are organizing to devise a regional strategy detailing the key points of the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and Italian Bioeconomy Strategy in accordance with local peculiarities. In order to develop a regional strategy for the forest sector it is important to investigate the social demands and needs involving the local stakeholders. The aim of the study is to investigate the stakeholders’ opinions of Calabria Region (Italy about the priorities of forest-wood chain to include in the future regional bioeconomy strategy. The stakeholders’ opinions were collected through the face-to-face administration of a structured questionnaire to 99 local stakeholders. The respondents assessed the importance of a set of objectives aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain at local level (economic exploitation of wood products; diffusion of forest certification; orientation of production to market demand; coordination of forest-wood-energy chain’s actors; implementation of environmental and cultural forest values; improvement of the level of mechanization in wood processing; improvement of the efficiency of forestry workers. In addition, the respondents assessed the capacity of some specific activities to achieve the above mentioned objectives. The collected data were used to define two strategies aimed to enhance the forest-wood chain in Calabria Region. The results show that for the interviewed stakeholders the main three objectives are: the implementation of environmental and cultural forest values, the

  13. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  14. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  15. Estimating dead wood during national forest inventories: a review of inventory methodologies and suggestions for harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Christopher W; Rondeux, Jacques; Verkerk, Pieter J; Ståhl, Göran

    2009-10-01

    Efforts to assess forest ecosystem carbon stocks, biodiversity, and fire hazards have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem dead wood (DW) components around the world. Currently, information regarding the prevalence, status, and methods of DW inventories occurring in the world's forested landscapes is scattered. The goal of this study is to describe the status, DW components measured, sample methods employed, and DW component thresholds used by national forest inventories that currently inventory DW around the world. Study results indicate that most countries do not inventory forest DW. Globally, we estimate that about 13% of countries inventory DW using a diversity of sample methods and DW component definitions. A common feature among DW inventories was that most countries had only just begun DW inventories and employ very low sample intensities. There are major hurdles to harmonizing national forest inventories of DW: differences in population definitions, lack of clarity on sample protocols/estimation procedures, and sparse availability of inventory data/reports. Increasing database/estimation flexibility, developing common dimensional thresholds of DW components, publishing inventory procedures/protocols, releasing inventory data/reports to international peer review, and increasing communication (e.g., workshops) among countries inventorying DW are suggestions forwarded by this study to increase DW inventory harmonization.

  16. Composite materials from forest biomass : a review of current practices, science, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    Renewable and sustainable composite materials can be produced using forest biomass if we maintain healthy forests. Small diameter trees and other forest biomass can be processed in the forest into small solid wood pieces, sliced veneers, strands, flakes, chips, particles and fiber that can be used to make construction composite products such as glued-laminated lumber,...

  17. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  18. Potential of forest management to reduce French carbon emissions - regional modelling of the French forest carbon balance from the forest to the wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vallet, P.

    2015-12-01

    In France the low levels of forest harvest (40 Mm3 per year over a volume increment of 89Mm3) is frequently cited to push for a more intensive management of the forest that would help reducing CO2 emissions. This reasoning overlooks the medium-to-long-term effects on the carbon uptake at the national scale that result from changes in the forest's structure and delayed emissions from products decay and bioenergy burning, both determinant for the overall C fluxes between the biosphere and the atmosphere. To address the impacts of an increase in harvest removal on biosphere-atmosphere carbon fluxes at national scale, we build a consistent regional modeling framework to integrate the forest-carbon system from photosynthesis to wood uses. We aim at bridging the gap between regional ecosystem modeling and land managers' considerations, to assess the synergistic and antagonistic effects of management strategies over C-based forest services: C-sequestration, energy and material provision, fossil fuel substitution. For this, we built on inventory data to develop a spatial forest growth simulator and design a novel method for diagnosing the current level of management based on stand characteristics (density, quadratic mean diameter or exploitability). The growth and harvest simulated are then processed with a life cycle analysis to account for wood transformation and uses. Three scenarii describe increases in biomass removals either driven by energy production target (set based on national prospective with a lock on minimum harvest diameters) or by changes in management practices (shorter or longer rotations, management of currently unmanaged forests) to be compared with business as usual simulations. Our management levels' diagnostics quantifies undermanagement at national scale and evidences the large weight of ownership-based undermanagement with an average of 26% of the national forest (between 10% and 40% per species) and thus represents a huge potential wood resource

  19. Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in southwest Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite of the high annual precipitation (1100 mm a -1 ) and the relatively acidic conditions of the soil. Most of the deposited nuclear weapon fall-out of radiocesium and radiostrontium is still residing in the forest soil. Radiostrontium, but not radiocesium, was found in the intrasoil water collected with lysimeters at soil depths of 20 and 50 cm. Wood xylem radial distributions of radiostrontium indicated a decreased bioavailability with time after deposition of nuclear weapons fall-out, and no major differences could be observed on comparison of wood from ash-treated plots with wood from untreated plots. The activity concentration of radiocesium in tree rings formed prior to 1986 and grown at the ash-treated plot was about two to three times that found in wood from the untreated control plot. (author)

  20. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  1. ESTIMATING WOOD VOLUME FOR PINUS BRUTIA TREES IN FOREST STANDS FROM QUICKBIRD-2 IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Patias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of forest parameters, such as wood volume, is required for a sustainable forest management. Collecting such information in the field is laborious and even not feasible in inaccessible areas. In this study, tree wood volume is estimated utilizing remote sensing techniques, which can facilitate the extraction of relevant information. The study area is the University Forest of Taxiarchis, which is located in central Chalkidiki, Northern Greece and covers an area of 58km2. The tree species under study is the conifer evergreen species P. brutia (Calabrian pine. Three plot surfaces of 10m radius were used. VHR Quickbird-2 images are used in combination with an allometric relationship connecting the Tree Crown with the Diameter at breast height (Dbh, and a volume table developed for Greece. The overall methodology is based on individual tree crown delineation, based on (a the marker-controlled watershed segmentation approach and (b the GEographic Object-Based Image Analysis approach. The aim of the first approach is to extract separate segments each of them including a single tree and eventual lower vegetation, shadows, etc. The aim of the second approach is to detect and remove the “noisy” background. In the application of the first approach, the Blue, Green, Red, Infrared and PCA-1 bands are tested separately. In the application of the second approach, NDVI and image brightness thresholds are utilized. The achieved results are evaluated against field plot data. Their observed difference are between -5% to +10%.

  2. Future carbon storage in harvested wood products from Ontario's Crown forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Colombo, S.J.; Ter-Mikaelian, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon (C) storage in harvested wood products (HWP) from Ontario's Crown forests were analyzed using a large-scale forest C budget model. The model was used to estimate HWP C stock changes as defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The harvested C mass was then allocated to 4 HWP end-use categories, notably (1) in use; (2) landfill; (3) energy; and (4) emissions. C mass redistribution among HWP end-use categories was calculated using an age-based C distribution matrix. Emissions for harvest, transport, and manufacturing were accounted for as well as emission reductions gained by using the HWP in place of other construction materials and fossil fuels. Results of the study showed that C storage in HWP is projected to increase by 3.6 Mt per year. The projections indicated that the harvest of wood products in Ontario will result in a steadily increasing C sink in HWP and forests. 51 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Multi-dimensional sustainability framework to evaluate forest and wood energy production; Moniulotteinen kestaevyyden arviointikehikko puuenergian tuotannolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, P.; Kaehkoenen, T.; Laehtinen, K.; Pasanen, K.; Pitkaenen, S.; Sironen, S.; Myllyviita, T.; Sikanen, L.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-02-15

    The future economy will be more and more dependent on the sustainable use of natural resources, at least if the views on the importance and possibilities of the bioeconomy are realized in practice. The sustainability of the use of natural resources has previously been studied from the perspective of ecological sustainability in particular. Social sustainability has also been examined in several studies. On the other hand, economic sustainability is a prerequisite for developing business activities. As defining and framing of cultural sustainability is challenging, up to now it has only been discussed to some extent, although the importance of cultural sustainability has not been understated. When developing the sustainability of the use of natural resources, all the above-mentioned dimensions of sustainability are present in parallel and they need to be acknowledged in decision-making. The starting point of this study is that natural resources need to be used sustainably and that different options for utilizing natural resources need to be compared from the sustainability perspective, without giving higher priority to any sustainability dimension compared to others beforehand. In this study four production chains based on energy use of forest biomass were examined: (1) local district heating based on forest chips, (2) combined heat and power with wood and peat, (3) wood pellet production from by-products of the wood product industry, and (4) biodiesel production based on wood and peat. The indicators for different sustainability dimensions in the studied production chains were determined through expert interviews and the indicator values were determined through literature review and interviews. The mathematical examination of sustainability was based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) so that a computational tool suitable for the calculations was developed. In total, 20 - 40 indicators were defined for each sustainability dimension; out of these, five to

  4. Can forest dieback and tree death be predicted by prior changes in wood anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Michele; Julio Camarero, Jesus; De Micco, Veronica; Borghetti, Marco; Gentilesca, Tiziana; Sanchez-Salguero, Raul; Ripullone, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Climate warming is expected to amplify drought stress resulting in more intense and widespread dieback episodes and increasing mortality rates. Studies on quantitative wood anatomy and dendrochronology have demonstrated their potential to supply useful information on the causes of tree decline, although this approach is basically observational and retrospective. Moreover, the long-term reconstruction of wood anatomical features, strictly linked to the evolution of xylem anatomy plasticity through time, allow investigating hydraulic adjustments of trees. In this study, we analyzed wood-anatomical variables in two Italian oak forests where recent episodes of dieback and mortality have been reported. We analyzed in coexisting now-dead and living trees the following wood-anatomical variables: annual tree-ring area, earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW) areas, absolute and relative (%) areas occupied by vessels in the EW and LW, EW and LW vessel areas, EW and LW vessel density and vessel diameter classification. We also calculated the hydraulic diameter (Dh) for all vessels measured within each ring by weighting individual conduit diameters to correspond to the average Hagen-Poiseuille lumen theoretical hydraulic conductivity for a vessel size. Wood-anatomical analyses showed that declining and dead trees were more sensitive to drought stress compared to non declining trees, indicating different susceptibility to water shortage between trees. Dead trees did not form earlywood vessels with smaller lumen diameter than surviving trees but tended to form wider latewood vessels with a higher percentage of vessel area. We discuss the results and implications focusing on those proved more sensitive to the phenomena of decline and mortality.

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of human lung cells to combustion smoke particles of Miscanthus straw, softwood and beech wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ali Talib; Maschowski, Christoph; Garra, Patxi; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Petithory, Tatiana; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Dieterlen, Alain; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Khanaqa, Polla; Nazarenko, Irina; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) from residential biomass combustion is epidemiologically associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. This study investigates PM0.4-1 emissions from combustion of commercial Miscanthus straw (MS), softwood chips (SWC) and beech wood chips (BWC) in a domestic-scale boiler (40 kW). The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of the MS, SWC and BWC were characterized by ICP-MS/OES, XRD, SEM, TEM, and DLS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial A549 and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were assessed by the WST-1 assay and the DNA-Alkaline Unwinding Assay (DAUA). PM0.4-1 uptake/translocation in cells was investigated with a new method developed using a confocal reflection microscope. SWC and BWC had a inherently higher residual water content than MS. The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of SWC and BWC exhibited higher levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a greater variety of mineral species and a higher heavy metal content than PM0.4-1 from MS combustion. Exposure to PM0.4-1 from combustion of SWC and BWC induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human alveolar and bronchial cells, whereby the strongest effect was observed for BWC and was comparable to that caused by diesel PM (SRM 2 975), In contrast, PM0.4-1 from MS combustion did not induce cellular responses in the studied lung cells. A high PAH content in PM emissions seems to be a reliable chemical marker of both combustion efficiency and particle toxicity. Residual biomass water content strongly affects particulate emissions and their toxic potential. Therefore, to minimize the harmful effects of fine PM on health, improvement of combustion efficiency (aiming to reduce the presence of incomplete combustion products bound to PM) and application of fly ash capture technology, as well as use of novel biomass fuels like Miscanthus straw is recommended.

  6. Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijk, van, S.J.A.; Rio, del, José C.; Rencoret, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Ana; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work investigated the influence of lignin content and composition in the fungaltreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in order to improve rumen degradability. Wheat straw and wood chips,differing in lignin composition, were treated with Lentinula edodes for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 wk and the changesoccurring during fungal degradation were analyzed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometryand detergent fiber analysis.Results: L. edodes preferentially degraded lignin,...

  7. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  8. Increasing wood mobilization through Sustainable Forest Management in protected areas of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maesano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT JA X-NONE The European Community has long recognized the need to further promote renewable energy. Under the overall objective to support and enhance sustainable management, the promotion of the use of forest biomass could help to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuel, increasing carbon stock in wood products and improve energy self-sufficiency enhancing security of supply and providing job opportunities in rural areas. To what extent Italian forests can satisfy an increased wood demand, without compromising the others Ecosystem Services (ESs remains an open question. Our aim was to assess the potential supply of woody biomass from the network of protected areas in Italy considering the felling constraints. We estimated the theoretical annual potential increment from forest inventory data performing a correlation with the Corine Land Cover 2006 at the IV level with a 1:100,000 resolution elaborated in a GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The average annual potential increment at national level available for felling was 4.4 m3ha-1. Within the network of protected areas (EUAP and Natura 2000, the average annual increment, available to felling, was 0.98 m3ha-1, respectively, 0.81 m3ha-1 from coppice and 1.14 m3ha-1 from non-coppice forests. Based on data obtained from this study, the availability of wood materials could be increased of almost 20 % at national level by pursuing an active management within the network of protected areas. In Italy, the actual level of resource utilization is rather low; increasing felling together with the implementation of an active management within protected areas could allow satisfying, theoretically, the Italian wood consumption. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0

  9. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  10. When a tree falls: Controls on wood decay predict standing dead tree fall and new risks in changing forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Brad; Ogle, Kiona; Zanne, Amy E; Woodall, Christopher W

    2018-01-01

    When standing dead trees (snags) fall, they have major impacts on forest ecosystems. Snag fall can redistribute wildlife habitat and impact public safety, while governing important carbon (C) cycle consequences of tree mortality because ground contact accelerates C emissions during deadwood decay. Managing the consequences of altered snag dynamics in changing forests requires predicting when snags fall as wood decay erodes mechanical resistance to breaking forces. Previous studies have pointed to common predictors, such as stem size, degree of decay and species identity, but few have assessed the relative strength of underlying mechanisms driving snag fall across biomes. Here, we analyze nearly 100,000 repeated snag observations from boreal to subtropical forests across the eastern United States to show that wood decay controls snag fall in ways that could generate previously unrecognized forest-climate feedback. Warmer locations where wood decays quickly had much faster rates of snag fall. The effect of temperature on snag fall was so strong that in a simple forest C model, anticipated warming by mid-century reduced snag C by 22%. Furthermore, species-level differences in wood decay resistance (durability) accurately predicted the timing of snag fall. Differences in half-life for standing dead trees were similar to expected differences in the service lifetimes of wooden structures built from their timber. Strong effects of temperature and wood durability imply future forests where dying trees fall and decay faster than at present, reducing terrestrial C storage and snag-dependent wildlife habitat. These results can improve the representation of forest C cycling and assist forest managers by helping predict when a dead tree may fall.

  11. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  12. Analysis of marketing mix elements of non-wood forest products in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand for high-quality products of biological origin has been increasing, in accordance with changes in objectives of forest management, which are caused by socio-economic development. Although non-wood forest products (NW­FPs have been collected and used for generations, only in recent decades their importance has been recognized. The aim of this paper is to analyze marketing strategies of companies involved in processing and distribution of NWFPs. Due to the specificity and comprehensiveness of the problem, the various general and specific methods and techniques, which are used in the study of marketing elements, have been applied. A’WOT analysis was applied in order to better interpret results of SWOT analysis. The survey was conducted among small and medium enterprises dealing with NWFPs in central Serbia. Conducted research determined the most important final products, prices, types of promotion and structure of distribution channel.

  13. Unexpected Interactions between Agricultural and Forest Sectors through International Trade: Wood Pallets and Agricultural Exports in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaline Jadin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International market forces have played an increasingly important role in shaping land use dynamics through complex supply chains. In Costa Rica, the shift from a net loss to a net gain in forest cover was facilitated by forest plantations and the replacement of extensive cropland and pastures by export-oriented, high-yielding crops. However, agricultural intensification generated several feedbacks affecting forests. We analyzed the interactions between Costa Rica’s agricultural and forestry sectors associated with the use of wood pallets for commodity exports over 1985–2013. Wood pallets for growing agricultural exports created a demand for domestic tree plantations. The annual land demand for tree plantations to produce these wood pallets increased by 669%, reaching 17,606 ha in 2013 and representing 28% of the increase in demand for cropland for agricultural exports over 1994–2013. Wood supplied from plantations failed to fully substitute for wood from natural forests, only allowing for a relative substitution and preventing a major sparing of these forests. The dominant use of wood from plantations for production of low-value pallets de-incentivized investments in sustainable plantations. We showed that, beyond the typical interactions between agriculture and forestry through direct competition for land, international trade generated unexpected feedback where agricultural activities and supply chains affected forestry by triggering new demand and profound changes in forestry management. Land systems behave as complex systems, calling for integrated approaches to study the outcomes of forest conservation, reforestation programs, and development of land-based businesses.

  14. Proceedings of the 8. biennial residual wood conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference highlighted practical strategies for managing and utilizing residual wood as a true industry resource. Examples of successful wood energy projects were presented along with the technology and products of more than 30 companies involved in the residual wood business. The topics of discussion ranged from biomass supplies, quality issues, and harvesting guidelines to emerging biomass technologies, project overviews, and financing. The presentations outlined the many opportunities that exist for the forest industry to produce energy from biostock, such as healthy and diseased trees, underbrush, sawdust, wood chips, wood pulp and black liquor. Increasing fuel and energy costs along with advances in technology are improving the economy of forest-based biorefineries. The presentations showed how the industry can gain revenue from residual wood, which is steadily becoming a more valuable resource for pellet production and energy generation The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Variation in wood anatomy of species with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outer, den R.W.; Veenendaal, van W.L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The variation in wood anatomy within 30 hardwood species, each with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, Africa, has been studied. Compared to specimens from the rain forest, material from the savanna tends to have more wood ray tissue (rays are higher,

  16. Joining Criteria for Harmonizing European Forest Available for Wood Supply Estimates. Case Studies from National Forest Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For national and international reporting on forest available for wood supply (FAWS, harmonized data are needed. This information is required as forests provide goods for various sectors like the timber industry or the bioenergy sector. The effect of applying different thresholds to the three restriction classes (environmental, social and economic restriction within the proposed reference definition for FAWS was evaluated. We applied the reference definition for FAWS to national data sets provided by five European National Forest Inventories using harmonized thresholds. The effects on FAWS area and growing stock were evaluated for each restriction and threshold. All countries within this study could report on protected areas. Social restrictions were not applied in any country, data on other restrictions are available but definitions vary. The application of common thresholds for restrictions proved difficult as effects vary between countries. The economic restriction is the most challenging to assess as many countries do not have corresponding data for direct calculation of, e.g., harvesting costs. Using proxies for harvesting costs was difficult, as common thresholds may not be applied in different countries. For standardized reporting, a FAWS definition should be developed that utilizes existing, harmonized indicators to describe restrictions.

  17. Net carbon flux of dead wood in forests of the Eastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C W; Russell, M B; Walters, B F; D'Amato, A W; Fraver, S; Domke, G M

    2015-03-01

    Downed dead wood (DDW) in forest ecosystems is a C pool whose net flux is governed by a complex of natural and anthropogenic processes and is critical to the management of the entire forest C pool. As empirical examination of DDW C net flux has rarely been conducted across large scales, the goal of this study was to use a remeasured inventory of DDW C and ancillary forest attributes to assess C net flux across forests of the Eastern US. Stocks associated with large fine woody debris (diameter 2.6-7.6 cm) decreased over time (-0.11 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while stocks of larger-sized coarse DDW increased (0.02 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)). Stocks of total DDW C decreased (-0.14 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)), while standing dead and live tree stocks both increased, 0.01 and 0.44 Mg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. The spatial distribution of DDW C stock change was highly heterogeneous with random forests model results indicating that management history, live tree stocking, natural disturbance, and growing degree days only partially explain stock change. Natural disturbances drove substantial C transfers from the live tree pool (≈-4 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) to the standing dead tree pool (≈3 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) with only a minimal increase in DDW C stocks (≈1 Mg ha(-1) year(-1)) in lower decay classes, suggesting a delayed transfer of C to the DDW pool. The assessment and management of DDW C flux is complicated by the diversity of natural and anthropogenic forces that drive their dynamics with the scale and timing of flux among forest C pools remaining a large knowledge gap.

  18. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Carlton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

  19. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum...... energy generation to maximum biochar production.For a 100 year time horizon the biogenic global warming potential varies from 0.65 for maximum energy generation to 0.30for maximum biochar production. The total carbon footprint per kWh electricity produced decreases towards maximum biochar production...

  20. Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subagyono, Dirgarini J.N.; Marshall, Marc; Jackson, W. Roy; Chaffee, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H 2 O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N 2 , at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of algae gave more oil than that of Pinus radiata and grape marc. • Reactions under CO/H 2 O produced higher yields of oil than N 2 . • Water to biomass ratio had little effect on the yields. • Bio-oil from algae contained substantial amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Pinus radiata oil was low in N but high in O

  1. Conservation value of low-productivity forests measured as the amount and diversity of dead wood and saproxylic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Aino; Strengbom, Joachim; Ranius, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In many managed landscapes, low-productivity land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productivity land are a nested subset of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead-wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productivity (potential forest growth dead wood, but volume appeared to be a better predictor than diversity for the higher species richness in set-asides. Beetle species composition was similar among stand types, and the assemblages in low-productivity stands were largely subsets of those in high-productivity set-asides. However, 11% of all species and 40% of red-listed species only occurred in high-productivity stands, while no species were unique to low-productivity stands. We conclude that low-productivity forests are less valuable for conservation than high-productivity forest land. Given the generally similar species composition among stand types, a comparable conservational effect could be obtained by setting aside a larger area of low-productivity forest in comparison to the high-productivity. In terms of dead wood volumes, 1.8-3.6 ha of low-productivity forest has the same value as 1 ha of unmanaged high-productivity forest. This figure can be used to estimate the conservation value of low-productivity forests; however, as high-productivity forests harbored some unique species, they are not completely exchangeable. © 2018 The Authors. Ecological Applications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Ecological Society of America.

  2. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  3. Column leaching from a Danish forest soil amended with wood ashes: fate of major and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hansen, M.; Ingerslev, M.

    2018-01-01

    Application of wood ashes onto two Danish forest soil horizons (A- and O-horizons) was investigated through a series of column experiments for ash dosages of 3, 9 and 30 Mg ha−1. Developments in the composition of the percolating soil solutions were investigated both in a short- (below 0.5 m3 m−2...

  4. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  5. Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens) breeding demography across a gradient of savanna, woodland, and forest in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah W. Kendrick; Frank R. Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy

    2013-01-01

    Better knowledge of bird response to savanna and woodland restoration is needed to inform management of these communities. We related temporal and habitat variables to breeding demography and densities of the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) across a gradient of savanna, woodland, and forest. We determined nest success, clutch size, young fledged...

  6. Long-term influence of alternative forest management treatments on total ecosystem and wood product carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Ivan J. Fernandez; Shawn Fraver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; Randall K. Kolka; Lindsey E. Rustad; John C. Brissette

    2016-01-01

    Developing strategies for reducing atmospheric CO2 is one of the foremost challenges facing natural resource professionals today. The goal of this study was to evaluate total ecosystem and harvested wood product carbon (C) stocks among alternative forest management treatments (selection cutting, shelterwood cutting, commercial clearcutting, and...

