WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest reserve obligations

  1. The economic and environmental impact of trade in forest reserve obligations: a simulation analysis of options for dealing with habitat heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Chomitz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A tradeable development rights (TDR program focusing on biodiversity conservation faces a crucial problem: defining which areas of habitat should be considered equivalent. Restricting the trading scope to a narrow area could boost the range of biodiversity conserved but could increase the opportunity cost of conservation. The issue is relevant to Brazil, where TDR-like policies are emerging. Long-standing laws require each rural property to maintain a legal forest reserve (reserva legal of at least 20%, but emerging policies allow some tradeability of this obligation. This paper uses a simple, spatially explicit model to simulate a hypothetical state-level program. We find that wider trading scopes drastically reduce landholder costs of complying with this regulation and result in environmentally preferable landscapes.Programas que tenham por objetivo desenvolver um mercado de Direitos Especiais de Propriedade (DEP enfrentam um problema fundamental, qual seja a definição de áreas de preservação equivalentes. Caso a definição seja por um conceito muito restritivo, poderá ocorrer uma maior conservação da biodiversidade, porém com um aumento do custo de oportunidade da preservação ambiental. O assunto é relevante para o Brasil onde programas semelhantes aos DEP estão surgindo. A legislação exige que cada propriedade rural mantenha pelo menos 20% de sua área na forma de florestas (reserva legal, porém algumas políticas nascentes já permitem tipo de negociação de Direitos. Este trabalho usa um modelo espacial simples para simular o efeito de um programa hipotético implantado em um estado. O principal resultado é que uma política menos restritiva para a comercialização dos DEP reduz de forma expressiva, para os produtores rurais, os custos de cumprir a legislação e leva a soluções preferíveis sob o ponto de vista ambiental.

  2. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  3. 25 CFR 141.58 - Records, reports, and obligations of reservation business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall keep records in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Each reservation... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records, reports, and obligations of reservation business... ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and...

  4. Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos; Davies, Diane

    2007-07-01

    We used the global fire detection record provided by the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to determine the number of fires detected inside 823 tropical and subtropical moist forest reserves and for contiguous buffer areas 5, 10, and 15 km wide. The ratio of fire detection densities (detections per square kilometer) inside reserves to their contiguous buffer areas provided an index of reserve effectiveness. Fire detection density was significantly lower inside reserves than in paired, contiguous buffer areas but varied by five orders of magnitude among reserves. The buffer: reserve detection ratio varied by up to four orders of magnitude among reserves within a single country, and median values varied by three orders of magnitude among countries. Reserves tended to be least effective at reducing fire frequency in many poorer countries and in countries beset by corruption. Countries with the most successful reserves include Costa Rica, Jamaica, Malaysia, and Taiwan and the Indonesian island of Java. Countries with the most problematic reserves include Cambodia, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Sierra Leone and the Indonesian portion of Borneo. We provide fire detection density for 3964 tropical and subtropical reserves and their buffer areas in the hope that these data will expedite further analyses that might lead to improved management of tropical reserves.

  5. 17 CFR 270.27d-1 - Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve requirements for....27d-1 Reserve requirements for principal underwriters and depositors to carry out the obligations to... reserve and as security for the purpose of assuring the refund of charges required by sections 27(d) and...

  6. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  7. evaluation of the contributions of ikere forest reserve to sustainable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    provision of food and provision of health care delivery for the rural people. This study ... stated that the traditional uses of forests are ..... ikere forest reserve and marketing ... Beverage, for cooking, broom for .... conservation strategies for non-.

  8. 31 CFR 354.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Federal Reserve Banks, and Sallie Mae; rights of any...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.4(c)(1), is governed by the law (not... recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to § 354.14(c)(1), is governed by the law... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law governing rights and obligations...

  9. Cryptic diversity and population genetic structure in the rare, endemic, forest-obligate, slender geckos of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Dececchi, T Alex; Merkord, Chris L; Davis, Drew R; Christiani, Tony J; Brown, Rafe M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of forest lizards in Southeast Asia have highlighted spectacular morphological and cryptic genetic diversity in several poorly known clades. Unfortunately, many of the included species have microhabitat preferences for forested environments, and therefore they are threatened by extensive forest destruction throughout the region. This is particularly true in the Philippines, an archipelago with a strikingly high proportion (84%) of endemic geckos. Abundances inferred from historical museum collections suggests that we are in a critical period where apparent declines in population viability and species' abundance have taken place faster than the growth in our understanding of alpha diversity. This phenomenon is exemplified in the exceedingly rare Philippine slender forest geckos of the genus Pseudogekko. Most of the known species are rarely encountered by field biologists, and species boundaries are unclear; this poor state of knowledge impedes effective conservation measures. Using the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa, and phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we elucidate evolutionary lineages and delimit species-level conservation targets in this unique radiation of endemic Philippine geckos. The results support the presence of widespread cryptic diversity in the genus, providing a framework for the re-evaluation of conservation priorities aimed at protecting these rare, forest-obligate species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies of the Woody Vegetation of the Welor Forest Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Welor area has been classified as a forest reserve since 1935 while waiting for the outcome of studies for its appropriate exploitation based on its biological potential. Due to lack of information on this potential, the plant resources of this forest reserve have been used improperly and excessively. The present study aims ...

  11. 18 CFR 1314.4 - Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and... FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 1314.4 Law governing the rights and obligations of TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing the rights of any Person against TVA and Reserve Banks; law governing other interests. (a) Except...

  12. Impact of Forest Reserves on Livelihoods of Fringe Communities...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST),. Kumasi, Ghana ... The study shows that the communities have little role to play in the management of forest reserves. ..... proximity to Kumasi, the cultural hub of. Ghana.

  13. Herpetofauna of gunung panti forest reserve, johor, peninsular malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onn, Chan Kin; Grismer, L Lee; Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto; Wood, Perry Lee; Grismer, Jesse Leland; Belabut, Daicus; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2010-08-01

    A survey was carried out at Gunung Panti Forest Reserve, Johor from 3-7 August 2006, 2-5 June 2008, and 28-31 July 2008 to inventory the herpetofauna therein. An updated checklist for the area which incorporates findings from previous studies is provided. In total, 37 species of frogs, 1 turtle, 27 lizards, and 11 snakes have been recorded from Gunung Panti Forest Reserve, Johor.

  14. Abrupt fire regime change may cause landscape-wide loss of mature obligate seeder forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Murphy, Brett P; Neyland, Dominic L J; Williamson, Grant J; Prior, Lynda D

    2014-03-01

    Obligate seeder trees requiring high-severity fires to regenerate may be vulnerable to population collapse if fire frequency increases abruptly. We tested this proposition using a long-lived obligate seeding forest tree, alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis), in the Australian Alps. Since 2002, 85% of the Alps bioregion has been burnt by several very large fires, tracking the regional trend of more frequent extreme fire weather. High-severity fires removed 25% of aboveground tree biomass, and switched fuel arrays from low loads of herbaceous and litter fuels to high loads of flammable shrubs and juvenile trees, priming regenerating stands for subsequent fires. Single high-severity fires caused adult mortality and triggered mass regeneration, but a second fire in quick succession killed 97% of the regenerating alpine ash. Our results indicate that without interventions to reduce fire severity, interactions between flammability of regenerating stands and increased extreme fire weather will eliminate much of the remaining mature alpine ash forest. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The vegetation of spruce forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega Natural State Reserve is located in the Arkhangelsk Province in the northern taiga subzone. Spruce forests represent the dominant vegetation formation of its territory. The vegetation of this forest is classified, based on 192 phytosociological descriptions. It reveals 12 associations, which represent 7 groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa, including analysis of their biodiversity, are provided. The revealed syntaxa differ both in species composition and environmental conditions: moisture, nutrition, nitrogen availability and acidity. Most poor conditions in terms of mineral nutrition occupy sphagnous spruce forests and bilberry-dominated spruce forests, while under the richest conditions varioherbaceous, humidoherbaceous and nemoral-herbaceous spruce forests occur. The Pinega Reserve is the only locality, where the Piceetum rubo saxatilis-vacciniosum association occurs in the northern taiga subzone.

  16. Successional changes in forest vegetation of National Nature Reserve Dubnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovsky, A.; Balkovic, J.; Kollar, J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this is paper is phyto-sociological assessment of the current status of forest vegetation in the National Nature Reserve Dubnik (Slovakia) towards state documented in 1965. The observed state is assigned to progressive succession, which resulted in regression of large group of light-requiring species and extinction of oak forest community Quercetum pubescenti-roboris. During the reporting period there was a shift towards mezophilest types of forest with relative homogenization of habitat conditions on the major environmental gradients. (authors)

  17. Replacing carbon lost from forests. An assessment of insurance, reserves, and expiring credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Concern over the 'non-permanence' or reversibility of carbon sequestration projects has been prominent in discussions over how to develop guidelines for forest project investments under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol. Accordingly, a number of approaches have been proposed that aim to help ensure that parties do not receive credit for carbon that is lost before project obligations are fulfilled. These approaches include forest carbon insurance, land reserves, and issuance of expiring credits. The potential costs of each of these different approaches are evaluated using a range of assumptions about project length, risk and discount rate, and a comparison of costs is ventured based on the estimated reduction in value of these credits compared with uninsured, and permanent credits. Obstacles to participation in the different approaches are discussed related to problems of long-term commitments, project scale, rising replacement costs, and low credit value. It is concluded that a system of expiring credits, which could be coupled with insurance or reserves, could guarantee obligations that span time-scales longer than that of conventional insurance policies while maintaining incentives for long-term sequestration

  18. Bat diversity and abundance in Omo Forest Reserve, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bats are yet to be incorporated in management plans in Nigeria. This is attributed to dearth in information as well as social stigma. This study was designed to determine bat species diversity, abundance and the relation of both indices to habitat structure. The survey was carried out in Omo forest reserve between May and ...

  19. Effectiveness of China's National Forest Protection Program and nature reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guopeng; Young, Stephen S; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wei; Long, Yongcheng; Wu, Ruidong; Li, Junsheng; Zhu, Jianguo; Yu, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    There is profound interest in knowing the degree to which China's institutions are capable of protecting its natural forests and biodiversity in the face of economic and political change. China's 2 most important forest-protection policies are its National Forest Protection Program (NFPP) and its national-level nature reserves (NNRs). The NFPP was implemented in 2000 in response to deforestation-caused flooding. We undertook the first national, quantitative assessment of the NFPP and NNRs to examine whether the NFPP achieved its deforestation-reduction target and whether the NNRs deter deforestation altogether. We used MODIS data to estimate forest cover and loss across mainland China (2000-2010). We also assembled the first-ever polygon dataset for China's forested NNRs (n = 237, 74,030 km(2) in 2000) and used both conventional and covariate-matching approaches to compare deforestation rates inside and outside NNRs (2000-2010). In 2000, 1.765 million km(2) or 18.7% of mainland China was forested (12.3% with canopy cover of ≥70%)) or woodland (6.4% with canopy cover <70% and tree plus shrub cover ≥40%). By 2010, 480,203 km(2) of forest and woodland had been lost, an annual deforestation rate of 2.7%. Forest-only loss was 127,473 km(2) (1.05% annually). In the NFPP provinces, the forest-only loss rate was 0.62%, which was 3.3 times lower than in the non-NFPP provinces. Moreover, the Landsat data suggest that these loss rates are overestimates due to large MODIS pixel size. Thus, China appears to have achieved, and even exceeded, its target of reducing deforestation to 1.1% annually in the NFPP provinces. About two-thirds of China's NNRs were effective in protecting forest cover (prevented loss 4073 km(2) unmatched approach; 3148 km(2) matched approach), and within-NNR deforestation rates were higher in provinces with higher overall deforestation. Our results indicate that China's existing institutions can protect domestic forest cover. © 2015 The Authors

  20. The Forest Fire Problem of Degrading Tain II Forest Reserve in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 068

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... informal practice was done before the 1982/83 dry season when the country ..... Tain II Forest Reserve forms part of the Dry Semi-Deciduous Fire ...... 2003/08; Forest Resources Development Service Working Paper FFM/2. .... Environment, Resources and Development Thailand. web.idrc.ca/uploads/user-.

  1. Effects of Commuting Distance on Participation Rates for Obligated Selected Marine Corps Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AFQT Armed Forces Qualification Test AR Active Reserve ASAVB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery BIC billet identification code...doorsteps of a recruiter’s office. The interested individual works with a recruiter and is verbally screened for any medical, moral, physical, educational...Station (MEPS) for a more thorough medical, physical, and educational screening (to include taking the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery [ASVAB

  2. ECONOMICS OF EXTRACTION OF PRODUCTS FROM SUNDAR BANS RESERVE FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, K M Nabiul; Islam, Md Nazrul

    2011-01-01

    The Sundarbans has a tremendous impact on the ecosystem of this country, region and the world as a whole. It provides livelihoods to the local and national economy. The Paper demonstrates that poverty levels of Sundarbans Impact Zone (SIZ) areas, compared to non-SIZ areas, are quite high. Naturally, the issue arises as to why the SIZ population is living in poverty and whether issues related to Sundarbans Reserve Forest (SRF) extraction activities have any bearing on this poverty situation. T...

  3. Anomalous, extreme weather disrupts obligate seed dispersal mutualism: snow in a subtropical forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Youbing; Newman, Chris; Chen, Jin; Xie, Zongqiang; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    Ongoing global climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, impacting population dynamics and community structure. There is, however, a critical lack of case studies considering how climatic perturbations affect biotic interactions. Here, we document how an obligate seed dispersal mutualism was disrupted by a temporally anomalous and meteorologically extreme interlude of unseasonably frigid weather, with accompanying snowstorms, in subtropical China, during January-February 2008. Based on the analysis of 5892 fecal samples (representing six mammalian seed dispersers), this event caused a substantial disruption to the relative seed dispersal function for the raisin tree Hovenia dulcis from prestorm 6.29 (2006) and 11.47 (2007), down to 0.35 during the storm (2008). Crucially, this was due to impacts on mammalian seed dispersers and not due to a paucity of fruit, where 4.63 fruit per branch were available in January 2008, vs. 3.73 in 2006 and 3.58 in 2007. An induced dietary shift occurred among omnivorous carnivores during this event, from the consumption fruit to small mammals and birds, reducing their role in seed dispersal substantially. Induced range shift extinguished the functionality of herbivorous mammals completely, however, seed dispersal function was compensated in part by three omnivorous carnivores during poststorm years, and thus while the mutualism remained intact it was enacted by a narrower assemblage of species, rendering the system more vulnerable to extrinsic perturbations. The storm's extended effects also had anthropogenic corollaries - migrating ungulates becoming exposed to heightened levels of illegal hunting - causing long-term modification to the seed dispersal community and mutualism dynamics. Furthermore, degraded forests proved especially vulnerable to the storm's effects. Considering increasing climate variability and anthropogenic disturbance, the impacts of such massive, aberrant

  4. USDA Forest Service Roadless Areas: Potential Biodiversity Conservation Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Loucks

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2001, approximately 23 x 106 ha of land in the U.S. National Forest System were slated to remain roadless and protected from timber extraction under the Final Roadless Conservation Rule. We examined the potential contributions of these areas to the conservation of biodiversity. Using GIS, we analyzed the concordance of inventoried roadless areas (IRAs with ecoregion-scale biological importance and endangered and imperiled species distributions on a scale of 1:24,000. We found that more than 25% of IRAs are located in globally or regionally outstanding ecoregions and that 77% of inventoried roadless areas have the potential to conserve threatened, endangered, or imperiled species. IRAs would increase the conservation reserve network containing these species by 156%. We further illustrate the conservation potential of IRAs by highlighting their contribution to the conservation of the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos, a wide-ranging carnivore. The area created by the addition of IRAs to the existing system of conservation reserves shows a strong concordance with grizzly bear recovery zones and habitat range. Based on these findings, we conclude that IRAs belonging to the U.S. Forest Service are one of the most important biotic areas in the nation, and that their status as roadless areas could have lasting and far-reaching effects for biodiversity conservation.

  5. Tree Nonstructural Carbohydrate Reserves Across Eastern US Temperate Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantooth, J.; Dietze, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the roles, importance, and dynamics of tree non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) is currently an active area of research. The question of how the relationships between NSCs, growth, and mortality can be used to develop more accurate projections of forest dynamics is central to this research. To begin to address this question, we have asked an even more fundamental question: How much are trees allocating carbon to storage, in the form of NSCs, versus new growth? Ecological theory predicts that there should be trade-offs between different plant life history strategies provided that there are the carbon mass-balance constraints to enforce these trade-offs. Current data on tree NSCs lack the spatial and taxonomic extent required to properly address this question. Therefore, we established a network of forest inventory plots at ten sites across the eastern US and measured growth in adult trees using increment cores and repeat measures of diameter at breast height (DBH). Increment cores were also used to measure sapwood NSCs. We hypothesized that across the eastern US, shade tolerant species, e.g. Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) have the largest NSC reserves and that shade intolerant species have the lowest reserves. We also hypothesized that NSC reserves increase with temperature and precipitation, as with growth, and that within species NSC reserves increase with growth rate. Initial analyses of tree NSCs indicates that trees of intermediate shade tolerance, e.g. Red Oak (Quercus rubra) have the highest concentrations of sapwood NSCs, and among the highest growth rates. Across the entire study region, NSC concentrations are positively correlated with tree size and growth rate. Within species, NSC concentrations are also positively correlated with growth rate. Across functional groups healthy individuals have significantly higher sapwood NSC concentrations than visibly stressed individuals. There are also significantly lower NSC concentrations in sapwood of

  6. Spatial and Temporal Changes of Sundarbans Reserve Forest in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaul Haque Mondal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sundarbans, the largest mangrove chunk of the world is shared between Bangladesh (62% and India (38%. The objective of this paper was to examine the spatial and temporal changes in land cover (forest cover area of Sundarbans from 1973 to 2010 using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS tool. Normal¬ized difference vegetation index (NDVI was applied to calculate the density of vegetation of Sundarbans reserved forest (SRF. This study found that there were no major changes in total areas of SRF in the last 37 years (from 1973 to 2010 albeit changes were detected within the four land cover categories-water body, mudflat, barren land and vegetated land. During 1973 to 2010, water bodies, mudflats and barren lands increased by 0.45%, 19.69% and 14.81%, respectively, while vegetated land decreased by 4.01% during the same period. This indicated that the density of evergreen vegetation and its canopy closure decreased in Sundarbans. It was thus recommended that GIS and remote sensing based real time monitoring system be developed to identify spatial and temporal changes of land cover classes of SRF.

  7. 31 CFR 357.13 - Obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to Book-entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligations of the United States and... 357.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System...

  8. Mapping forest transition trends in Okomu reserve using Landsat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unsupervised Iterative Self Organising Data Analysis technique was used to generate forest maps and subsequently used for forest change detection over two periods (1987 – 1999 and 1999 – 2011). From the results generated we were able to determine the effectiveness level of forest protected status assigned the ...

  9. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  10. Mapping forest transition trends in Okomu reserve using Landsat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ALEX O. ONOJEGHUO

    1 Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United ... and improve upon the technical capacity of forest managers to improve forest management. Overall, the .... cloud cover or were totally free of such and acquired within the same season (as was the case in this ... Green (2), red (3) and.

  11. Role of community forest reserves in wildlife conservation in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sacred groves and community forests are common ways for local rural African people to conserve natural resources. The importance of traditional approach in wildlife conservation was evaluated with line transect method utilized to assess five community forests. Comparable species richness with similar size protected ...

  12. Forest types of the "Argentino River Valley" Natural Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest classification is a fundamental target for understanding forest stand dynamics and for sustainable management strategy applications. In this paper the methodological approach of forest types, already used in other Italians region, was applied for the classification of the RNO "Argentino River Valley" (southern Apennine, Italy. This study has been organized in 4 steps: 1 bibliographic analysis and collection of the acquired knowledge; 2 preliminary verification of forest types in the field; 3 description of the different units; 4 final validation of typological units. Using this approach we have characterized 9 categories and 12 forest types units. The description of each units has been filed as cards, where information of different nature is summarized and related to the organization of the typological units, to its location, to the description of the qualitative indicators (disturbances, cohort, mortality, natural dynamic tendencies, SDT, CWD etc. and quantitative indicators (dbh, average height, current annual increment, etc., to the functioning and the current management. For a better understanding of types functioning, "sylvology models" based on the "Spatial Pattern of Relative Collective Interaction" (PSICR and on the principal characteristics influencing and characterizing forest stand dynamics (availability of resources, type and frequency of disturbances, stand development, etc. have been singled out and proposed. The "forest types map" and other maps useful for the management of forest resources have been obtained. Moreover, data collected did allow to formulate several hypotheses on sustainable management.

  13. Studies of the Woody Vegetation of the Welor Forest Reserve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Institute of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, ... Due to lack of information on this potential, the plant resources of this forest .... to assess the flora and the vegetation derive from a review of the literature, an inventory.

  14. Valuing the Recreational Benefits from the Creation of Nature Reserves in Irish Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Scarpa; Susan M. Chilton; W. George Hutchinson; Joseph Buongiorno

    2000-01-01

    Data from a large-scale contingent valuation study are used to investigate the effects of forest attribum on willingness to pay for forest recreation in Ireland. In particular, the presence of a nature reserve in the forest is found to significantly increase the visitors' willingness to pay. A random utility model is used to estimate the welfare change associated...

  15. Human Influences on Tree Diversity and Composition of a Coastal Forest Ecosystem: The Case of Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kimaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an ecological survey conducted in Ngumburuni Forest Reserve, a biodiversity rich forest reserve within the coastal forests of Tanzania. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of uncontrolled anthropogenic activities on tree species diversity and composition within the forest ecosystem. It was revealed that economic activities including logging, charcoaling, and shifting cultivation were the most important disturbing activities affecting ecological functioning and biodiversity integrity of the forest. Further to this, we noted that the values of species diversity, composition, and regeneration potential within the undisturbed forest areas were significantly different from those in heavily disturbed areas. These observations confirm that the ongoing human activities have already caused size quality degradation of useful plants, enhanced species diversification impacts to the forest ecosystem, and possibly negatively affected the livelihoods of the adjacent local communities. Despite these disturbances, Ngumburuni forest reserve still holds important proportions of both endemic and threatened animal and plant species. The study suggests urgent implementation of several conservation measures in order to limit accessibility to the forest resources so as to safeguard the richness and abundance of useful biodiversity stocks in the reserve.

  16. Vegetation of birch and aspen forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Popov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pinega State Nature Reserve (Russia is located in the Arkhangelsk region in the northern taiga subzone. Together with spruce forests and mires, birch forests represent one of the most wide-spread plant communities of its territory. Birch forests cover 24.6% of the Reserve's area. Aspen forests are rare plant communities in the Pinega Reserve. These forests cover only 0.9% of the whole Reserve's area. The birch and aspen forests vegetation has been classified based on 82 relevès. Eleven associations could be distinguished, which represent six groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa are provided including their biodiversity analysis. The analysis allowed establishing that the revealed syntaxa differ in relation to habitat environmental conditions: e.g., soil moisture, trophicity, nitrogen saturation and soil acidity. Sphagnum and blueberry birch forests proved to be the poorest in nitrogen, in contrast to the richest humidoherbaceous and broad-grassed groups of birch forest associations. Broad-grassed birch forests in the Pinega Reserve inhabit the most drained locations, while humidoherbaceous and Sphagnum forests occur in lesser drained locations.

  17. Comparing Floristic Diversity between a Silviculturally Managed Arboretum and a Forest Reserve in Dambulla, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Madurapperuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated slash and burn cultivation creates wasteland with thorny shrubs, which then takes a long time to become secondary forests through serial stages of succession. Assisted natural regeneration through silvicultural management is a useful restoration method to accelerate succession. This survey evaluates the effectiveness of a simple silvicultural method for the rehabilitation of degraded lands to productive forest, thereby increasing floristic wealth. Field-based comparative analyses of floristic composition were carried out at a silviculturally managed forest (Popham Arboretum and a primary forest (Kaludiyapokuna Forest Reserve which is located in Dambulla in Sri Lanka. Floristic analysis was used to examine the effectiveness of silvicultural techniques for successful restoration of degraded forest in the dry zone. Nine 20 m × 20 m plots in each forest were enumerated and the vegetation ≥ 10 cm girth at breast height was quantitatively analyzed. Cluster analysis resulted in five distinguishable clusters (two from Popham Arboretum and three from Kaludiyapokuna Forest Reserve. Similarity indices were generated to compare the plots within and between sites. Floristic similarity was higher in forest reserve plots compared to arboretum plots. A total of 72 plant species belonging to 60 genera and 26 families were recorded from the study sites. Of the recorded species, Grewia damine and Syzygium cumini (Importance Value Index, IVI = 24 and 23 respectively were the ecologically co-dominant taxa at the Popham Arboretum. In contrast, Mischodon zeylanicus (IVI = 31, Schleichera oleosa (IVI = 25 and Diospyros ebenum (IVI = 21 were the abundant taxa in the forest reserve.

  18. A comparison of structural characteristics and ecological factors between forest reserves and managed silver fir - Norway spruce forests in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinšek, A.; Diaci, J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine ecological, floristic and structural differences between the forest stands of managed and unmanaged silver fir - Norway spruce forests (Bazzanio trilobatae-Abietetum albae), twelve sample plots (25x25 m) were established in forest reserves and managed forests. Within the plots, subplots and microplots we conducted phytosociological and pedological surveys, analyses of the stand structure, natural regeneration and estimation of solar radiation. We determined that there are no significant differences in floristic composition and ecological factors between managed forest and forest reserve stands. The only variables that were significantly different were the solar radiation variables (ISF; TSF; DSF), vertical structure (cover indexes (CI)) and stand basal area. Small differences in the composition and the structure of the vegetation indicate that, as far as ecosystematic changes are concerned, managing these forests is not as significant as the soil conditions. Solar radiation had a major influence on natural regeneration. Indirect solar radiation seemed to be more important than direct solar radiation. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between silver fir and Norway spruce regeneration and indirect solar radiation and confirmed that the management of light is a significant factor in the management of regeneration. Another trend that was detected was an increase in the number of beech, which will have quite a large proportion in the upper tree layer of the next generation, especially in forest reserves

  19. forest birds in the Ongoye Forest Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-03

    Feb 3, 1997 ... Amazonian Peru to support the edge-effect principle. By choosing a large forest and ... rodents, anurans; see Laurance 1990) is overdue. We also agree with .... Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments.

  20. Forest carbon benefits, costs and leakage effects of carbon reserve scenarios in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effectiveness of future carbon reserve scenarios, where U.S. forest landowners would hypothetically be paid to sequester carbon on their timberland and forego timber harvests for 100 years. Scenarios featured direct payments to landowners of $0 (baseline), $5, $10, or $15 per metric ton of additional forest carbon sequestered on the...

  1. Forest fire situation analysis over forest reserve land in Tomsk petroleum province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasko, O A; Baranova, A V

    2015-01-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of space-time characteristics of forest fire ignition and spread in the North of Tomsk oblast, i.e. petroleum production area (Kargasok, Parabel and Teguldet districts). It also presents long-term and seasonal forest fire behavior including fire ignition and spread frequency (annual and seasonal), the fire season duration and their zonality. The main driving factors of forest fire ignition both human and natural ones are revealed

  2. Rural aquaculture as a sustainable alternative for forest conservation in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José; Manzo-Delgado, Lilia L; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    Forest conservation plays a significant role in environmental sustainability. In Mexico only 8.48 million ha of forest are used for conservation of biodiversity. Payment for Environmental Services in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important national protected areas, contributes to the conservation of these forests. In the Reserve, production of rainbow trout has been important for the rural communities who need to conserve the forest cover in order to maintain the hibernation cycle of the butterfly. Aquaculture is a highly productive activity for these protected areas, since it harnesses the existing water resources. In this study, changes from 1999 to 2012 in vegetation and land-use cover in the El Lindero basin within the Reserve were evaluated in order to determine the conservation status and to consider the feasibility of aquaculture as a means of sustainable development at community level. Evaluation involved stereoscopic interpretation of digital aerial photographs from 1999 to 2012 at 1:10,000 scale, comparative analysis by orthocorrected mosaics and restitution on the mosaics. Between 1999 and 2012, forested land recovered by 28.57 ha (2.70%) at the expense of non-forested areas, although forest degradation was 3.59%. Forest density increased by 16.87%. In the 46 ha outside the Reserve, deforestation spread by 0.26%, and land use change was 0.11%. The trend towards change in forest cover is closely related to conservation programmes, particularly payment for not extracting timber, reforestation campaigns and surveillance, whose effects have been exploited for the development of rural aquaculture; this is a new way to improve the socio-economic status of the population, to avoid logging and to achieve environmental sustainability in the Reserve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Factors limiting distribution of the rare lichen species Lobaria pulmonaria (in forests of the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, N V

    2015-01-01

    The distribution patterns and coenotic confines ofthe epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria have been studied. The factors limiting the habitat of this rare lichen species in the Kologriv Forest Nature Reserve (southern taiga subzone) have been revealed. It has been shown that L. pulmonaria is attracted to forest areas, which are less affected by humans and characterized by better light conditions than other communities. It has been found that L. pulmonaria is able to colonize trees at various ontogenetic states, beginning from virginal ones.

  4. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  5. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  6. Acoustic surveys of Hawaiian Hoary Bats in Kahikinui Forest Reserve and Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the Island of Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Christopher M.; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Kahikinui Forest Reserve and the adjoining Nakula Natural Area Reserve (KFR-NNAR) was established in 2011 as a conservation area on the leeward slope of Haleakalā Volcano on the island of Maui to protect unique natural features and endangered species including the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. We recorded bat vocalizations from July 2012 to November 2014 using automated echolocation detectors at 14 point locations in the KFRNNAR. Our study area included remnants of recovering mesic montane forest with interspersed grasses (1,250‒1,850 m elevation, hereafter called “forest”) and xeric subalpine shrubland plant communities (1,860‒2,800 m, hereafter called “shrubland”). Monthly detections of Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, within the KFR-NNAR identified areas of high and low detection probability as well as foraging activity. Sixty per cent of all detector-nights had confirmed bat vocalizations and included detections in every month of the study. Monthly detection probability values were highest from July to November 2012; these values were significantly greater than values measured in any month thereafter. Pooled values of detection probabilities, mean pulses/night, percentage of nights with feeding activity, and acoustic detections all were greater in the recovering forest zone than corresponding values from the shrublands. Our data provide baseline levels of hoary bat echolocation activity that may be compared with future studies in the KFR-NNAR relative to success criteria for Hawaiian hoary bat habitat restoration.

  7. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  8. Contrasting the microbiomes from forest rhizosphere and deeper bulk soil from an Amazon rainforest reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jose Pedro; Hoffmann, Luisa; Cabral, Bianca Catarina Azeredo; Dias, Victor Hugo Giordano; Miranda, Marcio Rodrigues; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cezar; Boschiero, Clarissa; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues; Silva, Rosane

    2018-02-05

    Pristine forest ecosystems provide a unique perspective for the study of plant-associated microbiota since they host a great microbial diversity. Although the Amazon forest is one of the hotspots of biodiversity around the world, few metagenomic studies described its microbial community diversity thus far. Understanding the environmental factors that can cause shifts in microbial profiles is key to improving soil health and biogeochemical cycles. Here we report a taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome from the rhizosphere of Brosimum guianense (Snakewood), a native tree, and bulk soil samples from a pristine Brazilian Amazon forest reserve (Cuniã), for the first time by the shotgun approach. We identified several fungi and bacteria taxon significantly enriched in forest rhizosphere compared to bulk soil samples. For archaea, the trend was the opposite, with many archaeal phylum and families being considerably more enriched in bulk soil compared to forest rhizosphere. Several fungal and bacterial decomposers like Postia placenta and Catenulispora acidiphila which help maintain healthy forest ecosystems were found enriched in our samples. Other bacterial species involved in nitrogen (Nitrobacter hamburgensis and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) and carbon cycling (Oligotropha carboxidovorans) were overrepresented in our samples indicating the importance of these metabolic pathways for the Amazon rainforest reserve soil health. Hierarchical clustering based on taxonomic similar microbial profiles grouped the forest rhizosphere samples in a distinct clade separated from bulk soil samples. Principal coordinate analysis of our samples with publicly available metagenomes from the Amazon region showed grouping into specific rhizosphere and bulk soil clusters, further indicating distinct microbial community profiles. In this work, we reported significant shifts in microbial community structure between forest rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from an Amazon

  9. Protected reserves within tropical forests managed fortimber production: recommendations using Bolivia as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fredericksen, T.S.; Peña Claros, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bolivian forestry law requires that 10 per cent of areas under forest management must be set aside as 'ecological reserves', serving as protected areas from resource extraction. These guidelines appear to be based largely on reserve design theory from the conservation biology literature

  10. Impacts of forest farm practice on small to medium-sized mammals at Kemasul forest reserve, Pahang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nor Bazilah; Abdul-Rahim, Ahmad Rizal; Md-Nor, Shukor; Mohd-Taib, Farah Shafawati

    2018-04-01

    Exploitation of forest for commercial agriculture has taken toll on wildlife species worldwide. A forest farm project with the aim of compensating the forest loss has been implemented in Kemasul Forest Reserve, of Pahang State, Malaysia through plantation of fast growing and adaptable plant species. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of this practice on diversity. The study was conducted in a long strip of forest fragment, where two study sites with different landscape matrix types were chosen; oil palm plantation (JR) and Acacia mangium plantations (CM). A total of 75 individuals from 13 species and six families were collected at both sites. The result shows forest with A. mangium plantations matrix types yield higher species diversity. There are 10 shared species that can be found at both study sites including Callosciurus notatus, Hystrix brachyura, Macaca nemestrina, and Tupaia glis. However, some species only existed at selected sites such as Leopoldamys sabanus which can only be found at JR. On the other hand, Callosciurus nigrovittatus, Viverra tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus were only recorded at CM. Out of all individuals collected, four of them are protected species as reported by IUCN. Callosciurus nigrovittatus is listed as Near Threatened while the other three species (Maxomys rajah, Maxomys whiteheadi, and Macaca nemestrina) are Vulnerable. If conservation efforts in Kemasul Forest Reserved are neglected, these four species would be exposed to critical threats that might cause them facing extinction in the future. Mann Whitney U test shows no significant difference of distribution and species richness of small to medium-sized mammals in both study sites (U=51.5, p=0.59). This study therefore reveals that although the compensatory forest plantation initiatives yield positive effect on diversity of mammal's species, it does not necessarily provide ample food resources to the wildlife, instead it serves as important buffer

  11. Legal Reserve Requirements in Brazilian Forests: Path Dependent Evolution of De Facto Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee J. Alston; Bernardo Mueller

    2007-01-01

    Why would a poor and largely pro-developmental country such as Brazil, that has so much of its territory covered in forest, adopt one of the most restrictive land use requirements in the world when it comes to cutting the forest to give way to other economic uses? We describe the evolution of legal reserve legislation in Brazil, which currently requires that 20% of the area in a property (80% in the Amazon) be left in forest or its native vegetation. This legislation was put into place in 193...

  12. Algological and Mycological Characterization of Soils under Pine and Birch Forests in the Pasvik Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneikova, M. V.; Redkina, V. V.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of algological and mycological complexes in Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Podzols) under pine and birch forests of the Pasvik Reserve is characterized. The number of micromycetes is higher in more acid soils of the pine forest, while the species diversity is greater under the birch forest. The genus Penicillium includes the largest number of species. The greatest abundance and occurrence frequency are typical for Penicillium spinulosum, P. glabrum, and Trichoderma viride in pine forest and for Umbelopsis isabellina, Mucor sp., Mortierella alpina, P. glabrum, Aspergillus ustus, Trichoderma viride, and T. koningii in birch forest. Cyanobacteria-algal cenoses of the investigated soils are predominated by green algae. Soils under birch forest are distinguished by a greater diversity of algal groups due to the presence of diatoms and xanthophytes. Species of frequent occurrence are represented by Pseudococcomyxa simplex and Parietochloris alveolaris in soils of the pine forest and by Tetracystis cf. aplanospora, Halochlorella rubescens, Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Fottea stichococcoides, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Hantzschia amphioxys, Microcoleus vaginatus, and Aphanocapsa sp. in soils under birch forest

  13. Ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure in Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubin Guénolé Amagnide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed ecological consequences of anthropogenic pressure on Wari-Maro Forest Reserve (WMFR. The dynamics of forest cover has been assessed using a diachronic analysis of land cover maps from the Landsat satellite images of 1986, 1995 and 2006. Structural patterns of the forest has been described using forest inventory data with twenty five 1ha plots having two 50 m x 30 m plots set up inside and positioned at the opposite corners of the leading diagonal within each 1 ha plot. Established plots allowed identifying the most targeted species in illegal logging. Plots of 0.15 ha established inside each 1 ha plot helped assessing the volume of trees from which we derived carbon stock and carbon loss using conversion and expansion factors. For the two periods 1986 to 1995 and 1995 to 2006, there was a decline in forest cover which slowed down in the second decade (0.196 %.year-1 and 0.083 %.year-1 respectively. The two vegetation types of the WMFR were mainly distinguished by Lorey's mean height (12.81 m in woodland and 12.44 m in tree-savannah. Top five targeted species in illegal logging activities were: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir., Afzelia africana Sm., Isoberlinia spp., Anogeissus leiocarpa Guill. and Daniellia oliveri (Rolfe Hutch. & Dalziel. Results also showed mean values of carbon stock and carbon losses for the whole forest of 147.84 tons C.ha-1 and 17.57 tons C.ha-1 respectively and did not depend on vegetation type. Results from this study suggest that management strategies should focus on selectively logged species. Monitoring should also be enhanced to ensure conservation of resources of the reserve which are at high risks of extinction due to selective logging rates. Keywords: anthropogenic pressure, forest cover, structure, carbon stock, Wari-Maro forest reserve, Benin.

  14. Phytosociology of aquilaria malaccensis lamk. and its communities from a tropical forest reserve in peninsular malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, S. A.; Haron, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    A phytosociological study on the floristic and vegetation communities of Aquilaria malaccensis was carried out in Sungai Udang Forest Reserve, Malacca, Malaysia. The main objectives of this study were to identify, characterize and classify the Aquilaria malaccensis communities which were naturally distributed in the Sungai Udang Forest Reserve. A total of 25 plots (40 m x 20 m) in size were constructed according to the line transect method. The vegetation sampling and data analysis were done. A total of 80 species belonging to 79 genera and 40 families were found from all the 25 plots in Sungai Udang Forest Reserve. The most abundant family was the Euphorbiaceae with 220 individual trees, followed by Myrtaceae and Anacardiaceae representing 212 and 197 individual trees, respectively. A community which was Aquilaria malaccensis Artocarpus rigidus community with two new sub-community known as Palaquium gutta sub-community and Barringtonia racemosa sub-community were identified on the basis of statistical and phytosociological analyses. These community and sub-community also showed preference on different geographical and environmental factors such as soils and local relief. This study is useful in providing more information on the growth response of the mixed dipterocarp forest in the development of proper forest management. (author)

  15. DIVERSITY, STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS AND NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE FOREST RESERVE OF BONEPOUPA (DOUALA, CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Kamdem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812363In order to come up with a sustainable use of forest ecosystems in Cameroon, its vegetal diversity has been inventoried; the plant potentials and the structural parameters were studied in the forest reserve of Bonepoupa. Ten non-continuous plots of 200 m² were done and the materialization of the lines was done with a topofil put at the centre of the field with ropes at 5 m each of the topofil. In addition, ninety people were interviewed in order to know the potential use of species in this region. Up to 172 individuals with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH ≥ 5 cm divided into 27 species, 25 genera and 18 families were inventoried and the coefficient of abundance-dominance was determined. The diversity index of Shannon (H’ was H’1 = 4.17 ± 0.45 with H’1max = 4.75 and the evenness was R1 = 0.88. Taking into account herbaceous species, H’ determined by the coefficient of abundance-dominance was H’2 = 4.74 ± 0.56 with H’2max = 5.70 and the evenness  was  R2 = 0.83. The  total  basal  area  was 19.69 m2/ha and the density was 860 individuals/ha. These results indicate that herbaceous significantly modifies the value of the diversity index and that forest reserve of Bonepoupa is experiencing a problem of conservation which is due to a lack of its appropriate management. The knowledge of non-timber forest products and their use as food as well as medicinal resources by local population might be helpful for the sustainable management of resources in this forest reserve.

  16. New population of Cycas spheric Roxb. (Cycadaceae discovered in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycas sphaerica Roxb., an Eastern Ghats endemic, known from different localities of Odisha and Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh is located in Pinjarikonda Reserve Forest of East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Nearly 700 individuals were observed in the study area. Present report extends the distribution range of the species in Andhra Pradesh.