  7. Developments to the Sylvan stand structure model to describe wood quality changes in southern bottomland hardwood forests because of forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian R. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Growth models can produce a wealth of detailed information that is often very difficult to perceive because it is frequently presented either as summary tables, stand view or landscape view visualizations. We have developed new tools for use with the Sylvan model (Larsen 1994) that allow the analysis of wood-quality changes as a consequence of forest management....

  8. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C.

    1999-01-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  9. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-10-01

    `Wood for Energy Production`, 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named `Wood Chips for Energy Production`. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. `Wood for Energy Production` is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  10. Establishment of ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated Nothofagus cunninghamii seedlings regenerating on dead wood in Australian wet temperate forests: does fruit-body type matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Gates, Genevieve; Dunk, Chris W; Lebel, Teresa; May, Tom W; Kõljalg, Urmas; Jairus, Teele

    2009-08-01

    Decaying wood provides an important habitat for animals and forms a seed bed for many shade-intolerant, small-seeded plants, particularly Nothofagus. Using morphotyping and rDNA sequence analysis, we compared the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of isolated N. cunninghamii seedlings regenerating in decayed wood against that of mature tree roots in the forest floor soil. The /cortinarius, /russula-lactarius, and /laccaria were the most species-rich and abundant lineages in forest floor soil in Australian sites at Yarra, Victoria and Warra, Tasmania. On root tips of seedlings in dead wood, a subset of the forest floor taxa were prevalent among them species of /laccaria, /tomentella-thelephora, and /descolea, but other forest floor dominants were rare. Statistical analyses suggested that the fungal community differs between forest floor soil and dead wood at the level of both species and phylogenetic lineage. The fungal species colonizing isolated seedlings on decayed wood in austral forests were taxonomically dissimilar to the species dominating in similar habitats in Europe. We conclude that formation of a resupinate fruit body type on the underside of decayed wood is not necessarily related to preferential root colonization in decayed wood. Rather, biogeographic factors as well as differential dispersal and competitive abilities of fungal taxa are likely to play a key role in structuring the ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated seedlings in decaying wood.

  11. Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest floor greenhouse gas emissions and tree growth in nutrient poor drained peatland forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernfors, M.; Sikstroem, U.; Nilsson, M.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    Wood ash (3.1, 3.3 or 6.6 tonnes dry weight ha -1 ) was used to fertilize two drained and forested peatland sites in southern Sweden. The sites were chosen to represent the Swedish peatlands that are most suitable for ash fertilization, with respect to stand growth response. The fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from the forest floor, measured using opaque static chambers, were monitored at both sites during 2004 and 2005 and at one of the sites during the period 1 October 2007-1 October 2008. No significant (p > 0.05) changes in forest floor greenhouse gas exchange were detected. The annual emissions of CO 2 from the sites varied between 6.4 and 15.4 tonnes ha -1 , while the CH 4 fluxes varied between 1.9 and 12.5 kg ha -1 . The emissions of N 2 O were negligible. Ash fertilization increased soil pH at a depth of 0-0.05 m by up to 0.9 units (p 2 ha -1 year -1 and 0.52 m 2 ha -1 year -1 , respectively). The stand biomass, which was calculated using tree biomass functions, was not significantly affected by the ash treatment. The groundwater levels during the 2008 growing season were lower in the high ash dose plots than in the corresponding control plots (p < 0.05), indicating increased evapotranspiration as a result of increased tree growth. The larger basal area increment and the lowered groundwater levels in the high ash dose plots suggest that fertilization promoted tree growth, while not affecting greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Climate Responses in Growth and Wood Anatomy of Imoprtant Forest Tree Species in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Weiwei

    and high temperatures on the development of Danish tree species are scarcely investigated. Through a dendroecological approach this dissertation assessed the growth responses related to increment, xylem anatomy and wood property of eight different important tree species, namely Picea abies (L.) Karst......., Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., Abies alba Mill., Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl., Pseudotsuga mensiesii (Mirb.) Franco, Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr., Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L., to long-term drought and high temperatures, aiming at identifying a species portfolio matching future climate...... intolerant species, mainly due to their low drought tolerance (both species) and susceptibility to high autumn temperature (only P. abies). Overall, this dissertation improves the understanding of how drought and high temperatures have impacted and will influence the growth of tree species in Danish forest...

  13. A probabilistic multidimensional approach to quantify large wood recruitment from hillslopes in mountainous-forested catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislaghi, Alessio; Rigon, Emanuel; Lenzi, Mario Aristide; Bischetti, Gian Battista

    2018-04-01

    Large wood (LW) plays a key role in physical, chemical, environmental, and biological processes in most natural and seminatural streams. However, it is also a source of hydraulic hazard in anthropised territories. Recruitment from fluvial processes has been the subject of many studies, whereas less attention has been given to hillslope recruitment, which is linked to episodic and spatially distributed events and requires a reliable and accurate slope stability model and a hillslope-channel transfer model. The purpose of this study is to develop an innovative LW hillslope-recruitment estimation approach that combines forest stand characteristics in a spatially distributed form, a probabilistic multidimensional slope stability model able to include the reinforcement exerted by roots, and a hillslope-channel transfer procedure. The approach was tested on a small mountain headwater catchment in the eastern Italian Alps that is prone to shallow landslide and debris flow phenomena. The slope stability model (that had not been calibrated) provided accurate performances, in terms of unstable areas identification according to the landslide inventory (AUC = 0.832) and of LW volume estimation in comparison with LW volume produced by inventoried landslides (7702 m3 corresponding to a recurrence time of about 30 years in the susceptibility curve). The results showed that most LW potentially mobilised by landslides does not reach the channel network (only about 16%), in agreement with the few data reported by other studies, as well as the data normalized for unit length of channel and unit length of channel per year (0-116 m3/km and 0-4 m3/km y-1). This study represents an important contribution to LW research. A rigorous and site-specific estimation of LW hillslope recruitment should, in fact, be an integral part of more general studies on LW dynamics, for forest planning and management, and positioning in-channel wood retention structures.

  14. Constraints on physiological function associated with branch architecture and wood density in tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Frederick C; Campanello, Paula I; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Genoveva Gatti, M; Goldstein, Guillermo; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Woodruff, David R

    2008-11-01

    This study examined how leaf and stem functional traits related to gas exchange and water balance scale with two potential proxies for tree hydraulic architecture: the leaf area:sapwood area ratio (A(L):A(S)) and wood density (rho(w)). We studied the upper crowns of individuals of 15 tropical forest tree species at two sites in Panama with contrasting moisture regimes and forest types. Transpiration and maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR(max)) per unit leaf area declined sharply with increasing A(L):A(S), as did the ratio of ETR(max) to leaf N content, an index of photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. Midday leaf water potential, bulk leaf osmotic potential at zero turgor, branch xylem specific conductivity, leaf-specific conductivity and stem and leaf capacitance all declined with increasing rho(w). At the branch scale, A(L):A(S) and total leaf N content per unit sapwood area increased with rho(w), resulting in a 30% increase in ETR(max) per unit sapwood area with a doubling of rho(w). These compensatory adjustments in A(L):A(S), N allocation and potential photosynthetic capacity at the branch level were insufficient to completely offset the increased carbon costs of producing denser wood, and exacerbated the negative impact of increasing rho(w) on branch hydraulics and leaf water status. The suite of tree functional and architectural traits studied appeared to be constrained by the hydraulic and mechanical consequences of variation in rho(w).

  15. Nutrient intake in the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea and Protaetia orientalis submarmorea (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips: Results from stable isotope analyses of nitrogen and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masahito; Iwata, Ryutaro; Yamane, Akiomi; Katase, Takao; Ueda, Shingo

    2003-01-01

    The nutrient intake of the third instar larvae of Anomala cuprea (Ac) and Protaerita orientalis submarmorea (Pos) (Colepotera: Scarabaeidae) from a mixture of cow dung and wood chips of two wood species (Cryptomeria japonica and Quercus mongolica), was assayed by the stable isotope technique. The values of δ 15 N and δ 13 C (deviations of 15 N/ 14 N and 13 C/ 12 C from the standard materials) were measured in the following samples: (1) the integument plus the head of the 3rd instar larvae of both species reared in 1999 autumn fed with a mixture of cow dung and wood chips or with leaf mold, (2) cow dung, (3) wood ships, and (4) leaf mold as the larval food before onset of rearing. The δ values of bodies of larvae fed with leaf mold differed with the beetle species. The δ 15 N values of the larval bodies of both species fed with the mixture were close to those of cow dung, whereas the δ 13 C values were in between those of cow dung and wood chips. Therefore, both species were presumed to obtain almost all their nitrogen from cow dung, and their carbon from both dung and wood chips. (author)

  16. Synergy and contradictions between wood production and ecosystem services supplied to society - the case of private forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Today, private foresters earn their income almost exclusively from the sale of wood, with a turnover of 105 Euro/ha. Ecosystem services could generate a value of 970 euros/ha/year, i.e. eight times the forestry income derived from timber. The question therefore arises: can these services supplement forest income or do they interfere with the production of wood? Foresters are faced with choices that are becoming increasingly complex, uncertain, risky and sometimes conflicting. They are of several kinds: legal, economic, environmental, social, technical, climatic, etc. Are they in a position to produce timber using appropriate silvicultural techniques while at the same time providing the services that society is demanding? Faced with these new challenges, what is the guidance that should be given to foresters? To develop messages that make sense to foresters, the 'Forestiers prives de France' (private owners) federation and the CNPF (National Centre for Forest Property) conducted a survey on forest owners called the ReSOFOp. (authors)

  17. U.S. Forest Greenhouse Gas Impacts of a continued Expansion of E.U. Wood Pellet Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, G.; Baker, J.; Ohrel, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States has ambitious goals of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. A portion of these reductions are based on expected contributions from land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF). The European Union has similar goals which have resulted in a doubling of wood pellets exported from US ports destined for EU power plants over the last few years. There are potential conflicts between the GHG consequences of this pellet supply and the LULUCF contribution to US GHG goals. This study seeks to inform the discussion by modeling US forest GHG accounts using data measured on a grid of over 150,000 USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forestland plots across the conterminous United States. Empirical yield functions are estimate from plot log volume, biomass and carbon and provide the basis for changes in forest characteristics over time. Demand data based on a spatial database of over 2,000 forest product manufacturing facilities representing 11 intermediate and 13 final solid and pulpwood products. Manufacturing and logging costs are specific to slope, log size, and volume removed along with transportation costs based on fuel prices, FIA plot, and milling locations. The resulting partial spatial equilibrium model of the US forest sector is solved annually for the period 2010 - 2030 with demand shifted by energy prices and macroeconomic indicators from the US EIA's Annual Energy Outlook for a series of potential wood pellet export targets. For each wood pellet export level simulated, figures showing historic and scenario-specific forest products production are generated. Maps of the spatial allocation of both forest harvesting and carbon fluxes are presented at the National level and detail is given in both the US North and Southeast.

  18. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun R. Levick

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Results Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R2 = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m3 ha−1 ~14.13 Mg C ha−1 when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50. Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100 plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha plots were inferior (R2 = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha−1. Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R2 and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Conclusions Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We

  19. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R 2  = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m 3 ha -1  ~14.13 Mg C ha -1 ) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R 2  = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha -1 ). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R 2 and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  20. Environmental impact assessment of wood ash utilization in forest road construction and maintenance--A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oburger, Eva; Jäger, Anna; Pasch, Alexander; Dellantonio, Alex; Stampfer, Karl; Wenzel, Walter W

    2016-02-15

    The ever increasing use of wood material as fuel for green energy production requires innovative, environmentally safe strategies for recycling of the remaining wood ash. Utilizing wood ash in forest road construction and maintenance to improve mechanical stability has been suggested as a feasible recycling option. To investigate the environmental impact of wood ash application in forest road maintenance, a two-year field experiment was conducted at two Austrian forest sites (Kobernausserwald (KO) (soil pH 5.5) and Weyregg (WE) (pH 7.7)) differing in their soil chemical properties. Two different ashes, one produced by grate incineration (GA) and the other by fluidized bed incineration in a mixture with 15 vol% burnt lime (FBA), were incorporated in repeated road sections at a 15:85% (V/V) ash-to-soil rate. Leaching waters from the road body were collected and analyzed for 32 environmentally relevant parameters over two years. Upon termination of the experiment, sub-road soil samples were collected and analyzed for ash-related changes in soil chemistry. Even though a larger number of parameters was affected by the ash application at the alkaline site (WE), we observed the most pronounced initial increases of pH as well as Al, As, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Mo, and NO2(−) concentrations in leachates beneath GA-treated road bodies at Kobernausserwald due to the lower soil buffer capacity at this site. Despite the observed effects our results indicate that, when specific requirements are met (i.e. appropriate ash quality, sufficient soil buffer capacity below the road body, and single time-point ash incorporation within several decades), wood ash application in forest road construction is generally environmentally acceptable.

  1. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy

  2. Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, S A; Burke, I C; Hobbs, N T

    2006-12-01

    Disturbances such as fire play a key role in controlling ecosystem structure. In fire-prone forests, organic detritus comprises a large pool of carbon and can control the frequency and intensity of fire. The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, where fire has been suppressed for a century, provide an ideal system for studying the long-term dynamics of detrital pools. Our objectives were (1) to quantify the long-term temporal dynamics of detrital pools; and (2) to determine to what extent present stand structure, topography, and soils constrain these dynamics. We collected data on downed dead wood, litter, duff (partially decomposed litter on the forest floor), stand structure, topographic position, and soils for 31 sites along a 160-year chronosequence. We developed a compartment model and parameterized it to describe the temporal trends in the detrital pools. We then developed four sets of statistical models, quantifying the hypothesized relationship between pool size and (1) stand structure, (2) topography, (3) soils variables, and (4) time since fire. We contrasted how much support each hypothesis had in the data using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). Time since fire explained 39-80% of the variability in dead wood of different size classes. Pool size increased to a peak as material killed by the fire fell, then decomposed rapidly to a minimum (61-85 years after fire for the different pools). It then increased, presumably as new detritus was produced by the regenerating stand. Litter was most strongly related to canopy cover (r2 = 77%), suggesting that litter fall, rather than decomposition, controls its dynamics. The temporal dynamics of duff were the hardest to predict. Detrital pool sizes were more strongly related to time since fire than to environmental variables. Woody debris peak-to-minimum time was 46-67 years, overlapping the range of historical fire return intervals (1 to > 100 years). Fires may therefore have burned under a

  3. Impact of European Union Timber Regulation on Forest Certification Strategies in the Finnish Wood Industry Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Holopainen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this explorative study is to find out how the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR has affected the forest and chain of custody (CoC certification strategies and practices among the Finnish wood industry companies. We are especially interested to find out whether more integrated strategies and collaborative networks have emerged for enhanced communications throughout the industry value chains. This qualitative interview study included both EUTR ex ante and ex post analysis, based on three rounds of managerial and expert interviews during 2011–2015. The results indicate that the EUTR appears to have enforced the supplier–client relations in the Finnish wood industry value chain. The sector still lacks integrated communication strategies with better understanding of customer and stakeholder values, which could contribute to more cohesive communication and marketing efforts reflecting the values of the whole industry. The certification practices are fairly spontaneously implemented following the traditional industry culture, which is not supportive of innovations and gaining competitive advantages in the broader material markets. Furthermore, the existence of two parallel forest certificates (Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC seems to hamper the effective communication and building of an image of sustainable wood products among customers and end consumers, groups that are also exposed to more general environmental communication, e.g., in the building material markets.

  4. A look at worldwide usage of residual wood for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrom, H.; Hall, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wood Resources International was established in 1987, offering on-site evaluation services of forest resources and forest industry developments in over 20 countries worldwide. This presentation reviewed residual wood markets in North America and Europe. Wood chip trade and wood pellet markets were also reviewed. It is estimated that more than 50 per cent of the wood harvested worldwide is used for heating and cooking. Although sawmill wood residue has been typically used for particle board manufacturing, the energy sector in North America and Europe is now competing for low cost residuals, including sawdust, shavings and wood chips. With demand for renewable resources increasing, district heating plants have revived an interest in collecting the nearly 35 per cent of biomass left behind after traditional clear cutting. This biomass represents branches, tops and stumps left behind after the roundwood has been removed. In Canada, demand for mill residuals has grown and wood pellet manufacturers have the opportunity to invest in capacity while continuing to produce competitively priced pellets for the European market. It is anticipated that in the next decade, large volumes of beetle-killed wood are going to be available in British Columbia for energy consumption, including wood pellet production. Prices for sawdust have doubled over the past 3 years as a result of increased competition. The biomass supply potential in the United States is 7 times the current consumption. There is an increased interest in bioenergy in California due to the declining lumber sector. As such, the use of forest and agricultural waste is on the rise, along with prices for wood residues. There has also been a large increase in demand for wood biomass in Europe over the past 5 years, resulting in higher costs of all wood fiber sources used for energy. By 2020, Europe has set a target that all energy should come from renewable energy sources, with a minimum of 10 per cent being biofuel for

  5. Thinning alternatives for forest management; Metsaenkasvatus ja harvennusvaihtoehdot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielikaeinen, K; Hirvelae, H; Haerkoenen, K; Malinen, J [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-11-01

    The amount of economically producible energy wood, the effects of energy wood harvesting on the development of forests, and the changes required by harvesting of energy wood on the forest processing instructions at the area of the Forestry Board of Central Ostrobothnia were investigated. The calculations were made using the Metsaelaskelma (Forest calculation) MELA program. At the energy wood production cost level 45 FIM/MWh, and when the energy wood competes with the industrial wood, the annual energy wood accumulation was about 120 000 m{sup 3}, which would be sufficient for three heating plants using about 100 000 m{sup 3} of chips annually. Even if the fellings of industrial wood would remain on the low level of the beginning of 1990`s the harvesting of energy wood would not become much higher than this. By harvesting of energy wood it is impossible to effect on the forestry state and the future development of the Finnish forests remarkably before the separate harvesting of energy wood becomes profitable. Harvesting of felling residues from spruce predominant final cutting sites and integrated harvesting of pine predominant first thinning forests would be more profitable harvesting methods than the separate harvesting. On the basis of the information on the future net income obtained from the forests, the harvesting of the energy wood seemed, however, to be a profitable alternative. Harvesting of energy wood was not observed to effect on the forest cultivation models remarkably because the harvesting of energy wood was just a small fragment of the complete forest processing chain (first thinning phase) studied, and the economical profitability controlled the thinnings strongly independently on where the wood was utilized. (author)

  6. Community-weighted mean of leaf traits and divergence of wood traits predict aboveground biomass in secondary subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Yan, En-Rong; Chang, Scott X; Cheng, Jun-Yang; Liu, Xiang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Subtropical forests are globally important in providing ecological goods and services, but it is not clear whether functional diversity and composition can predict aboveground biomass in such forests. We hypothesized that high aboveground biomass is associated with high functional divergence (FDvar, i.e., niche complementarity) and community-weighted mean (CWM, i.e., mass ratio; communities dominated by a single plant strategy) of trait values. Structural equation modeling was employed to determine the direct and indirect effects of stand age and the residual effects of CWM and FDvar on aboveground biomass across 31 plots in secondary forests in subtropical China. The CWM model accounted for 78, 20, 6 and 2% of the variation in aboveground biomass, nitrogen concentration in young leaf, plant height and specific leaf area of young leaf, respectively. The FDvar model explained 74, 13, 7 and 0% of the variation in aboveground biomass, plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf, respectively. The variation in aboveground biomass, CWM of leaf nitrogen concentration and specific leaf area, and FDvar of plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf explained by the joint model was 86, 20, 13, 7, 2 and 0%, respectively. Stand age had a strong positive direct effect but low indirect positive effects on aboveground biomass. Aboveground biomass was negatively related to CWM of nitrogen concentration in young leaf, but positively related to CWM of specific leaf area of young leaf and plant height, and FDvar of plant height, twig wood density and nitrogen concentration in young leaf. Leaf and wood economics spectra are decoupled in regulating the functionality of forests, communities with diverse species but high nitrogen conservative and light acquisitive strategies result in high aboveground biomass, and hence, supporting both the mass ratio and niche complementarity hypotheses in secondary subtropical forests

  7. Wood Polymer Composites Technology Supporting the Recovery and Protection of Tropical Forests: The Amazonian Phoenix Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio D. Nobre

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Rain Forest has attracted worldwide attention due its large scale services to climate and also due to the green house gas emissions arising from deforestation. Contributing to the later and detrimental to the former, timber logging in the region has very low efficiency (only 16% in the production chain. Such timber extraction, often referred to as selective logging, has been claimed as a sustainable extractive industry, because the forest is said to restore itself through regenerative growth. But forest regeneration in the Amazon occurs naturally only in a very limited scale, resulting that large scale, low efficiency logging poses a big treat to the functional integrity of the biome, supplying to the market only a fraction of what it could if done differently. So, instead of extracting big centennial logs from the forests, the Amazonian Phoenix project proposes that large expanses of degraded lands be reforested using pioneer plants species from the forest itself. These plants have the capacity to heal gaps in the canopy, being able to grow and produce woody biomass in very extreme conditions. The idea is to mimic the regenerative dynamics of the natural ecosystem in short cycle agrosilvicultural production areas, utilizing a variety of technologies to transform raw fibers from these fast growth native plants into a variety of materials with high aggregated value. This communication presents the research on natural fibers by the Polymeric Composites Group within the Amazonian Phoenix Project. Sustainable technologies employing materials with good and responsible ecological footprints are important and necessary stimulus for a change in the destructive economical activities present in the Amazon frontiers. The relatively well established wood polymer composites technology, for example, is a good candidate solution. Two research and development fields are proposed: the first one considers production systems with simple and cheap

  8. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m(-2) s(-1) in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0-1.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface

  9. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  10. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  11. Analysis of diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi retrieved from a Mediterranean forest dominated by Pinus pinaster Aiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Aguanno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a poorly investigated habitat: a Mediterranean forest dominated by maritime pine. The sampling area lies in Tocchi biogenetic Reserve, located in the province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy. The monitoring campaign was carried out in 10 permanents plots, taking note of all the fungal species found on each piece of dead wood, irrespective of size and stage of decay. Over one year of surveys, 56 taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi were recorded, among which 39 are corticoids species, 16 polypores and 1 Heterobasidiomycetes. The fungal community seems to be dominated by a small number of species, which are more abundant than the others. Moreover, there are some specific features of deadwood influencing the species composition, such as the presence of coarse woody debris at the first decay stage and fine woody debris at the late decay stages. The results allowed characterizing the wood-inhabiting fungal community in this forest reserve, broadening our knowledge on several species and providing a preliminary database for further studies in Mediterranean areas.

  12. Energy wood procurement in connection with conventional wood procurement; Energiapuun hankinnan organisointi muun puunhankinnan yhteydessae - PUUT02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The research consisted of two sub-projects. The present role of forestry associations in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the first sub- project. The possibilities and willingness of them to increase the energy wood procurement were also studied. The role of forest machine and forestry service entrepreneurs in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the second sub-project. The effects of energy wood procurement on the operation of the forest machine companies in general were also studied in this sub-project. The sub-project three studied the requirements of the customer companies for the energy wood suppliers. All the material of the sub-projects was collected by personal inquiries. According to the executive directors of the forestry associations the role of the forestry associations in energy wood procurement varied between a by-stander and active participant. Active forestry associations announced the companies for stands available for cutting. They told also that they directed the harvesting to correct sites and deliver stems at the roadside. The role of the forestry association was emphasised especially when the associations on the basis of a letter of attorney carried out the timber trade. It was estimated that in the near future the operation of forest machine entrepreneurs in harvesting of energy wood would increase significantly. From the employment and turnover point of view the role of harvesting of energy wood was not seen as a significant matter. On the other hand, that harvesting of energy wood impede the harvesting of commercial timber was seen as a more significant matter. In the future the end-users of energy wood would like to have more competition in the energy wood markets. However, the energy wood suppliers were desired to be relative large so that the reliability of deliveries could be ensured. Simultaneously as the end-users wanted to decrease the price of forest chips, the machine entrepreneurs estimated the price to

  13. Acoustic assessment of wood quality of raw forest materials : a path to increased profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Peter Carter; Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the quality of raw wood materials has become a crucial issue in the operational value chain as forestry and the wood processing industry are increasingly under economic pressure to maximize extracted value. A significant effort has been devoted toward developing robust nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies capable of predicting the intrinsic wood...

  14. Estimating potentials of solid wood-based fuels in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, Kalle; Raesaenen, Tapio; Pajuoja, Heikki (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Elo, Juha; Lahtinen, Perttu (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-07-15

    In the context of the Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy, it is estimated that the primary use of woodbased fuels in Finland will be 93 to 97 TWh by the year 2020. The overall target set for forest chips is 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh. The objective of the research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy was to produce as realistic as possible a total analysis of the possibilities of increasing the usage of wood-based fuels in Finland by 2020. The research showed that the growth objective set in the Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy can be attained through the supply and demand of wood-based fuels. However, realizing this potential would require major investments in the entire forest chip production system, because the competitiveness of wood-based fuels in energy generation is currently not at a sufficient level. Considering the huge resources required by the forest chip production system and the current low competitiveness of forest chips, it is estimated that the use of forest chips in Finland will reach the level of 20 TWh at the earliest by the year 2020

  15. ¹H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoruk, Tara M; Hartley, Ian D; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-12-31

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  16. Forest biomass and energy-wood potential in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, J.R. [Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Timber resource data were compiled from the most recent USDA Forest Service inventory data for the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. Timber resource inventories traditionally include only trees 5 inches dbh and greater and their volumes to the prevailing merchantable top diameter expressed in cubic feet, board feet, or cords. For this paper, conversion factors were developed to express timber inventories in weight and to expand the inventories to include the crowns of merchantable trees and trees less than 5 inches dbh. By so doing, the total aboveground biomass is estimated for the timberlands in the South. The region contains 185 million acres of timberland. Some 14.6 billion green tons of woody biomass are present on southern timberland -- about 79 tons per acre. When mature stands are harvested, the average acre in the South has 22.2 tons of woody material left in crowns and sapling, and 5.1 tons in cull stems. Thus, an average of 27.3 green tons per acre of potential energy wood are left after conventional harvests. Conversion factors that are presented permit estimates for specific tracts, areas, counties, or states.

  17. Commercialization and marketing of non-wood forest products in Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of return to nature and its original values is increasingly common worldwide in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. In this context, it is particularly important to pay attention to organic products, as well as the increased demand for healthy food. In these circumstances non-wood forest products (NWFPs emerge as forestry products that meet the criteria of organic farming and as such are placed on the market. The aim of this research was to acquire knowledge about the behavior of the marketing mix elements of NWFPs in Central Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2011. The purpose of this paper was to point to the opportunities for the development of enterprises, and the overall potential of Serbia for the development of companies engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs. The research object were the quantities of products purchased and placed on both domestic and foreign markets, the types of promotional activities, the prices of final products and distribution of the products among the enterprises engaged in purchasing, processing and placement of NWFPs in Central Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji

  18. Wood energy in Eucalyptus forest; A energia da madeira em floresta de eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Maziero, Felipe Luiz [Faculdadede Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), Borucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to address the energy productivity of forest density. In an area of dystrophic, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dose is equivalent to 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn, the doses were the two three double and four times the dose 1. The spacings were 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8 x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, sample trees were harvested to analyze the gross calorific value of wood with bark. An evaluation of economic viability was based on the sale of briquettes. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8x1.0 m with level 2. The average values of calorific value were between 4717 and 4862 kcal/kg. The greatest potential energy was 109,845 kcal/tree obtained at spacing 2.8x2.5 m, with 3 doses of fertilization, but was similar to two doses. The highest yield was 316 Gcal/ha, in treating 2.8x0.5 m with higher fertilizer application. (author)

  19. Login wood. Logistic for the Treatment of Forest Biomass; Loginwood. Logistica para el tratamiento de biomasa forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Sanchez, R.; Ayala Schraemili, F.

    2008-07-01

    This paper is about developing a logistic for the treatment of the forest prunes, including specific machines so far. Collecting, treatment, and transportation of forest biomass residues to valuation energy plant. Key words: collecting, treatment, transportation of forest prunes. (Author)

  20. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  1. Adapting Chinese Forest Operations to Socio-Economic Developments: What is the Potential of Plantations for Strengthening Domestic Wood Supply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Hoffmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, China’s forestry sector went through a transition phase characterized by a management and institutional reform process, with a constant rethinking of the ecological and societal role of forests within a unique political system. Nevertheless, despite impressive achievements in forest restoration and conservation efforts, the enhancement of ecosystem services and forest area expansion through plantation development, China was not able to improve its domestic timber supply capacities according to its demands. Consequently, the continually growing wood processing industry is facing a severe demand-and-supply gap, causing high dependencies on timber imports. Outdated forest operations practices, dominated by manual labour, are not able to meet supply demands or to implement new silvicultural strategies for enhancing forest quality and productivity and are a widely unnoted disruption of a sustainable development. Therefore, this review presents the status quo of China’s forest operations sector, how it is shaped by forest policy reforms and recent socio-economic developments. In addition, suggestions are developed how the sector can progress through policy adaptations in order to develop sustainable timber supply capacities based on a domestic plantation sector.

  2. Demand and supply of wood fuels in the emission trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta, T.; Lahtinen, P.; Laitila, J.

    2005-01-01

    The emission trade according to the EU directive on greenhouse gas emission allowance started at the beginning of the year 2005. This will boost the demand for wood fuels because of the addition-al value of CO 2 neutrality compared to fossil fuels. This bulletin covers the development of the demand and supply of wood fuels from 2002 to 2010 both at a national and a provincial level. The demand and supply balance of wood fuels will be evaluated both without the effect of emission trade and when the emission trade price level is 20 euro/ton- CO 2 for emission rights in 2010. The evaluations of fuel consumption for individual boilers were made with the help of the databases of Electrowatt-Ekono Ltd. The demand for wood fuels was estimated to double by the year 2010, being almost 50 TWh. The share of forest chips of the demand was one third, i.e. 17 TWh. The supply potential was divided into forest chips and solid by-products from forest industry. Forest chip sources included small diameter wood from young forests and logging residues and stumps from re-generation felling sites. The supply potential calculations of logging residues and stump biomass were based on databases of regeneration felling stands. The biomass potential from small diamreter wood was evaluated on the basis of field measurements of NFI 8 and 9 at a provincial level and multi-source data at a municipal level. In 2010, the supply potential of by-products was estimated to be 28 TWh of which 11 TWh was marketable out-side of the internal use of forest industry. Correspondingly, the theoretical potential of forest chips was estimated to be 51 TWh and the techno-economical potential 24 TWh. As a result of the regional optimization model, the energy use of wood fuels was 29 TWh, which was 59 % of the potential demand. In emission trade the demand was 33 TWh, which was 68 % of the potential demand. Regionally, the potential demand for wood fuels for energy use was higher than the supply in all provinces

  3. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Yang; Ruth D. Yanai; Charles T. Driscoll; Mario Montesdeoca; Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar...

  4. The effects of a western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component in relation to ownership in forests of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Azuma

    2010-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis data were used to investigate the effects of a severe western spruce budworm outbreak on the dead wood component of forests in 11 counties of eastern Oregon for two time periods. The ownership and the level of damage (as assessed by aerial surveys) affected the resulting down woody material and standing dead trees. The pattern of coarse...

  5. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...

  6. Use of non wood forest products by local people bordering the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi", Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belem, Bassirou; Nacoulma, Blandine M I; Gbangou, Roland

    2007-01-01

    this issue in the case of the "Parc National Kaboré Tambi" in Burkina Faso, byproposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products, analyse...... people. As a consequence, approaches of participatory planning of forest management schemes have become necessary. A major challenge has been the issue of how to (use?) scientific knowledge and local knowledge in the most appropriate way. This article provides an account of a contribution to addressing...... in the park Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), although the Forest Code bans free access. About one hundred plants species are used, but the pattern of extraction of the productsor some plant parts could destroy the resource base. Technically, conservation by domestication of thesource species and improved...

  7. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  8. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  9. Wood energy x 2 - Scenario for the development of wood energy use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This study for the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscapes (SAEFL) and the Swiss wood-energy association (Holzenergie Schweiz) presents the results of a scenario-study that examined if, and under what conditions, doubling the use of wood energy in Switzerland could help reach carbon dioxide reduction targets. Two scenarios are presented that are based on high and low rates of growth for the number of automatic wood-chipping or pellets-fired installations. For both scenarios, figures are presented on the amount of wood used and the heating energy generated. The political and financial prerequisites for the scenarios are discussed and other boundary conditions are defined. The report draws conclusions from the study of the two scenarios and summarises the political action deemed necessary

  10. Wood for energy production. Technology - environment - economy[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serup, H.; Falster, H.; Gamborg, C. [and others

    1999-07-01

    'Wood for Energy Production', 2nd edition, is a readily understood guide to the application of wood in the Danish energy supply. The first edition was named 'Wood Chips for Energy Production'. It describes the wood fuel from forest to consumer and provides a concise introduction to technological, environmental, and financial matters concerning heating systems for farms, institutions, district heating plants, and CHP plants. The individual sections deal with both conventional, well known technology, as well as the most recent technological advances in the field of CHP production. The purpose of this publication is to reach the largest possible audiance, and it is designed so that the layman may find its background information of special relevance. 'Wood for Energy Production' is also available in German and Danish. (au)

  11. Commercialization of non-wood forest products on the territory of AP Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous utilization of natural resources in forestry as an economic activity, timber exploitation was always the dominant part, and the utilization of other forest products was partly neglected. Nowadays, non-wood forest products (NWFPs occupy an increasingly significant position in the forestry sector in numerous countries, so that the revenue from their utilization approaches the returns realized by the classical production of timber products. The research performed in Vojvodina, on the sample of six enterprises dealing with NWFP purchase, processing and sale was aimed at the analysis of their market activities to create the image of the market of this group of products. After the study data were analyzed by dynamic statistical methods, the changes in the activities on purchase, the domestic sales and export sales between 2004 and 2010 were presented and future projects were visualized. The research in the form of questionnaire included the quantities of purchased raw materials, the scope of production and sales, both in the domestic, and in foreign markets, as well as the prices of final products. Some species of medicinal plants were purchased on the territories of Croatia and Macedonia, and the purchasing network in the domestic market was remarkably wide and it included predominantly: Niš, Svrljig, Čoka, Apatin, Pančevo, Ruma, Boljevac, Kanjiža, etc. The most significant growth was realised in the purchase of a mixture of medicinal plants. Also significant are the purchased quantities of mint, which on average increased by 7.9 t and rose hip by 5.5 t per year. During the study period, the domestic sale of all species of herbal teas and medicinal plants increased significantly, while spices and honey were subject to a fluctuation in sales quantity. Average algebraic deviation of the original final NWFP sale value from the arithmetic mean accounts for 3.48%. With the significance level of 95%, it is estimated that the sale in

  12. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  13. Certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European union legislations: Current situation, problems and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of the current situation in the area of certification of forests and wood products in Serbia in the context of new European Union legislation referring to the placement of wood and wood products on this market. The objective of the research was to observe the situation, phases which Serbia implemented in the process of forest and wood products certification until now, as well as the problems and challenges the companies in this process face. Based on research results, future development of the market of certified wood products in Serbia was assessed and the proposal of measures which should be realized in order for Serbia to become a country whose companies will be ready for the moment when provisions and measures of the new EU legislation become effective was given. The selection of the abovementioned objective was conditioned by the fact that from January 1st, 2013 new legislation takes effect, with significantly stricter terms for the placement of wood and wood products from other countries on this market. One of the conditions which will have to be fulfilled by the companies wishing to export their products on this market refers to proving their origin. Since the EU is the most significant market for wood products exported from Serbia, fulfillment of the stated and other terms from the new EU legislation is of great importance to Serbian companies. Until the beginning of September 2010, only 387,000 ha were certified, namely 17.2% of the total area under forests. In the same period, only 33 wood processing companies in Serbia possessed CoC certificates for their products. Such a small number of companies possessing certificates for their wood products compared to competitive neighboring countries can represent a serious limitation in achieving their satisfactory competitiveness on the EU market in the following period.

  14. The effect of wood ash fertilization on soil respiration and tree stand growth in boreal peatland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Maarit; Maljanen, Marja; Hytönen, Jyrki

    2017-04-01

    Out of Finland's original 10 million hectares of peatlands over half has been drained for forestry. Natural peatlands act as a sink for carbon but when peatland is drained, increased oxygen concentration in the peat accelerates the aerobic decomposition of the old organic matter of the peat leading to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to atmosphere. Increasing use of bioenergy increases also the amount of ash produced as a byproduct in power plants. Wood ash contains all essential nutrients for trees to grow except nitrogen. Therefore, wood ash is ideal fertilizer for nitrogen rich peatland forests where lack of phosphorus or potassium may restrict tree growth. At the moment, wood ash is the only available PK-fertilizer for peatland forests in Finland and areas of peatland forests fertilized with ash are increasing annually. The effects of wood ash on vegetation, soil properties and tree growth are rather well known although most of the studies have been made using fine ash whereas nowadays mostly stabilized ash (e.g. granulated) is used. Transporting and spreading of stabilized ash is easier than that of dusty fine ash. Also, slower leaching rate of nutrients is environmentally beneficial and prolongs the fertilizer effect. The knowledge on the impact of granulated wood ash on greenhouse gas emissions is still very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of granulated wood ash on CO2 emissions from peat and tree stand growth. Field measurements were done in two boreal peatland forests in 2011 and 2012. One of the sites is more nutrient rich with soil carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 18 whereas the other site is nutrient poor with C/N ratio of 82. Both sites were fertilized with granulated wood ash in 2003 (5000 kg ha-1). The effect of fertilization was followed with tree stand measurements conducted 0, 5 and 10 years after the fertilization. The CO2 emissions of the decomposing peat (heterotrophic respiration) were measured from study plots where

  15. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  16. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  17. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  18. Modeling the impacts of wood pellet demand on forest dynamics in southeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duden, Anna S.; Verweij, Pita A.; Junginger, H. Martin; Abt, Robert C.; Henderson, Jesse D.; Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Karssenberg, Derek; Verstegen, Judith A.; Faaij, André P.C.; van der Hilst, Floor

    2017-01-01

    The export of wood pellets from the southeastern United States (USA) has grown significantly in recent years, following rising demand from Europe. Increased wood pellet demand could lead to spatially variable changes in timberland management and area in the USA. This study presents an assessment of

  19. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  20. Wood-energy market impact on competition, procurement practices, and profitability of landowners and forest products industry in the U.S. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Joseph L. IV.; Bolding, M. Chad; Smith, Robert L.; Aust, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent emphasis on producing energy from woody biomass has raised questions about the impact of a wood-energy market on the U.S. South's wood supply chain. We surveyed wood-energy facilities, fibermills, sawmills, private landowners, and government landholders to investigate the expected impact of a vibrant wood-energy market on the southern wood supply chain. Specifically, our study was designed to document potential competition for resources, wood supply chain profitability, and landowner willingness to sell timber to energy facilities. Results indicate that wood-energy facilities and traditional mills were not competing for raw material on a large scale at the time of the study, but competition is expected over the next decade. Almost 90% of fibermills reported that traditional forest industry mills should enter the wood-energy market, but most were skeptical that the new market would improve profitability. Ninety percent of responding landowners reported a willingness to sell to energy facilities if the right price is offered and all of those who had already sold timber to an energy facility were satisfied with the experience. Only 3.5% of respondents were unwilling to sell timber to an energy company, and only one of these respondents listed timber production as a primary objective, which indicates those who would not harvest timber for energy, may be unlikely to harvest timber for other purposes also. This study suggests that the southern wood supply chain is in position to profit from a wood-energy market; however, concerns remain about the coexistence of the forest products and wood-energy industries. (author)

  1. Startup and long-term performance of biotrickling filters packed with polyurethane foam and poplar wood chips treating a mixture of ethylmercaptan, H2S, and NH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J; Lafuente, J; Prado, O J; Gabriel, D

    2013-04-01

    Treatment of a mixture of NH3, H2S, and ethylmercaptan (EM) was investigated for more than 15 months in two biotrickling filters packed with poplar wood chips and polyurethane foam. Inlet loads ranging from 5 to 10 g N-NH3 m-3 hr-1, from 5 to 16 g S-H2S m-3 hr-1, and from 0 to 5 g EM m-3 hr-1 were applied. During startup, the biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam was re-inoculated due to reduced biomass retention as well as a stronger effect of nitrogen compounds inhibition compared with the biotrickling filter packed with poplar wood. Accurate pH control between 7 and 7.5 favored pollutants abatement. In the long run, complete NH3 removal in the gas phase was achieved in both reactors, while H2S removal efficiencies exceeded 90%. EM abatement was significantly different in both reactors. A systematically lower elimination capacity was found in the polyurethane foam bioreactor. N fractions in the liquid phase proved that high nitrification rates were reached throughout steady-state operation in both bioreactors. CO2 production showed the extent of the organic packing material degradation, which allowed estimating its service lifetime in around 2 years. In the long run, the bioreactor packed with the organic packing material had a lower stability. However, an economic analysis indicated that poplar wood chips are a competitive alternative to inorganic packing materials in biotrickling filters. We provide new insights in the use of organic packing materials in biotrickling filters for the treatment of H2S, NH3, and mercaptans and compare them with polyurethane foam, a packing commonly used in biotrickling filters. We found interesting features related with the startup of the reactors and parameterized both the performance under steady-state conditions and the influence of the gas contact time. We provide relevant conclusions in the profitability of organic packing materials under a biotrickling filter configuration, which is infrequent but proven reliable

  2. Estimating down dead wood from FIA forest inventory variables in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath

    2002-01-01

    Down deadwood (DDW) is a carbon component important in the function and structure of forest ecosystems, but estimating DDW is problematic because these data are not widely available in forest inventory databases. However, DDW data were collected on USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots during Maine's 1995 inventory. This study examines ways...

  3. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  4. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P; Tullus, H; Uri, V [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1997-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  5. Estimated Hardwood Volume Available for Wood Chipmills or Other Low Grade Uses

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The potential of wood chip mills to influence the distribution of harvests and the dynamics of wood fiber utilization has become an issue of concern. Where wood chip...

  6. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  7. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  8. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  9. Distribution of radionuclides in soil samples from a petrified wood forest in El-Qattamia, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.; Abd-El Maksoud, T.M.; Abu-Zeid Hosnia, M.; El-Nagar, T.; Awad, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations and distribution of radionuclides in a petrified wood forest in El-Qattamia have been determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry to evaluate the environmental radioactivity. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 65.26±12.99, 23.66±0.95 and 146.33±1.50 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Data of the soil samples show evidence of possible deposition and accumulation of 137 Cs. The mean activity concentration of 137 Cs in the soil samples was 4.37±0.16 Bq kg -1 with a range of 0.00-35.70 Bq kg -1 . The measured activity concentration range of 137 Cs was compared with reported ranges in the literature from some of the other locations in the world. The radium-equivalent, dose rate in air and annual effective dose rate were evaluated. The mean activity concentrations of the γ-ray emissions from radionuclides in El-Qattamia petrified wood forest region were relatively low

  10. Crime in woods: role of law enforcement officers in national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne F. Tynon; Deborah J. Chavez; Joshua W. R. Baur

    2010-01-01

    This first nationwide study of US Forest Service (USFS) law enforcement officers (LEOs) examined respondents’ roles in the USFS, what they perceived as their highest work priority, and what their relationship with the rest of the USFS should be. Results show that LEOs believe they have a high priority for protecting forest users and they believe that National Forest...

  11. Making biodiversity a public problem – The case of dead wood in forests Making biodiversity a public problem – The case of dead wood in forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deuffic and Christophe Bouget

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available How did the issue of deadwood become an important part of management policies for forest biodiversity? The authors provide a number of answers on the emergence and inclusion of deadwood in management policies.How did the issue of biodiversity emerge? Why are certain categories of living beings ignored? How did the issue of deadwood land on the public-policy agenda? To answer these questions, we used the approach established by Trom and Zimmerman (2001, which identifies the necessary steps toward "institutionalisation" of a public problem, i.e. public criticism of a disturbance, objectivisation of the problem, networking of stakeholders and acceptance of the problem by stakeholders in the field. Using the example of efforts to conserve deadwood in forests, we show that placing an issue on the public agenda does not mean all aspects of biodiversity are involved. In addition, certain potential stakeholders such as forest owners are not inclined to adopt these policies. It is not that they contest the legitimacy of the policy, but rather the procedural aspects from which they feel excluded.

  12. Impact of initial spacing on yield per acre and wood quality of unthinned loblolly pine at age 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, III Clark; Richard F. Daniels; Lewis Jordan; Laurie Schimleck

    2010-01-01

    The market for southern pine first thinnings is soft. Thus, forest managers are planting at wider spacings, and using weed control and fertilization to grow chipping-saw and sawtimber trees in shorter rotations. A 21-year-old unthinned spacing study was sampled to determine the effect of initial spacing on wood quality and yield per acre of planted loblolly pine (

  13. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  14. Food, Paper, Wood, or Energy? Global Trends and Future Swedish Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Westholm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a futures study of international forest trends. The study, produced as part of the Swedish Future Forest program, focuses on global changes of importance for future Swedish forest use. It is based on previous international research, policy documents, and 24 interviews with selected key experts and/or actors related to the forest sector, and its findings will provide a basis for future research priorities. The forest sector, here defined as the economic, social, and cultural contributions to life and human welfare derived from forest and forest-based activities, faces major change. Four areas stand out as particularly important: changing energy systems, emerging international climate policies, changing governance systems, and shifting global land use systems. We argue that global developments are, and will be, important for future Swedish forest use. The forest sector is in transition and forest-, energy, climate- and global land use issues are likely to become increasingly intertwined. Therefore, the “forest sector” must be disembedded and approached as an open system in interplay with other systems.