  17. Poverty Alleviation through Pro-Poor Tourism: The Role of Botswana Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haretsebe Manwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Both government and international donor agencies now promote the use of tourism to alleviate poverty. The Botswana government has embraced tourism as a meaningful and sustainable economic activity and diversification opportunity, which now ranks second after mining in its contribution to the country’s gross domestic product. The study reported in this paper investigates perceptions of stakeholders on the opportunities that would be created for the poor by opening up Botswana’s forest reserves for ecotourism. Data was collected through mixed methods involving in-depth interviews with government departments, traditional leaders, quasi-government organisations and the Hospitality and Tourism Association of Botswana. Focus group discussions were also held with village development committees, Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT and Kasane, Lesoma and Pandematenga Trust (KALEPA members, and a consultative national workshop of stakeholders was also held. The findings indicate that opening up forest reserves for ecotourism has the potential to alleviate poverty among the disadvantaged groups living adjacent to forest reserves through direct (employment, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, secondary (linkages/partnerships and dynamic effects (sustainable livelihoods. The study concludes by cautioning that whilst pro-poor tourism may yield short- and medium-term benefits, in keeping with sustainability objectives, participants in the programme need to be mindful of forestry encroachment and come up with strategies to ensure the sustainability of the Botswana forest reserves.

  18. Hunting Intensity in the Suhuma Forest Reserve in the Sefwi Wiawso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hunting intensity in the Suhuma Forest Reserve (SFR) in the Sefwi Wiawso District of the Western Region of Ghana has been investigated. The methodology involved the recording of signs of hunting activity using linetransects, and interviews with hunters. A total of 157 spent cartridges, 21 wire snares, presence of 17 ...

  19. 77 FR 22606 - Proposed Information Collection; Visitor Use Surveys for Headwaters Forest Reserve and King Range...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... visitor use surveys would assist the BLM in meeting goals set forth in Resource Management Plans (RMPs... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAN03900 L17110000 AL0000] Proposed Information Collection; Visitor Use Surveys for Headwaters Forest Reserve and King Range National Conservation...

  20. Required sample size for monitoring stand dynamics in strict forest reserves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Van Den Meersschaut; Bart De Cuyper; Kris Vandekerkhove; Noel Lust

    2000-01-01

    Stand dynamics in European strict forest reserves are commonly monitored using inventory densities of 5 to 15 percent of the total surface. The assumption that these densities guarantee a representative image of certain parameters is critically analyzed in a case study for the parameters basal area and stem number. The required sample sizes for different accuracy and...

  1. Genetic diversity in populations of Maytenus dasyclada (Celastraceae in forest reserves and unprotected Araucaria forest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castilhos Reichmann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic structure and diversity of plants is fundamental to their conservation and permits their sustainable use by local communities. The genus Maytenus (Celastraceae is composed of plants possessing pharmacological and antioxidant properties. However, the genetic and economic properties of the species M. dasyclada, a typical species of Araucaria forests in Brazil and Uruguay, have been little studied. In this work, the genetic structure and diversity of natural populations of M. dasyclada located in unprotected and preserved forest remnants were investigated using RAPD and isozymes markers. The results demonstrated that in areas of preservation, populations of M. dasyclada possess a relatively high degree of polymorphism and high values for Na, Ne, Shannon index, He and Ho, indicating high genetic variability. Moreover, these protected populations are very close to each other and potentially experience significant gene flow. The results presented here highlight the relevance of preservation areas for the conservation of M. dasyclada, and that populations inhabiting these areas could serve as a genetic source for the recovery of populations in regions where genetic diversity has been lost.

  2. Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINA DWI YULIA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Yulia ND, Budiharta S (2011 Epiphytic orchids and host trees diversity at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, Wilis Mountain, Ponorogo, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 22-27. Natural forests in Wilis Mountain have been destroyed by forest fires, landslides and illegal logging. As a consequence, biological diversity in this area is threatened by local extinctions, particularly of orchid species. This study was aimed to explore, document and analyze the diversity of epiphytic orchids at Gunung Manyutan Forest Reserve, a natural forest area in Wilis Mountain. Purposive sampling on 1 hectare (50 x 200 m2 contiguous plot was used. This plot was divided into eight subplots (25 x 50 m2. All data on orchid species were recorded including its number, host trees and zone of the host tree where the orchid attached. The results showed that there were 29 epiphytic orchid species recorded. Flickingeria angulata was the most abundant species (Relative Abundance of orchids/ %Fo = 38.74, continued by Appendicula sp. (%Fo = 10.91 and Eria hyacinthoides (%Fo = 6.57. The three most important host trees were Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii and Engelhardia spicata. Zone 3 (bottom part of the branches was revealed as the most favorable part at the host tree (281 individuals, while Zone 1 (bottom part of the main stem was the least preferable one.

  3. Assessment of Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Poba Reserved Forest, Dhemaji District, Assam (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswar Pegu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflicts from 1971-2013 in Poba Reserved Forest is presented here. Data collection included interview, records of forest department and participant observation. There is an increasing trend of human-wildlife conflict in Poba RF. Encroachment for agricultural expansion, frequent venturing into forests to collect minor forest products and livestock grazing are major causes of conflicts. Most cases of conflict occurred in forests and crop fields suggesting encroachment and venturing into animal habitat exposed human to conflict with wildlife. Pearson's correlation at 0.01 level of significance showed positive correlation between wildlife injured/killed and livestock killed/injured (0.819411 and wildlife injured/killed and property damaged (0.658009 but negative correlation between wildlife injured/killed and crop damaged (-0.04104. Crop raiding by wildlife caused considerable damage to crops and property resulting in food insecurity and economic loss to farmers; farmers also suffered economic loss due to livestock lifting by prey animals. Long years of exposure to crop and property loss and risk to life are associated with negative attitude towards wildlife. The present report will be useful in understanding the nature of conflicts and help local forest department in initiating appropriate conservation measures in Poba RF

  4. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  5. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  6. Preliminary inventory and classification of indigenous afromontane forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga, South Africa

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    Beck Hans T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed evergreen forests form the smallest, most widely distributed and fragmented biome in southern Africa. Within South Africa, 44% of this vegetation type has been transformed. Afromontane forest only covers 0.56 % of South Africa, yet it contains 5.35% of South Africa's plant species. Prior to this investigation of the indigenous forests on the Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve (BRCNR, very little was known about the size, floristic composition and conservation status of the forest biome conserved within the reserve. We report here an inventory of the forest size, fragmentation, species composition and the basic floristic communities along environmental gradients. Results A total of 2111 ha of forest occurs on Blyde River Canyon Nature Reserve. The forest is fragmented, with a total of 60 forest patches recorded, varying from 0.21 ha to 567 ha in size. On average, patch size was 23 ha. Two forest communities – high altitude moist afromontane forest and low altitude dry afromontane forest – are identified. Sub-communities are recognized based on canopy development and slope, respectively. An altitudinal gradient accounts for most of the variation within the forest communities. Conclusion BRCNR has a fragmented network of small forest patches that together make up 7.3% of the reserve's surface area. These forest patches host a variety of forest-dependent trees, including some species considered rare, insufficiently known, or listed under the Red Data List of South African Plants. The fragmented nature of the relatively small forest patches accentuates the need for careful fire management and stringent alien plant control.

  7. Limitation for the Agricultural Uses of the Rural Properties Represented by LFR (Legal Forest Reserves

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    Carlos Cesar Ronquim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text approaches the limitations of special protection of natural resources in the agricultural properties represented by Legal Forest Reserves (LFR, from their origin to the form they are being tutored now. Their relationships and differentiations are established. Forms for the recompositions and use of LFR are approached. Finally, the arguments of the environmentalists and ruralists are pointed out for the improvement of the institute and its applicability, presenting forms of putting in practice the desirable sustainable development

  8. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marques, Ana Alice B; Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world's largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes-strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil's national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  9. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice B. de Marques

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside.

  10. Human population and socioeconomic modulators of conservation performance in 788 Amazonian and Atlantic Forest reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mauricio; Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas form a quintessential component of the global strategy to perpetuate tropical biodiversity within relatively undisturbed wildlands, but they are becoming increasingly isolated by rapid agricultural encroachment. Here we consider a network of 788 forest protected areas (PAs) in the world’s largest tropical country to examine the degree to which they remain intact, and their responses to multiple biophysical and socioeconomic variables potentially affecting natural habitat loss under varying contexts of rural development. PAs within the complex Brazilian National System of Conservation Units (SNUC) are broken down into two main classes—strictly protected and sustainable use. Collectively, these account for 22.6% of the forest biomes within Brazil’s national territory, primarily within the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest, but are widely variable in size, ecoregional representation, management strategy, and the degree to which they are threatened by human activities both within and outside reserve boundaries. In particular, we examine the variation in habitat conversion rates in both strictly protected and sustainable use reserves as a function of the internal and external human population density, and levels of land-use revenue in adjacent human-dominated landscapes. Our results show that PAs surrounded by heavily settled agro-pastoral landscapes face much greater challenges in retaining their natural vegetation, and that strictly protected areas are considerably less degraded than sustainable use reserves, which can rival levels of habitat degradation within adjacent 10-km buffer areas outside. PMID:27478703

  11. Evaluation of the Environmentalist Dimension of Ecotourism at the Dadia Forest Reserve (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Kostas

    2006-11-01

    Environmental education and financial support of nature conservation are considered among the primary components of the environmentalist dimension of ecotourism. The potential of environmental education calls for enhancing visitor environmental knowledge and prompting change of visitor behavior. The present study addressed the evaluation of the environmentalist dimension of ecotourism in the Dadia Forest Reserve. The first objective of the research was to study the influence of variables determined prior to the visit, namely, visitor and visit characteristics, visitor environmental information sources, visitor pro-environmental behavior, and visitation goals, on variables determined during the visit, that is, visitor participation in and satisfaction from ecotourism activities. The second objective was to study the effect of selected variables on visitor knowledge and behavior intentions. Visitor participation in and satisfaction from ecotourism activities were primarily controlled by visit characteristics. Levels of visitor knowledge were quite satisfactory; however, coherence among knowledge items was rather loose. On the other hand, behavior intention items revealed the highest possible degree of coherence, which should be attributed to the pervasive influence of visitor satisfaction from watching birds at the Bird Observatory within the Dadia Forest Reserve. Ecotourism activities, during which the main part of environmental knowledge was offered, exerted no effect on visitor knowledge; all the same, they significantly influenced visitor behavior intentions. Overall, visitor behavior intentions revealed a considerable potential of financing environmental protection and providing voluntary work in the frame of the environmental management of the Dadia Forest Reserve.

  12. Obliging children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity.

  13. An analysis of illegal mining on the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana: Implications on community livelihood

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    Samuel Boadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining in tropical countries contributes significantly to the global minerals supplies but unregulated mining activities in reserved forests is associated with destruction, loss of habitats and loss of biodiversity. This study determined the area of the Offin shelterbelt forest reserve, Ghana, degraded through illegal mining (galamsey and the impacts on the livelihoods of fringe communities. Thirty-two (32 coordinates were recorded around the peripheries of disturbed site in the reserve using hand-held Global Positioning System and were then imported into a geodatabase in ArcGIS which was used to estimate the area degraded. Data was obtained from 60 purposively sampled respondents from two communities fringing the reserve and 10 key informant interviews. Increased income (13%, employment opportunities (6.7% and increased market activities (2% were some benefits of the illegal mining activities identified by the respondents. Eight respondents associated their employment with of the advent of illegal mining activities out which 6 (70% were engaged directly in mining activities, while 2 (30% were into trading. The miners earned cash income range of US $ 2.9–22.9 daily. Within 5 years, illegal mining had degraded 2.5 km2 (4.4% of the total area of the reserve and the destruction of cocoa farms and water sources (31. Farming among respondents reduced from 90% to 76% after illegal mining. The relatively high cost (US$ 6424.1 involved in flushing out and the subsequent return of such miners poses a threat to sustainable forest management and requires a more holistic approach in tackling such a problem.

  14. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania

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    Amri Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of ailments in villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve, a low land catchment forest with high number of endemic plant species. Methods Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants used to treat common illnesses were conducted with the traditional medical practitioners using open-ended semi -structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods of preparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded. Results A total of 82 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded during the study. The most commonly used plant families recorded were Fabaceae (29%, Euphorbiaceae (20%, Asteraceae and Moraceae (17% each and Rubiaceae (15% in that order. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (41.3%, followed by roots (29.0%, bark (21.7%, seeds (5.31%, and fruits (2.6%. The study revealed that stomach ache was the condition treated with the highest percentage of medicinal plant species (15%, followed by hernia (13%, diarrhea (12, fever and wound (11% each, and coughs (10%. Majority of medicinal plant species (65.9% were collected from the wild compared to only 26.7% from cultivated land. Conclusions A rich diversity of medicinal plant species are used for treating different diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve, with the wild habitat being the most important reservoir for the majority of the plants. Awareness programmes on sustainable utilization and active involvement of community in conservation programmes are needed.

  15. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  16. Understanding the Stability of Forest Reserve Boundaries in the West Mengo Region of Uganda

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    Nathan D. Vogt

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite heavy pressure and disturbance, state property regimes have stemmed deforestation within protected areas of the West Mengo region of Uganda for over 50 yr. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the process of creation and maintenance of forest reserve boundaries in the West Mengo region of Uganda to identify why these boundaries have largely remained stable over the long term under conditions in which they may be predicted to fail. The dramatic boundary stability in West Mengo we attribute to key aspects of institutional design and enforcement of boundaries.

  17. Observations on lycaenid butterflies from Panbari Reserve Forest and adjoining areas, Kaziranga, Assam, northeastern India

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    Monsoon Jyoti Gogoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of 116 taxa of Lycaenidae (Blues along with notes on important species in low elevation forest of Panbari Reserve, Kaziranga - West Karbi Hills, upper Assam is reported in this paper based on surveys conducted during 2007–2012 and some recent sightings till date.  Important sightings include Blue Gem Poritia erycinoides elsiei, Square-band Brownie Miletis nymphys porus, Plain Plushblue Flos apidanus ahamus, Blue Royal Ancema carmentalis, Elwes Silverline Spindasis elwesi, Artipe skinneri, etc. 

  18. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

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    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  19. Recreatief gebruik van bos- en natuurgebieden in Brabant en Limburg 1988 [Visiting forests and nature reserves for recreational purposes 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peltzer, R.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Visiting forests and nature reserves for recreational purposes Frequency and destination of holidays and short holidays / leisure outdoor activities in the Netherlands / having one or more dogs / other activities like visiting relatives and friends, going to the beach, visiting forests and other

  20. THE EFFECT OF FIRES ON FOREST ECOSYSTEMS CLUSTER PLOT OF ‘PODZAPLOTY’ OF THE RESERVE ‘KHAKASSKY’

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    V. V. Shurkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the questions of the exposure fires on forest ecosystems cluster plot of ‘Podzaploty’ of the reserve ‘Khakassky’. Identified and analyzed changes occurring in ecosystems as a result of fires. On the basis of experimental materials the changes in the tree layer and forest litter.

  1. Environmental zoning of a forest Pacific reserve zone located in Cordoba department, colombian Caribe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Sarmiento, Jesus Eugenio; Cardenas Torres, Miguel Andres; Fajardo Patino, Alirio

    2008-01-01

    This work includes the completion of a proposed zoning of the Zona de Reserva Forestal del Pacifico (ZRFP) in jurisdiction of the department of Cordoba, which has allowed to establish the managing trends of the natural resources that have been implemented in the municipalities of Tierralta and Valencia, where the uses of the territory have opposite characteristics with the reason of being of these lands, that were originally mainly forest areas and reserves for providing useful wood resources, as well as protective areas, that might reach in the growth of the economy of the country. The offers of zoning use of the soils by vocation and occupation proposed by the Instituto Geografico Agustin Codazzi IGAC (2002) were analyzed in detail; these are the technical foundation for the subtractions, according to the Law 2 of 1959. The work of biotic characterization focuses in the forest refuges that shelter great biodiversity wealth for the region and the department. The results of the characterization and evaluation show that there is a significant deterioration of ecosystems and ecological communities of the territory because of multiple actions performed by man along history, which, besides exploiting the environmental offer, contravene in some extensions the natural vocation of the soils. Therefore, it's important to put in consideration that given the intensity of the width and lengthwise interventions realized in the ZRFP, nowadays only some areas of natural forest remain, especially in the buffer area of the Paramillo National Park and in mountain areas bordering the department of Antioquia, which demands immediate actions of preservation and restoration.

  2. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  3. Deforestation as a result of wildfire incidence in the Worobong Forest Reserve in the Eastern Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danquah, S.

    2009-04-01

    This submission captures report on the perennial occurrence of wildfires and their accompanying effects on the inhabitants and the fringe forest communities in the Worobong Forest Reserve within the Eastern part of Ghana. Wildfire continues to be the single serious threat to the sustainable development and management of forest and wildlife resources in Ghana, thus depriving indigenous fringe forest communities of enormous socio-economic benefit of the forest. Locally, fire is used in the preparation of farm lands, tapping of palm-wine, charcoal production, honey harvesting, etc. This paper identifies some of the effects of wildfires on the indigenous communities and various interventions made to address the wildfire menace in the area of study over the years. Keywords: Wildfire, Fringe Forest Communities, Sustainable Development Resources, Socio-Economic Benefits

  4. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  5. Growth and reproductive performance of sambar deer in Sabal Forest Reserve of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Ismail; Dawend, Jiwan

    2013-10-01

    We examined the growth, reproduction, rutting behavior, and health status of sambar deer (Cervus unicolor brookei) in secondary Acacia mangium plantation. The data were collected over 11 years from a breeding herd of 21 stags and 33 hinds in Sabal Forest Reserve, Sarawak, Malaysia. Brody's growth model of the pooled data is Y t  = 148.56 (1 - 0.98e(-0.023t)), which estimates that maximum weights of adults are 184 and 115 kg for males and females respectively. Sambar deer are nonseasonal breeders with the breeding peak in February. Although the earliest age at which a female reached sexual maturity was 11 months, the mean age was 23 ± 7 months. Mean age of first fawning was 32 ± 8 months. Mean gestation period was 259 ± 12 days (n = 82). Stags shed antlers mostly between March and July. Velvet hardens at 103 ± 27 days (n = 23), and velvet harvesting is best at 7-9 weeks when antler length is 25-30 cm. Sambar deer are suitable as a farm species in forest plantations and have a vast potential to uplift rural living standards.

  6. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  7. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CE. Yoshida

    Full Text Available Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%, Neotropical region (0.9%, Brazil (2.4% and São Paulo state (17.9%. The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  8. The importance of a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest for the conservation of stream fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, C E; Uieda, V S

    2014-05-01

    Preservation of terrestrial fauna and flora has been the main reason for the settlement of most protected areas in the past 30 years, but although those areas may include water bodies, this does not necessarily mean that the biodiversity of freshwater environments are also protected. In the present study, the fauna inventory of eight streams (1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th orders) of three microbasins of Japi Mountain, a Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest recognised by UNESCO since 1994, located in São Paulo state, southeast of Brazil, was conducted. The hypothesis of this study is that the conservation of this area is important for the maintenance of the aquatic biodiversity of this biome, and so, this world hotspot deserves priority conservation actions. From 2005 to 2007, benthic macroinvertebrates, fishes and, eventually, anuran amphibians were sampled in these streams. The results showed that Japi Mountain contributes to the conservation of 138 taxonomic units of the aquatic biota and covers a rich and representative biodiversity of freshwater fauna of the world (0.2%), Neotropical region (0.9%), Brazil (2.4%) and São Paulo state (17.9%). The studied streams in the Environmental Protection Area help protect endangered taxa like the fishes Neoplecostomus paranensis and Pareiorhina cf rudolphi, and shelter freshwater invertebrates and fishes whose distribution is restricted to the Brazilian territory. Japi Mountain is also an important haven of species that was missing there like the frog species Vitreorana eurygnatha. Thus, this species inventory emphasises the importance of conservation actions of the freshwater environments of this Biosphere Reserve of Atlantic Forest.

  9. Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitula, Rukia A

    2007-01-26

    The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project.