  15. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Howard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of playground injuries, especially fractures, is prevalent in children, and can result in emergency room treatment and hospital admissions. Fall height and surface area are major determinants of playground fall injury risk. The primary objective was to determine if there was a difference in playground upper extremity fracture rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing versus granite sand surfacing. Secondary objectives were to determine if there were differences in overall playground injury rates or in head injury rates in school playgrounds with wood fibre surfacing compared to school playgrounds with granite sand surfacing.The cluster randomized trial comprised 37 elementary schools in the Toronto District School Board in Toronto, Canada with a total of 15,074 students. Each school received qualified funding for installation of new playground equipment and surfacing. The risk of arm fracture from playground falls onto granitic sand versus onto engineered wood fibre surfaces was compared, with an outcome measure of estimated arm fracture rate per 100,000 student-months. Schools were randomly assigned by computer generated list to receive either a granitic sand or an engineered wood fibre playground surface (Fibar, and were not blinded. Schools were visited to ascertain details of the playground and surface actually installed and to observe the exposure to play and to periodically monitor the depth of the surfacing material. Injury data, including details of circumstance and diagnosis, were collected at each school by a prospective surveillance system with confirmation of injury details through a validated telephone interview with parents and also through collection (with consent of medical reports regarding treated injuries. All schools were recruited together at the beginning of the trial, which is now closed after 2.5 years of injury data collection. Compliant schools included 12 schools randomized to Fibar that installed

  16. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SWOT-AHP as an inclusive analytical tool of the forest-wood-energy chain: the case study of the Sarntal (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodinoska N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the use of forest biomass for energy purpose is steadily increasing to tackle energy security issues and to mitigate climate change by stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. In Italy, the new National Energy Strategy established that the renewable energy must cover 20% of gross energy demand by 2020. In order to achieve this objective the forest biomass could be of fundamental importance. In this context of increasing extraction of wood residues from forests, it is relevant to analyse two key aspects: (1 the involvement of stakeholders in the strategy for the valorization of forest-wood-energy chain at local level; and (2 the potential impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on environment. This paper analyses these two aspects through the stakeholders’ opinions in a case study in the Alto Adige (Sarentino valley. Stakeholders’ opinions concerning the analysis of SWOT categories (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats of the bioenergy supply chain were investigated using the SWOT-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process approach. The results show that the local stakeholders emphasize some strengths (e.g., additional income over time for private forest owners and opportunities (e.g., development of shared forest management strategies among small forest owners of forest-wood-energy chain, and consider less relevant the weaknesses and threats. The results concerning one of most important potential threats - impacts on environment - show that all groups of stakeholders (public administrations, associations and NGO, research bodies and universities, and actors of rural sector consider positive the impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on recreational activities and negative on other three ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection, and biodiversity.

  18. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach &apos

  19. Strip thinning young hardwood forests: multi-functional management for wood, wildlife, and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Ashlee Martin

    2016-01-01

    Upland hardwood forests dominate the Appalachian landscape. However, early successional forests are limited. In WV and PA, for example, only 8 percent of the timberland is classified as seedling and sapling-sized. Typically no management occurs in these forests due to the high cost of treatment and the lack of marketable products. If bioenergy markets come to fruition...

  20. Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC of Wood Chips in a Semi-Commercial Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Using Manganese Ore as Bed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rydén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen Carrier Aided Combustion (OCAC is realized by using an active oxygen-carrying bed material in fluidized bed boilers. The active material is reduced in fuel rich parts of the boiler and oxidized in air rich parts. Advantages could be achieved such as new mechanisms for oxygen transport in space and time. Here calcined manganese ore has been used as active bed material in a 12 MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel was wood chips and the campaign lasted more than two weeks. From an operational point of view, manganese ore worked excellently. From the temperature profile of the boiler it can be concluded that fuel conversion was facilitated, especially in the dense bottom bed. The effect did not always translate to reduced emissions, which suggests that final combustion in the cyclone outlet was also influenced. Substituting 10% of the sand bed with manganese ore made it possible to reduce the air to fuel ratio without generating large amounts of CO. The use of 100% manganese ore resulted in higher emissions of CO than the sand reference, but, when combined sulphur feeding, dramatic reductions in CO emissions, up to 90% compared to sand reference, was achieved.

  1. Non-timber forest products marketing systems and market players in southwest Virginia: crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Greene; A.L. Hammett; S. Kant

    2000-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household income. Marketing system of crafts, medicinal and herbal, and specialty wood products are studied using exploratory and qualitative research methods. Fifty market players at various levels in marketing chains are interviewed to get the information on elements of...

  2. Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of buried wood as a function of organic matter removal, soil compaction, and vegetation control in a regenerating oak-pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; John M. Kabrick; Mary Beth Adams; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Marty F. Jurgensen

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss and nutrient concentrations of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) wood stakes were measured 30 months after their burial in the upper 10 cm of soil in a regenerating forest after harvesting and soil disturbance. Disturbance treatments were two levels of organic matter (OM) removal (only...

  3. Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert; Shahrammehr, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips and particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips and particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.

  4. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Zrůstová, Petra; Vrška, T.; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 12 (2017), č. článku fix157. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27454S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * dead wood * decomposition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  5. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  6. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  7. Forest Inventory-based Projection Systems for Wood and Biomass Availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreiro, Susana; Schelhaas, M.; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Kändler, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Well-managed forests and woodlands are a renewable resource, producing essential
    raw material with minimum waste and energy use. Rich in habitat and species diversity, forests may contribute to increased ecosystem stability. They can absorb the effects of unwanted deposition and other

  8. Respiration of wood ant nest material affected by material and forest stand characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Domisch, T.; Hořická, Zuzana; Frouz, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2013), s. 1193-1197 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Formica aquilonia * birch forest * pine forest * moisture * carbon content Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2013

  9. Integrating concerns about wood production and sustainable forest management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Haynes

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in the United States is strongly influenced by U.S. forest products markets and the numerous management decisions made by individual landowners and managers. These decisions are influenced by a mix of market incentives and regulatory actions reducing predictability in assessing progress towards SFM and causing...

  10. Climate seasonality limits leaf carbon assimilation and wood productivity in tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Fabien H.; Hérault, Bruno; Bonal, Damien; Stahl, Clément; Anderson, Liana O.; Baker, Timothy R.; Becker, Gabriel Sebastian; Beeckman, Hans; Boanerges Souza, Danilo; Botosso, Paulo Cesar; Bowman, David M.J.S.; Bräuning, Achim; Brede, Benjamin; Brown, Foster Irving; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Cardoso, Fernanda C.G.; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim; Castro, Wendeson; Chagas, Rubens Koloski; Chave, Jérome; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Clark, Deborah A.; Costa, Flavia Regina Capellotto; Couralet, Camille; Silva Mauricio, Da Paulo Henrique; Dalitz, Helmut; Castro, De Vinicius Resende; Freitas Milani, De Jaçanan Eloisa; Oliveira, De Edilson Consuelo; Souza Arruda, De Luciano; Devineau, Jean-Louis; Drew, David M.; Dünisch, Oliver; Durigan, Giselda; Elifuraha, Elisha; Fedele, Marcio; Ferreira Fedele, Ligia; Figueiredo Filho, Afonso; Finger, César Augusto Guimarães; Franco, Augusto César; Freitas Júnior, João Lima; Galvão, Franklin; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Gliniars, Robert; Lima De Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício; Griffiths, Anthony D.; Grogan, James; Guan, Kaiyu; Homeier, Jürgen; Kanieski, Maria Raquel; Kho, Lip Khoon; Koenig, Jennifer; Kohler, Sintia Valerio; Krepkowski, Julia; Lemos-filho, José Pires; Lieberman, Diana; Lieberman, Milton Eugene; Lisi, Claudio Sergio; Longhi Santos, Tomaz; López Ayala, José Luis; Maeda, Eduardo Eijji; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maria, Vivian R.B.; Marques, Marcia C.M.; Marques, Renato; Maza Chamba, Hector; Mbwambo, Lawrence; Melgaço, Karina Liana Lisboa; Mendivelso, Hooz Angela; Murphy, Brett P.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Okada, Naoki; Pélissier, Raphaël; Prior, Lynda D.; Roig, Fidel Alejandro; Ross, Michael; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Rossi, Vivien; Rowland, Lucy; Rutishauser, Ervan; Santana, Hellen; Schulze, Mark; Selhorst, Diogo; Silva, Williamar Rodrigues; Silveira, Marcos; Spannl, Susanne; Swaine, Michael D.; Toledo, José Julio; Toledo, Marcos Miranda; Toledo, Marisol; Toma, Takeshi; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Valdez Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Verbesselt, Jan; Vieira, Simone Aparecida; Vincent, Grégoire; Volkmer De Castilho, Carolina; Volland, Franziska; Worbes, Martin; Zanon, Magda Lea Bolzan; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C.

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal climate drivers of the carbon cycle in tropical forests remain poorly known, although these forests account for more carbon assimilation and storage than any other terrestrial ecosystem. Based on a unique combination of seasonal pan-tropical data sets from 89 experimental sites (68

  11. Drivers of aboveground wood production in a lowland tropical forest of West Africa: teasing apart the roles of tree density, tree diversity, soil phosphorus, and historical logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucker, Tommaso; Sanchez, Aida Cuni; Lindsell, Jeremy A; Allen, Harriet D; Amable, Gabriel S; Coomes, David A

    2016-06-01

    Tropical forests currently play a key role in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle and abating climate change by storing carbon in wood. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether tropical forests will continue to act as carbon sinks in the face of increased pressure from expanding human activities. Consequently, understanding what drives productivity in tropical forests is critical. We used permanent forest plot data from the Gola Rainforest National Park (Sierra Leone) - one of the largest tracts of intact tropical moist forest in West Africa - to explore how (1) stand basal area and tree diversity, (2) past disturbance associated with past logging, and (3) underlying soil nutrient gradients interact to determine rates of aboveground wood production (AWP). We started by statistically modeling the diameter growth of individual trees and used these models to estimate AWP for 142 permanent forest plots. We then used structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect pathways which shape rates of AWP. Across the plot network, stand basal area emerged as the strongest determinant of AWP, with densely packed stands exhibiting the fastest rates of AWP. In addition to stand packing density, both tree diversity and soil phosphorus content were also positively related to productivity. By contrast, historical logging activities negatively impacted AWP through the removal of large trees, which contributed disproportionately to productivity. Understanding what determines variation in wood production across tropical forest landscapes requires accounting for multiple interacting drivers - with stand structure, tree diversity, and soil nutrients all playing a key role. Importantly, our results also indicate that logging activities can have a long-lasting impact on a forest's ability to sequester and store carbon, emphasizing the importance of safeguarding old-growth tropical forests.

  12. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Schultze, Sabrina; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Biuw, Martin; Kapari, Lauri; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2014-01-01

    Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects). Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  13. Numerical responses of saproxylic beetles to rapid increases in dead wood availability following geometrid moth outbreaks in sub-arctic mountain birch forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Laksforsmo Vindstad

    Full Text Available Saproxylic insects play an important part in decomposing dead wood in healthy forest ecosystems, but little is known about their role in the aftermath of large-scale forest mortality caused by pest insect outbreaks. We used window traps to study short-term changes in the abundance and community structure of saproxylic beetles following extensive mortality of mountain birch in sub-arctic northern Norway caused by an outbreak of geometrid moths. Three to five years after the outbreak, the proportion of obligate saproxylic individuals in the beetle community was roughly 10% higher in forest damaged by the outbreak than in undamaged forest. This was mainly due to two early-successional saproxylic beetle species. Facultative saproxylic beetles showed no consistent differences between damaged and undamaged forest. These findings would suggest a weak numerical response of the saproxylic beetle community to the dead wood left by the outbreak. We suggest that species-specific preferences for certain wood decay stages may limit the number of saproxylic species that respond numerically to an outbreak at a particular time, and that increases in responding species may be constrained by limitations to the amount of dead wood that can be exploited within a given timeframe (i.e. satiation effects. Low diversity of beetle species or slow development of larvae in our cold sub-arctic study region may also limit numerical responses. Our study suggests that saproxylic beetles, owing to weak numerical responses, may so far have played a minor role in decomposing the vast quantities of dead wood left by the moth outbreak.

  14. Coniferous tree plantations in forest conditions-economic analysis of dedicated and semi-dedicated pathways to increase wood production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Richter, Claudine; Cailly, Priscilla; Deleuze, Christine; Berthelot, Alain

    2015-01-01

    To meet growing demand for wood, particularly softwoods, the authors study a number of new silvicultural pathways for planting 3 species: Douglas fir, spruce and maritime pine. The goal of these pathways is to achieve specialised production of either industrial and workable timber, or a mixture of industrial and workable timber with medium-diameter workable timber. Pathways of this type have already been standardised for hardwoods, generally on fertile farmland. In a less fertile forest context, softwoods have a significant potential for woody production but specialized pathways and their profitability have yet to be studied. This article describes the innovative work being done to construct and simulate profitable production, new potential pathways, where plantation density, rotation time, the level of fertility are made to vary using the data from the FCBA test network in conjunction with the FCBA growth models (Oasis for spruce and Douglas fir, Sylveco for maritime pine). Economic data is derived from auction sales statistics and the ONF management and forestry work costs for the period 2012-2015. The Economics module developed by FCBA and ONF on the Capsis platform in the framework of the ICI project (Futurol) was used for the economic simulations. The analyses show that compared to conventional pathways, these pathways generally increase productivity but are nonetheless less profitable than current economic assumptions, although results vary according to species, fertility and the particular pathway. The sensitivity study shows that variations in the price of wood could alter the performance ratings as between conventional and specialised pathways. (authors)

  15. Life cycle assessment of mountain forest wood fuel supply chains : case studies from Norway and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Valente, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about the fast growth in greenhouse gas emissions have encouraged several countries to increase their use of renewable energy. According to the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED), 20% of all the energy production in the EU should come from renewable energy sources by 2020. Woody biomass can be one choice within bioenergy for mitigating climate change if replacing fossil fuels. However, the demand for wood fuels has increased recently, and in Europe, the demand is predicted to exce...

  16. Modeling the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on wood production and carbon storage: A case study in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Francesca; Pesola, Lucia; Vizzarri, Matteo; Antonello, Leonardo; Barbati, Anna; Chirici, Gherardo; Corona, Piermaria; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Garfì, Vittorio; Giannico, Vincenzo; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Lombardi, Fabio; Marchetti, Marco; Nocentini, Susanna; Riccioli, Francesco; Travaglini, Davide; Sallustio, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are fundamental for the terrestrial biosphere as they deliver multiple essential ecosystem services (ES). In environmental management, understanding ES distribution and interactions and assessing the economic value of forest ES represent future challenges. In this study, we developed a spatially explicit method based on a multi-scale approach (MiMoSe-Multiscale Mapping of ecoSystem services) to assess the current and future potential of a given forest area to provide ES. To do this we modified and improved the InVEST model in order to adapt input data and simulations to the context of Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Specifically, we integrated a GIS-based model, scenario model, and economic valuation to investigate two ES (wood production and carbon sequestration) and their trade-offs in a test area located in Molise region (Central Italy). Spatial information and trade-off analyses were used to assess the influence of alternative forest management scenarios on investigated services. Scenario A was designed to describe the current Business as Usual approach. Two alternative scenarios were designed to describe management approaches oriented towards nature protection (scenario B) or wood production (scenario C) and compared to scenario A. Management scenarios were simulated at the scale of forest management units over a 20-year time period. Our results show that forest management influenced ES provision and associated benefits at the regional scale. In the test area, the Total Ecosystem Services Value of the investigated ES increases 85% in scenario B and decreases 82% in scenario C, when compared to scenario A. Our study contributes to the ongoing debate about trade-offs and synergies between carbon sequestration and wood production benefits associated with socio-ecological systems. The MiMoSe approach can be replicated in other contexts with similar characteristics, thus providing a useful basis for the projection of benefits from forest

  17. Legal Harvesting, Sustainable Sourcing and Cascaded Use of Wood for Bioenergy: Their Coverage through Existing Certification Frameworks for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sikkema

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this paper was to provide an inventory of developments of certification schemes for sustainable biomass production, following recent EU legislation (both formalized and under development. One main pillar is the EU Timber Regulation for legal harvesting; a second one is the EU’s 2010 recommendations for sustainable woody biomass sourcing for energy; the third one is the EU Waste Directive. The second objective was to benchmark the coverage of this (draft legislation, when wood product certificates for sustainable forest management (SFM are used as proof of the related legislative requirements. We studied North America, as it is a major biomass supplier to the EU-28. Together with existing forest legislation in the US and Canada, SFM certificates are actively used to cover the EU’s (draft legislation. However, North American forests are only partially certified with fibers coming from certified forests; these are referred to as forest management (FM fibers. Other certified fibers should come from complementary risk assessments downstream in the supply chain (risk based fibers. Our benchmark concludes that: (a FM fiber certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC and the Program for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC international standards show the highest level of coverage with EU’s (draft legislation; (b There is insufficient coverage for risk based fibers by FSC Controlled Wood (FSC-CW, PEFC Due Diligence (PEFC-DD, or SFI-fiber sourcing (SFI-FS. Other weaknesses identified for elaboration are: (c Alignment in definitions are needed, such as for primary forest, high carbon stock, and wood waste (cascading; (d Imperfect mass balance (fiber check downstream needs to be solved, as non-certified fiber flows are inadequately monitored; (e Add-on of a GHG calculation tool is needed, as GHG life cycle reporting is not covered by any of the SFM frameworks.

  18. Making biodiversity a public problem – The case of dead wood in forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEUFFIC, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available How did the issue of deadwood become an important part of management policies for forest biodiversity? The authors provide a number of answers on the emergence and inclusion of deadwood in management policies.

  19. Modeling the Effect of Geomorphic Change Triggered by Large Wood Addition on Salmon Habitat in a Forested Coastal Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, R.; Segura, C.; Lorion, C.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood (LW) additions are often part of fish habitat restorations in the PNW where historic forest clear-cutting limited natural wood recruitment. These efforts' relative successes are rarely reported in terms of ecological significance to different life stages of fish. Understanding the effectiveness of LW additions will contribute to successfully managing forest land. In this study we quantify the geomorphic change of a restoration project involving LW additions to three alluvial reaches in Mill Creek, OR. The reaches are 110-130m in plane-bed morphology and drain 2-16km2. We quantify the change in available habitat to different life stages of coho salmon in terms of velocity (v), shear stress (t), flow depth, and grain size distributions (GSD) considering existing thresholds in the literature for acceptable habitat. Flow conditions before and after LW additions are assessed using a 2D hydrodynamic model (FaSTMECH). Model inputs include detailed channel topography, discharge, and surface GSD. The spatial-temporal variability of sediment transport was also quantified based the modeled t distributions and the GSD to document changes in the overall geomorphic regime. Initial modeling results for pre wood conditions show mean t and v values ranging between 0 and 26N/m2 and between 0 and 2.4m/s, respectively for up to bankfull flow (Qbf). The distributions of both t and v become progressively wider and peak at higher values as flow increases with the notable exception at Qbf for which the area of low velocity increases noticeably. The spatial distributions of velocity results indicates that the extent of suitable habitat for adult coho decreased by 18% between flows 30 and 55% of BF. However the area of suitable habitat increased by 15% between 0.55Qbf and Qbf as the flow spreads from the channel into the floodplain. We expect the LW will enhance floodplain connectivity and thus available habitat by creating additional areas of low v during winter flows.

  20. Bee pollen as non-wood forest product in the eastern Andean highlands of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín José Chamorro García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Andean forests of the Eastern Andean high-lands of Colombia have a high conservation priority given the vulnerable condition of species such as Quercus humboldtii (Fagaceae that inhabit these ecosystems. Beekeeping is regarded as an alternative activity that could play a role in the conservation of Andean forests, but little is known about how the floras of these ecosystems contribute to honey and bee pollen production. We analyzed the contribution of Andean forests to bee pollen production, given the productive potential and commercial importance of this product. Pollen analyses were performed on 25 samples from apiaries near Andean forests located in the states of Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander. We found that Q. humboldtii is an important source of pollen with high potential for monofloral bee pollen production. In addition, bees collect pollen from other Andean forests species such as Weinmannia tomentosa, Viburnum spp. and Morella spp. Utilization of bee pollen could lead to incentives to carry out forest conservation practices through beekeeping management.

  1. Changes in SOM composition and stability to microbial degradation over time in response to wood chip ash fertilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Saarsalmi, Anna; Peltre, Clement

    2016-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) analysis of bulk soil samples. Ash fertilisation of forest soils affected SOM composition in the O-horizon, but not in the top 5 cm of the mineral soil. The pH and biodegradability of SOM were increased in the O-horizon. The changes in SOM composition consisted of enrichment of Fe...... in Denmark, where ash had been spread at different times. Changes in SOM biodegradability were estimated based on an incubation experiment, expressed as percentage of initial carbon. Changes in SOM composition were characterised using thermal analysis and Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic......- and Al-oxides/hydroxides, depletion of carboxylic and aromatic groups and lower thermal stability in soils with older and greater ash application. Ash fertilisation increased soil pH, either right after ash application or through a buffering effect of the ash on acidification caused by decomposing...

  2. Distribution of dead wood volume and mass in mediterranean Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Northern Iberian Peninsula. Implications for field sampling inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, C.; Monleon, V.J.; Gómez, N.; Bravo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to 1) estimate the amount of dead wood in managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands in northern Iberian Peninsula and 2) evaluate the most appropriate volume equation and the optimal transect length for sampling downed wood. Area of study: The study area is the Aralar Forest in Navarra (Northern Iberian Peninsula). Material and methods: The amount of dead wood by component (downed logs, snags, stumps and fine woody debris) was inventoried in 51 plots across a chronosequence of stand ages (0-120 years old). Main results: The average volume and biomass of dead wood was 24.43 m3 ha-1 and 7.65 Mg ha-1, respectively. This amount changed with stand development stage [17.14 m3 ha-1 in seedling stage; 34.09 m3 ha-1 inpole stage; 22.54 m3 ha-1 in mature stage and 24.27 m3 ha-1 in regular stand in regeneration stage], although the differences were not statistically significant for coarse woody debris. However, forest management influenced the amount of dead wood, because the proportion of mass in the different components and the decay stage depended on time since last thinning. The formula based on intersection diameter resulted on the smallest coefficient of variation out of seven log-volume formulae. Thus, the intersection diameter is the preferred method because it gives unbiased estimates, has the greatest precision and is the easiest to implement in the field. Research highlights: The amount of dead wood, and in particular snags, was significantly lower than that in reserved forests. Results of this study showed that sampling effort should be directed towards increasing the number of transects, instead of increasing transect length or collecting additional piece diameters that do not increase the accuracy or precision of DWM volume estimation. (Author)

  3. Seeing the wood for the trees: a forest of methods for optimization and omic-network integration in metabolic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Supreeta; Conway, Max; Lió, Pietro; Angione, Claudio

    2017-05-30

    Metabolic modelling has entered a mature phase with dozens of methods and software implementations available to the practitioner and the theoretician. It is not easy for a modeller to be able to see the wood (or the forest) for the trees. Driven by this analogy, we here present a 'forest' of principal methods used for constraint-based modelling in systems biology. This provides a tree-based view of methods available to prospective modellers, also available in interactive version at http://modellingmetabolism.net, where it will be kept updated with new methods after the publication of the present manuscript. Our updated classification of existing methods and tools highlights the most promising in the different branches, with the aim to develop a vision of how existing methods could hybridize and become more complex. We then provide the first hands-on tutorial for multi-objective optimization of metabolic models in R. We finally discuss the implementation of multi-view machine learning approaches in poly-omic integration. Throughout this work, we demonstrate the optimization of trade-offs between multiple metabolic objectives, with a focus on omic data integration through machine learning. We anticipate that the combination of a survey, a perspective on multi-view machine learning and a step-by-step R tutorial should be of interest for both the beginner and the advanced user. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Compaction parameters and technologies in forest- and long- distance transportation of wood fuels; Tiivistaemisparametrit ja -tekniikat puupolttoaineiden metsae- ja kaukokuljetuksessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the research is to increase the level of knowledge by the aid of systematic research on the timber and the compacting of the fragments of it for forest and lorry transportation. Theoretical information on the compacting phenomena, and the factors effecting on them, will be composed in the study, and the compacting techniques with different raw materials will be studied experimentally. The objective is to reduce the forest transportation costs by 10 % and those of lorry transportation by 15 - 20 % depending on the raw material to be transported. The data obtained in the researches carried out both in Finland and abroad will be investigated in the project. The data consists also of the baling and bundling of felling residues and small-diameter wood. A test equipment, by which the compacting parameters of first thinning pine and spruce felling residues will be determined under winter conditions, was constructed to serve the experimental part of the research. The compacting tests were started at the end of January 1997, so the results of the tests will be available for the final report of 1997 in March 1997. (orig.)

  5. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  6. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  7. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  8. Production of oriented strand board using four wood species from forest plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach, Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing. The panels were produced in the laboratory with a nominal density of 0.80 g / cm ³, using phenol-formaldehyde resin in an amount of 6% of solid resin. There were evaluated the properties of water absorption and thickness swelling - 2 and 24 hours, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture in the parallel and perpendicular direction, according to EN standards. The OSB panels produced with four species and the mixture of these species showed average values of mechanical properties above the minimum standard established by the CSA 437/1993. The results of the physical and mechanical properties obtained indicate the feasibility of the use of wood of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius, grevílea robusta, Melia azedarach and Toona ciliata, and mixture of these species for OSB manufacturing.

  9. Crown dynamics and wood production of Douglas-fir trees in an old-growth forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Roaki Ishii; Stephen C. Sillett; Allyson L. Carroll

    2017-01-01

    Large trees are the most prominent structural features of old-growth forests, which are considered to be globally important carbon sinks. Because of their large size, estimates of biomass and growth of large trees are often based on ground-level measurements (e.g., diameter at breast height, DBH) and little is known about growth dynamics within the crown. As trees...

  10. Wood : adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  11. Using community trait-distributions to assign microbial responses to pH changes and Cd in forest soils treated with wood ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Wallander, Håkan; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    is the current land-use. In forestry, wood ash has been proposed as a liming agent and a fertilizer, but has been questioned due to the risk associated with its Cd content. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of wood ash on the structure and function of decomposer microbial communities in forest......The identification of causal links between microbial community structure and ecosystem functions are required for a mechanistic understanding of ecosystem responses to environmental change. One of the most influential factors affecting plants and microbial communities in soil in managed ecosystems...... soils and to assign them to causal mechanisms. To do this, we assessed the responses to wood ash application of (i) the microbial community size and structure, (ii) microbial community trait-distributions, including bacterial pH relationships and Cd-tolerance, to assign the microbial responses to p...

  12. Granulated wood ash to forest soils. Effects on microorganisms, phosphorus availability, and spatial relationships in the humus layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarholm, Marianne

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises effects on microorganisms, phosphorus (P) availability and spatial relationships in the humus layer of two spruce forests in south-western Sweden four to seven years after application of 3.2 tonnes (t) (Skogaby), alternatively three or six t (Torup) of granulated wood ash. There were tendencies for increases in pH and in numbers of ciliates, flagellates and small nematodes while no effects were observed for naked amoebae, the major consumers of bacteria among the protozoa. After seven years, the amount of P in microbial biomass in the humus layer in the wood ash treatment (A) in Skogaby was significantly higher than in the control (C), increased amounts of microbial nitrogen and carbon were also recorded. Observations over time indicated that the P availability in the soil first decreased after the ash addition, but later increased above that in the control. The time course was most readily seen in the microbial biomass, which contained 50% of total P in the humus layer, an amount equal to ten times the yearly uptake in trees. The microbial biomass has a much higher P concentration as compared to the needles, the component of the tree with the highest concentration. The P in micro-organisms thus form a buffer against P deficiency for the trees. A test where the 32 P uptake rate of excised mycorrhizal fine roots in the laboratory is used to establish P availability in the field, indicated an increased P availability in (A), which was in contrast to reported decreased uptake of P in trees, decreased P concentration in needles and also in roots, as compared to (C). In six treatments investigated in Skogaby 32 P uptake rates were negatively correlated to the P/C of the microbial biomass. Acid phosphatase activity was always higher in (A) as compared to treatments where soluble P had been added and at two out of five times also higher than in (C ). High phosphatase activity levels were at least partly connected to large amounts of microbial biomass

  13. Productivity of aboveground coarse wood biomass and stand age related to soil hydrology of Amazonian forests in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra, B. B. L.; Schietti, J.; Emillio, T.; Martins, D.; Moulatlet, G.; Souza, P.; Levis, C.; Quesada, C. A.; Schöngart, J.

    2013-04-01

    The ongoing demand for information on forest productivity has increased the number of permanent monitoring plots across the Amazon. Those plots, however, do not comprise the whole diversity of forest types in the Amazon. The complex effects of soil, climate and hydrology on the productivity of seasonally waterlogged interfluvial wetland forests are still poorly understood. The presented study is the first field-based estimate for tree ages and wood biomass productivity in the vast interfluvial region between the Purus and Madeira rivers. We estimate stand age and wood biomass productivity by a combination of tree-ring data and allometric equations for biomass stocks of eight plots distributed along 600 km in the Purus-Madeira interfluvial area that is crossed by the BR-319 highway. We relate stand age and wood biomass productivity to hydrological and edaphic conditions. Mean productivity and stand age were 5.6 ± 1.1 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 102 ± 18 yr, respectively. There is a strong relationship between tree age and diameter, as well as between mean diameter increment and mean wood density within a plot. Regarding the soil hydromorphic properties we find a positive correlation with wood biomass productivity and a negative relationship with stand age. Productivity also shows a positive correlation with the superficial phosphorus concentration. In addition, superficial phosphorus concentration increases with enhanced soil hydromorphic condition. We raise three hypotheses to explain these results: (1) the reduction of iron molecules on the saturated soils with plinthite layers close to the surface releases available phosphorous for the plants; (2) the poor structure of the saturated soils creates an environmental filter selecting tree species of faster growth rates and shorter life spans and (3) plant growth on saturated soil is favored during the dry season, since there should be low restrictions for soil water availability.

  14. Development of new all-terrain chip harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helevirta, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop a new, efficient, reliable and profitable wood harvesting machine for serial production, which could be applied for chipping of logging residues and forest energy from thinnings at the lot, and which would fit into the harvesting chain. The project has been carried out by developing first a method prototype. Biowatti Oy, mastering the harvesting chains of forest energy, has tested the method and the concept, and approved it to be operable. The machine has been delivered to an experienced forest entrepreneur for testing in actual field conditions. Final productivity tests have not been finished yet, and the results have not been analyzed. Preliminary results show that when chipping the residues at the lot, using 300-m haulage distance and unloading into a chip lorry, the productivity to be about 60 bulk-m 3 /h, and the fuel consumption to be 1,1 liters/bulk m 3 . The machine can be fueled by tax-free fuel oil. The PIKA LOCH 2000 chipper, developed in the project, will first be marketed in Finland, Sweden and other parts of Europe. In Finland there is a need for lot- chippers and employment of them so they can get investment subsidies from the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry, which is expected to increase the share of lot-chippers in harvesting of wood energy. (orig.)

  15. Preparation for full scale demonstration of an air staged gasifier plant. Technical project development; For combined heat and power production with wood chips; Forberedelse til fuldskala demonstration af trinopdelt forgasningsanlaeg. Teknisk projektudvikling. Delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houmann Jakobsen, H.

    2011-04-15

    The project has aimed to further develop the technology for staged biomass gasification and establish an organizational and financial model to ensure that the technology can be introduced on the market. This report describes the technique in an upcoming demonstration plant. A complete planning and design of a demonstration plant with a capacity of 300 kW electric power and 700 kW heat was prepared. That is four times more than the pilot plant at Graested District Heating (Castor plant) can produce. A full scale demonstration plant with bio-gasification technology for wood chips will be established and put into operation in 2012. (ln)

  16. Diversity in the socio-economic role of the main non-wood forest products for the inhabitants of small villages and large towns in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Barszcz, Anna; Suder, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    The NWFPs (non-wood forest products) sector is of the crucial importance to the Polish households but its social and economic role is varied and depends on place of residence. For the inhabitants of villages and small towns forests are the place of working and NWFPs sale provides an additional financial resource. City-dwellers do not treat NWFPs as a source of income but rather as an element of recreation and they use these products mainly for their own needs. Some remarks for the developing ...

  17. Effect of wood ash and K-fertilization on {sup 137}Cs uptake by selected forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandro, Yrii N. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Rosen, Klas [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Vinichuk, Mykhailo M. [Zhytomyr State Technological University, P.O. Box 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences P.O. Box 7070 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation {sup 137}Cs by different forest plants and trees after fertilization of soil with potassium and wood ash ({sup 137}Cs-contaminated and non-contaminated) in forest ecosystems of Ukraine contaminated by radionuclides after Chernobyl accident in 1986 was studied. Experiment is performed in Bazar forestry, Zhytomyr region, Ukraine, located about 70 km (51 deg. 5'35'' N, 29 deg. 18'56'' E) from Chernobyl NPP. Potassium fertilizer (KCl, wooden ash (Ash), and {sup 137}Cs-contaminated ash ({sup 137}CsAsh) in different combinations) were spread on the forest floor in April 2012 at a rate corresponding 100 kg/ha potassium. The experiment layout was as follows: 1- Control (no fertilizers were applied), 2- KCl, 3- Ash + KCl, 4- Ash + {sup 137}CsAsh, 5- Ash, 6- {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl. Samples (leaves and annual shoots) of blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), birch (Betula), buckthorn (Frangula) and oak (Quercus robur) and also mushrooms (fruit bodies of Russula, Lactarius, Cantharellus, Collybia etc.) and berries (blueberry and cowberry) were taken monthly from each treatment. Samples were measured for {sup 137}Cs with calibrated HPGe detectors. The results of the first year studies show variation of Transfer Factors (TF) for different plants and for the same plants on different treatments. The effect of fertilization was found for blueberry on Ash-applicated (TF = 0.0085 ± 0.0025), {sup 137}CsAsh + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0105 ± 0.0060) and Ash + KCl-applicated (TF = 0.0123 ± 0.0058) treatments compared to Control (TF = 0.0163 ± 0.0092). Also good effect for rowan on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment (TF = 0.0067 ± 0.0024) compared to Control (TF = 0.0100 ± 0.0064). Effect was less obvious for birch on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment and for cowberry on Ash + KCl-applicated treatment. There was not found an obvious effect of fertilization for buckthorn. Positive effect of

  18. Soil heating during burning of forest slash piles and wood piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak; Ken R. Hubbert

    2013-01-01

    Pile burning of conifer slash is a common fuel reduction practice in forests of the western United States that has a direct, yet poorly quantified effect on soil heating. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the heat pulse beneath hand-built piles ranging widely in fuel composition and pile size in sandy-textured soils of the Lake Tahoe Basin. The soil heat pulse...

  19. Representing anthropogenic gross land use change, wood harvest, and forest age dynamics in a global vegetation model ORCHIDEE-MICT v8.4.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Li, Wei; McGrath, Matthew J.; Chang, Jinfeng; Peng, Shushi

    2018-01-01

    Land use change (LUC) is among the main anthropogenic disturbances in the global carbon cycle. Here we present the model developments in a global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE-MICT v8.4.2 for a more realistic representation of LUC processes. First, we included gross land use change (primarily shifting cultivation) and forest wood harvest in addition to net land use change. Second, we included sub-grid evenly aged land cohorts to represent secondary forests and to keep track of the transient stage of agricultural lands since LUC. Combination of these two features allows the simulation of shifting cultivation with a rotation length involving mainly secondary forests instead of primary ones. Furthermore, a set of decision rules regarding the land cohorts to be targeted in different LUC processes have been implemented. Idealized site-scale simulation has been performed for miombo woodlands in southern Africa assuming an annual land turnover rate of 5 % grid cell area between forest and cropland. The result shows that the model can correctly represent forest recovery and cohort aging arising from agricultural abandonment. Such a land turnover process, even though without a net change in land cover, yields carbon emissions largely due to the imbalance between the fast release from forest clearing and the slow uptake from agricultural abandonment. The simulation with sub-grid land cohorts gives lower emissions than without, mainly because the cleared secondary forests have a lower biomass carbon stock than the mature forests that are otherwise cleared when sub-grid land cohorts are not considered. Over the region of southern Africa, the model is able to account for changes in different forest cohort areas along with the historical changes in different LUC activities, including regrowth of old forests when LUC area decreases. Our developments provide possibilities to account for continental or global forest demographic change resulting from past anthropogenic and

  20. Bridging gaps: On the performance of airborne LiDAR to model wood mouse-habitat structure relationships in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-González, Carlos; Acebes, Pablo; Mateos, Ana; Mezquida, Eduardo T

    2017-01-01

    LiDAR technology has firmly contributed to strengthen the knowledge of habitat structure-wildlife relationships, though there is an evident bias towards flying vertebrates. To bridge this gap, we investigated and compared the performance of LiDAR and field data to model habitat preferences of wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in a Mediterranean high mountain pine forest (Pinus sylvestris). We recorded nine field and 13 LiDAR variables that were summarized by means of Principal Component Analyses (PCA). We then analyzed wood mouse's habitat preferences using three different models based on: (i) field PCs predictors, (ii) LiDAR PCs predictors; and (iii) both set of predictors in a combined model, including a variance partitioning analysis. Elevation was also included as a predictor in the three models. Our results indicate that LiDAR derived variables were better predictors than field-based variables. The model combining both data sets slightly improved the predictive power of the model. Field derived variables indicated that wood mouse was positively influenced by the gradient of increasing shrub cover and negatively affected by elevation. Regarding LiDAR data, two LiDAR PCs, i.e. gradients in canopy openness and complexity in forest vertical structure positively influenced wood mouse, although elevation interacted negatively with the complexity in vertical structure, indicating wood mouse's preferences for plots with lower elevations but with complex forest vertical structure. The combined model was similar to the LiDAR-based model and included the gradient of shrub cover measured in the field. Variance partitioning showed that LiDAR-based variables, together with elevation, were the most important predictors and that part of the variation explained by shrub cover was shared. LiDAR derived variables were good surrogates of environmental characteristics explaining habitat preferences by the wood mouse. Our LiDAR metrics represented structural features of the forest

  1. Structure of forest ecosystems and leaf area index of wood plants -results of monitoring over the years 1991-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszlanyi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Monitored characteristics and their dynamics over the last four vegetation seasons reveal the following conclusions: 1) Changes of monitored parameters (e.g. the structure of tree and shrub layer, the leaf area index) are slow, drab and insignificant at the permanent monitoring representing a major part of forest ecosystems of the area affected by the Hydroelectric power structures Gabcikovo. Despite the absence of floods, the ground water level is at a sufficient height to contact rhisosphere of wood plants and the recorded changes are in accord with growth regularities. 2) An increase of the ground water level in the upper part of the monitored territory and a partial renaturation of hydropedological conditions led to an improvement of production-ecological parameters of the area. Changes of its structure are of positive tendency, the leaf area index is stabilised at high values and somewhere even increased (in 1994 being by 70-80% higher than in 1991). 3) Localities with a permanent decrease of the ground water level (band along the old river-bed of the Danube, a dry triangle among the old river-bed of the Danube, the inlet canal and the river arm supplied by the intake structure at Dobrohost and other places) were afflicted by negative changes, locally indicating destruction of tree and shrub layers, with the leaf area index significantly reduced by 20-30%. (author). 1 tab., 5 refs [sk

  2. Fly ash classification efficiency of electrostatic precipitators in fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohenoja, Katja; Körkkö, Mika; Wigren, Valter; Österbacka, Jan; Illikainen, Mirja

    2018-01-15

    The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals. Classification selectivity calculations of electrostatic precipitators for three different fuel mixtures from two different power plants were performed by using Nelson's and Karnis's selectivity indices. Results showed that all fly ashes behaved similarly in the electrostatic separation process SiO 2 resulted in coarse fractions with Nelson's selectivity of 0.2 or more, while sulfate, chloride, and the studied detrimental metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) enriched into fine fractions with varying selectivity from 0.2 to 0.65. Overall, the results of this study suggest that it is possible to improve the utilization potential of fly ashes from fluidized bed combustion in concrete, fertilizer, and earth construction applications by using electrostatic precipitators for the fractionating of fly ashes in addition to their initial function of collecting fly ash particles from flue gases. The separation of the finer fractions (ESP 2 and 3) from ESP 1 field fly ash is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coanatomical, developing and comparative analysis of 40 wood species belonging to two associations in colombian Andes highland forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Tapia Cesar; Grande Pulido Diana Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we conducted a relationship of the timber found with ecological aspects arising from an earlier study of the characterization, structure and floral composition practiced in the Carpatos Forest Reserve, bordering the site from which wood samples were obtained. This comparison shows a strong link between the microscopic anatomical characteristics of vegetal species with the type of association to which they belong. For example, characters such as the grouping form, the type of perforated and intervessel pits, height, number of cells wide, stratification and type of cells that make up the radio and type fiber, show a greater degree of change in the exclusive species of Ocotea callophylla-Weinmannietum pinnatae (OW) association, while the same characters show minor changes in the exclusive species of Clusia multiflorae - Weinmannietum balbisianae(CW) association. The evolution of the timber was identified through an index that suggests the research based on references like Carlquist (2001) and Leon (2001), and its relationship with the plant associations found in the study area is argued.

  4. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    The research project 'Torrefaction of woody biomasses as energy carriers for the European markets' was carried out within the Tekes BioRefine programme in 2010-2012 and was coordinated by VTT. The main objective of the project was to create a discussion platform and collate basic information for the Finnish industrial stakeholders involved in developing torrefaction technology or planning to include torrefied biomass in their fuel supply for energy production. Given the availability of torrefaction pilot facilities in Europe, it was decided at an early phase of the national torrefaction research project not to build and operate separate pilot equipment, and thus save time and money. Experimental research was conducted in cooperation with ECN, The Netherlands. Finnish wood chips and crushed forest residue were tested at different torrefaction temperatures in the PATRIG torrefaction test rig with great success, and large quantities of torrefied wood chips and pellets were produced. CFD simulation work was carried out at VTT to investigate the feasibility of torrefied fuels to replace part of the coal. From the combustion point of view it seems feasible to replace coal by torrefied wood biomass with shares up to 50% by weight. Basic, small-scale experiments were carried out to compare torrefied wood pellets with conventional wood and straw pellets with regard to their handling and storage properties. The experiments showed that the torrefied pellets are clearly more hydrophobic than wood and straw pellets and do not disintegrate completely on exposure to water. A study on dust explosion and self-ignition characteristics indicated that the torrefied dust does not differ significantly from the normal biomass dust, but is clearly more reactive than coal dust. Commercial development of torrefaction is currently in its early phase. The current general view is that most of the demonstration plants have technical problems, which have delayed their commercial

  5. Controversy. The wood war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, O.

    2010-01-01

    The author comments the conflict emerging in France between industries exploiting wood for construction and those exploiting it as a heating material for power generation. The first ones accuse the others to steal their raw material, to pull the prices up, and to destabilize the sector. This conflict takes place notably around sawmill wastes which are used either by wood panel fabricators or by wood pellets producers. Both sectors are claiming they are creating more jobs than the other. The French forest indeed offers good opportunities for both sectors, but other countries which are lacking forest surfaces, are buying wood in France. Several issues are matter of discussion: burning wood seems to go against the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, subsidies awarded to big heater projects. The situation of the wood sector in Austria, Finland and Poland is briefly presented

  6. Small scale wood combustion in Germany. Recent research and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Unterberger, S.; Hein, K.R.G. [Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    To reduce Europe`s greenhouse gas emission CO{sub 2} it is a challenging task utilising biomass fuels as there are wood or wood residues from the forest industry. The utilisation can be done either in commercially operated medium (> 50 kWth) or full scale (> 1 MWth) decentralised heat and power stations or in small scale (< 50 kWth) domestic heating systems. In small scale heating systems untreated wood logs, wood briquette or wood pellets and in few cases wood chips are used. The present market in Germany is focused on the use of wood logs. Presently, the use of wood pellets in small scale automatically operated boilers < 15 kW especially for low energy houses is discussed more and more. Since 1980 the installation of new wood fired small scale domestic heating systems reached a significant size due to the interest of the customers to have a alternative inhouse heating system and to increase the living comfort. In 1994 the amount of sold small scale heaters in Germany were in total about 133.258 units. The thermal power of in 1994 sold units is estimated of about 1350 MW which is a significant size in total with regard to domestic heating purposes. Since few years there is a clear market trend in Germany towards the installation of open fire stoves. Due to this trend in Germany and the design characteristic of open fire stoves using huge glass doors of glass windows it is very difficult to achieve a further reduction of emissions like CO and unburned volatile hydrocarbons (VOC). In the text the requirements for modern small scale wood fired stoves in Germany as well as the actual stage and trend of research and development (R and D) are discussed 4 refs.

  7. Using aerial photography to estimate wood suitable for charcoal in managed oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Mejía, D.; Gómez-Tagle, A.; Ghilardi, A.

    2018-02-01

    Mexican oak forests (genus Quercus) are frequently used for traditional charcoal production. Appropriate management programs are needed to ensure their long-term use, while conserving the biodiversity and ecosystem services, and associated benefits. A key variable needed to design these programs is the spatial distribution of standing woody biomass. A state-of-the-art methodology using small format aerial photographs was developed to estimate the total aboveground biomass (AGB) and aboveground woody biomass suitable for charcoal making (WSC) in intensively managed oak forests. We used tree crown area (CAap) measurements from very high-resolution (30 cm) orthorectified small format digital aerial photographs as the predictive variable. The CAap accuracy was validated using field measurements of the crown area (CAf). Allometric relationships between: (a) CAap versus AGB, and (b) CAap versus WSC had a high significance level (R 2 > 0.91, p < 0.0001). This approach shows that it is possible to obtain sound biomass estimates as a function of the crown area derived from digital small format aerial photographs.

  8. Phytossociology of wood community in Seasonal Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Learth Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pico do Jabre Seasonally Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba state, Brazil, the highest regional elevation, 1197 m, distant 360 km the sea was assessed aiming to survey its phytosociology and woody structure. In 36 systematic sampling plots, 10x50m, individuals, Dbh > 4.8cm, had their diameters and height measured. Botanical samples were collected during five years and vouchers were deposited at the Paraiba Federal University Herbaria (JPB. It was found 2050 trees distributed in 64 species of 51 genera of 31 families, which accounted for 1138 ind.ha-1 and 22.45 m2.ha -1. Diversity and equability were assessed as H' = 3.17 nats.ind-1 and J' = 0.76 similar to some others regional seasonally dry montane forest communities. Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Vochysiaceae, Celastraceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae e Fabaceae-Faboideae stood out and summed 66.72% of the total VI. Byrsonima nitidifolia, Eugenia ligustrina, Calisthene microphylla, Maytenus distichophylla and Erythroxylum mucronatum species accounted for 120.79 (40.3% of the total VI. B. nitidifolia ecological dominance is firstly reported in the Brazilian northeast region.

  9. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Yanai, Ruth D; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1-2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems.

  10. Concentrations and content of mercury in bark, wood, and leaves in hardwoods and conifers in four forested sites in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ruth D.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Montesdeoca, Mario; Smith, Kevin T.