  10. Remote Sensing for Mapping RAMSAR Heritage Site at Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmadi, I.M.; Pakhriazad, H.Z.; Norlida, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Sungai Pulai Mangrove Forest Reserve (SPMFR) is the largest reverin mangrove system in Johore. In 2003 about 9,126 ha of the Sungai Pulai mangrove was designated as a RAMSAR site. RAMSAR sites are wetland areas that are deemed to have international importance and are included in the List of Wetlands of International Importance. The SPMFR plays a significant socio-economic role to the adjacent 38 villages. Satellite remote sensing is a useful source of information where it provides timely and complete coverage for vegetation mapping especially in mangroves where the accessibility is difficult. This study was carried out to identify and map land cover types using SPOT-4 imagery at the Sungai Pulai-RAMSAR site and its surrounding areas. Through unsupervised classification technique a total of seven classes of land cover type were mapped, where about 90 % mapping accuracy was gained from the accuracy assessment. Later, vegetation densities were classified into five levels namely very high, high, medium, low and very low based on crown density scale using vegetation indices model such as NDVI, AVI and OSAVI. Results from NDVI and OSAVI model were almost similar but AVI model detected more on medium vegetation which did not show the real ground condition. The study concludes that SPOT-4 imagery was able to discriminate mangrove area clearly from other land covers type. Vegetation indices model can be used as a tool for mapping vegetation density level in the SPMFR and its surrounding area. Therefore VIs models from remote sensing are useful to monitor and manage the mangrove forest for sustainable management and preserve the SPMFR as a RAMSAR site in Peninsular Malaysia. (author)

  11. Socio-Economic Effects on The Forest Villagers of Ecotourism Potential (Case of Artvin-Camili Biosphere Reserve Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci Zeynep Aydın

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid changes occurring in the world who live urban people from a resort in the selection of natural areas and start to choose to travel; forest villagers because rural poverty, forest and forest resource have been destroyed. Since people change their expectations from tourism, natural areas began to gain importance. Until ın today’s conditions for citizens to the problems of migration and employment and ensure the sustainability of forest resources with ecotourism activities on the agenda of the approach began to take its place. The case study area, Camili Biosphere Reserve in Artvin; eco-tourism activities on the forest villagers demographic, social, cultural, economic, etc. with eco-tourısm activities and the sustainability of forest resources and forest planning and management aimed at the development stage of the villagers how it ought to be investigated. Forest villagers are selected according to full-count method. Data will be analyzed through descriptives, Chi-Square, paired T tests and Wilcoxon analyses.

  12. Anuran road-kills neighboring a peri-urban reserve in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Teixeira, Fernanda Zimmermann; Colombo, Patrick; Coelho, Artur Vicente Pfeifer; Kindel, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    Mortality from road-kills may figure among the important causes of decline in amphibian populations and species extinctions worldwide. Evaluation of the magnitude, composition, and temporal and spatial distributions of amphibian road-kills is a key step for mitigation planning, especially in peri-urban reserves. Once a month for 16 months, we surveyed, on foot, a 4.4 km section of state road ERS-389 bordering the Itapeva reserve in the southern Atlantic Forest. We recorded 1433 anuran road-kills and estimated a mortality rate of 9002 road-kills/km/year. The species most often recorded were the largest ones: Leptodactylus latrans, Rhinella icterica, Leptodactylus gracilis and Hypsiboas faber; 54.5% of the carcasses could not be identified. Anuran mortality was concentrated in summer, and was associated with temperature, rainfall and photoperiod. Leptodactylus road-kills were strongly influenced by vehicle traffic, probably because of its high abundance during the entire study period. Road-kill hotspots differed for anurans as a group and for single species, and we found an association among spatial patterns of mortality and types of land cover, distance from the nearest waterbody, roadside ditches, and artificial light. Traffic should be banned temporarily during periods of high mortality, which can be forecasted based on meteorological data. A comprehensive mitigation approach should take into account hotspots of all anuran records, and also of target species for selecting locations for amphibian passages and fencing. Roadside ditches, artificial waterbodies, and conventional street lights should be reduced as much as possible, since they may represent ecological traps for anuran populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Successional study for the restoration at Carpatos forest reserve in Guasca, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Lozada Silva Alberto; Pinzon Gonzalez Julian

    2009-01-01

    Based on floristic and structural characterization, four stages of secondary succession were analyzed within a matrix of vegetation that had been disrupted (185 ha) at Carpatos Forest Reserve. This reserve is located in the foothills of Colombian's Eastern Mountain Range (Cordillera Oriental), among 2600 and 3000 meters above sea level, and it is aimed at making a contribution to prepare a restoration protocol. In flat, wet areas, vegetation represented by grassland whit Rubus floribundum y Pteridium aquilinum, grows up to 0.7 m height on average. It is characterized by Pteridium aquilinum, which holds an average of 1638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species with the same number of genera and families bushes of Solanum inopinum and Chusquea scandens, less than 3 m height, were dominated by Chusquea scandens, with an estimated average of 638 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of four species and the same number of genera and families. In areas of steeper slopes and lower humidity more structured vegetation grows. This forests in recovery dominated by Miconia theaezans y Myrsine coriacea, which contains two types of vegetation: Hedyosmum crenatum y Myrsine coriacea, which are dominated by a shrub layer no taller than 5 m, with Myrsine coriacea as its most important species, and an estimated average of 1742 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 18 species, 16 genera and 13 families, and Weinmannia pinnata y Miconia theaezans, represented by Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans and Weinmannia pinnata as important species, which held an estimated average of 1833 individuals per 0.1 ha and a total of 14 species, 12 genera and 11 families. Myrsine coriacea, Miconia theaezans, Weinmannia pinnata and Hedyosmun crenatum are regarded as the most suitable to start reproductive, adaptive and developing silvicultural protocols. Management analysis suggests that there is a correlation between higher clay content and the secondary-succession initial-state communities

  14. Carbon stock assessment of two agroforestry systems in a tropical forest reserve in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasco, R.D.; Sales, R.F.; Estrella, R.; Saplaco, S.R.; Castillo, A.S.A.; Cruz, R.V.O.; Pulhin, F.B. [University of Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). College of Forestry & Natural Resources Environmental Forestry Programme

    2001-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) that causes global warming. Thus, land uses such as an agroforestry system have a significant role in moderating climate change since they can be sources and sinks of carbon. The aim of the study was to generate data on the carbon stocks of two agroforestry systems, specifically a Gmelina arborea-Theobroma cacao multistorey system and an alley cropping system with Gliricidia sepium hedges at the agroforestry research and demonstration area inside a forest reserve in Southern Luzon, Philippines. The multistorey system had a mean biomass of 258 Mg C ha{sup -1} and a carbon density of 185 Mg C ha{sup -1}. Carbon was stored in the various pools in the following order of magnitude: soil > tree biomass (above-ground) > necromass > understorey vegetation > roots. The Gliricidia hedgerow had a biomass density of 3.8 Mg C ha{sup -1}; total carbon density was 93 Mg C ha{sup -1}, of which 92 Mg C ha{sup -1} was in the soil.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Patience; Kakudidi, Esezah K; Buyinza, Mukadasi; Namaalwa, Justine; Kamatenesi, Maud; Mucunguzi, Patrick; Kalema, James

    2016-01-13

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out in 14 villages adjacent to Mabira Central Forest Reserve (CFR) in Central Uganda between August 2013 and March 2014. Information was obtained through interviews using semi- structured questionnaires. Field excursions with traditional healers and herbal medicine collectors were carried out. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. Fidelity ratios and Informant consensus agreements were calculated. A total of 190 plant species in 61 families and 152 genera were reported in the treatment of various health conditions. Family Fabaceae was dominant representing 14 % of the plant species documented. Vernonia amygdalina was the preferred species for treating malaria. Leaves (68 %) were the most frequently used parts in preparing herbal remedies. Decoctions (29 %) and oral route (53 %) of administration were commonly used method of herbal medicine preparation and administration respectively. Fifty-eight health conditions grouped in 25 categories were treated using medicinal plants. Informant consensus agreement was highest for blood system disorders (0.9) that included anaemia, hypertension and blood cleansing indicating homogeneity of informant's knowledge about remedies used. Vernonia amygdalina and Erythrina abyssinica had 100 % fidelity level for treatment of malaria and vomiting respectively. The diversity of medicinal plant species used and the associated indigenous knowledge are of great value to the local community and their conservation and preservation is paramount. The therapeutic uses of the documented plants provides basic data for further research focused on pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important species.

  16. CHANGES IN FOREST COVERAGE IN THE NATURAL RESERVE AGUA SELVA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerino Alejandro Montiel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ecotourism on the Natural Reserve Agua Selva, Mexico, was assessed. Changes of land use in the forest were evaluated.  An analysis of some socio-economic and cultural changes in the community since ecotourism was introduced was carried out. The perception of villagers towards ecotourism is also presented. The analysis was made with satellite images landsat type (sensor MSS and TM obtained in 1976 and 2000. Cartography and farm plots were also used for the analysis of land use changes. Socio-economic changes were analyzed based on questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The introduction of ecotourism in the area of study had both positive and negative effects. Although ecotourism did not reverse the deforestation processes, the general deforestation rate was 0.49%. This is smaller to reports in literature for other zones in Tabasco with similar characteristics in the same period of time.  It was found that there was a positive change of Villager’s attitudes towards ecotourism in the last 15 years. This is mainly because this activity is a source of income and has become progressively more important compared to other rural economic activities. It was found that the community participation is scarce and thus has caused problems in the management of specific projects. The results of this research suggest that the success of ecotourism in Agua Selva depends on the integration of ecotourism with the other agricultural and social programs implemented in the area. Implementing agricultural development programs not linked to ecotourism activities can lead to deforestation which is the reserve’s main attraction.

  17. Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Soda, Ryoji; Diway, Bibian; Kuda, Tinjan Ak; Nakagawa, Michiko; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nakashizuka, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the conservation values of communally reserved forests (CRFs), which local indigenous communities deliberately preserve within their area of shifting cultivation. In the current landscape of rural Borneo, CRFs are the only option for conservation because other forested areas have already been logged or transformed into plantations. By analyzing their alpha and beta diversity, we investigated how these forests can contribute to restore regional biodiversity. Although CRFs were fragmented and some had been disturbed in the past, their tree species diversity was high and equivalent to that of primary forests. The species composition of intact forests and forests disturbed in the past did not differ clearly, which indicates that past logging was not intensive. All CRFs contained unique and endangered species, which are on the IUCN Red List, Sarawak protected plants, or both. On the other hand, the forest size structure differed between disturbed and intact CRFs, with the disturbed CRFs consisting of relatively smaller trees. Although the beta diversity among CRFs was also high, we found a high contribution of species replacement (turnover), but not of richness difference, in the total beta diversity. This suggests that all CRFs have a conservation value for restoring the overall regional biodiversity. Therefore, for maintaining the regional species diversity and endangered species, it would be suitable to design a conservation target into all CRFs.

  18. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  19. Role of forest conservation in lessening land degradation in a temperate region: the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Delgado, Lilia; López-García, José; Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2014-06-01

    With international concern about the rates of deforestation worldwide, particular attention has been paid to Latin America. Forest conservation programmes in Mexico include Payment for Environmental Services (PES), a scheme that has been successfully introduced in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. To seek further evidence of the role of PES in lessening land degradation processes in a temperate region, the conservation state of the Cerro Prieto ejido within the Reserve was assessed by an analysis of changes in vegetation cover and land-use between 1971 and 2013. There were no changes in the total forest surface area, but the relative proportions of the different classes of cover density had changed. In 1971, closed and semi-closed forest occupied 247.81 ha and 5.38 ha, 82.33% and 1.79% of the total area of the ejido, respectively. By 2013, closed forest had decreased to 230.38 ha (76.54% of the ejido), and semi-closed cover was 17.23 ha (5.72% of the ejido), suggesting that some semi-closed forest had achieved closed status. The final balance between forest losses and recovery was: 29.63 ha were lost, whereas 13.72 ha were recovered. Losses were mainly linked to a sanitation harvest programme to control the bark beetle Scolytus mundus. Ecotourism associated with forest conservation in the Cerro Prieto ejido has been considered by inhabitants as a focal alternative for economic development. Consequently, it is essential to develop a well-planned and solidly structured approach based on social cohesion to foster a community-led sustainable development at local level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  1. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 in were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  2. Vegetation composition and altitudinal distribution of Andean rain forests in El Angel and Guandera reserves, northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.C.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of vascular plant species composition and structure of the remaining rain forest of the Andean Cordillera in northern Ecuador were studied in two reserves: Guandera and El Angel. Thirty three plots located between 3300 and 3700 m were examined along two altitudinal transects crossing the

  3. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  4. Palaeoecological data as a tool to predict possible future vegetation changes in the boreal forest zone of European Russia: a case study from the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novenko, E. Yu; Tsyganov, A. N.; Olchev, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    New multi-proxy records (pollen, testate amoebae, and charcoal) were applied to reconstruct the vegetation dynamics in the boreal forest area of the southern part of Valdai Hills (the Central Forest Biosphere Reserve) during the Holocene. The reconstructions of the mean annual temperature and precipitation, the climate moisture index (CMI), peatland surface moisture, and fire activity have shown that climate change has a significant impact on the boreal forests of European Russia. Temperature growth and decreased moistening during the warmest phases of the Holocene Thermal Maximum in 7.0-6.2 ka BP and 6.0-5.5 ka BP and in the relatively warm phase in 3.4-2.5 ka BP led to structural changes in plant communities, specifically an increase in the abundance of broadleaf tree species in forest stands and the suppression of Picea. The frequency of forest fires was higher in that period, and it resulted in the replacement of spruce forests by secondary stands with Betula and Pinus. Despite significant changes in the climatic parameters projected for the 21st century using even the optimistic RCP2.6 scenario, the time lag between climate changes and vegetation responses makes any catastrophic vegetation disturbances (due to natural reasons) in the area in the 21st century unlikely.

  5. Valorizing the 'Irulas' traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newmaster Steven G

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A mounting body of critical research is raising the credibility of Traditional Knowledge (TK in scientific studies. These studies have gained credibility because their claims are supported by methods that are repeatable and provide data for quantitative analyses that can be used to assess confidence in the results. The theoretical importance of our study is to test consensus (reliability/replicable of TK within one ancient culture; the Irulas of the Kodiakkarai Reserve Forest (KRF, India. We calculated relative frequency (RF and consensus factor (Fic of TK from 120 Irulas informants knowledgeable of medicinal plants. Our research indicates a high consensus of the Irulas TK concerning medicinal plants. The Irulas revealed a diversity of plants that have medicinal and nutritional utility in their culture and specific ethnotaxa used to treat a variety of illnesses and promote general good health in their communities. Throughout history aboriginal people have been the custodians of bio-diversity and have sustained healthy life-styles in an environmentally sustainable manner. However this knowledge has not been transferred to modern society. We suggest this may be due to the asymmetry between scientific and TK, which demands a new approach that considers the assemblage of TK and scientific knowledge. A greater understanding of TK is beginning to emerge based on our research with both the Irulas and Malasars; they believe that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment. These aboriginal groups chose to share this knowledge with society-at-large in order to promote a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.

  6. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C; Parida, Debraj

    2015-03-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1-6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 (4) -2.1 × 10 (5) and 5.1 × 10 (4) -4.7 × 10 (5) cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher's alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  7. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Santanu K.; Tayung, Kumanand; Rath, Chandi C.; Parida, Debraj

    2015-01-01

    Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta . To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 10 4 –2.1 × 10 5 and 5.1 × 10 4 –4.7 × 10 5 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI) was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (%) of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium . PMID:26221092

  8. Occurrence of culturable soil fungi in a tropical moist deciduous forest Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu K. Jena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR is a tropical moist deciduous forest dominated by the species Shorea robusta. To the best of our knowledge their rich biodiversity has not been explored in term of its microbial wealth. In the present investigation, soil samples were collected from ten selected sites inside SBR and studied for their physicochemical parameters and culturable soil fungal diversity. The soil samples were found to be acidic in nature with a pH ranging from of 5.1–6.0. Highest percentage of organic carbon and moisture content were observed in the samples collected from the sites, Chahala-1 and Chahala-2. The plate count revealed that fungal population ranged from 3.6 × 104–2.1 × 105 and 5.1 × 104–4.7 × 105 cfu/gm of soil in summer and winter seasons respectively. The soil fungus, Aspergillus niger was found to be the most dominant species and Species Important Values Index (SIVI was 43.4 and 28.6 in summer and winter seasons respectively. Among the sites studied, highest fungal diversity indices were observed during summer in the sites, Natto-2 and Natto-1. The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices in these two sites were found to be 3.12 and 3.022 and 0.9425 and 0.9373 respectively. However, the highest Fisher’s alpha was observed during winter in the sites Joranda, Natto-2, Chahala-1 and Natto-1 and the values were 3.780, 3.683, 3.575 and 3.418 respectively. Our investigation revealed that, fungal population was dependent on moisture and organic carbon (% of the soil but its diversity was found to be regulated by sporulating species like Aspergillus and Penicillium.

  9. Decadal time-scale monitoring of forest fires in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Rao, P V V Prasada; Jha, C S

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the spatial extent and distribution of forest fires is essential for sustainable forest resource management. There is no comprehensive data existing on forest fires on a regular basis in Biosphere Reserves of India. The present work have been carried out to locate and estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas using Resourcesat-1 data and fire frequency covering decadal fire events (2004-2013) in Similipal Biosphere Reserve. The anomalous quantity of forest burnt area was recorded during 2009 as 1,014.7 km(2). There was inconsistency in the fire susceptibility across the different vegetation types. The spatial analysis of burnt area shows that an area of 34.2 % of dry deciduous forests, followed by tree savannah, shrub savannah, and grasslands affected by fires in 2013. The analysis based on decadal time scale satellite data reveals that an area of 2,175.9 km(2) (59.6 % of total vegetation cover) has been affected by varied rate of frequency of forest fires. Fire density pattern indicates low count of burnt area patches in 2013 estimated at 1,017 and high count at 1,916 in 2004. An estimate of fire risk area over a decade identifies 12.2 km(2) is experiencing an annual fire damage. Summing the fire frequency data across the grids (each 1 km(2)) indicates 1,211 (26 %) grids are having very high disturbance regimes due to repeated fires in all the 10 years, followed by 711 grids in 9 years and 418 in 8 years and 382 in 7 years. The spatial database offers excellent opportunities to understand the ecological impact of fires on biodiversity and is helpful in formulating conservation action plans.

  10. Rare species of the Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy S. Zheltukhin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on 23 rare species of the Central Forest Reserve included in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation. The state of their populations (groups of populations is assessed. The characteristics of landscape and coenotic confinement are given. Their biological and ecological features are briefly described, and the limiting factors determining the reduction in the number of some species are indicated. Over 85 years, many species have remained their biological positions in the Reserve, and their quantity has remained stable. At the same time, species of sedentary birds (Bubo bubo, Lagopus lagopus rossicus and birds nesting in the Protected Area (representatives of the Accipitridae family are now few in number due to the changes in the main habitats and deterioration of the forage resources. It is noted that the Central Forest Reserve is the largest Protected Area in Central Russia for the rare lichens Lobaria pulmonaria and Menegazzia terebrata.

  11. A Study on PolInSAR Coherence Based Regression Analysis of Forest Biomass (BARKOT Reserve Forest India), Using RADARSAT-2 Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Kumar, S.; Kushwaha, S. P. S.

    2015-04-01

    Forests cover 30% of the world's land surface, and are home to around 90% of the world's flora and fauna. They serve as one of the world's largest carbon sinks, absorbing 2.4 million tons of CO2 each year and storing billions more in form of biomass. Around 6 million hectares of forest is lost or changed each year and as much as a fifth of global emissions are estimated to come from deforestation. Hence accurate estimation of forest biophysical variables is necessary as it is a key parameter in determination of forest inventories, vegetation modeling and global carbon cycle. SAR Remote sensing technique is capable of providing accurate and reliable information about forest parameters. The present work aims to explore the potential of C-band Radarsat-2 Polarimetric Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolinSAR) technique for developing a relationship between complex coherence and forest aboveground biomass (t/ha). In order to attain our objective Radarsat-2 satellite interferometric pair of 4th March 2013(master image) and 28th March 2013(slave image) were acquired for Barkot Reserve Forest, Dehradun, India. Field inventory was done for 30 plots (31.62m x 31.62m) and tree height and stem diameter were procured for each plot which were later utilized in calculation of aboveground biomass(AGB).Work emphasizes on the application of PolinSAR coherence instead of using SAR backscatter which saturates after a certain value of biomass content. Complex coherence values for different polarization channels were computed with the help of polarimetric interferometric coherence matrix. Retrieved complex coherences were investigated individually and then regression analysis was carried with the field estimated aboveground biomass. R2 value of HV+VH complex coherence component was found to be relatively higher than other polarization channel components

  12. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  13. Soil and water acidification of forest soils in the low-polluted area of Schoenbuch forest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegr, M.; Monn, L.

    1990-01-01

    At a comparatively low atmospheric pollution load of two wood-covered catchment areas the coniferous forest stand is characterized by increased material depositons and large element concentrations in the main root space. This leads to accumulation of acidifying agents and heavy metals in the seepage water. The heavy metals which pass into the recipients with the displaced soil solution determine most of the dispersion of dissolved heavy metals in the plateau landscape. On the other hand, the fraction of heavy metals bound to airborne particulates predominates in the valley landscape because of the stronger relief and the resulting sediment transport. In the shallow groundwaters, the sulfates and nitrate concentrations are much higher than in the deeper ground waters. (orig.) [de

  14. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  15. A POLICY MIX TO PREVENT A NON-COMMONS TRAGEDY FOR COLLECTIVE FOREST RESERVES IN AGRARIAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHWEST MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Davenport

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agrarian reform settlements have recently been identified as a major contributor to ongoing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Collective forest reserves were established in some settlements to thwart forest loss, but settlers usually do not recognize forest commons, opting instead for continued private accumulation through forest clearing, or a "non-commons" tragedy. Pathways toward ensuring the viability of common-pool management in settlements remain unclear. Our case study focused on two similarly sized settlements in neighboring municipalities in Northwest Mato Grosso, Brazil, each with formally designated collective forest areas. In one, deforestation shifted into the collective reserve and intensified; in the other, deforestation stabilized and the collective reserve was protected. In the latter, settlers understood their collective forest reserve as a commonly held asset, with two commercially viable settlement cooperatives involved in Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa extractivism and added value processing. We analyze differences between the two settlements using Elinor Ostrom's framework for analysis of socio-ecological systems, and identify the locally applied policy mix ensuring the viability of a forest commons. The study concludes that "top-down" efforts to institutionalize collective governance over remaining forests will likely fail in most settlements, without a focus on alternative livelihood opportunities synergetic with forest tenure.