    2018-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is deposited from the atmosphere to remote areas such as forests, but the amount of Hg in trees is not well known. To determine the importance of Hg in trees, we analyzed foliage, bark and bole wood of eight tree species at four sites in the northeastern USA (Huntington Forest, NY; Sleepers River, VT; Hubbard Brook, NH; Bear Brook, ME). Foliar concentrations of Hg averaged 16.3 ng g-1 among the hardwood species, which was significantly lower than values in conifers, which averaged 28.6 ng g-1 (p < 0.001). Similarly, bark concentrations of Hg were lower (p < 0.001) in hardwoods (7.7 ng g-1) than conifers (22.5 ng g-1). For wood, concentrations of Hg were higher in yellow birch (2.1–2.8 ng g-1) and white pine (2.3 ng g-1) than in the other species, which averaged 1.4 ng g-1 (p < 0.0001). Sites differed significantly in Hg concentrations of foliage and bark (p = 0.02), which are directly exposed to the atmosphere, but the concentration of Hg in wood depended more on species (p < 0.001) than site (p = 0.60). The Hg contents of tree tissues in hardwood stands, estimated from modeled biomass and measured concentrations at each site, were higher in bark (mean of 0.10 g ha-1) and wood (0.16 g ha-1) than in foliage (0.06 g ha-1). In conifer stands, because foliar concentrations were higher, the foliar pool tended to be more important. Quantifying Hg in tree tissues is essential to understanding the pools and fluxes of Hg in forest ecosystems. PMID:29684081

  11. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (Ppinaster stands (r=-0.667, Ppinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, Ppinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris trees seems to be also strongly influenced by the underlying parent material, young trees from granite stands having a statistically higher 13C-isotopic composition (P<0.05) than young trees from schists stands. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Economic analysis of a small-sized combined heat and power plant using forest biomass in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeongwan Seo; Han-Sup Han; Edward M. (Ted) Bilek; Jungkee Choi; Dusong Cha; Jungsoo Lee

    2017-01-01

    Economic analysis was conducted on the feasibility of operating a small-sized (500kW/hour) gasification power plant producing heat and electricity in a rural town surrounded by forests in the Republic of Korea. Cost factors that were considered over the plant’s 20-year life included wood procurement, a wood grab loader, a chipper, a chip dryer, a gasifier, a generator...

  13. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  14. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  15. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 μm (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model

  16. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  17. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  18. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  19. Use of Non Wood Forest Products by local people bordering the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi”, Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gausset, Quentin

    2008-01-01

    this issue in the case of the “Parc National Kaboré Tambi” in Burkina Faso, by proposing a combination of ethno-botanical surveys and botanical inventories. The article analyses the importance of the park plant species, identify the constraints faced by local people to harvest the park plant products...... people. As a consequence, approaches of participatory planning of forest management schemes have become necessary. A major challenge has been the issue of how to (use?) scientific knowledge and local knowledge in the most appropriate way. This article provides an account of a contribution to addressing....... They harvest in the park Non Wood Forest Products (NWFPs), although the Forest Code bans free access. About one hundred plants species are used, but the pattern of extraction of the products or some plant parts could destroy the resource base. Technically, conservation by domestication of the source species...

  20. Energy wood harvesting from nurse crop of spruce seeding stand; Kuusen taimikon verhopuuston korjuu energiapuuksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, M.; Tanttu, V.

    2008-07-01

    The study focused on establishing the productivity and costs of mechanical energy wood cutting and the profitability of forest management alternatives in the harvesting of hold-overs from spruce seeding stands. The productivity in whole-tree harvesting performed using a multi-tree whole tree processing method reached 3.5 m3/E{sub 0}h with a felling cost of 26 euros/m3. The calculated cost of chainsaw harvesting using a felling-piling technique was 16 euros/m3. The average size of trees harvested from the research stand was 15 dm3. At a rate of 17.8 euros per megawatt that was paid for forest chips delivered to the plant, the net profit using mechanical harvesting method was 272 euros per hectare. The net profit using chainsaw harvesting was 464 euros per hectare. 'Net profit' is defined here as the total amount earned, taking into account forest management costs, the production cost of forest chips, the Kemera subsidies and the price paid for the chips at the place of usage. The net profit of felling the removed trees to the ground (not processing it into fuel) was minus 124 euros. A theoretical stumpage price rate was calculated for the energy harvesting alternatives by dividing the net result by the volume of trees harvested. Theoretical stumpage price was positive when the paid price per megawatt of chips delivered to the place of usage was 13 euros per megawatt-hour for mechanically harvested chips or 10 euros per megawatt-hour for chainsaw-harvested chips. In mechanical harvesting, 17 percent of the trees harvested were damaged in the harvesting process. While it is often essential for the forest owner to ensure that any forest management measures contribute to quick profitability, the forest management benefits that will become realisable assets in the future must nevertheless also be taken into account. (orig.)

  1. Chipping operations and efficiency in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Prinz, R.; Emer, B.; Sikanen, L., e-mail: dominik.roser@metla.fi

    2012-11-01

    This research analyses the productivity of energy wood chipping operations at several sites in Austria and Finland. The aim of the work is to examine the differences in productivity and the effects of the operational environment for the chipping of bioenergy at the roadside. Furthermore, the study quantifies the effects of different variables such as forest energy assortments, tree species, sieve size and machines on the overall productivity of chipping. The results revealed that there are significant differences in the chipping productivity in Austria and Finland which are largely based on the use of different sieve sizes. Furthermore, the different operational environments in both countries, as well as the characteristics of the raw material also seem to have an effect on productivity. In order to improve the chipping productivity, particularly in Central European conditions, all relevant stakeholders need to work jointly to find solutions that will allow a greater variation of chip size. Furthermore, in the future more consideration has to be given to the close interlinkage between the chipper, crane and grapple. As a result, investments costs can be optimized and operational costs and stress on the machines reduced. (orig.)

  2. Acquisition of wood fuel at the Joseph C. McNeil Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropelin, W. [Burlington Electric Dept., VT (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Joseph C. McNeil Generating Station is the world`s largest single boiler, municipally-owned, wood-fired electrical generating plant. The 50 megawatt McNeil Station is located in Burlington, Vermont and is owned by several Vermont public and private electric utilities. The operator and majority owner is the City of Burlington Electric Department (BED). Wood fuel procurement for the McNeil Station has been conducted in an environmentally sensitive way. Harvesting is carried out in conformance with a comprehensive wood chip harvesting policy and monitored by professional foresters. Unpredictable levels of Station operation require rigid adherence to a wood storage plan that minimizes the risk of over heating and spontaneous combustion of stockpiled fuel.

  3. Wood-inhabiting fungi in southern Italy forest stands: morphogroups, vegetation types and decay classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vito Mario; Lunghini, Dario; Maggi, Oriana; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted an ecological study of forests subjected to varying management. The aim of the study was to extend and integrate, within a multivariate context, knowledge of how saproxylic fungal communities behave along altitudinal/vegetational gradients in response to the varying features and quality of coarse woody debris (CWD). The intra-annual seasonal monitoring of saproxylic fungi, based on sporocarp inventories, was used to investigate saproxylic fungi in relation to vegetation types and management categories. We analyzed fungal species occurrence, recorded according to the presence/absence and frequency of sporocarps, on the basis of the harvest season, of coarse woody debris decay classes as well as other environmental and ecological variables. Two-way cluster analysis, DCA and Spearman's rank correlations, for indirect gradient analysis, were performed to identify any patterns of seasonality and decay. Most of the species were found on CWD in an intermediate decay stage. The first DCA axis revealed the vegetational/microclimate gradient as the main driver of fungal community composition, while the second axis corresponded to a strong gradient of CWD decay classes. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  4. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-05-05

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report we present data that show the spatial distribution of carbon in mine soils. Soil carbon data from deep soil pits from grassland minelands located in Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia were analyzed to determine the vertical distribution and variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) down to a 2-m depth. Regression analyses were used to describe and model the distribution by soil depth of C(wt%), BD{sub fines}(g cm{sup -3}), and fines (vol%) in mine soils. The volume of excavated mine soil samples was transformed in terms of costs of digging and sampling, including sample collection and preparation, and C(wt%) analysis, in order to determine the maximum cost-effective depth (MCD) for carbon inventorying on the mined sites analyzed. Based on the horizontal variation of SOC(g m{sup -2}), we determined the sampling intensity required to achieve a desired accuracy of the amount of sequestered SOC(g m{sup -2}) at certain probability levels. The MCD and sampling intensity measurements were used to determine the minimum detectable difference (MDD) of SOC(g m{sup -2}) between two consecutive carbon inventories. We also proposed a method to determine the minimum number of years before a future C inventory event is carried out so that the measured SOC(g m{sup -2}) differences were greater than MDD. We used geostatistical analyses procedures to determine spatial dependence predictability of surface SOC(g m{sup -2}) data on the minelands analyzed. Kriging techniques were used to create surface SOC(g m{sup -2}) maps for the sites in Ohio and West Virginia. The average C sequestration rate in the surface soil layer for the Ohio (age 9) sites was estimated at 124 g C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, and it was

  5. From models to measurements: comparing downed dead wood carbon stock estimates in the U.S. forest inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant M Domke

    Full Text Available The inventory and monitoring of coarse woody debris (CWD carbon (C stocks is an essential component of any comprehensive National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI. Due to the expense and difficulty associated with conducting field inventories of CWD pools, CWD C stocks are often modeled as a function of more commonly measured stand attributes such as live tree C density. In order to assess potential benefits of adopting a field-based inventory of CWD C stocks in lieu of the current model-based approach, a national inventory of downed dead wood C across the U.S. was compared to estimates calculated from models associated with the U.S.'s NGHGI and used in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. The model-based population estimate of C stocks for CWD (i.e., pieces and slash piles in the conterminous U.S. was 9 percent (145.1 Tg greater than the field-based estimate. The relatively small absolute difference was driven by contrasting results for each CWD component. The model-based population estimate of C stocks from CWD pieces was 17 percent (230.3 Tg greater than the field-based estimate, while the model-based estimate of C stocks from CWD slash piles was 27 percent (85.2 Tg smaller than the field-based estimate. In general, models overestimated the C density per-unit-area from slash piles early in stand development and underestimated the C density from CWD pieces in young stands. This resulted in significant differences in CWD C stocks by region and ownership. The disparity in estimates across spatial scales illustrates the complexity in estimating CWD C in a NGHGI. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that the U.S. adopt field-based estimates of CWD C stocks as a component of its NGHGI to both reduce the uncertainty within the inventory and improve the sensitivity to potential management and climate change events.

  6. From models to measurements: comparing downed dead wood carbon stock estimates in the U.S. forest inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domke, Grant M; Woodall, Christopher W; Walters, Brian F; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    The inventory and monitoring of coarse woody debris (CWD) carbon (C) stocks is an essential component of any comprehensive National Greenhouse Gas Inventory (NGHGI). Due to the expense and difficulty associated with conducting field inventories of CWD pools, CWD C stocks are often modeled as a function of more commonly measured stand attributes such as live tree C density. In order to assess potential benefits of adopting a field-based inventory of CWD C stocks in lieu of the current model-based approach, a national inventory of downed dead wood C across the U.S. was compared to estimates calculated from models associated with the U.S.'s NGHGI and used in the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. The model-based population estimate of C stocks for CWD (i.e., pieces and slash piles) in the conterminous U.S. was 9 percent (145.1 Tg) greater than the field-based estimate. The relatively small absolute difference was driven by contrasting results for each CWD component. The model-based population estimate of C stocks from CWD pieces was 17 percent (230.3 Tg) greater than the field-based estimate, while the model-based estimate of C stocks from CWD slash piles was 27 percent (85.2 Tg) smaller than the field-based estimate. In general, models overestimated the C density per-unit-area from slash piles early in stand development and underestimated the C density from CWD pieces in young stands. This resulted in significant differences in CWD C stocks by region and ownership. The disparity in estimates across spatial scales illustrates the complexity in estimating CWD C in a NGHGI. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that the U.S. adopt field-based estimates of CWD C stocks as a component of its NGHGI to both reduce the uncertainty within the inventory and improve the sensitivity to potential management and climate change events.

  7. Associations between growth, wood anatomy, carbon isotope discrimination and mortality in a Quercus robur forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanic, Tom; Cater, Matjaz; McDowell, Nate G

    2011-03-01

    Observations of forest mortality are increasing globally, but relatively little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms driving these events. Tree rings carry physiological signatures that may be used as a tool for retrospective analyses. We capitalized on a local soil water drainage event in 1982 that resulted in increased mortality within a stand of oak trees (Quercus robur), to examine the underlying physiological patterns associated with survival and death in response to soil water limitations. Pre-dawn water potentials showed more negative values for trees in the process of dying compared with those that survived. We used tree rings formed over the 123 years prior to mortality to estimate productivity from basal area increment (BAI, mm(2)), multiple xylem hydraulic parameters via anatomical measurements and crown-level gas exchange via carbon isotope discrimination (Δ, ‰). Oaks that died had significantly higher BAI values than trees that survived until the drainage event, after which the BAI of trees that died declined dramatically. Hydraulic diameter and conductivity of vessels in trees that died were higher than in surviving trees until the last 5 years prior to mortality, at which time both groups had similar values. Trees that died had consistently lower Δ values than trees that survived. Therefore, tree mortality in this stand was associated with physiological differences prior to the onset of soil water reduction. We propose that trees that died may have been hydraulically underbuilt for dry conditions, which predisposes them to severe hydraulic constraints and subsequent mortality. Measurements of above-ground/below-ground dry mass partitioning will be critical to future tests of this hypothesis. Based on these results, it is probable that pedunculate oak trees will experience greater future mortality if climate changes cause more severe droughts than the trees have experienced previously.

  8. Dissolution of hardened wood ash in forest soils. Studies in a column experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Dissolution of hardened and crushed ashes was studied in a column experiment during leaching with artificial rain water corresponding to 5 year-precipitations. The ashes studied were a CFB ash from Perstorp and a bottom ash from Ljungby that were added in amounts corresponding to 4 tonnes per hectare. Assuming that the studied ashes are representative and that the results can be transferred to field conditions, the most important conclusions that can be drawn are summarized in the following way: Hardened and crushed ashes are broken down relatively slowly, which particularly applies to the coarse fraction. The fine fraction of the Perstorp ashes has a good liming effect at the same time as the risk for large pH-increases appears to be small. As regards the macro-nutrients Ca and K (not the Ljungby ashes), the amounts released are probably sufficient from a forest vitalization viewpoint. As regards Mg and P, this is less certain. The heavy metals appear to be released relatively slowly and most of them are bound in non-exchangeable form in the mor layer. The exception is Cd that tends to be absorbed in the mor layer to a minor extent but which, on the other hand, is not released from the ashes in any greater amounts. The greatest risk for increased concentrations of soluble heavy metals appears to be the mobilization of part of the mor layer's reserve as a result of the salt effect of the ashes. However, this is a temporary effect. 17 refs, 18 figs, 6 tabs Figs and tabs with text in English

  9. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  10. Solutions for wood-based bio-energy price discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraes, Timo [FOEX Indexes Ltd., Helsinki (Finland)], e-mail: timo@foex.fi

    2012-11-01

    Energy prices are highly volatile. This volatility can have serious ill-effects on the profitability of companies engaged in the energy business. There are, however, a number of price risk management tools which can be used to reduce the problems caused by price volatility. International trade of wood pellets and wood chips is rapidly growing. A good price transparency helps in developing the trade further. In order to meet the renewable energy targets within the EU, further growth of volumes is needed, at least within Europe and from overseas supply sources to the European markets. Reliable price indices are a central element in price risk management and in general price discovery. Exchanges have provided, in the past, the most widely known price discovery systems. Since 1990's, an increasing number of price risk management tools has been based on cash settlement concept. Cash settlement requires high quality benchmark price indices. These have been developed by the exchanges themselves, by trade press and by independent price benchmark provider companies. The best known of these benchmarks in forest industry and now also in wood-based bioenergy products are the PIX indices, provided by FOEX Indexes Ltd. This presentation discusses the key requirements for a good price index and the different ways of using the indices. Price relationships between wood chip prices and pellet prices are also discussed as will be the outlook for the future volume growth and trade flows in woodchips and pellets mainly from the European perspective.

  11. Process for utilizing wood from forest maintenance and hedgerow cuttings in decentralized heating stations; Verfahren zur Nutzung von Knick- und Schwachholz fuer dezentrale Heizwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuebig, D.K.

    2000-07-01

    The desired ecological goal is the efficient use of a natural byproduct resulting from the cultivation of forests and the maintenance of hedgerows. Since present expenditure is quite high, rational processing techniques are necessary. The entire process is being investigated within the framework of a project promoted by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU), in co-operation with partners from the industrial and agricultural service sectors. Firstly, the vegetation, amongst which the wood of hedgerows ranks, is characterised. The hedgerows grow on earthen walls and consist of numerous types of wood. They are cut after 10-12 years in order to promote a dense and varied regeneration, facilitating their ecological function. This thesis develops and outlines solutions to be utilised in the collection and reduction (i.e. cutting/chopping) of broad swaths of biomass. Owing to earlier observations, various concepts within the co-operative are being implemented, with an aspect to the examination of processing techniques. (orig.)

  12. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  13. Handling wood shavings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-09-18

    Details of bulk handling equipment suitable for collection and compressing wood waste from commercial joinery works are discussed. The Redler Bin Discharger ensures free flow of chips from storage silo discharge prior to compression into briquettes for use as fuel or processing into chipboard.

  14. Effect of Intensive Forest Management Practices on Wood Properties and Pulp Yield of Young, Fast Growing Southern Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Faust; Alexander Clark; Charles E. Courchene; Barry D. Shiver; Monique L. Belli

    1999-01-01

    The demand for southern pine fiber is increasing. However, the land resources to produce wood fiber are decreasing. The wood industry is now using intensive cultural treatments, such as competition control, fertilization, and short rotations, to increase fiber production. The impact of these intensive environmental treatments on increased growth is positive and...

  15. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  16. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  17. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  18. Higher fungal diversity is correlated with lower CO2 emissions from dead wood in a natural forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Schaefer, Douglas A; Liu, Weijie; Popescu, Viorel D; Yang, Chenxue; Wang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Chunying; Yu, Douglas W

    2016-08-24

    Wood decomposition releases almost as much CO2 to the atmosphere as does fossil-fuel combustion, so the factors regulating wood decomposition can affect global carbon cycling. We used metabarcoding to estimate the fungal species diversities of naturally colonized decomposing wood in subtropical China and, for the first time, compared them to concurrent measures of CO2 emissions. Wood hosting more diverse fungal communities emitted less CO2, with Shannon diversity explaining 26 to 44% of emissions variation. Community analysis supports a 'pure diversity' effect of fungi on decomposition rates and thus suggests that interference competition is an underlying mechanism. Our findings extend the results of published experiments using low-diversity, laboratory-inoculated wood to a high-diversity, natural system. We hypothesize that high levels of saprotrophic fungal biodiversity could be providing globally important ecosystem services by maintaining dead-wood habitats and by slowing the atmospheric contribution of CO2 from the world's stock of decomposing wood. However, large-scale surveys and controlled experimental tests in natural settings will be needed to test this hypothesis.

  19. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  20. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  1. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A. [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T. [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  2. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Polttojakeen hankinta puun yhdistelmaekorjuussa ja integroitu energiapuun tuotantomenetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooli, A [Hooli Oy, Kemi (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Ranta, T [Finntech Ltd. Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Chip production company Hooli Ltd. has built an innovative mobile chain-flail delimbing-debarking-unit which includes also a hammer crusher for wood fuel. This integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood based on that unit has been planned especially for the circumstances where the power or heating plants are near and the pulp mills more remote from the wood processing sites. The trees are felt into bunches and transported as whole trees or tree-sections to the roadside. The Hooli-unit delimbs and debarks the trees using multi-tree processing. The optimal bark content of Scot pine bolts after processing is under 1 %. All green branches, stops and bark are directly crushed into wood fuel in the same unit. Fuel chips are carried to the nearest power plant. The debarked bolts are transported to the pulpmills in the form of roundwood or pulpchips, thus giving better economy for the whole method. Based on first field experiments in 1995 this method has operated well. However, there are still development work ahead: e.g. good debarking quality of birch and spruce in the winter conditions. To attain the targets of the project looks promising. The project is carried out as joint project between Hooli Ltd, Finntech Ltd. Oy, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Veitsiluoto Ltd and VTT Energy. The chain-flail delimbing-debarking-crushing unit was built at Tervolan Konepaja Ky

  3. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to differences in dead wood dynamics depending on land management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio; Duque, Alvaro

    2016-04-15

    Dead wood, composed of coarse standing and fallen woody debris (CWD), is an important carbon (C) pool in tropical forests and its accounting is needed to reduce uncertainties within the strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). To date, information on CWD stocks in tropical forests is scarce and effects of land-cover conversion and land management practices on CWD dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here we present estimates on CWD stocks in primary forests in the Colombian Amazon and their dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two sub-regions with different management practices during pasture establishment: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) sub-regions. Two 20-year-old chronosequences describing the forest-to-pasture conversion were identified in both sub-regions. The line-intersect and the plot-based methods were used to estimate fallen and standing CWD stocks, respectively. Total necromass in primary forests was similar between both sub-regions (35.6 ± 5.8 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 37.0 ± 7.4 Mg ha(-1) in LG). An increase of ∼124% in CWD stocks followed by a reduction to values close to those at the intact forests were registered after slash-and-burn practice was implemented in both sub-regions during the first two years of forest-to-pasture conversion. Implementation of machinery after using fire in HG pastures led to a reduction of 82% in CWD stocks during the second and fifth years of pasture establishment, compared to a decrease of 41% during the same period in LG where mechanization is not implemented. Finally, average necromass 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion decreased to 3.5 ± 1.4 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 9.3 ± 3.5 Mg ha(-1) in LG, representing a total reduction of between 90% and 75% in each sub-region, respectively. These results highlight the importance of low-grazing intensity management practices during ranching activities in the Colombian

  4. Wood-ash addition on a drained forest peatland in Southern Sweden - Effects on water chemistry; Tillfoersel av biobra ensleaska i tallskog paa en dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Effekter paa vattenkemin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, Eva; Broemssen, Claudia von; Losjoe, Katarina; Sikstroem Ulf

    2012-02-15

    Wood ash can be used for forest fertilization on peatlands or for nutrient compensation following intensive harvesting. This project was performed in order to investigate effects on water chemistry of applying wood ash to a Scots pine stand on a drained peatland. Ditch-water chemistry was monitored before and after the application of wood ash. Furthermore, groundwater was collected and chemically analyzed both from the ash-treated peatland and from an adjacent untreated reference peatland. Both short term (a few months) and more long term effects (up to three years after application) were detected on water chemistry

  5. Análise de risco e retorno do setor florestal: produtos da madeira Analysis of risk and return of the forest sector: wood products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou descrever, analisar e comparar a relação risco/retorno dos produtos madeira serrada, madeira aplainada, madeira laminada, compensado e pasta química de madeira em função do comportamento de seu preço, durante as três últimas décadas, com base na taxa geométrica de crescimento e na dispersão dos preços. De acordo com os resultados, concluiu-se que os únicos produtos que apresentaram relação favorável à captação de recursos durante essas três décadas foram madeira serrada e madeira aplainada.This work aimed to describe, analyze and to compare the relation risk and return of the forest products: sawn wood, planed wood, veneer, plywood and the chemical pulpwood, in function of the behavior of its price, during the three last decades with base in the geometric rate of growth and in the price dispersion. The results indicated that the only products that presented favorable relation to fund raising, during the three decades, were the sawn and planed wood.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-based Nanomaterials from Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq Wood Bark: an Organic Waste Material from Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to produce nanomaterials from renewable bio-based materials, like wood bark, has great potential to benefit the wood processing industry. To support this issue, we investigated the production of bio-based nanomaterials using conventional balls milling. Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba(Roxb. Miq wood bark (JWB, an organic waste material from a community forest was subjected to conventional balls milling for 96 h and was converted into bio-based nanomaterial. The morphology and particle size, chemical components, functional groups and crystallinity of the bio-based nanomaterial were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, scanning electron microscopy extended with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The particle-sizes obtained for the JWB bio-based nanomaterial were between 43 nm to 469 nm and the functional groups were detected as cellulose. The chemical components found were carbon, oxygen, chloride, potassium and calcium, except for the sample produced from sieve type T14, which did not contain chloride. The crystalline structure was calcium oxalate hydrate (C2CaO4.H2O with crystalline sizes 21 nm and 15 nm, produced from sieve types T14 and T200 respectively.