  16. Changing Perceptions of Forest Value and Attitudes toward Management of a Recently Established Nature Reserve: A Case Study in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the main sources of conflict and understanding the relationships between protected areas and local communities are critical to conflict resolution related to protected area management. We surveyed and assessed the perceptions of local people related to forest values of the Bulong Nature Reserve (BNR, Yunnan, China, and their attitudes toward forest management of the recently-established nature reserve. Factors influencing the differences in perceptions and attitudes were investigated. Our results indicated local residents preferred the economic value of forests, and they perceived more forest values after reserve establishment than before, especially for ecological services. Interviewees believed the value of the forests have increased, and predicted that the forest will have increased importance to their livelihoods and health in the future. Nonetheless, the majority of interviewees were dissatisfied with current reserve management. Variation in these perceptions and attitudes were related to several social variables: age, gender, education, and distance from the reserve. Embedding the findings of the present study, specifically the perceptions and attitudes of local people, into management guidelines for mitigation of potential conflicts is proposed and should help managers to achieve biodiversity-related goals. This study offers new insights related to the identification of the underlying sources of conflict in forest management and provides a better understanding of the relationship between local people and protected areas. The study also contributes to the literature on forest values of indigenous populations by examining those of remote, rural populations in China.

  17. Organic coal reserves in field and forest systems vs. Avifauna biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyszko-Podgórska Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of birds depending on the use of the area and the content of organic coal in field-and-forest systems. The research demonstrated a great diversity of bird species and great differences in the content of organic coal in individual areas. According to the conducted analyses, human economic activity can influence the content of organic coal and, therefore, it also influences the occurrence of specific bird species. In connection with the fact that the entire area covered with the research has been modelled by humans, the content of organic coal, the composition of bird species and their functioning in spatial systems are derivatives of such an activity.

  18. Current status of mangrove forest in the lot No. 2 Baitiquirí Ecological Reserve, Guantánamoológica Baitiquirí, Guantánamo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfelina Rodríguez Leyva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the mangrove forest of the Reserve Ecological Baitiquirí, belonging to the Flora and Fauna Guantanamo Company located in the municipality of San Antonio del Sur, in order to assess the current state of the mangrove forest in the lot number two of the reservation. To comply with the objective was characterized dasometric different parameters, natural regeneration and mortality, as well as the determination of the main problems affecting the forest with community participation were evaluated. As important result was obtained that the mangrove species present in the forest of the Reserve Ecological Baitiquirí are poor structurally, with less than six meters diameters less than nine centimeters heights, being the species Conocarpus erectus L. var. sericius the most important from the ecological point of view. Besides the problems with greater incidence by actors of the community in the mangrove forest they were: coastal erosion and desertification.

  19. Dung beetles in a Caatinga Natural Reserve: a threatened Brazilian dry-forest with high biological value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Vieira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Caatinga is an endemic and threatened dry-forest biome distributed across northern Brazil. We evaluated the conservation value of a Caatinga Natural Reserve (NR - Floresta Nacional (FLONA Contendas do Sincorá - using Scarabaeinae dung beetles as a biodiversity indicator. Specifically, we contrasted two zones impacted by two distinct intensity of selective logging that happened inside the NR until 1997. Dung beetles were collected 14 years after logging, using baited pitfall traps within three main habitats (riparian forest, regenerating Caatinga or arboreal Caatinga found in two zones (Preservation and Management Zones. A total of 1,214 individuals from 21 species were sampled. The two zones presented distinct species composition, although the habitats did not exhibit such differences. Our results indicated that the secondary areas are in a conservation status similar to arboreal Caatinga and riparian forest, 14 y after logging. Furthermore, we identified seven habitat-indicator species, two of them typical to Caatinga biome, highlighting the importance of updates in NR management plan considering the Scarabaeinae regional diversity management.

  20. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as gly......Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves...

  1. Detection of trees damaged by pests in Abies religiosa forests in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve using infrared aerial photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leautaud Valenzuela

    2017-03-01

    photographic mosaic of the sampling area. The unassisted and assisted spectral classification technique was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine image-processing software package. For the unassisted classification, tests were carried out considering various numbers of categories: 5, 10 and 15; the assisted classification included the spectral properties of each category used for the partition to group images into five categories: healthy forest, diseased forest, Juniperus scrubland, bare soil and shaded areas. The accuracy of the technique for the detection of damaged trees was verified through field work, visiting different checkpoints where the health status of the tree was corroborated by direct observation and infrared photography at ground level. A representative sampling area of the A. religiosa forest was established in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (RBMM, sufficient to encompass the largest number of damaged trees, but not so large as to excessively prolong the information-processing phases and make field sampling unattainable.  The analysis comprised an area of 1907 ha in Sierra Chincua, where the greatest affectation was observed in a core zone including 97 points (62% with more than twice the density of individuals (11 trees/km2, relative to the buffer zone (4 trees/km2. This greater damage is the result of forest management policies, which have set no management (including sanitation in the core zone. At the end of this research work, we concluded that digital aerial photographs proved useful for the detection of damaged trees in Abies religiosa forests of RBMM. It is possible to obtain multispectral images using a low-cost photographic technology that is relatively simple and widely available. Our study showed that the best method to detect damage in A. religiosa forests in RBMM is the visual interpretation of aerial photographs, yielding a detection efficiency of over 98%. The method used has a greater costeffectiveness compared to helicopter overflight

  2. Cartographic modeling of heterogeneous landscape for footprint analysis of Eddy Covariance Measurements (Central Forest and Central Chernozem reserves, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Daniil

    2014-05-01

    The topographical, soil and vegetation maps of FLUXNET study areas are widely used for interpretation of eddy covariance measurements, for calibration of biogeochemical models and for making regional assessments of carbon balance. The poster presents methodological problems and results of ecosystem mapping using GIS, remote sensing, statistical and field methods on the example of two RusFluxNet sites in the Central Forest (33° E, 56°30'N) and Central Chernozem (36°10' E, 51°36'N) reserves. In the Central Forest reserve tacheometric measurements were used for topographical and peat surveys of bogged sphagnum spruce forest of 20-hectare area. Its common borders and its areas affected by windfall were determined. The supplies and spatial distribution of organic matter were obtained. The datasets of groundwater monitoring measurements on ten wells were compared with each other and the analysis of spatial and temporal groundwater variability was performed. The map of typical ecosystems of the reserve and its surroundings was created on the basis of analysis of multi-temporal Landsat images. In the Central Chernozem reserve the GNSS topographical survey was used for flux tower footprint mapping (22 ha). The features of microrelief predetermine development of different soils within the footprint. Close relationship between soil (73 drilling site) and terrain attributes (DEM with 2.5 m) allowed to build maps of soils and soil properties: carbon content, bulk density, upper boundary of secondary carbonates. Position for chamber-based soil respiration measurements was defined on the basis of these maps. The detailed geodetic and soil surveys of virgin lands and plowland were performed in order to estimate the effect of agrogenic processes such as dehumification, compaction and erosion on soils during the whole period of agricultural use of Central Chernozem reserve area and around. The choice of analogous soils was based on the similarity of their position within the

  3. Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Omar; López-García, José; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2014-02-01

    We used aerial photographs, satellite images, and field surveys to monitor forest cover in the core zones of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico from 2001 to 2012. We used our data to assess the effectiveness of conservation actions that involved local, state, and federal authorities and community members (e.g., local landowners and private and civil organizations) in one of the world's most iconic protected areas. From 2001 through 2012, 1254 ha were deforested (i.e., cleared areas had <10% canopy cover), 925 ha were degraded (i.e., areas for which canopy forest decreased), and 122 ha were affected by climatic conditions. Of the total 2179 ha of affected area, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging: 1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging. Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012. Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005-2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern. However, dire regional social and economic problems remain, and they must be addressed to ensure the reserve's long-term conservation. The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrup, Martin, E-mail: martin.holmstrup@dmu.d [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Sorensen, Jesper G. [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bindesbol, Anne-Mette [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Waagner, Dorthe [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Building 131, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Labouriau, Rodrigo [Aarhus University, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Alle 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele (Denmark); Asmund, Gert [National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  5. Body metal concentrations and glycogen reserves in earthworms (Dendrobaena octaedra) from contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sorensen, Jesper G.; Overgaard, Johannes; Bayley, Mark; Bindesbol, Anne-Mette; Slotsbo, Stine; Fisker, Karina V.; Maraldo, Kristine; Waagner, Dorthe; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Asmund, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Stress originating from toxicants such as heavy metals can induce compensatory changes in the energy metabolism of organisms due to increased energy expenses associated with detoxification and excretion processes. These energy expenses may be reflected in the available energy reserves such as glycogen. In a field study the earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, was collected from polluted areas, and from unpolluted reference areas. If present in the environment, cadmium, lead and copper accumulated to high concentrations in D. octaedra. In contrast, other toxic metals such as aluminium, nickel and zinc appeared to be regulated and kept at low internal concentrations compared to soil concentrations. Lead, cadmium and copper accumulation did not correlate with glycogen reserves of individual worms. In contrast, aluminium, nickel and zinc were negatively correlated with glycogen reserves. These results suggest that coping with different metals in earthworms is associated with differential energy demands depending on the associated detoxification strategy. - Detoxification and accumulation of cadmium and lead by earthworms carries little energetic expenses whereas strict internal regulation of aluminium and nickel has energetic costs.

  6. NCI & Division Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Displays obligations for grants, contracts, training fellowships, intramural research, and management and support, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percent of the total NCI budget.

  7. Conventional and Indigenous Biodiversity Conservation Approach: A Comparative Study of Jachie Sacred Grove and Nkrabea Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Boadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional managed forests and sacred groves are seldom assessed to determine their effectiveness in biodiversity conservation strategies. This study investigated tree and insect diversity in Jachie sacred grove (JSG and Nkrabea forest reserve (NFR in Ashanti region, Ghana. The study area constituted eight plots of 50 × 50 m along two 300 m long transects. Insects were sampled in eight pitfall traps, diagonally between the transects. Out of 150 individuals, 13 species in NFR and 15 species from JSG were registered. Celtis mildbraedii was the most dominant species in NFR = 43.18% and JSG = 23.58%. Mean DBH showed a significant relationship with basal area in NFR and JSG. Tree diversity and richness were higher in JSG (H′ = 1.43–2.3 ± 0.10; D = 1.8–3.69 ± 0.30 compared to NFR (H′ = 0.86–1.56 ± 0.09; D = 1.1–2.3 ± 0.57. However, insect diversity was higher in NFR (H′ = 1.34 ± 0.10 than in JSG (H′ = 0.5 ± 0.005. Camponotus furvus and Pachycondyla tarsata were most abundant in JSG and NFR, respectively. These findings will help conservationists work closely with traditional authorities in protecting sacred groves as key biodiversity hotspots.

  8. Home-range and activity pattern of rehabilitated malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in the Tembat Forest Reserve, Terengganu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Kamaruddin Zainal; Mohammed, Ahmad Azhar; Nor, Shukor Md

    2018-04-01

    Re-introduction programme has been adopted in solving the conflict issues related with the Malayan sun bears in Peninsular Malaysia. Two rehabilitated sun bears (#1533 and #1532) were collared and released in Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu to study the home-range and activity pattern. Tracking of sun bear in wild have be conducted manually by using telemetry devices namely radio frequency systems and GPS-UHF download system. A total of 912 locations were recorded. The home range size (indicate by the size of convex polygon) of bear #1533 is larger than bear #1532, with value of 95% minimum convex polygon was 130 km2 compared to its counterpart was 33.28 km2. Bears moved to forest (primary and secondary) and oil palm area. Bear #1533 and #1532 were more active in daytime (diurnal) especially from sunrise to midday. Activity pattern of both rehabilitated bears suggested influence by their daily activity in captivity. This study has proposed two guidelines in re-introduction, 1) minimum distance between release site and possible conflict area is 10-13 km and 2) release during the bear's active time.

  9. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  10. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  11. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahdouh-Guebas Farid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. Results The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb. Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Conclusion Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60% reported that mangrove marketed wood

  12. Commercial activities and subsistence utilization of mangrove forests around the Wouri estuary and the Douala-Edea reserve (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atheull, Adolphe Nfotabong; Din, Ndongo; Longonje, Simon N; Koedam, Nico; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid

    2009-11-17

    Worldwide there is growing research interest in the ethnobiology of mangrove forests. Notwithstanding that, little information has been published about ethnobiology of mangrove forests in Cameroon. The aims of this study were a) to analyze the harvesting methods and the local selling of mangrove wood products by loggers in the vicinity of Wouri estuary and b) to investigate the patterns of subsistence uses of mangrove wood products around the Douala-Edea reserve. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 120 active mangrove loggers in 23 Douala wood markets and 103 households located in three villages (Mbiako, Yoyo I and Yoyo II) close to Douala-Edea reserve. In each of the three densely populated villages, every second household was chosen for sampling while in all markets, mangrove loggers were chosen randomly. In addition, log diameters were measured in each market using a wooden foldable tape measure. A post hoc analysis (Newman-Keuls test) was performed in order to detect the common wood class diameter sold in the Douala wood markets. The analysis of the loggers' survey data has shown that large logs of Rhizophora with diameter greater than 40 cm were common in the Douala wood markets and were more closely associated with loggers who used chainsaws. In addition to the general mangroves wood products selling, the analysis on a subsistence level (households' survey) suggests the local population's dependence on mangroves, with multiple uses of Rhizophora racemosa Meyer, R. harrisonii Leechman, Avicennia germinans L. Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa Gaertn. f. and Conocarpus erectus L. timbers for furniture, fences, smoking fish, and fuelwood. Finally, Nypa fruticans (Thunb.) Wurmb. leaves were used as thatching material for house walls and roofs. Our findings revealed that big logs of Rhizophora were commonly sold by the loggers. A majority of loggers (60%) reported that mangrove marketed wood constitute a principal source of income. Most of the villagers (85

  13. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sutomo Sutomo; Dini Fardila

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in ...

  14. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS Cabanillas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  15. Building ties: social capital network analysis of a forest community in a biosphere reserve in Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rico García-Amado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Governance of the commons depends on the capacity to generate collective action. Networks and rules that foster that collective action have been defined as social capital. However, their causal link is still not fully understood. We use social network analysis to assess social capital, decision-making, and collective action in a forest-based common pool resource management in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve (Chiapas, Mexico. Our research analyzes the productive networks and the evolution of coffee groups in one community. The network shows some centrality, with richer landholders tending to occupy core positions and poorer landless peasants occupying peripheral ones. This has fostered the community's environmentally oriented development but has also caused internal conflicts. Market requirements have shaped different but complementary productive networks, where organic coffee commercialization is the main source of bridging ties, which has resulted in more connectivity and resilience. Conservation attitudes, along with the institutional setting of the community, have promoted collective action. The unresolved conflicts, however, still leave some concerns about governance in the future.

  16. Characterizing and valuing of regeneration potential of the seed germination bank at the Carpatos forest reserve (Guasca, Cundinamarca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo Higuera Edgard Ernesto; Castiblanco Gutierrez Viviana; Pinilla Mondragon David Fernando; Alvarado Claudia Liliana

    2008-01-01

    In the Carpatos Forest Reserve the bank seed germinate (BSG) was marked and valued and the dispersion mechanisms and strategies of there serve defined. They subsequently determined the spatial, dinamogenetic and temporary structures of the seral states and their populations. For the vegetation on foot 61 species were recorded, represented by 53 genera and 36 families, alongside the BSG were 55 species, represented by 50 genera and 27 families. The minimum volume was 1.500 cm 3, for a total of 13.150 germinating seeds; the total density for BSG was 1.553 seeds per m2. The species emerged in the BSG were mostly herbaceous and flush - approximately 70% of all individuals and species -; Phytolacca bogotensis, Digitalis purpurea and Ageratina sp. were the dominant species in the three trials Bank, other important species were Carex sp., Poa annua, Rubus floribundum, Bulbostylis sp.and Borreria sp. The species of woody habit usually varied in each trial according to the phenophase of each species, the most representative species were Cestrum Mutisia, Clusia ducu, Myrsine coriacea, Axinaea macrophylla and Miconia denticulata. As for phenology and dispersal, it was found that vegetation stands submitted to the zoocoria as the dominant scattering strategy in all fields; the maximum flowering occurred during the dry season, from December to March, though the greatest fruiting records correspond to the longest rainy season, from June to August.

  17. Do forest soil microbes have the potential to resist plant invasion? A case study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (South China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ming; Li, Song; Liao, Hui-Xuan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2017-05-01

    Successful invaders must overcome biotic resistance, which is defined as the reduction in invasion success caused by the resident community. Soil microbes are an important source of community resistance to plant invasions, and understanding their role in this process requires urgent investigation. Therefore, three forest communities along successional stages and four exotic invasive plant species were selected to test the role of soil microbes of three forest communities in resisting the exotic invasive plant. Our results showed that soil microbes from a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF) (late-successional stage) had the greatest resistance to the invasive plants. Only the invasive species Ipomoea triloba was not sensitive to the three successional forest soils. Mycorrhizal fungi in early successional forest Pinus massonina forest (PMF) or mid-successional forest pine-broadleaf mixed forest (PBMF) soil promoted the growth of Mikania micrantha and Eupatorium catarium, but mycorrhizal fungi in MEBF soil had no significant effects on their growth. Pathogens plus other non-mycorrhizal microbes in MEBF soil inhibited the growth of M. micrantha and E. catarium significantly, and only inhibited root growth of E. catarium when compared with those with mycorrhizal fungi addition. The study suggest that soil mycorrhizal fungi of early-mid-successional forests benefit invasive species M. micrantha and E. catarium, while soil pathogens of late-successional forest may play an important role in resisting M. micrantha and E. catarium. The benefit and resistance of the soil microbes are dependent on invasive species and related to forest succession. The study gives a possible clue to control invasive plants by regulating soil microbes of forest community to resist plant invasion.

  18. Multitemporal analysis of forest fragmentation in Hindu Kush Himalaya-a case study from Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, Sikkim, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohit; Areendran, G; Raj, Krishna; Sharma, Ankita; Joshi, P K

    2016-10-01

    Forests in the mountains are a treasure trove; harbour a large biodiversity; and provide fodder, firewood, timber and non-timber forest products; all of these are essential for human survival in the highest mountains on earth. The present paper attempts a spatiotemporal assessment of forest fragmentation and changes in land use land cover (LULC) pattern using multitemporal satellite data over a time span of around a decade (2000-2009), within the third highest protected area (PA) in the world. The fragmentation analysis using Landscape Fragmentation Tool (LFT) depicts a decrease in large core, edge and patches areas by 5.93, 3.64 and 0.66 %, respectively, while an increase in non-forest and perforated areas by 6.59 and 4.01 %, respectively. The land cover dynamics shows a decrease in open forest, alpine scrub, alpine meadows, snow and hill shadow areas by 2.81, 0.39, 8.18, 3.46 and 0.60 %, respectively, and there is an increase in dense forest and glacier area by 4.79 and 10.65 %, respectively. The change analysis shows a major transformation in areas from open forest to dense forest and from alpine meadows to alpine scrub. In order to quantify changes induced by forest fragmentation and to characterize composition and configuration of LULC mosaics, fragmentation indices were computed using Fragstats at class level, showing the signs of accelerated fragmentation. The outcome of the analysis revealed the effectiveness of geospatial tools coupled with landscape ecology in characterization and quantification of forest fragmentation and land cover changes. The present study provides a baseline database for sustainable conservation planning that will benefit the subsistence livelihoods in the region. Recommendations made based on the present analysis will help to recover forest and halt the pessimistic effects of fragmentation and land cover changes on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the region.