  7. Plants as highly diverse sources of construction wood, handicrafts and fibre in the Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, China): the importance of minor forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin; Kang, Yongxiang; Feng, Jing; Liu, Mengying; Ji, Xiaolian; Li, Dengwu; Stawarczyk, Kinga; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2017-06-30

    Chinese rural communities living among species-rich forests have little documentation on species used to make handicrafts and construction materials originating from the surrounding vegetation. Our research aimed at recording minor wood uses in the Heihe valley in the Qinling mountains. We carried out 37 semi-structured interviews in seven villages. We documented the use of 84 species of plants. All local large canopy trees are used for some purpose. Smaller trees and shrubs which are particularly hard are selectively cut. The bark of a few species was used to make shoes, hats, steamers and ropes, but this tradition is nearly gone. A few species, mainly bamboo, are used for basket making, and year-old willow branches are used for brushing off the chaff during wheat winnowing. The traditional use of wood materials documented suggests that some rare and endangered tree species may have been selectively cut due to their valuable wood, e.g. Fraxinus mandshurica and Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis. Some other rare species, e.g. Dipteronia sinensis, are little used and little valued.

  8. A national optimisation model for energy wood streams; Energiapuuvirtojen valtakunnallinen optimointimalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iikkanen, P.; Keskinen, S.; Korpilahti, A.; Raesaenen, T.; Sirkiae, A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010 a total of 12,5 terawatt hours of forest energy was used in Finland's heat and power plants. According to studies by Metsaeteho and Poeyry, use of energy wood will nearly double to 21.6 terawatt hours by 2020. There are also plans to use energy wood as a raw material for biofuel plants. The techno-ecological supply potential of energy wood in 2020 is estimated at 42.9 terawatt hours. Energy wood has been transported almost entirely by road. The situation is changing, however, because growing demand for energy wood will expand raw wood procurement areas and lengthen transport distances. A cost-effective transport system therefore also requires the use of rail and waterway transports. In Finland, however, there is almost a complete absence of the terminals required for the use of rail and waterway transports; where energy wood is chipped, temporarily stored and loaded onto railway wagons and vessels for further transport. A national optimisation model for energy wood has been developed to serve transport system planning in particular. The linear optimisation model optimises, on a national level, goods streams between supply points and usage points based on forest energy procurement costs. The model simultaneously covers deliveries of forest chips, stumps and small-sized thinning wood. The procurement costs used in the optimisation include the costs of the energy wood's roadside price, chipping, transport and terminal handling. The transport system described in the optimisation model consists of wood supply points (2007 municipality precision), wood usage points, railway terminals and the connections between them along the main road and rail network. Elements required for the examination of waterway transports can also be easily added to the model. The optimisation model can be used to examine, for example, the effects of changes of energy wood demand and supply as well as transport costs on energy wood goods streams, the relative use of different

  9. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  10. Slavic Forest, Norwegian Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rudolf; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2017-01-01

    We once had a corp, or should we say, it once had us They showed us its tags, isn’t it great, unified tags They asked us to parse and they told us to use everything So we looked around and we noticed there was near nothing We took other langs, bitext aligned: words one-to-one We played for two weeks, and then they said, here is the test The parser kept training till morning, just until deadline So we had to wait and hope what we get ...

  11. A local heating system using wood fuel from farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Kurvinen, T.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a part of the a project on sustainable biomass utilization chains. The project belongs to a larger group of studies on northern biomass utilization by the Thule Institute and the University of Oulu. A cooperative energy society working in the municipality of Perho (3400 inhabitants) in Finland has been studied in this report. The cooperative energy society delivers energy which is generated from wood chips to the Perho municipality. Generated energy has a competitive price compared with fuel oils. In addition, harvesting, chipping and transporting give the members of the society an extra income. Members need not to make any investments in new equipment in order to work in the co-operative society because the machinery needed is the same as the one they use for other forestry activities. The price of the energy generated by wood chips is bound to the price of alternative fuels. There is a 5 MW district heating plant in Perho municipality containing a 1.4 MW solid fuel fired boiler with grate and 1.6 MW and 2.0 MW oil fired boilers. An investment in a heating plant containing a solid fuel fired boiler is often many times greater than that of one containing an oil fired boiler. There are many advantages which are hard to evaluate in generating energy from wood fuel. E.g. employment, increased income from taxes, an increase in the cash flow in the municipality and the advantages for forest growth. When undersized trees are removed from a forest stand, the remaining trees will grow better. The advantage of forestry is, however, hard to evaluate in cash terms. There has been an estimate that the advantage is 50-100 FIM/ha/a when compared to the yield of unthinned pine forest. Studies have shown that the money paid for energy in the area may be recycled several times in purchasing products and services in the area. In Perho municipality, it has been estimated that over half million FIM of extra cash has been generated and invested in the area by the

  12. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  13. Saprophytic Activity and Sporulation of Cryphonectria parasitica on Dead Chestnut Wood in Forests with Naturally Established Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Conedera, M; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Sustainable biological control of the chestnut blight fungus Crypho-nectria parasitica with hypovirulence depends on the production and dissemination of hypovirus-infected propagules of the pathogen. We investigated the ability of C. parasitica to sporulate and produce hypo-virus-infected spores on recently dead chestnut wood in coppice stands in southern Switzerland where hypovirulence has been naturally established. The number and type (active, inactive, or none) of cankers was assessed on experimentally cut and stacked stems, firewood stacks, and natural dead wood. Hypovirus-free and hypovirus-infected strains readily survived for more than 1 year in the chestnut blight cankers of the stacked stems. Sporulation of C. parasitica was observed on the surface of preexisting inactive and active cankers, as well as on newly colonized bark areas and was significantly more abundant than on comparable cankers on living stems. On all types of dead wood, we observed more stromata with perithecia than with pycnidia; however, a large proportion of the stromata was not differentiated. All perithecia examined yielded only hypovirus-free ascospores. The incidence of pycnidia that produced hypovirus-infected conidia ranged from 5% on natural dead wood to 41% on the experimental stacks. The mean virus transmission rate into conidia was 69%. Our study demonstrates a considerable saprophytic activity of C. parasitica on recently dead chestnut wood and supports the hypothesis of a role of this saprophytic phase in the epidemiology of hypovirulence.

  14. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  15. Criterion 6, indicator 34 : value of capital investment and annual expenditure in forest management, wood and non-wood product industries, forest-based environmental services, recreation, and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; John Bergstrom; Elizabeth Hill; Ken Cordell

    2010-01-01

    USDA Forest Service capital investment in management infrastructure was $501 and $390 million (2005$) for 2005 and 2007, respectively. National forest programs expenditures decreased from $3.0 to $2.7 billion between 2004 and 2007 and wildfire management expenditures increased from $1.7 to $2.1 billion (2005$). State forestry program expenditures for 1998, 2002, and...

  16. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  17. Towards a better understanding of long-term wood-chemistry variations in old-growth forests: A case study on ancient Pinus uncinata trees from the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, Andrea; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Camarero, J Julio; Buras, Allan; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Galván, J Diego; Gutiérrez, Emilia

    2018-06-01

    Dendrochemical studies in old forests are still underdeveloped. Old trees growing in remote high-elevation areas far from direct human influence constitute a promising biological proxy for the long-term reconstructions of environmental changes using tree-rings. Furthermore, centennial-long chronologies of multi-elemental chemistry at inter- and intra-annual resolution are scarce. Here, we use a novel non-destructive method by applying Micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) to wood samples of old Pinus uncinata trees from two Pyrenean high-elevation forests growing on acidic and basic soils. To disentangle ontogenetic (changes in tree age and diameter) from environmental influences (e.g., climate warming) we compared element patterns in sapwood (SW) and heartwood (HW) during the pre-industrial (1700-1849) and industrial (1850-2008) periods. We quantified tree-ring growth, wood density and relative element concentrations at annual (TRW, tree-ring) to seasonal resolution (EW, earlywood; LW, latewood) and related them to climate variables (temperature and precipitation) and volcanic eruptions in the 18th and 19th centuries. We detected differences for most studied elements between SW and HW along the stem and also between EW and LW within rings. Long-term positive and negative trends were observed for Ca and K, respectively. Cl, P and S showed positive trends during the industrial period. However, differences between sites were also notable. Higher values of Mg, Al, Si and the Ca/Mn ratio were observed at the site with acidic soil. Growing-season temperatures were positively related to growth, maximum wood density and to the concentration of most elements. Peaks in S, Fe, Cl, Zn and Ca were linked to major volcanic eruptions (e.g., Tambora in 1815). Our results reveal the potential of long-term wood-chemistry studies based on the μXRF non-destructive technique to reconstruct environmental changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Guide for construction of wood power systems. Construction - economic efficiency - technology; Leitfaden fuer die Errichtung von Holzenergie-Anlagen. Umsetzung - Wirtschaftlichkeit - Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchser, M. [Forum fuer Zukunftsenergien e.V., Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Guidebook serves as a handbook for the entire operational sequence, which is necessary for the establishment of a wood combustion plant in Germany with an installed capacity larger than 100 kW{sub th}, for the use of fuel woods such as forest chips, wood and forest residues, pellets, wood waste, etc. within the limits of the laws and regulations prescribed for the respective performance classes. The Guidebook's purpose is to give potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants as well as the appropriate authorities a quick and global overview of the energetic use of wood in order to contribute to an increased application of this technology. The Guidebook introduces a Quality Model in Chapters 2 and 3, which describes the establishment of a wood combustion system in six phases. Eleven Management Aspects are differentiated, which can be helpful during the conversion of a project. Thus, potential investors and operators of wood combustion plants become acquainted with the most important aspects of this kind of project conversion. In addition, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the operating costs of wood combustion plants. The relevant licensing and planning procedures depending on the installed capacity and fuelwood use are comprehensively described in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 supplies a concrete overview of the environmental aspects and emissions of wood combustion. Since wood combustion plants must be - as all other investments - financially secured Chapter 7 provides a description of the relevant information on public means and subsidies. Besides all important promotion programmes, the new German Renewable Energy Law (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz - EEG) of April 2000 is described in detail. Many examples of already realised wood combustion plant projects are described in Chapter 8. As an additional service, all significant addresses from ministries to energy agencies and associations are listed in Chapter 9. (orig.)

  19. Species verification of Dalbergia nigra and Dalbergia spruceana samples in the wood collection of the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wiemann; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    To evade endangered timber species laws, unscrupulous importers sometimes attempt to pass protected Dalbergia nigra as look-alike but unprotected, Dalbergia Spruceana. Wood density and fluorescence properties are sometimes used to identify the species. Although these properties are useful and do not require special equipment,...

  20. Comparing energy use and environmental emissions of reinforced wood doors and steel doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn Knight; Melissa Huff; Janet I. Stockhausen; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory has patented a technology that incorporates fiberglass-reinforced wood into the structure of wood doors and other wood building products. The process of reinforcing wood doors with epoxy and fiberglass increases the strength and durability of the product. Also, it allows the use of low-value, small-diameter wood which...

  1. When a tree falls: Controls on wood decay predict standing dead tree fall and new risks in changing forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brad Oberle; Kiona Ogle; Amy E. Zanne; Christopher W. Woodall

    2018-01-01

    When standing dead trees (snags) fall, they have major impacts on forest ecosystems. Snag fall can redistribute wildlife habitat and impact public safety, while governing important carbon (C) cycle consequences of tree mortality because ground contact accelerates C emissions during deadwood decay. Managing the consequences of altered snag dynamics in changing forests...

  2. Private forest landowners’ harvest and regeneration decisions—effect of proximity to primary wood-using mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consuelo Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    Ownership of the U.S. southern timberland rests largely on private forest landowners’ hands. As such, their harvest and regeneration choices can significantly impact the region’s roundwood supply. In most cases, private forest landowners do not consider timber production among the top reasons for holding their lands. However, most research indicates that favorable...

  3. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  4. Managing young upland forests in southeast Alaska for wood products, wildlife, aquatic resources, and fishes: problem analysis and study plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark S. Wipfli; Robert L. Deal; Paul E. Hennon; Adelaide C. Johnson; Toni L. de Santo; Thomas A. Hanley; Mark E. Schultz; Mason D. Bryant; Richard T. Edwards; Ewa H. Orlikowska; Takashi Gomi

    2002-01-01

    Red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) appears to influence the productivity of young-growth conifer forests and affect the major resources (timber, wildlife, and fisheries) of forested ecosystems in southeast Alaska. We propose an integrated approach to understanding how alder influences trophic links and processes in young-growth ecosystems. The presence...

  5. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS ON DECAYING WOOD AND ON TREE-FALL DISTURBANCES IN FORESTS IN THE KARKONOSZE MTS (SUDETEN, SW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniaszek-Kik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three invasive anthropophytes, i.e. two vascular plants Digitalis purpurea L. and Impatiens parviflora DC. as well as one moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr, were recorded on decaying wood and tree-fall disturbances (pit-mound-root plate complex. It contributes only 1.9% to the flora of analyzed habitats (1.1% of moss flora, 2.9% of vascular plant flora and 3.5% of neophytes known in Sudeten Mts. They grew, sporadically and with a low frequency, on 3.5% of studied objects (on 3.1% of decaying logs and stumps and 5.6% of tree-fall disturbances in all types of forest communities in the area of Karkonosze National Park and in the vicinity. Nowadays, invasive neophytes do not pose a threat to diversity of endangered epixylic flora. Described habitats seem to be resistant to penetration by anthropophytes.

  6. A uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain from the Upper Carboniferous uranium ore deposit in the Baden-Baden region of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheimer, F.

    1981-01-01

    From the 1973 discovered Upper Carboniferous uranium ore sandstone deposit in the Baden-Baden region (Black Forest) a uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain derived, probably the relic of a Cordaites-trunk. The chemical determinated whole uranium content of this amounts about to 40 wght.-%. Pitchblende of the collomorphic type is embedded in the vitrinite of the fossil and imitates the nearly destroyed former wood-structure. The aggregates of this mineral, surrounded by zones of contact, consist of at least two modifications of different reflectance and hardness. Radiometric analyses reveale a different disturbed radioactive equilibrium, which indicated partly loss and re-enrichment of the uranium-content in recent time. A part of the fossil is completely mineralized by pitchblende of high reflectance and associated galena. For this paragenesis the radiometric investigations proved an approached equilibrium of radioactive substances. Therefore it is to be estimated, that the pitchblende is not alterated substantially, in contrast to the embeddings in the vitrinite, rich in little reflecting and soft nasturanium. The inhomogenic mineralization of the highly coalificated fossil, also to recognise microscopically, is set in relation to the controverse genetic interpretation of the deposit. Final remarks are concerned to other uranium-enriched fossils, especially remains of bones of different origin and age. (orig.) [de

  7. Oxalic acid pretreatment of rice straw particles and loblolly pine chips : release of hemicellulosic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai; Eric Horn; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oxalic acid (OA) pretreatment on carbohydrates released from rice straw particles and wood chips. The results showed that OA treatment accelerated carbohydrates extraction from rice straw particles and wood chips. OA pretreatment dramatically increased the amount of carbohydrates extracted, up to 24 times for wood...

  8. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar for locating buried petrified wood sites: a case study in the natural monument of the Petrified Forest of Evros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargemezis, George; Diamanti, Nectaria; Tsourlos, Panagiotis; Fikos, Ilias

    2014-05-01

    A geophysical survey was carried out in the Petrified Forest of Evros, the northernmost regional unit of Greece. This collection of petrified wood has an age of approximately 35 million years and it is the oldest in Greece (i.e., older than the well-known Petrified Forest of Lesvos island located in the North Aegean Sea and which is possibly the largest of the petrified forests worldwide). Protection, development and maintenance projects still need to be carried out at the area despite all fears regarding the forest's fate since many petrified logs remain exposed both in weather conditions - leading to erosion - and to the public. This survey was conducted as part of a more extensive framework regarding the development and protection of this natural monument. Geophysical surveying has been chosen as a non-destructive investigation method since the area of application is both a natural ecosystem and part of cultural heritage. Along with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys have been carried out for investigating possible locations of buried fossilized tree trunks. The geoelectrical sections derived from ERT data in combination with the GPR profiles provided a broad view of the subsurface. Two and three dimensional subsurface geophysical images of the surveyed area have been constructed, pointing out probable locations of petrified logs. Regarding ERT, petrified trunks have been detected as high resistive bodies, while lower resistivity values were more related to the surrounding geological materials. GPR surveying has also indicated buried petrified log locations. As these two geophysical methods are affected in different ways by the subsurface conditions, the combined use of both techniques enhanced our ability to produce more reliable interpretations of the subsurface. After the completion of the geophysical investigations of this first stage, petrified trunks were revealed after a subsequent excavation at indicated

  9. Wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. Summary of an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttock, D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summaries the results of an international of wood fuel from early thinning and plantation cleaning. The economic and biological benefits from early thinning have been well documented. However, removing forest biomass during early stages of stand development from sites which are low in one or more nutrients may contribute a loss of nutrients and organic matter. Depending on the pre-thinning density and the thinning intensity, the potential yield of wood fuel from early thinning may be as much as 79 dry tons per hectare. Thus, wood fuel from the thinnings could be an important source of revenue to forest owners and would contribute to domestic energy requirements. Motor-manual felling predominates in early thinning, mainly due to the lack of appropriate technology for thinning small trees. However, the productivity of motor-manual felling is greatly affected by the initial stand density and declines dramatically at densities greater than 10 000 stems per ha. Under these conditions, purpose-built wood fuel harvesters with small-tree harvesting capability offer the greatest potential for increasing felling productivity and reducing the cost of wood fuel. The cost of wood fuel from early thinnings varies widely between countries from USD 25.00 - 87.50 per dry ton depending on stand conditions, harvesting system, transport distance, domestic tax rates, and stumpage prices. At the low end of this range, wood fuel chips from early thinning are competitive with wood fuel produced from mill waste, the residues from clearfell operations, or from later thinnings

  10. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  11. Public opinion and wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  12. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil under Decaying Wood in a Tropical Wet Forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcela Zalamea; Grizelle Gonzalez; D. Jean Lodge

    2016-01-01

    Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs (Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia...

  13. The case for wood-fuelled heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, Ewan

    2001-01-01

    This article looks at the wood heating industry in the UK and examines the heat market and the growth potential in the domestic, public, agricultural and commercial sectors. The current status of wood-fueled heating technology is considered, along with log and chip boilers, and the use of pellet fuel. The economics of wood-fuelled heating, the higher level of utilisation of wood-fuelled heating by utilities in northern European countries compared with the UK, and the barriers to the exploitation of wood fuelled heating are examined

  14. Global outlook for wood and forests with the bioenergy demand implied by scenarios of the intergovernmental panel on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno; James A. Turner; Shushuai Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was modified to link the forest sector to two scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and to represent the utilization of fuelwood and industrial roundwood to produce biofuels. The scenarios examined were a subset of the “story lines” prepared by the IPCC. Each scenario has projections of population and...

  15. Build Green: Wood Can Last for Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Samuel V. Glass

    2012-01-01

    This report updates and revises information from the 1976 Forest Service publication by Rodney C. DeGroot, “Your Wood Can Last for Centuries.” It explains why wood decays, alerts the homeowner to conditions that can result in decay in buildings, and describes measures to prevent moisture-related damage to wood.

  16. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  17. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of the use of forest residues for bioenergy production in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Carly; Mortimer, Nigel; Murphy, Richard; Matthews, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is used to assess the energy requirements and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with extracting UK forest harvesting residues for use as a biomass resource. Three forest harvesting residues were examined (whole tree thinnings, roundwood and brash bales), and each have their own energy and emission profile. The whole forest rotation was examined, including original site establishment, forest road construction, biomass harvesting during thinning and final clear-fell events, chipping and transportation. Generally, higher yielding sites give lower GHG emissions per ‘oven dried tonne’ (ODT) forest residues, but GHG emissions ‘per hectare’ are higher as more biomass is extracted. Greater quantities of biomass, however, ultimately mean greater displacement of conventional fuels and therefore greater potential for GHG emission mitigation. Although forest road construction and site establishment are “one off” events they are highly energy-intensive operations associated with high diesel fuel consumption, when placed in context with the full forest rotation, however, their relative contributions to the overall energy requirements and GHG emissions are small. The lower bulk density of wood chips means that transportation energy requirements and GHG emissions are higher compared with roundwood logs and brash bales, suggesting that chipping should occur near the end-user of application. -- Highlights: ► GHGs and fuel consumption assessed for UK clear-fell conifer forest residues. ► Energy use and GHG emissions for forest road construction characterised. ► Lower energy requirements and GHG emissions per ODT for higher yielding sites. ► Transport energy and GHG emissions higher for wood chip than roundwood or brash bales. ► Results useful in predicting GHG mitigation potential from UK commercial conifer forest residues.

  18. Quantifying the environmental impact of an integrated human/industrial-natural system using life cycle assessment; a case study on a forest and wood processing chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Alvarenga, Rodrigo A F; Verheyen, Kris; Muys, Bart; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to assess the environmental sustainability of a product; it quantifies the environmental impact of a product's life cycle. In conventional LCAs, the boundaries of a product's life cycle are limited to the human/industrial system, the technosphere. Ecosystems, which provide resources to and take up emissions from the technosphere, are not included in those boundaries. However, similar to the technosphere, ecosystems also have an impact on their (surrounding) environment through their resource usage (e.g., nutrients) and emissions (e.g., CH4). We therefore propose a LCA framework to assess the impact of integrated Techno-Ecological Systems (TES), comprising relevant ecosystems and the technosphere. In our framework, ecosystems are accounted for in the same manner as technosphere compartments. Also, the remediating effect of uptake of pollutants, an ecosystem service, is considered. A case study was performed on a TES of sawn timber production encompassing wood growth in an intensively managed forest ecosystem and further industrial processing. Results show that the managed forest accounted for almost all resource usage and biodiversity loss through land occupation but also for a remediating effect on human health, mostly via capture of airborne fine particles. These findings illustrate the potential relevance of including ecosystems in the product's life cycle of a LCA, though further research is needed to better quantify the environmental impact of TES.

  19. Wood burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, H

    1955-01-01

    Discussed are the use of wood as a fuel, the technique of wood combustion and the operation of wood-burning stoves for cooking and heating. In addition, there is a section which reviews the use of wood stoves in various countries and lists manufacturers of stoves, central heating furnaces and in some cases sawdust burners.