  19. AUTECOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES Cyperus rotundus L. IN FOREST EDGE OF POHEN MOUNTAIN, BATUKAHU NATURE RESERVE, BALI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutomo Sutomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic-origin forest disturbance has been known to increase the risk of invasion to native habitat. Invasive species caused problems for local ecosystems and their native species. The  research on the dynamics and autecology of invasive species Cyperus rotundus was conducted on anthropogenic disturbed Pohen mountain forest in Bali, Indonesia. Results showed significant changes in microclimatic variables from forest edge to interior. C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest can be found in a road edge and forest exterior where sunlight is abundant and decrease in a more shady sites and absent under thick forest canopies CCA ordination analysis showed that C. rotundus in Pohen mountain forest tends to co-occur together with Imperata cylindrica and Bidens biternata. To be able to control potentially troublesome exotic invasive species, firstly we have to understand what factors limit their growth and development. Therefore this study is has important value because the data which from  result in studying invasive species autecology will act as baseline data that will be useful to generate management program including rehabilitation and restoration program. Key words: species dynamics, autecology, Cyperus rotundus, Pohen mountain forest, Bali

  20. Flora, life form and chorological study of soil seed bank in Sisangan box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the soil seed bank flora of the Sisangan Box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark reserve by using seedling emergence method. 150 soil samples were collected during late June and early November by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 to a depth of 5 cm. Results showed 67 species, representing 63 genera and 38 families germinated from soil seed bank. 45 species belonging to 28 families and 59 species belonging to 32 families were recorded in June and November soil seed bank respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (7 species, 10.5%, Lamiaceae (6 species, 9%, Poaceae (5 species, 7.5% and Rosaceae (4 species, 6% which compromised 32.8% percent of the total species in the soil seed bank. Results also showed that Hemicrptophytes (28.4% and Euro-Sibria elements (23/9% were the most important biological spectrum and phytochorion respectivly in the soil seed bank of Sisangan forest. From the total number of species recorded in seed bank, 30 species (44.6 % were found only in the seed bank and never observed in above-ground vegetation. In this regard, seeds of 10 woody species including Albizia julibrissin, Ficus carica, Morus alba, Diospyrus lotus, Celtis australis, Gleditsia caspica, Buxus hyrcana, Ulmus minor, Zelkova carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus were found in the soil seed bank, from which only 6 species were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. This condition confirmed low similarity between above-ground vegetation and persistent soil seed bank and it also reiterated the importance of soil seed bank study for introducing more accurate capacity of plant biodiversity.

  1. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  2. The Phlebotominae sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna of two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Nataly A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, studies on the sand fly fauna in Poço das Antas and Fazenda Bom Retiro, two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves from the State of Rio de Janeiro, were performed using Shannon traps, CDC light traps and human bait collections. Eleven species were identified; Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. edwardsi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. fischeri, L. shannoni, L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta, L. monticola and L. misionensis (first occurrence in the State of Rio de Janeiro. L. intermedia and L. whitmani were the predominant anthropophilic species around houses, while L. hirsuta predominated in the forest.

  3. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  4. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andimuthu Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB, with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK. The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  5. Slovenia and Kyoto Obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsek, A.; Jevsek, F.; Plavcak, V.-P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives the possibilities of emission reduction as an obligation from Kyoto Protocol. The Slovenia environmental and energy strategies are regulated to implement the agreement to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8% to the year 2012 as regard the basic year 1986 in energy, transportation, industrial and other sectors, especially focused on electric power sector. (author)

  6. Floristic composition of the dry tropical forest in biological reserve (sanctuary "Los Besotes" and phenology of the dominant arboreal species (Valledupar, Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lee Berdugo Lattke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the floristic composition and structural aspects, the formation tropical dry forest of the reserve "Los Besotes" (Valledupar, Cesar; 248 y 1046m of altitude was characterized. In 35 individuals from nine dominant tree species in two forest types, the phenological characteristics were assessed. Seven monitoring were performed along one year according to the scheme of distribution of rainfall. The leaf fall in the forests of Myrcianthes aff. fragrans and Brosimum alicastrum did not exceed 20% regardless of the climatic period (drought or rainy seasons. In others dominant understory species the leaf fall was less than 40%, thus species of the canopy are classified as evergreen while those of the understory as semideciduous. Blooming peaked during the dry season while fruit production peaked during the two rainy seasons. In the forest ofBursera simaruba and Pterocarpus acapulcensis the leaf fall exceeded 60% in the dry season, while in the rainy season was only 30%. The leaf fall increased to 60% in others dominant understory species. Both canopy as well as understory species are deciduous. Blooming was observed during the dry season (December to March, and July, but it is also likely to occur in October; fruit production was observed at the end of the rainy season. In the tropical dry forest formation evergreen plant communities with low values of leaf fall (40% and deciduous communities with values greater than 60% are recognized.

  7. Desiring the city: the urban imaginary in rural collective settlements in a Brazilian submontane Atlantic forest reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available This article discusses data obtained in a study on populations who live near an important Brazilian submontane Atlantic forest, a geographical zone of north-eastern states located between the beach zone and the savanna-scrub zone. The populations in question live in a so-called Ecological Station from Murici (Esec-Murici, in the Murici Forest Complex (CFM, in the forest zone of Alagoas, distributed between two Incra rural collective settlements and on farms. Cultural forms used by such populations have been discussed by using social indexes taken from this survey and associating them with economical and environmental sustainability notions in their interfaces with these groups' social development and with regards to the actions of other agents in the CFM, suggesting that the maintenance of an urban imaginary which produces new subjectivities can be easily linked with environmental conservation policies.

  8. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Diele, Karen.; Tran Ngoc, D M.; Geist, S J.; Meyer, F.; Pham, Q H.; Saint-Paul, Ulrich.; Triet, Tran.; Berger, Uta.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18–20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand...

  9. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  10. Lichens of the virgin forest reserve Žofínský prales (Czech Republic) and surrounding woodlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíček, J.; Palice, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2013), s. 253-292 ISSN 0018-0971 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV025 Keywords : epiphytic and epixylic lichen s * biodiversity * old-growth forest Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2013

  11. The valuation of forest carbon services by Mexican citizens: the case of Guadalajara city and La Primavera biosphere reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; MacMillan, D.C.; Skutsch, Margaret; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2013-01-01

    Adequate demand for, and recognition of, forest carbon services is critical to success of market mechanisms for forestry-based conservation and climate change mitigation. National and voluntary carbon-offsetting schemes are emerging as alternatives to international compliance markets. We developed a

  12. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  13. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  14. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  15. Are riparian forest reserves sources of invertebrate biodiversity spillover and associated ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gray, C. L.; Simmons, B. I.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Mann, D. J.; Slade, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 194, Feb 01 (2016), s. 176-183 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09427S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecosystem function * forest fragments * tropical agriculture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320715301956

  16. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  17. Checklist of the vascular flora of the sub-Andean forest at the Cachalu Biological Reserve, Santander (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Ruth; Reina Miriam; Herrera Edna; Avila Fabio Andres; Chaparro Omar; Cortes B, Rocio

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary checklist of the vascular flora of the Reserva Biologica Cachalu is presented. Cachalu is located on the western slope of the Eastern Andes (Encino - Santander), and represents a sample of the sub - Andean forest of the Colombian Andes. The material was collected over a period of seven months in 2007 and 2008. General collections were carried out through Cachalu, and in a permanent plot at an altitudinal range between 1800 and 2350 m. A total of 443 species, included in 257 genera, and 101 families were recorded. Angiosperms represent 96% of the vascular flora, while pteridophyta 3.5% and gymnosperms only 0.5%. The Rubiaceae family has the highest richness at the genus and species level (18/36), followed by Melastomataceae (13/30), Orchidaceae (13/25), Asteraceae (13/21) and Solanaceae (8/21). The genera Psychotria, Miconia, Solanum and Anthurium show the highest number of species. For each species, the catalog contains the scientific name, collections used, habit, and the altitudinal range. The affinities of the flora of Cachalu with similar forests at the Guantiva - La Rusia - Iguaque biological corridor are discussed. Additionally, species considered at any level of threat are pointed so that they may be prioritized in restoration and conservation programs.

  18. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  19. Erasing a European biodiversity hot-spot: Open woodlands, veterantrees and mature forests succumb to forestry intensification,succession, and logging in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miklín, J.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-41 ISSN 1617-1381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA TA ČR TA02021501 Grant - others:Universita Ostrava(CZ) SGS4/PřF/2012; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : forest management * land use/land cover change * lower Morava UNESCO biosphere reserve Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1617138113000794

  20. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Frugivory and seed dispersal by the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus in the tropical forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India. We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. In total, we identified seeds of eight plant species belonging to seven families in 16% out of 455 dung piles examined between 1991 and 2004. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons (southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests. This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds.

  1. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitats of Silent Valley National Park and New Amarambalam Reserve Forest of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Nishadh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the metazoan community composition in tree hole aquatic habitat of a tropical rainforest, Silent Valley National Park, and the adjacent moist deciduous forest, New Amarambalam Reserve Forest, of the Western Ghats, 28 different species were recorded from 150 tree hole aquatic habitats with an average of 3-5 species per tree hole. Most of the recorded organisms (96.8% belong to Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, Heteroptera (bugs, Diptera (flies, Coleoptera (beetles and Trichoptera (caddisflies. The study reports the first record of toe-winged beetle larvae (Ptilodactylidae in a tree hole aquatic habitat. The most significant observation is the prolific occurrence of trichopteran larvae as the second most abundant taxa in tree holes of Silent Valley National Park, and this stands as the first comprehensive record of the entire order in the habitat studied. The study upholds the importance of less explored microhabitats in the Western Ghats region in terms of sustaining unique community composition in the most delicate and extreme habitat conditions. It also puts forward important ecological research questions on biodiversity ecosystem functionality which could impart important lessons for managing and conserving the diminishing tropical evergreen forests which are significant for these unique habitats.

  2. Forest and field abundance of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius da Costa Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the species richness, abundance and diversity of Scarabaeidae beetles in two types of habitats (field and forest, and to assess whether their seasonal variation is related to climatic variables. This study was conducted in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Pampa biome. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 125 individuals were collected, of which six genera and 11 species from four subfamilies of Scarabaeidae were identified. 54 individuals of five species were collected from the field, and 71 individuals of eight species were collected from the forest. The most abundant species were Ataenius picinus Harold, 1868, Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 and Leucothyreus lavipes Eschscholtz, 1822, which together accounted for 86.4% of all individuals captured. The highest total number of individuals was collected in summer (78, and the highest number of species was collected in spring (9. Differences in environmental structure (and associated climate and food resource availability may be decisive and limiting factors for beetle occurrence in forest versus field areas, as various species were restricted to a specific habitat type or season.

  3. Do canopy disturbances drive forest plantations into more natural conditions? — A case study from Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Juliane; Kautz, Markus; Fontalvo Herazo, Martha Liliana; Triet, Tran; Walther, Denny; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen; Berger, Uta

    2013-11-01

    Large areas of mangrove forests were devastated in South Viet Nam during the second Indochina war. After its end in 1975, extensive reforestation with monocultures took place. Can Gio, one of the biggest replanted sites with about 20,000 ha of mangroves mainly Rhizophora apiculata, was declared a biosphere reserve by the UNESCO in 2000. Although this status now enables progressive forest dynamics, there are still drawbacks resulting from the unnatural character of the plantations. For example, the homogeneous size and age structure as well as the regular arrangement of the planted trees make larger forest stands more vulnerable to synchronized collapsing which can be triggered by stronger winds and storms. A transformation into a more natural forest characterized by a heterogeneous age and size structure and a mixed species composition is of urgent need to avoid a synchronized dieback. In this study we test the capability of natural canopy disturbances (e.g. lightning strikes) to facilitate this transformation.Canopy gaps created by lightning strikes were detected and quantified by remote sensing techniques. SPOT satellite images from the years 2003, 2005 and 2007 provided information about the spatial distribution, size, shape, and formation frequency of the gaps. Lightning strike gaps were identified based on their shape and size. They form small openings (mean: 0.025 ha) and their yearly probability of occurrence was determined to be approximately 0.012 per hectare. Selected gaps were surveyed in the field in 2008 to complement the remote sensing data and to provide information upon forest structure and regeneration.Simulation experiments were carried out with the individual-based KiWi mangrove model for quantifying the influence of different lightning regimes on the vertical and horizontal structure of the R. apiculata plantation. In addition, we conducted simulations with a natural and thus randomly generated forest to compare the structure of the two

  4. Preliminary list of flying mammals in the Ajos-Bavispe National Forest Reserve and Wildlife Refuge, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa Elena Jimenez; Christ D. Weise; Mario Cirett-Galan; Guadalupe Flores; Manuel Munguia; E. Isaias Ochoa

    2013-01-01

    Information on bat communities, including their composition, abundance, distribution and ecology, can support management programs in protected areas, and also provide information and initiatives for the designation of new protected areas. In 2010 and 2011, monitoring was conducted in the Ajos Mountains, a sky island, that is part of the Ajos Bavispe Reserve. During...

  5. HUTAN DALAM KEHIDUPAN MASYARAKAT HATAM DI LINGKUNGAN CAGAR ALAM PEGUNUNGAN ARFAK (Forest In Hatam Community Live On Arfak Mountains Natural Reserve Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Trida Salosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pegunungan Arfak adalah suatu wilayah dengan keunikan tersendiri di wilayah Propinsi Papua Barat. Wilayah ini didominasi oleh gunung-gunung yang tinggi dan ekosistemnya adalah ekosistem daerah pegunungan dan alpin, serta mengingat keunikan flora, fauna dan lingkungannya, maka wilayah ini ditetapkan sebagai Cagar AlamPegunungan Arfak. Wilayah Pegunungan Arfak ditempati oleh suku besar Arfak yang salah satu sub sukunya adalah sub suku Hatam. Hutan merupakan bagian dari kehidupan masyarakat Hatam. Terbentuknya kabupaten-kabupaten pemekaran secara tidak langsung akan berakibat terhadap kelestarian jenis yang ada di cagar alam. Analisis SWOT yang digunakan dalam studi ini dimaksudkan untuk merumuskan strategi-strategi yang memungkinkan untuk mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat dan menjaga kelestarian cagar alam. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kampung Anggra dan Apui di Distrik Minyambouw pada bulan Juni 2013. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa hutan sangat berperan dalam kehidupan masyarakat terutama dalam mengaplikasi nilai budaya dalam kehidupan masyarakat. Strategi yang tepat untuk menjaga kelestarian hutan dan mengakomodasi kepentingan masyarakat diharapkan agar didasarkan pada kearifan masyarakat dalam memanfaatkan hutan. ABSTRACT Arfak Mountains is a region with its own uniqueness in the Province of West Papua. This region is dominated by high mountains with particularities of flora and fauna in ecosystems of mountain and alpine. Therefore, it is designated as a Natural Reservation of Arfak Mountains. Arfak Mountains region is occupied by a large tribe of Arfak which is Hatam is one of its sub-tribe. Forests are part of Hatam people's lives. Establishment of districts expansion will indirectly result in the preservation of species in natural reservation. SWOT analysis used in this study is intended to look at the potential strategies in accomodating people interest and preserving the natural reservation. The study was conducted in villages of

  6. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris) in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolipaka, S S; Tamis, W L M; van 't Zelfde, M; Persoon, G A; de Iongh, H H

    2017-01-01

    Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1) the sex and age class of tigers, (2) season, and (3) the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  7. Wild versus domestic prey in the diet of reintroduced tigers (Panthera tigris in the livestock-dominated multiple-use forests of Panna Tiger Reserve, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kolipaka

    Full Text Available Grazing livestock in openly accessible areas is a common practice in the multiple-use forests of India; however, its compatibility with the reintroduction of tigers to these areas requires examination. Here, we investigated the diet of tigers in a livestock-dominated multiple-use buffer zone of the Panna Tiger Reserve, India. We hypothesised that the presence of feral cattle, along with open-access grazing practices in multiple-use forests, would increase the incidence of predation on livestock by tigers, even when wild prey are available. We used generalised linear models to test whether predation of livestock versus wild animals was influenced by (1 the sex and age class of tigers, (2 season, and (3 the distance of prey from the core-zone boundary of the reserve. Overall, sub-adult tigers and male tigers killed more livestock than wild prey, even when wild prey was available. In the winter and rainy seasons livestock were killed in higher numbers in the buffer zone than in summers, this may be because of the seasonally changing livestock herding patterns in the area. Further, with increasing distance from the core-zone boundary, all tigers killed more livestock, possibly because livestock were more easily accessible than wild prey. Our results show that open-access and unregulated livestock grazing is not currently compatible with large carnivore conservation in the same landscape. Such practices will lead to an increase in negative tiger-human-livestock interactions. In conclusion, we suggest the need to encourage locals to corral valuable cattle, leaving feral/unwanted livestock for tigers. This simple strategy would benefit both local inhabitants and tiger conservation in the multiple-use forests of India.

  8. Background gamma radiation mapping in forest ecosystem of Bangladesh: A study on the radioactivity distribution in the national reserve forest of Gazipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Shariful Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural and artificial radioactivity appears to be different in different geological regions. Moreover, the radionuclides may migrate to the deeper region of the earth after deposition, and the depth profile of a radionuclide reveals information on the rate of migration. Countrywide background gamma radiation mapping program has been initiated in Bangladesh by dividing the whole country primarily into ~2 km × ~2 km (1' ×1' in Global Positioning System scale systematic square grids to formulate the radioactivity profile. About 28 km × 30 km area of forest land of Gazipur district called the “BhawalGahr” including the Bhawal National Park was selected for sampling. Soil samples from 0 to 5 cm, 5 to 15, cm and 15 to 30 cm depth were collected from the 27 grid node points of the square grids. A total of 81 samples were collected for the current study. The samples were subjected to elemental and radioactivity analyses. The elements found in the samples were in decreasing order as Fe>K>Ti>Ca>Co>Mn>V>Cr>Ni. The calculated activity concentration of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for surface soil samples (0–5 cm depth ranged from 44.2 ± 5.7 to 84.5 ± 10.2 Bq/kg, 75.6 ± 8.3 to 126.5 ± 8.3 Bq/kg, and 263.7 ± 92.3 to 606.7 ± 107.9 Bq/kg, respectively and there is no significant variation for other depths. The radiological hazard indices such as radium equivalent activity, radiation external hazard index, absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose were also estimated from the calculated values of activity concentrations.

  9. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Highways passing through natural reserves have adverse impact on wild animals. We evaluated the road kill of vertebrate fauna by vehicular traffic on highways at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern India. In a fortnight’s survey over 248km across three public roads and opportunistic sampling method, a minimum of 180 road kills belonging to 40 species of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals were recorded between December 1998 and March 1999. Amphibians were the most affected taxa (53% of road kills followed by reptiles (22%, mammals (18%; including a leopard (Panthera pardus and birds (7%. Amphibians and reptiles are slow to react to vehicles and this along with the drivers’ ignorance probably leads to higher mortality among these species. Road kills are significantly higher on highway stretches along rivers than those without water bodies nearby. We suggest the construction of flyovers, speed limits, speed breakers and signposts along the highways to reduce vehicle-caused wildlife mortalities.

  10. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266). Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  11. Parasitoid diversity (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Figitidae on frugivorous larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae and Lonchaeidae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Central Amazon Region, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SGM. Costa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify parasitoid species of frugivorous larvae and to describe the tritrophic interactions involving wild fruits, frugivorous insects and their natural enemies at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (RFAD (Manaus, AM, Brazil. Collections were performed in four 1 km² quadrants in the corners of the RFAD. The wild fruits were collected inside the forest in access trails leading to each collection area and in trails that surrounded the quadrants, up to five metres from the trail on each side. The fruits were placed in plastic containers covered with thin fabric, with a vermiculite layer on the base to allow the emergence of flies or parasitoids. Seven Braconidae species were collected, distributed among Opiinae: Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti, 1911, Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, 1913, and Opius sp., and Alysiinae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck, 1958, Phaenocarpa pericarpa Wharton and Carrejo, 1999, Idiasta delicata Papp, 1969, and Asobara sp. Parasitism rates by braconids and figitids are presented. Doryctobracon areolatus was the most frequent, parasitizing the highest number of fly species, and showing the highest parasitism percentage in larvae feeding on Micropholis williamii fruits. The collected figitids belong to Aganaspis nordlanderi Wharton, 1998 and A. pelleranoi (Brethes, 1924. All 15 tritrophic associations are new records for the Brazilian Amazon region. The RFAD is an important natural reservoir of frugivorous larvae parasitoids.

  12. Impact of typhoon disturbance on the diversity of key ecosystem engineers in a monoculture mangrove forest plantation, Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diele, K.; Tran Ngoc, D. M.; Geist, S. J.; Meyer, F. W.; Pham, Q. H.; Saint-Paul, U.; Tran, T.; Berger, U.

    2013-11-01

    Mangrove crabs as key ecosystem engineers may play an important role in the recovery process of storm-damaged forests. Yet, their response to storm disturbance is largely unknown. Here we compare the ground-dwelling brachyuran crab community of intact mangrove stands with that of typhoon gaps having experienced 100% tree mortality. Field work was conducted in two adjacent areas in Can Gio Biosphere Reserve, southern Vietnam. In each area, an 18-20 yr old monoculture Rhizophora apiculata stand served as control and was compared with typhoon gaps where downed stems had been removed or left on-site. The gaps were 14 and 20 months old when studied in the dry and rainy season 2008, respectively. Time-based sampling of ground-dwelling crabs with hand or shovel was conducted by 4 persons inside 100 m2 plots for 30 min (7 replicate plots per area, treatment and month). Abiotic (sediment pH, salinity, temperature, grain size, water content, carbon and nitrogen content), and biotic measures (e.g. canopy coverage, woody debris, number of trees, leaf litter) were also taken. Despite complete canopy loss, total crab abundance has not changed significantly (in contrast to biomass) and all 12 species found in the forest were also found in the gaps, demonstrating their robustness. Another 9 gap-exclusive species were recorded and average species number and Shannon diversity were thus higher in the gaps. Perisesarma eumolpe was the most abundant species, both in the forest and in the gaps, and a shift from sesarmids (typical forest species) to ocypodids (generally more prominent in open areas) has not occurred. The persistence of litter-feeding sesarmid crabs prior to the re-establishment of a mangrove canopy is likely to depend on the availability of woody debris on the ground of the gaps, fuelling a mangrove detritus based food web, rather than one based on microphytobenthos and deposit-feeding ocypodids. The presence of burrowing crabs in the gaps suggests that important

  13. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  14. Impact of fishing with Tephrosia candida (Fabaceae) on diversity and abundance of fish in the streams at the boundary of Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epa, Udaya Priyantha Kankanamge; Mohotti, Chamari Ruvandika Waniga Chinthamanie

    2016-09-01

    Local communities in some Asian, African and American countries, use plant toxins in fish poisoning for fishing activities; however, the effects of this practice on the particular wild fish assemblages is unknown. This study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effects of fish poisoning using Tephrosia candida, on freshwater fish diversity and abundance in streams at the boundary of the World Natural Heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. A total of seven field trips were undertaken on a bimonthly basis, from May 2013 to June 2014. We surveyed five streams with similar environmental and climatological conditions at the boundary of Sinharaja forest. We selected three streams with active fish poisoning practices as treatments, and two streams with no fish poisoning as controls. Physico-chemical parameters and flow rate of water in selected streams were also measured at bimonthly intervals. Fish were sampled by electrofishing and nets in three randomly selected confined locations (6 x 2 m stretch) along every stream. Fish species were identified, their abundances were recorded, and Shannon-Weiner diversity index was calculated for each stream. Streams were clustered based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for fish composition and abundance. Physico-chemical parameters of water were not significantly different among streams (P > 0.05). A total of 15 fish species belonging to four different orders Cypriniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes were collected; nine species (60 %) were endemic, and six (40 %) were native species. From these, 13 fish species were recorded in streams with no poisoning, while five species were recorded in streams where poisoning was practiced. Four endemic and one native fish species were locally extinct in streams where fish poisoning was active. Fish abundance was significantly higher in control streams (32-39/m2) when compared to treatment streams (5-9/m2) (P fish poisoning with T. candida may

  15. Wildlife use and the role of taboos in the conservation of wildlife around the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve; South-west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Kadiri Serge; Aghomo, Fodjou Florence Mariam; Ntumwel, Bonito Chia

    2015-01-07

    Cameroon is known as Africa in miniature because of its multitude of ecosystems and associated biodiversity, cultures and traditions. The country also harbors very ancient human populations whose relationship with nature is very intimate and where animals play important roles for their livelihood. Located in the South-west region of Cameroon, the Nkwende Hills Forest Reserve (NHFR) represents an important wildlife conservation site because of its strategic position at the periphery of Korup National Park (KNP). The periphery of NHFR is inhabited by several ethnic groups amongst which are the Obang and Ngunnchang clans who share particular relationships with wildlife. The present paper studies these relationships and contributes to the growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies across Africa. From August to December 2011, a questionnaire survey was addressed to 126 randomly chosen household respondents (HRs) in seven villages at the Northwest periphery of NHFR. In households, preference was given to parents, and to the eldest child in case the parents were absent. Questions related to the uses and local taboos on wildlife species were asked to HRs. Both communities have accumulated knowledge on the use of 51 wildlife species of which 50.9% represent mammals, 21.6% birds, 15.7% reptiles, 7.8% fish and 3.9% invertebrates. Four main use categories of wildlife by both communities were identified, namely (1) Food, medicine and sales values (41.2%), (2) Ethnomusical animals and parts used as trophy (29.2%), (3) Decoration and jewelry making values (21.9%) and (4) Magico-religious and multipurpose values (7.8%). Regarding local taboos, species specific taboos (generation totems and acquired totems), habitat taboos (sacred forests), method and segment taboos still persist but are rarely respected among the youth mainly because of the scarcity of wildlife (65.3% of HRs). Like other communities living around forest areas, the studied communities use wildlife in their

  16. Obligation target for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensink, S.M.; Hekkenberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation asked ECN several questions about the development of a supplier's obligation. These questions addressed the volume of the certificates market. The questions are worded as follows by ECN: What is a realistic level to be set for the obligation for sustainable energy or for renewable electricity (in percentage of delivered electricity or TWh/year)? How far into the future should these obligations minimally be set? Is it desirable to limit the certificate issuance time to for example the economic life of an installation? This memo addresses the questions, knowing that the entire policy development process will still take considerable time. At the time of publication of this memo, large uncertainties still existed about the eventual shaping of future policy. [nl

  17. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  18. Ecology of ephemeroptera, plecoptera and trichoptera (insecta) in rivers of the gunung jerai forest reserve: diversity and distribution of functional feeding groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-08-01

    A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.

  19. Temporal Distribution of Blowflies of Forensic Importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae, in Man-Size Domestic Pigs Carcasses, in the Forest Reserve Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the must forensic importance insect families is Calliphoridae (Diptera and different species of this family were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the experimental model used in this study. The experiments were performed with domestic pig models (approximately 60 kg in Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas. To minimize the effect of repeated samplings in the same model (a result of pseudoreplication, two models were used to answer two questions: 1 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae adults? 2 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae that effectively colonized the carcass? Six pseudoreplicates were studied in three periods: from 06/30/2005 to 07/30/2005 (less rainy season, from 10/18/2005 to 11/17/2005 (transition period between the two seasons and from 03/15/2006 to 04/14/2006 (rainy season. The immatures and adults collected were identified as forensic indicators. The decomposition process presented five stages (fresh, bloated, decay, adipocere-like and skeletonization. The first four days included the first three stages of decomposition and were the most attractive to the Calliphoridae. The three taxa that were most abundant, regular and with highest peaks in the first four samples of each experiment were, in ascending order: Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e Paralucilia spp.. Linear regressions showed low values of F and high values of P, indicating that rain did not influence the sampling results.

  20. Development and Application of an Annual Vegetation-Monitoring Tool in Gishwati Forest Reserve using MODIS NDVI product and Landsat-5 and 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, N. I.; Butler, K.; Fox, T.; Geddes, Q. A.; Janse van Vuuren, L.; Li, A.; Sharma, A.

    2012-12-01

    As the most densely populated country in Africa, Rwanda relies heavily on a limited supply of natural resources to sustain its agrarian economy. Population pressures, economic policy, and the aftermath of the genocide have placed particular stress on the Gishwati Forest in Rwanda's Western Province. Deforestation for agricultural purposes and fuel consumption has disrupted the local climate, soil structure, and topography, leading to increased erosion, landslides and flooding. Once 280 km2, by 1995 the Gishwati Forest was only 6 km2. The Rwandan government and international NGOs have started initiatives to reverse deforestation, which would benefit from monitoring and evaluation using remote sensing technology. This study filled the gaps in the tumultuous history of Gishwati Forest since 1982 using NASA's Earth Observing System, specifically Landsat 5 and AVHRR. In collaboration with partner organizations, we developed a robust, yet simple to use, forest monitoring tool employing MODIS NDVI product and Landsat that provide annual estimates of the forest's health.

  1. 25 CFR 226.9 - Rental and drilling obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rental and drilling obligations. 226.9 Section 226.9... RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Leasing Procedure, Rental and Royalty § 226.9 Rental and drilling... in the lease terms, or 12 months from the date the Superintendent consents to drilling on any...

  2. Cancer Moonshot Funding Obligations FY 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI reports Cancer Moonshot obligations by funding mechanism. See obligations for Moonshot grants, intramural research, and contracts, including the number of grant awards, funding amounts, and percentages by mechanism of the total Cancer Moonshot budget.

  3. 24 CFR 206.115 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Mortgage Insurance Premiums § 206.115 [Reserved] ...

  4. Prevention Obligations in International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2013-01-01

    The paper seeks to examine the content and nature of prevention obligations in international environmental law. Despite their frequent reference to these obligations in practice and in the literature their exact content remains ill-defined. Similarly, the exact nature of these obligations has not

  5. Material obligations: Forms and content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed legal framework of the IAEA safeguards agreements, namely basic articles of the IAEA Statute, Treaty and Supply Agreement obligations and basic documents concerning decisions and practices of the Board of Governors. It describes as well the initiation process of the negotiation of safeguards agreements, contents comparison and implementation of the safeguards agreements, protocols to safeguards agreements, subsidiary arrangements, amendments and renegotiation documents

  6. Daily activity patterns of large and medium-sized mammals based on camera traps data in the Central Forest Nature Reserve, Valdai Upland, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Ogurtsov

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Here are presented the results of the analysis of daily activity patterns obtained from the data of camera traps for five large mammals (elk Alces alces, wild boar Sus scrofa, brown bear Ursus arctos, grey wolf Canis lupus, Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx and three medium ones (European badger Meles meles, raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, mountain hare Lepus timidus for the territory of the Central Forest Nature Reserve, Valdai Upland, Russia. Data were collected in the period 2010–2017 and the trap effort was 30 158 camera days from 21 locations. Most of the mammals surveyed showed activity at night and twilight hours (71% of the pictures. The hare was most active among all and dominant at night. In many respects it is similar to the activity of a raccoon dog, which type can be defined as nocturnal too. Unlike a hare, a raccoon dog has a weak peak in the daytime and less activity in the night. Badgers movements are confined to the twilight and nighttime. The share of nocturnal activity of large ungulates such as elk and wild boar was approximately the same and amounted to about 45% of all registrations. The wild boar is slightly more active during the day and in the evening and is not active at all in the morning. The elk is active in the morning, and in the daytime and to a lesser extent in the evening. The lynx and the bear have similar cathemeral activity patterns: almost half of all their meetings occurred at daylight hours and only slightly – less than 40% – at night. The brown bear had the maximum number of registrations in the daytime among all the studied species. Despite the fact that the main object of lynx feeding in the reserve is the hare, there was no high degree of overlap between them (γˆ = 0.75. In the group of large carnivores, the wolf was noticeably distinguished, more than half of its registrations were at night, and a third – on daytime. Daily activities of the wolf and its main prey elk showed a large overlap (

  7. Response of the soil microbial community and soil nutrient bioavailability to biomass harvesting and reserve tree retention in northern Minnesota aspen-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera E. Lewandowski; Jodi A. Forrester; David J. Mladenoff; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2016-01-01

    Intensive forest biomass harvesting, or the removal of harvesting slash (woody debris from tree branches and tops) for use as biofuel, has the potential to negatively affect the soil microbial community (SMC) due to loss of carbon and nutrient inputs from the slash, alteration of the soil microclimate, and increased nutrient leaching. These effects could result in...

  8. Volume calculations of coarse woody debris; evaluation of coarse woody debris volume calculations and consequences for coarse woody debris volume estimates in forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Vaessen, O.H.B.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Olsthoorn, A.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dead wood is recognized as one of the key indicators for sustainable forest management and biodiversity. Accurate assessments of dead wood volume are thus necessary. In this study New volume models were designed based on actual volume measurements of coarse woody debris. The New generic model

  9. Atmospheric mercury deposition and its contribution of the regional atmospheric transport to mercury pollution at a national forest nature reserve, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Dingyong; Du, Hongxia; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Zheng; Wei, Shiqing

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric mercury deposition by wet and dry processes contributes to the transformation of mercury from atmosphere to terrestrial and aquatic systems. Factors influencing the amount of mercury deposited to subtropical forests were identified in this study. Throughfall and open field precipitation samples were collected in 2012 and 2013 using precipitation collectors from forest sites located across Mt. Jinyun in southwest China. Samples were collected approximately every 2 weeks and analyzed for total (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg). Forest canopy was the primary factor on THg and MeHg deposition. Simultaneously, continuous measurements of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were carried out from March 2012 to February 2013 at the summit of Mt. Jinyun. Atmospheric GEM concentrations averaged 3.8 ± 1.5 ng m(-3), which was elevated compared with global background values. Sources identification indicated that both regional industrial emissions and long-range transport of Hg from central, northeast, and southwest China were corresponded to the elevated GEM levels. Precipitation deposition fluxes of THg and MeHg in Mt. Jinyun were slightly higher than those reported in Europe and North America, whereas total fluxes of MeHg and THg under forest canopy on Mt. Jiuyun were 3 and 2.9 times of the fluxes of THg in wet deposition in the open. Highly elevated litterfall deposition fluxes suggest that even in remote forest areas of China, deposition of atmospheric Hg(0) via uptake by vegetation leaf may be a major pathway for the deposition of atmospheric Hg. The result illustrates that areas with greater atmospheric pollution can be expected to have greater fluxes of Hg to soils via throughfall and litterfall.

  10. Handbook on loss reserving

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Klaus; Schnaus, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This handbook presents the basic aspects of actuarial loss reserving. Besides the traditional methods, it also includes a description of more recent ones and a discussion of certain problems occurring in actuarial practice, like inflation, scarce data, large claims, slow loss development, the use of market statistics, the need for simulation techniques and the task of calculating best estimates and ranges of future losses. In property and casualty insurance the provisions for payment obligations from losses that have occurred but have not yet been settled usually constitute the largest item on the liabilities side of an insurer's balance sheet. For this reason, the determination and evaluation of these loss reserves is of considerable economic importance for every property and casualty insurer. Actuarial students, academics as well as practicing actuaries will benefit from this overview of the most important actuarial methods of loss reserving by developing an understanding of the underlying stochastic models...

  11. Ancillary obligations as an additional obligation of a limited liability company's member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir Ž.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary obligation can be defined as an obligation of a limited liability company's member undertaken through the instrument of incorporation, which can take the form of monetary or non-monetary obligation (usually it is an obligation of a non-monetary character, which has a certain financial value and can be the object of a legally valid obligation. Ancillary obligations, as a contribution to activities of the company, are not regulated in the Law on Companies. The legal nature of this obligation is different from the obligation to make a contribution in money or in kind to a company's assets, to make additional pay-ins or from the landing of funds to the company. Ancillary obligation is an optional and additional obligation of a limited liability company's member and the obligation itself and its contents is defined in the instrument of incorporation. When a limited liability company's member undertakes an ancillary obligation this creates a distinctive relationship between the member and the company, concerning their respective obligations and the legal status of the company, as well as certain consequences derived from those obligations.

  12. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  13. On the obligation to obey the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekavica Radomir G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the question of a general obligation to obey the law. The author presents and analyzes the most significant views and arguments in support of the thesis that there is a general obligation to obey the law, as well as those understandings which are refuse this thesis. In concluding remarks the author presents a critical review of some key issues about general obligation to obey the law. In addition, the author outlines a hypothetical model of society and the legal system under which such an obligation is possible and has also asserted the basic assumptions and principles upon which it can be justified and reasonable. .

  14. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.65 - Teaching obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Special Conditions § 2400.65 Teaching obligation. Upon receiving a Master's degree, each Fellow must teach American history, American government, social studies, or... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Teaching obligation. 2400.65 Section 2400.65...

  16. Effectiveness of qualitative and quantitative security obligations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Padget, J.; Dechesne, F.; Dignum, V.; Aldewereld, H.

    Security policies in organisations typically take the form of obligations for the employees. However, it is often unclear what the purpose of such obligations is, and how these can be integrated in the operational processes of the organisation. This can result in policies that may be either too

  17. 47 CFR 27.1239 - Reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement obligation. 27.1239 Section 27... Policies Governing the Transition of the 2500-2690 Mhz Band for Brs and Ebs § 27.1239 Reimbursement obligation. (a) A proponent may request reimbursement from BRS licensees and lessees, EBS lessees, and...

  18. Overview of contractual obligations of the know-how licensor under the Macedonian Law of obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashkova Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of a part of contractual obligations of the licensor of know-how and their regulation in the Macedonian legislation. Special emphasis will be placed on two obligations that contracting parties inevitably incorporate into their agreement: the licensor's obligation to transfer the know-how and to give the necessary instructions and information for its successful utilization, and the licensor's obligation to guarantee the material and legal properties of know-how. Thus, this paper is divided into two systematic sections, focusing on each of these obligations respectively and examining the solutions contained in the Macedonian Obligation Relations Act that are applicable in the regulation of these contractual obligations.

  19. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  20. Raptors in the State Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” After Forest Fires of 2010: Materials of Five-Year Monitoring of a Summer Bird Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga S. Noskova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of five-year monitoring data on summer bird population in the Nature Reserve “Kerzhensky” after the catastrophic fires of 2010, a spatial distribution of raptors was analyzed (mainly birds of prey – Falconiformes. Main types of habitats were surveyed using line transect counts. In total 17 species of raptors were observed. Abundance of each species is presented here. Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus, Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo and Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo were the most common species of raptors in the Nature Reserve.

  1. First records of tool-set use for ant-dipping by Eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Chie; Isaji, Mina; Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2015-10-01

    Chimpanzees at numerous study sites are known to prey on army ants by using a single wand to dip into the ant nest or column. However, in Goualougo (Republic of Congo) in Central Africa, chimpanzees use a different technique, use of a woody sapling to perforate the ant nest, then use of a herb stem as dipping tool to harvest the army ants. Use of a tool set has also been found in Guinea, West Africa: at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains and at nearby Bossou. There are, however, no reports for chimpanzees in East Africa. We observed use of such a tool set in Kalinzu, Uganda, for the first time by Eastern chimpanzees. This behavior was observed among one group of chimpanzees at Kalinzu (S-group) but not among the adjacent group (M-group) with partly overlapping ranging areas despite the fact that the latter group has been under intensive observation since 1997. In Uganda, ant-dipping has not been observed in the northern three sites (Budongo, Semliki, and Kibale) but has been observed or seems to occur in the southern sites (Kalinzu and Bwindi), which suggests that ant-dipping was invented by and spread from the southern region after the northern and southern forest blocks became separated. Use of a tool-set by only one group at Kalinzu further suggests that this behavior was recently invented and has not yet spread to the other group via migrating females.

  2. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio de Freitas,Marco; Saldanha Vieira,Ruhan; Entiauspe-Neto,Omar; Oliveira e Sousa,Samantha; Farias,Tayse; Grazieli,Alanna; Barbosa de Moura,Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and Octobe...

  3. Transience after disturbance: Obligate species recovery dynamics depend on disturbance duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Johst, Karin

    2017-06-01

    After a disturbance event, population recovery becomes an important species response that drives ecosystem dynamics. Yet, it is unclear how interspecific interactions impact species recovery from a disturbance and which role the disturbance duration (pulse or press) plays. Here, we analytically derive conditions that govern the transient recovery dynamics from disturbance of a host and its obligately dependent partner in a two-species metapopulation model. We find that, after disturbance, species recovery dynamics depend on the species' role (i.e. host or obligately dependent species) as well as the duration of disturbance. Host recovery starts immediately after the disturbance. In contrast, for obligate species, recovery depends on disturbance duration. After press disturbance, which allows dynamics to equilibrate during disturbance, obligate species immediately start to recover. Yet, after pulse disturbance, obligate species continue declining although their hosts have already begun to increase. Effectively, obligate species recovery is delayed until a necessary host threshold occupancy is reached. Obligates' delayed recovery arises solely from interspecific interactions independent of dispersal limitations, which contests previous explanations. Delayed recovery exerts a two-fold negative effect, because populations continue declining to even smaller population sizes and the phase of increased risk from demographic stochastic extinction in small populations is prolonged. We argue that delayed recovery and its determinants -species interactions and disturbance duration - have to be considered in biodiversity management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Misleading by Omission: Rethinking the Obligation to Inform Research Subjects about Funding Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2017-11-15

    Informed consent requirements for medical research have expanded over the past half-century. The Declaration of Helsinki now includes an explicit positive obligation to inform subjects about funding sources. This is problematic in a number of ways and seems to oblige researchers to disclose information irrelevant to most consent decisions. It is argued here that such a problematic obligation involves an "informational fallacy." The aim in the second part of the paper is to provide a better approach to making sense of how a failure to inform about funding sources wrongs subjects: by making appeals to obligations to refrain from misleading by omission. This alternative approach-grounded in a general obligation to refrain from misleading, an obligation that is independent of informed consent-provides a basis for a norm that protects subjects' interests, without the informational fallacy. The approach developed here avoids the problems identified with the currently specified general obligation to inform about funding sources. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination, soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Aguiar

    Full Text Available In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km² at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH, to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  6. The economics of a landing obligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder; Ståhl, Lisa

    By 2015 The European Common Fisheries Policy Reform includes a landing obligation in some fisheries and over the next few years all EU fisheries will be facing the obligation to land all catches. In spite of that, there is a lack of theoretical as well as empirical analyses of the consequences...... of a landing obligation. The paper includes an empirical analysis of the landing obligation’s impact on the Danish fishery in the short run. In the first part of the paper, we survey the fisheries economics literature for theoretical findings regarding behavioural aspects of a discard ban and we exploring gaps...... things, the analysis shows that the fisheries will suffer economic losses under the landing obligation if quotas are not increased with the historical discard rate. With quota top-ups however fisheries can experience economic gains which increase with reduced minimum sizes or by increasing selectivity....