  20. Interactive Effects of Climate Change and Decomposer Communities on the Stabilization of Wood-Derived Carbon Pools: Catalyst for a New Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resh, Sigrid C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Globally, forest soils store ~two-thirds as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere. Although wood makes up the majority of forest biomass, the importance of wood contributions to soil C pools is unknown. Even with recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of soil processes, integrative studies tracing C input pathways and biological fluxes within and from soils are lacking. Therefore, our research objectives were to assess the impact of different fungal decay pathways (i.e., white-rot versus brown-rot)—in interaction with wood quality, soil temperature, wood location (i.e., soil surface and buried in mineral soil), and soil texture—on the transformation of woody material into soil CO2 efflux, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and soil C pools. The use of 13C-depleted woody biomass harvested from the Rhinelander, WI free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (Aspen-FACE) experiment affords the unique opportunity to distinguish the wood-derived C from other soil C fluxes and pools. We established 168 treatment plots across six field sites (three sand and three loam textured soil). Treatment plots consisted of full-factorial design with the following treatments: 1. Wood chips from elevated CO2, elevated CO2 + O3, or ambient atmosphere AspenFACE treatments; 2. Inoculated with white rot (Bjerkandera adusta) or brown rot (Gloeophyllum sepiarium) pure fungal cultures, or the original suite of endemic microbial community on the logs; and 3. Buried (15cm in soil as a proxy for coarse roots) or surface applied wood chips. We also created a warming treatment using open-topped, passive warming chambers on a subset of the above treatments. Control plots with no added wood (“no chip control”) were incorporated into the research design. Soils were sampled for initial δ13C values, CN concentrations, and bulk density. A subset of plots were instrumented with lysimeters for sampling soil water and temperature data

  1. Predictive Modeling of Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. Wood Density Using Stand Structure Variables Derived from Airborne LiDAR Data in Boreal Forests of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to model the average wood density in black spruce trees in representative stands across a boreal forest landscape based on relationships with predictor variables extracted from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR point cloud data. Increment core samples were collected from dominant or co-dominant black spruce trees in a network of 400 m2 plots distributed among forest stands representing the full range of species composition and stand development across a 1,231,707 ha forest management unit in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Wood quality data were generated from optical microscopy, image analysis, X-ray densitometry and diffractometry as employed in SilviScan™. Each increment core was associated with a set of field measurements at the plot level as well as a suite of LiDAR-derived variables calculated on a 20 × 20 m raster from a wall-to-wall coverage at a resolution of ~1 point m−2. We used a multiple linear regression approach to identify important predictor variables and describe relationships between stand structure and wood density for average black spruce trees in the stands we observed. A hierarchical classification model was then fitted using random forests to make spatial predictions of mean wood density for average trees in black spruce stands. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the response variable, with an estimated root mean square error of 38.8 (kg·m−3. Among the predictor variables, P20 (second decile LiDAR height in m and quadratic mean diameter were most important. Other predictors describing canopy depth and cover were of secondary importance and differed according to the modeling approach. LiDAR-derived variables appear to capture differences in stand structure that reflect different constraints on growth rates, determining the proportion of thin-walled earlywood cells in black spruce stems, and ultimately influencing the pattern of variation in important wood quality attributes

  2. Wood decay and the cleanup crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Jessie A. Glaeser

    2017-01-01

    Arborists are encouraged to recognize the wood-decay process as an important factor in tree health and public safety. Technical experts who develop training materials to recognize wood-decay processes in living trees are frequently forest pathologists. Much of the history of forest pathology was to support production of sound, high-quality timber. That heritage is...

  3. Peter Koch: wizard of wood use

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Lora

    1978-01-01

    Like his pioneer forefathers, Peter Koch sees opportunity where others see obstacles. And his vision is helping to reshape the wood industry. Since 1963 Koch has directed research on processing southern woods for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, Louisiana. In that time, he has invented six revolutionary machines, developed...

  4. INVESTIGATION ON THE QUALITY OF BRIQUETTES MADE FROM RARELY USED WOOD SPECIES, AGRO-WASTES AND FOREST BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of briquettes made from various biomass resources (staghorn sumac wood, vineyard and apple tree pruning biomass, pine cones, corn stalk and corn cobs were investigated in the present paper. The moisture content of raw materials was first determined, before compacting them in a hydraulic briquetting machine. Briquettes with diameter of 40mm and various lengths were obtained. Five replicates of each briquette type were selected for the determination of density, compression strength and calorific value. The results were compared to those of beech and pine briquettes obtained under similar conditions. Based on the experimental results, mathematical correlations between density and compression strength and density and calorific value were investigated.

  5. Biomass availability in forests, poplar plantations and hedges for various timber uses. National assessment based on the national forest inventory data and wood consumption statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, Christian; Vallet, Patrick; Chevalier, Helene; COLIN, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the quantities of potentially exploitable timber in French forests, poplar plantations and hedges for the period 2007 to 2020. The first step consisted in computing the gross available quantities of timber, prior to deduction of the various current consumptions. This was done applying the reference silvicultural scenarios to all the plots in the French national forest inventory, on the basis of their features (species, structure, fertility, age, observed per hectare volume). Current consumption was then subtracted from these quantities. It was estimated using the annual sectoral 'forest exploitation' survey in industry and an estimation of fuelwood consumption by households. The outcome is an excess availability of more than 28 million cubic metres of timber per year for bio-energy or pulp uses, and nearly 15 million cubic metres of workable timber, essentially hardwoods. (authors)

  6. Wood fuels sources and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmans, Auke

    2003-01-01

    Biomass energy is an important source of energy in most Asian countries. Households and industries use substantial amounts of fuel wood, charcoal and other biomass energy, such as agricultural residues, dung, leaves and sawmill residues. The main household applications are cooking and heating whereas industrial applications range widely. This paper provides an overview of estimates on the production and trade of biomass fuels in the South-east Asia region. The flows and channels used in the supply of wood fuels in different countries were analysed. This paper may help in identifying policy gaps with regards to the supply and consumption of wood fuels from both forest and non-forest sources. (Author)

  7. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  8. Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance and Identification of Conservation-Priority Areas in Tropical Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Bernard, C.S.; Breman, F.C.; Beek, van M.; Salim, A.; Sheil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would

  9. Wood-inhabiting, polyporoid fungi in aspen-dominated forests managed for biomass in the U.S. Lake States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Brazee; Daniel L. Lindner; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Amy M. Milo

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the potential long-term effects of biomass harvesting on biodiversity, the polyporoid fungi community was characterized from 120 plots in four aspen-dominated forests in Minnesota. Four deadwood variables (substratum species, substratum type, decay class and diameter class) were recorded for each polyporoid species occurrence. A total of 2358...

  10. Watershed restoration, jobs-in-the woods, and community assistance: Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. DeForest

    1999-01-01

    There are many parallels between the 1978 legislation to expand Redwood National Park and the Northwest Forest Plan, which together with the Northwest Economic Adjustment Initiative formed the 1993 Pacific Northwest Initiative. In both situations, the Federal Government sought to promote retraining for displaced workers, to undertake watershed assessment and...

  11. Hansel and Gretel Walk in the Forest, Landowners Walk in the Woods: A Qualitative Examination of the Language Used by Family Forest Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Andrejczyk; Brett J. Butler; Mary L. Tyrrell; Judith Langer

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, a series of focus groups with family forest owners was conducted as part of a social marketing initiative with the aim of increasing conservation activities on private forestlands. Participants in the study were asked how they perceive and experience their land and how they understand certain terminology used by forestry professionals. Results show that family...

  12. Technical and economic analysis of electricity generation from forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels in a Finnish heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish energy industry is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency. Conventional electricity generation has environmental side-effects that may cause global warming. Renewable fuels are superior because they offer near-zero net emissions. In this study, I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels in southern Finland on a 1-year strategic decision-making horizon. I solved the electricity generation problem using optimization of the energy products and fuel mixtures based on energy efficiency and forest technology. The decision environment was complicated by the sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses. The combinatorial complexity of the problem required the use of adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. I discuss the properties of the decision-support system and methodology and illustrate pricing of electricity generation based on real industrial data. The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis that accounts for procurement of local forest fuels in a holistic supply chain model. -- Highlights: → I use adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. → I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels. → The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis. → The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses.

  13. Wood construction codes issues in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer

    2006-01-01

    The current wood construction codes find their origin in the 1935 Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material published by the USDA Forest Service. Many of the current design recommendations can be traced back to statements from this book. Since this time a series of development both historical and recent has led to a multi-layered system for use of wood products in...

  14. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  15. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  16. Properties of soils and tree-wood tissue across a Lake States sulfate-deposition gradient. Forest Service resource bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmann, L.F.; Grigal, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    There is general concern that atmospheric pollutants may be affecting the health of forests in the USA. The hypotheses tested were that the wet sulfate deposition gradient across the Lake States: (1) is reflected in the amount of accumulated sulfur in the forest floor-soil system and tree woody tissue and (2) is related to differences in tree radial increment. The authors present the properties of the soil and tree woody tissue (mostly chemical) on the study plots. Knowledge of the properties of soil and woody tree tissue is needed for understanding and interpreting relations between sulfate deposition, sulfur accumulation in the ecosystem, soil and tree chemistry, and tree growth and climatic variation. The report provides a summary of those data for study, analysis, and interpretation

  17. Wood-based bioenergy value chain in mountain urban districts: An integrated environmental accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodinoska, Natasha; Buonocore, Elvira; Paletto, Alessandro; Franzese, Pier Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The Sarentino bioenergy value chain (North Italy) was investigated. • A multi-method environmental accounting framework was implemented. • Environmental costs and impacts of a forest bioenergy chain were assessed. • Indicators show a good environmental performance and sustainability. • Linking wood industry and energy production could lower the environmental burden. - Abstract: Using wood biomass for bioenergy production in mountain urban settlements can represent a win–win strategy when it combines a continuous energy provision to households with a sustainable management of local forests, also boosting rural development and stakeholders’ cooperation. In this study, we implemented a multi-method environmental accounting framework aimed at investigating environmental costs and impacts of a bioenergy value chain located in Sarentino Valley (North Italy). This assessment framework encompasses material, energy, and emergy demands as well as main emissions generated at each step of the chain: (1) forestry, (2) logistics, and (3) conversion. The resulting global to local ratios of abiotic material calculated for forestry, logistics, and conversion subsystems show that the global (direct and indirect) consumption of abiotic matter was respectively 3.6, 3.2, and 7.6 times higher than the direct material demand. The Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) of wood biomass and wood chips production (37.1 and 22.4) shows a high energy performance of these processes, while the EROI of heat generation (11.35) reflects a higher support of human-driven inputs. The emergy renewable fraction, ranging from 77% to 37% across the value chain, shows a high use of local renewable resources in the bioenergy value chain. The total CO_2 emissions of the bioenergy value chain (4088 t CO_2 yr"−"1) represent only 7.1% of the CO_2 sequestration potential of the Sarentino Valley forest ecosystem, highlighting the capability of the local forests to offset the CO_2

  18. Non-Timber Forest Products Marketing Systems and Market Players in Southwest Virginia: A Case Study of Craft, Medicinal and Herbal, Specialty Wood, and Edible Forest Products

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Sarah Marsden

    1998-01-01

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are important in rural southwest Virginia as a source of household sustenance and supplemental income. The trade in NTFPs from this region is centuries old and now helps supply growing worldwide demands. Although marketing is a vital part of optimizing the value of these products, it has been ignored in rural natural resource development. This research analyzes marketing systems for selected NTFPs in southwest Virginia by describing marketing chains, inter...

  19. Wood, the indigenous energy source. 1100 plants built in 20 years, all of them 'Swiss made'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, B.

    1999-01-01

    The company HOBAG Brienz, Ltd., specialised in the field of automatic wood-burning plants, continuously developed its unique system over the past 20 years and has more than 1100 satisfied clients in Switzerland as well as in foreign countries. It is equally dealing with log boilers, wood chip boilers, or pellet boilers. Nowadays, the company is seen as the market leader for modern, full automatic log-burning plants and wood conditioning equipment including containers for logs or wood chips

  20. Modified precision-husky progrind H-3045 for chipping biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Fernando Seixas; John. Klepac

    2008-01-01

    A specific size of whole tree chip was needed to co-mill wood chips with coal. The specifications are stringent because chips must be mixed with coal, as opposed to a co-firing process. In co-firing, two raw products are conveyed separately to a boiler. In co-milling, such as at Alabama Power's Plant Gadsden, the chip and coal mix must pass through a series of...

  1. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  2. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  3. Solid wood timber products consumption in major end uses in the United States, 1950-2009 : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; James L. Howard

    2011-01-01

    Solid wood timber products provide important raw materials to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping sectors of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new single-family houses and low-rise multifamily residential structures are wood framed and sheathed. Large amounts of solid wood timber products are also used in the construction of new nonresidential buildings, and in...

  4. The value chain of non-wood forest products as a component of development of the forestry sector in a part of South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The value chain represents a detailed outline of the process that a product or service passes from raw materials, production and distribution to the consumer. The aim of this article is that within the analyzed companies in the area of the statistical region of South Serbia determined the dynamics of purchasing and marketing of non-wood forest products (NWFPs, and their value. The purpose of this research is to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs towards sustainable use of NWFPs in a part of the territory of South Serbia. The subjects of the research are: purchased and sold quantities in analyzed companies, as well as the prices of these products in the market. The research was conducted in the territory of the dominant Pcinja, and they included 19 companies engaged in purchasing, processing and sale of NTFPs. The purchase of forest raspberries, wild strawberries and blackberries and herbs is represented within the Pcinja District. The highest average annual growth rates were recorded in the sales of products with added value of dog rose (Rosa canina and cornelian (Cornus mas. Export oriented enterprises in this area are at a low level. The total gross revenue earned by the placement of the selected final NWFPs in the domestic market was about 6,315,710 €. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji, i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  5. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  6. Competitive outcomes between wood-decaying fungi are altered in burnt wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Mattias; Eriksson, Anna-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in boreal forests where it creates a wide variety of charred and other types of heat-modified dead wood substrates, yet how these substrates affect fungal community structure and development within wood is poorly understood. We allowed six species of wood-decaying basidiomycetes to compete in pairs in wood-discs that were experimentally burnt before fungal inoculation. The outcomes of interactions in burnt wood differed from those in unburnt control wood for two species:Antrodia sinuosanever lost on burnt wood and won over its competitor in 67% of the trials compared to 40% losses and 20% wins on unburnt wood. In contrast, Ischnoderma benzoinumwon all interactions on unburnt wood compared to 33% on burnt wood. However, the responses differed depending on the identity of the competing species, suggesting an interaction between competitor and substrate type. The observed shift in competitive balance between fungal species probably results from chemical changes in burnt wood, but the underlying mechanism needs further investigation. Nevertheless, the results indicate that forest fires indirectly structure fungal communities by modifying dead wood, and highlight the importance of fire-affected dead wood substrates in boreal forests. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Wood fuel production technologies in EU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The presentation reviews the major technologies used for the production of fuel chips for heating plants in Europe. Three primary options are considered: production of whole-tree chips from young trees for fuel; integrated harvesting of fiber and energy from thinning based on tree-section system; and production of fuel chips from logging residue in clear-cut areas after fully mechanized logging. The characteristics of the available biomass reserve and proven technology for its recovery are discussed. The employment effects of fuel chip production and the costs of wood fuels are also briefly discussed. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  10. The economy of chip, whole-tree and short-wood methods in the pulpwood and fuelwood procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Branch-mass models, applicable for different kinds of technical/economical inspections of timber procurement, based on large data collections of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, were developed in the project. These models are based on the assumption that the branch-mass distribution inside the top-end of different tree-species resembles each-other. The production costs of pulp produced from first-thinning pine were lowest when the minimum diameter of the pulpwood varied between 6 - 9 cm, then the relative costs varied between 101 - 99. The production costs consisted of timber procurement costs, variable industrial timber processing and pulping costs, and secondary product reimbursements. In addition to the calculational inspections, the effects of the dimensions of pulpwood and the harvesting technology on profitability of harvesting of first thinning pine, on debarking, on the chip-size distribution and on fiber properties, were studied in the research. The profitability of harvesting is increased by about 10 % when the minimum diameter is decreased from 7 cm to 5 cm. This requires, however, that the size of the minimum-stem is not decreased

  11. The economy of chip, whole-tree and short-wood methods in the pulpwood and fuelwood procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V. [Metsaeteho, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Branch-mass models, applicable for different kinds of technical/economical inspections of timber procurement, based on large data collections of the Finnish Forest Research Institute, were developed in the project. These models are based on the assumption that the branch-mass distribution inside the top-end of different tree-species resembles each-other. The production costs of pulp produced from first-thinning pine were lowest when the minimum diameter of the pulpwood varied between 6 - 9 cm, then the relative costs varied between 101 - 99. The production costs consisted of timber procurement costs, variable industrial timber processing and pulping costs, and secondary product reimbursements. In addition to the calculational inspections, the effects of the dimensions of pulpwood and the harvesting technology on profitability of harvesting of first thinning pine, on debarking, on the chip-size distribution and on fiber properties, were studied in the research. The profitability of harvesting is increased by about 10 % when the minimum diameter is decreased from 7 cm to 5 cm. This requires, however, that the size of the minimum-stem is not decreased

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of Marketing Tools and the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in the South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonka Stojanovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The South-east Europe (SEE region is facing a new market economy era where establishing new businesses is more than needed in all sectors. The forest sector, faced with new market emerging opportunities, is affected by the constant increase of a number of forest related enterprises. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities related to the use of marketing tools for improving business of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs dealing with non-wood forest products (NWFPs in SEE region. The research on this subject in the SEE region is scarce despite the rich biodiversity as a solid base for establishing eco-businesses. Materials and Methods: The method used in this paper is quantitative, based on survey data collected from enterprises in the NWFPs sector followed by statistical data analyses using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 in four SEE countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia. Results: The results showed that developed channels of distribution, branding and advertising of NWFPs are recognized in all countries as important and very important, but these marketing tools are used only few times per year. The majority of respondents pointed out advertising as the most frequently used and as the most successful tool. Interviewees’ future investments are to be focused on improving equipment for drying, packing, refrigerating and transport. Several entrepreneurs from Macedonia pointed out that they would invest in increasing the number of buying points and herb plantations while almost all Croatian entrepreneurs will invest in advertising, branding and promotion. Majority of respondents from Serbia are also of the opinion that financial resources should be invested in new equipment. The reasons for these investments can be summarized in reducing costs and increasing profit or in faster turnover. Conclusions: The use of marketing

  13. Caracterização da estrutura anatômica, densidade básica e morfologia de cavacos da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de painéis MDF Characterization of wood anatomy, basic density, and morphology of Eucalyptus grandis chips for MDF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Leandro Belini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na produção dos painéis "Medium Density Fiberboard" (MDF confeccionados com madeira de espécies de Eucalyptus spp de rápido crescimento evidencia a necessidade da caracterização dos seus componentes celulares, da densidade básica e da morfologia de cavacos. Com esse objetivo, foram coletadas três amostras de cavacos de madeira de árvores de Eucalyptus grandis, na linha de produção de indústria de painel. Em laboratório, os cavacos foram dissociados por maceração, para a avaliação das dimensões das fibras e dos vasos; determinou-se a densidade básica dos cavacos, bem como se caracterizaram a sua espessura e morfologia. Os resultados indicaram valores médios de 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm para o comprimento, largura, diâmetro do lume e espessura média da parede das fibras, respectivamente. A densidade básica da madeira foi de 0,432 g/cm³ e a espessura dos cavacos, de 4,36 mm. Os valores médios de retenção dos cavacos foram de 0,9-16,9-44,5-30,7-6,1-0,9% nas peneiras 40, 25, 16, 8, 3,35 mm e fundo, respectivamente, sendo 75,2% retidos nas peneiras de 16-8 mm de abertura. Os resultados das análises anatômicas e morfológicas dos cavacos de madeira foram discutidos e comparados com informações da literatura especializada e correlacionados com o processo produtivo de chapas MDF.The increase of the MDF panels (Medium Density Fiberboard production by the use of the fast growing eucalypt wood species it evidences the need of the characterization of the cellular components, basic density and the chips morphology. With this aim 3 samples of wood chips of Eucalyptus grandis trees were collected, in the production line of panel industry. In laboratory, the wood chips were dissociated by maceration for the evaluation of the fiber and vessels dimensions; the wood basic density was determined and the thickness and morphology were characterized. The results indicated mean values of 1005-19,7-11,8-3,9 µm for the fiber length

  14. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  15. Manufacture of wood-pellets doubles. Biowatti Oy started a wood pellet plant in Turenki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, M.

    1999-01-01

    Wood pellets have many advantages compared to other fuels. It is longest processed biofuel with favorable energy content. It is simple to use, transport and store. Heating with wood pellets is cheaper than with light fuel oil, and approximately as cheap as utilization of heavy fuel oil, about 110 FIM/MWh. The taxable price of wood pellets is about 550 FIM/t. Stokers and American iron stoves are equally suitable for combustion of wood pellets. Chip fueled stokers are preferred in Finland, but they are also suitable for the combustion of wood pellets. Wood pellets is an environmentally friendly product, because it does not increase the CO 2 load in the atmosphere, and its sulfur and soot emissions are relatively small. The wood pelletizing plant of Biowatti Oy in Turenki was started in an old sugar mill. The Turenki sugar mill was chosen because the technology of the closed sugar factory was suitable for production of wood pellets nearly as such, and required only by slight modifications. A press, designed for briquetting of sugar beat clippings makes the pellets. The Turenki mill will double the volume of wood pellet manufacture in Finland during the next few years. At the start the annual wood pellet production will be 20 000 tons, but the environmental permit allows the production to be increased to 70 000 tons. At first the mill uses planing machine chips as a raw material in the production. It is the most suitable raw material, because it is already dry (moisture content 8-10%), and all it needs is milling and pelletizing. Another possible raw material is sawdust, which moisture content is higher than with planing machine chips. Most of the wood pellets produced are exported e.g. to Sweden, Denmark and Middle Europe. In Sweden there are over 10 000 single-family houses using wood pellets. Biowatti's largest customer is a power plant located in Stockholm, which combusts annually about 200 000 tons of wood pellets

  16. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  17. 78 FR 14072 - Trestle Forest Health Project, Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... fulfilling the role the Forest Service has in providing a wood supply for local manufacturers; (6) provide a..., woods workers, and Forest Service employee safety. Dead and unstable live trees that do not present a...

  18. 5000 sustainable workplaces - Wood energy provides work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study made by the Swiss Wood Energy Association on the regional and national added value resulting from large wood-fired installations in Switzerland. The number of workplaces created by these installations is also noted. Wood energy is quoted as not only being a way of using forest wastes but also as being a creator of employment. Large wood-fired heating installations are commented on and efforts to promote this type of energy supply even further are discussed. The study indicates which professions benefit from the use of wood energy and quantifies the number of workplaces per megawatt of installed power that result.

  19. AFBnet - Wood and field energy information from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    2001-01-01

    biofuels in twenty European countries. The work was carried out in cooperation with the AFBnet coordinator of every EU country and six East European organizations. In Finland AFBnet cooperated with the national Wood Energy technology program, which has collected data on utilization and prices of forest chips in Finland in 1999. English and Finnish reports have been published on the results of this survey. Wood residues are the cheapest fuels (21 FIM/MWh). In Ireland the combustion of wood residues was subsidized (85 FIM/MWh). The most expensive biofuel is pellets, the price of which is nearly 180 FIM/MWh. The fuel prices in East European countries are cheapest. In Finland the prices of wood fuels are lower than the European average prices, forest chips 40-80 FIM/MWh, industrial wood residues 36-38 FIM/MWh, and wood pellets 100-138 FIM/MWh. The price of peat in Finland and in Latvia is lowest 45-47 FIM/MWh. Import and export of biofuels was also studied in the project. Biofuel are usually traded between neighbouring countries. Sweden imports biofuels even from Canada. About 35-40% (6.9-8.9 TWh) of biofuels used for generation of district heat in Sweden is imported. The export of biofuels in Europe is estimated to be about 14 TWh

  20. The Swedish wood fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    In Sweden, wood fuels are traditionally used in the Swedish forest products industry and for heating of single-family houses. More recently they are also become established as an energy source for district heating and electricity production. Energy policy, especially the energy taxation system, has favoured wood fuels and other biofuels, mainly for environmental reasons. There is now an established commercial market for wood fuels in the district heating sector, which amounts to 45 PJ and is growing 20 per cent annually. Price levels have been stable in current prices for a decade, mainly because of good access to wood fuels. Price levels are dominated by production costs on a market that is largely governed by the buyer. It is expected that the use of wood fuels will increased in Sweden in the future, which will push a further development of this section on the market and bring about technological changes in the area. (Author)