  7. USAID Dollars Obligated and Dollars Spent

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Displays obligations and disbursements by operating unit (OU) and sector, beginning with Fiscal Years 2009. The data was pulled from USAID's financial accounting...

  8. Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effectiveness of Nigeria's international obligations in curbing domestic violence. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines the issue of domestic violence in Nigeria to determine the ...

  9. 30 CFR 717.11 - General obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction, operation, and reclamation of shafts, adits, underground support facilities, underground mining... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.11 General obligations. (a...

  10. 31 CFR 354.5 - Obligations of Sallie Mae; no adverse claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-ENTRY SECURITIES OF THE STUDENT LOAN MARKETING ASSOCIATION (SALLIE MAE) § 354.5 Obligations of Sallie... a Federal Reserve Bank or otherwise as provided in § 354.4(c)(1), for the purposes of this part 354, Sallie Mae and the Federal Reserve Banks shall treat the Participant to whose Securities Account an...

  11. The relationship between family obligation and religiosity on caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Fayron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family obligation and religiosity on the positive appraisal of caregiving among African-American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian family caregivers of older adults. Roy's adaptation model guided formulation of the aims and study design. A cross-sectional, correlational study design was employed to examine the relationship amongst variables for the family caregiver participants. Study participants (N = 69) completed a demographic tool and four instruments the: (1) Katz index, (2) obligation scale, (3) Duke University religion index, and (4) positive appraisal of care scale. There was a significant correlation between family obligation and positive appraisal of caregiving. However, there was no relationship between the family caregiver's religiosity and positive appraisal of caregiving overall. Demographic variables were also examined to show a higher marginal mean for Hispanic primary caregivers in relation to the positive appraisal of caregiving. Future studies should consider replicating these findings in a larger sample to provide health care professionals with substantial evidence to incorporate culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting positive outcomes and healthy family behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sample intensity in ombrophilous open forest at Verde Para Sempre Extractive Reserve, Porto de Moz, PA = Intensidade amostral em Floresta Ombrófila Aberta na Resex Verde Para Sempre, Porto de Moz, PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Miranda Leão

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the ideal sampling intensity is important to guarantee data closer to reality with less cost and time in the forest inventory. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the influence of different sample intensities to estimate the floristic composition, species diversity and the timber volume, beyond compare the results with their respective parameters obtained in the census of an ombrophilous open forest area in Verde Para Sempre Extractive Reserve. Was simulated a random sampling with sampling units of 1 ha and several sample intensities: 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in an area of 200 ha that it was submitted to a forest census. It was evaluated the phytosociological parameters such as structure and diversity, and the estimated errors in the sampling intensities for the volume. The forest has a structure with high diversity and species of high economic value, indicating the existence of an aptitude for sustainable forest management. The treatment with 5% and 10% sample intensity were not enough to contemplate all the species in the area and estimate the volume inside to the required accuracy limit, maximum of 10% sampling error. The treatments of 15% and 20% resembled the parametric value regarding floristic composition, species diversity and volumetry of the forest census of the area, showing no significant difference between them. The analysis of the phytosociological structure showed the importance of using sample inventories to evaluate the economic potential of an area and its suitability for forest management. = Determinar a intensidade amostral ideal é importante para garantir dados mais próximos da realidade com menor custo e tempo na realização do inventário florestal. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes intensidades amostrais para estimar a composição florística, a diversidade de espécies e o volume de madeira, bem como comparar esses resultados com seus respectivos parâmetros obtidos pelo censo de

  13. Impact of mining and forest regeneration on small mammal biodiversity in the Western Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Daniel K; Owusu, Erasmus H; Ofori, Benjamin Y

    2017-05-01

    Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation). The forest reserves recorded higher species abundance than the mining areas. Majority of the species captured in the forest reserves, including Hylomyscus alleni, Praomys tullbergi, Malacomys cansdalei, and Hybomys trivirgatus, are forest obligate species. Only one individual each of H. alleni and P. tullbergi was captured in the naturally regenerated areas (core areas of mining activities that were allowed to revegetate naturally), while 32 individuals belonging to four species (Lophuromys sikapusi, Mus musculoides, Mastomys erythroleucus, and Crocidura olivieri) were recorded in the rehabilitated areas. Our data suggested negative effects of mining on small mammal diversity and the restoration of species diversity and important ecological processes after rehabilitation of altered habitats. We strongly encourage deliberate conservation efforts, particularly the development of management plans that require the restoration of degraded land resulting from mining activities.

  14. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months, through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators, including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  15. Herpetofauna of the Northwest Amazon forest in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, with remarks on the Gurupi Biological Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marco Antonio; Vieira, Ruhan Saldanha; Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Sousa, Samantha Oliveira E; Farias, Tayse; Sousa, Alanna Grazieli; de Moura, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the biodiversity of an area is the first step for establishing effective interventions for conservation, especially when it comes to herpetofauna, since 4.1% and 9.2%, respectively, of Brazilian amphibians and reptiles are endangered. The aim of this study is to identify the composition of the herpetofauna occurring in the Northwest Amazonian state of Maranhão, with a focus on the Gurupi Biological Reserve and surrounding areas. Samples were collected between May 2012 and October 2013 (18 months), through pitfall traps, time constrained active search, and opportunistic encounters, and these records were supplemented by specimens collected by third parties and by bibliographic records. A total of 131 species were recorded: 31 species of amphibians and 100 species of reptiles (six testudines, 30 lizards, two amphisbaenas, 60 snakes and two alligators), including some species new to the state of Maranhão and the northeast region of Brazil. This inventory contributes to the knowledge of the herpetofauna for the Belém Endemism Center, the most devastated region of the Brazilian Amazon, and considered poorly sampled.

  16. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  17. Whistleblowing and the bioethicist's public obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2014-10-01

    Bioethicists are sometimes thought to have heightened obligations by virtue of the fact that their professional role addresses ethics or morals. For this reason it has been argued that bioethicists ought to "whistleblow"--that is, publicly expose the wrongful or potentially harmful activities of their employer--more often than do other kinds of employees. This article argues that bioethicists do indeed have a heightened obligation to whistleblow, but not because bioethicists have heightened moral obligations in general. Rather, the special duties of bioethicists to act as whistleblowers are best understood by examining the nature of the ethical dilemma typically encountered by private employees and showing why bioethicists do not encounter this dilemma in the same way. Whistleblowing is usually understood as a moral dilemma involving conflicting duties to two parties: the public and a private employer. However, this article argues that this way of understanding whistleblowing has the implication that professions whose members identify their employer as the public-such as government employees or public servants--cannot consider whistleblowing a moral dilemma, because obligations are ultimately owed to only one party: the public. The article contends that bioethicists--even when privately employed--are similar to government employees in the sense that they do not have obligations to defer to the judgments of those with private interests. Consequently, bioethicists may be considered to have a special duty to whistleblow, although for different reasons than those usually cited.

  18. Shell trips over its reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    Some mistakes in the evaluation of the proven reserves of Royal Dutch Shell group, the second world petroleum leader, will oblige the other oil and gas companies to be more transparent and vigilant in the future. The proven reserves ('P90' in petroleum professionals' language) are the most important indicators of the mining patrimony of companies. These strategic data are reported each year in the annual reports of the companies and are examined by the security exchange commission. The evaluation of reserves is perfectly codified by the US energy policy and conservation act and its accountable translation using the FAS 69 standard allows to establish long-term cash-flow forecasts. The revision announced by Shell on January 9 leads to a 20% reduction of its proven reserves. Short paper. (J.S.)

  19. The obligation to contract in British law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Klappstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the obligation to contract is rarely looked upon. Without reason though, because it is neither outdated nor inoperable. Based on three common law doctrines the obligation to contract goes back to the Middle Ages. It has not lost its relevance, as it can still be found in modern statutory law, such as in the electricity and mail sector. What is more, it is a fundamental institution with a great impact. The analysis showed that the five chosen forms of obligations to contract bear analogical requirements but very similar rationales and economic consequences. It sets impaired market power right and it overstrikes irrational behaviour of market participants. As overall achievement it aligns the range of property, freedom of contract and freedom of competition.

  20. Evaluarea naturalității și a structurii arboretelor în rezervațiile Pădurea Voievodeasa și Codrul Secular Loben din Obcinile Bucovinei [Evaluation of stand naturalness and structure in forest reserves Pădurea Voievodeasa and Codrul Secular Loben from Obcinele Bucovinei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Teodosiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a naturalness assessments, and also of the first inventory in two newly established forest reserves (Voievodeasa and Loben from North of Romanian Eastern Carpathians. The evaluation of naturalness used the historical data concerning the wood extraction, as were recorded in the forest management plans. In selected stands of higher local naturalness was further conducted an inventory, following the methodology recommended by COST E4 and based on a systematic grid with circular plots of 500 m2 . Expected, the results showed that extraction impacted the structural characteristics of stands, esspecially the standing/downing trees volume. The comparison of structural data resulted from inventory (density and volume of both alive and dead standing trees and coarse woody debris with local references - “virgin“ forests located about 40 km apart of the forest reserves under study - suggested a degree of correspondence between 20-40%. The same data, compared with published information available from mixed forest of beech-fir-spruce accross temperate zone of Europe confirmed the departure of selected stands from the references of naturalness and their distinct grouping, compared with other forest reserves.

  1. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  2. Parental responses to child support obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Wüst, Miriam

    find that larger obligations are associated with higher new-partner fertility among both parents. The maternal fertility response is consistent with a positive income-fertility relationship, while the paternal fertility response may reflect increased demand for new offspring as a result of reduced...

  3. The social ascription of obligations to engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, J.S.; Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discovering obligations that are ascribed to them by others is potentially an important element in the development of the moral imagination of engineers. Moral imagination cannot reasonably be developed by contemplating oneself and one’s task alone: there must be some element of discovering the

  4. IN OLUWA FOREST RESERVE, ONDO STATE, NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... (ANOVA), correlation and regression methods. (Ezekiel and Fox, 1961; ..... Standard error of the estimate = 0.01768. References. Adekunle, J. and .... Dancik, B.P, Micko, M.M.. (1984), Variation and heritability of wood density.

  5. 75 FR 6539 - Healthy Forests Reserve Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... producers who are members of the protected groups have participated in NRCS conservation programs at parity... between the Federal Government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities on the... is not necessary and may create confusion. NRCS removed the term ``option agreement to purchase...

  6. 12 CFR 995.4 - Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation... FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.4 Book-entry procedure for Financing Corporation obligations. (a) Authority. Any Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority to apply book-entry procedure to Financing...

  7. Singer's Utilitarian Account of Cosmopolitan Obligations: A Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based conception of cosmopolitan obligations. Singer's thesis, simply put, is that from the perspective of utilitarian and cosmopolitan considerations, the affluent owe a moral obligation to provide aid to the masses of the poor irrespective of whether ...

  8. 5 CFR 2635.809 - Just financial obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... obligations. Employees shall satisfy in good faith their obligations as citizens, including all just financial... employee or reduced to judgment by a court. In good faith means an honest intention to fulfill any just...

  9. The Obligations of States towards Refugees under International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skordas, Achilles

    The main purpose of the current study is to discuss the obligations of States towards refugees under international law, and to argue that States have obligations towards refugees regardless of the ratification of the Geneva Convention....

  10. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  11. Are Physicians Obliged to Lead Environmental Sustainability Efforts in Health Care Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Cheryl C; Hill, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Climate change threatens health, health care, and the industries and resources upon which these depend. The growing prevalence and severity of its health consequences and economic costs are alarming health professionals and organizations as their professional obligations, grounded in the core value of health, include protecting against these harms. One means of fulfilling these obligations is to lead or support sustainability initiatives that are built upon current, reliable, accurate, and unbiased evidence and collaboratively tailored to meet specific needs and respond to specific contexts. We consider why and how health professionals and organizations should lead or support such initiatives. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  13. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...... important, the narrow set of circumstances warranting inter-vention against refusals is defined by competition law in accordance with its underlying principles of a predominantly economic nature. Hence, competition law should not be relied upon as a corrective in-strument to lacunas in other areas of law, e.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  14. 29 CFR 500.100 - Vehicle safety obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety standards. Prima facie evidence that safety standards have been met will be shown by the presence... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle safety obligations. 500.100 Section 500.100 Labor... § 500.100 Vehicle safety obligations. (a) General obligations. Each farm labor contractor, agricultural...

  15. Bystander Obligations at the Domestic and International Level Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328454559

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether States have a legal obligation to assist victims of serious breaches of fundamental obligations owed to the international community as a whole. This so-called ‘bystander State responsibility’ is compared with a similar legal obligation to assist victims at the domestic

  16. 12 CFR 208.101 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers...) Interpretations § 208.101 Obligations concerning institutional customers. (a) As a result of broadened authority... on their suitability obligations when making recommendations to institutional customers. (b) The...

  17. 12 CFR 997.5 - Termination of the obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of the obligation. 997.5 Section 997.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES RESOLUTION FUNDING CORPORATION OBLIGATIONS OF THE BANKS § 997.5 Termination of the obligation. (a) Generally. The Banks...

  18. 47 CFR 27.1184 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 27.1184... reimbursement obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an AWS entity... paragraphs (a)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section, indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the...

  19. 47 CFR 27.1168 - Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a Reimbursement Obligation. 27.1168... a Reimbursement Obligation. (a) The clearinghouse will apply the following test to determine when an... reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will calculate the reimbursement amount in accordance with...

  20. 47 CFR 24.247 - Triggering a reimbursement obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Triggering a reimbursement obligation. 24.247... Mhz Band § 24.247 Triggering a reimbursement obligation. (a) Licensed PCS. The clearinghouse will... the Proximity Threshold test indicates that a reimbursement obligation exists, the clearinghouse will...

  1. 24 CFR 891.615 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.615 Section 891.615 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... 8 Assistance § 891.615 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the family are provided in...

  2. 24 CFR 891.755 - Obligations of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of the family. 891.755... the Elderly and Persons with Disabilities Section 202 Projects for the Nonelderly Handicapped Families and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.755 Obligations of the family. The obligations of the...

  3. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  4. 7 CFR 400.167 - Limitations on Corporation's obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on Corporation's obligations. 400.167... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement... Corporation's obligations. The Agreement will include the following among the limitations on the obligations...

  5. 7 CFR 1724.71 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1724.71 Section... Contract Forms § 1724.71 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  6. 24 CFR 266.415 - Mortgage lien and other obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine, that all contractual obligations in connection with the mortgage transaction, including the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage lien and other obligations... Mortgage and Closing Requirements; HUD Endorsement § 266.415 Mortgage lien and other obligations. (a) Liens...

  7. 7 CFR 1726.301 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1726.301 Section... Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or loan guarantee under the... obligation is contained in section 5.16 of the loan contract. To comply with the provisions of the loan...

  8. Informed consent: Enforcing pharmaceutical companies' obligations abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stacey B

    2010-06-15

    The past several years have seen an evolution in the obligations of pharmaceutical companies conducting clinical trials abroad. Key players, such as international human rights organizations, multinational pharmaceutical companies, the United States government and courts, and the media, have played a significant role in defining these obligations. This article examines how such obligations have developed through the lens of past, present, and future recommendations for informed consent protections. In doing so, this article suggests that, no matter how robust obligations appear, they will continue to fall short of providing meaningful protection until they are accompanied by a substantive enforcement mechanism that holds multinational pharmaceutical companies accountable for their conduct. Issues of national sovereignty, particularly in the United States, will continue to prevent meaningful enforcement by an international tribunal or through one universally adopted code of ethics. This article argues that, rather than continuing to pursue an untenable international approach, the Alien Torts Statute (ATS) offers a viable enforcement mechanism, at least for US-based pharmaceutical companies. Recent federal appellate court precedent interpreting the ATS provides the mechanism for granting victims redress and enforcing accountability of sponsors (usually pharmaceutical companies and research and academic institutions) for informed consent misconduct. Substantive human rights protections are vital in order to ensure that every person can realize the "right to health." This article concludes that by building on the federal appellate court's ATS analysis, which grants foreign trial participants the right to pursue claims of human rights violations in US courts, a mechanism can be created for enforcing not only substantive informed consent, but also human rights protections.

  9. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  10. Collateralised loan obligations (CLOs): A primer

    OpenAIRE

    Jobst, Andreas A.

    2002-01-01

    The following descriptive paper surveys the various types of loan securitisation and provides a working definition of so-called collateralised loan obligations (CLOs). Free of the common rhetoric and slogans, which sometimes substitute for understanding of the complex nature of structured finance, this paper describes the theoretical foundations of this specialised form of loan securitisation. Not only the distinctive properties of CLOs, but also the information economics inherent in the tran...

  11. ACCESSORIES OF FISCAL OBLIGATION. LEGAL REGIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POSTOLACHE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The interest – which is an institution typical to private law, has been taken over by the fiscal field and adapted to the specific features of fiscal obligation – being defined by its imperative legal regime, which has at the least the following characteristic elements: unitary character, imposed legal percentage, compulsory demand of interest, automatic application. In order to render responsible fiscal debtors, the lawmaker has reintroduced, as an accessory of fiscal obligation, delayed payment penalties, which have a distinct nature and legal regime, but without the principle non bis in idem being transgressed. Our study aims to establish the legal regime ofaccessories typical to fiscal obligation, from the perspective of special normative acts, but also of the common law within the field – Civil Code and Government Ordinance No. 13/2011 – by pointing out at the same time both the particular circumstances and procedural ones regulated by the Fiscal Procedure Code, shedding light upon the controversial legal nature of accessories.

  12. Value, obligation and the asymmetry question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Michael

    1998-04-01

    Is there a prima facie obligation to produce additional individuals whose lives would be worth living? In his paper 'Is it good to make happy people?', Stuart Rachels argues not only that there is, but, also, that precisely as much weight should be assigned to the quality of life that would be enjoyed by such potential persons, if they were to be actualized, as to the quality of life enjoyed by actually existing persons. In response, I shall argue, first, that Rachels' view is exposed to very serious objections, and secondly, that his arguments in support of his position involve a crucial assumption, which cannot be sustained, concerning the relation between, on the one hand, propositions about good-making and bad-making properties, and, on the other, propositions about right-making and wrong-making ones. I shall then argue that there is a very plausible position concerning the conditions under which an action can be morally wrong which entails the following asymmetry: there is a prima facie obligation not to bring into existence individuals whose lives are not worth living, but there is no corresponding obligation to create additional individuals whose lives would be worth living.

  13. Fuel poverty and energy efficiency obligations – A critical assessment of the supplier obligation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Flanagan, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency obligations (or white certificates) are increasingly used to reduce carbon emissions. While the energy efficiency obligations were originally intended as carbon reduction and not fuel poverty policies, due to recognition of the potential for regressive outcomes they often include provisions for vulnerable and low-income customers. Intuitively, reducing carbon emissions and alleviating fuel poverty seem to be two sides of the same coin. There are, however, considerable tensions between the two when addressed through energy efficiency obligations, particularly arising from the potentially regressive impacts of rising energy prices resulting from such obligations, but also the complexity of targeting fuel poor households and the implications for deliverability. Despite those tensions, the UK government decided to use energy efficiency obligations, the supplier obligation, as the main policy for reducing fuel poverty. In light of the proposals, this paper provides an analysis of the main tensions between carbon reduction and fuel poverty alleviation within energy efficiency obligations, outlines the fuel poverty provisions of the British Supplier Obligation, assesses its rules for identifying the fuel poor, and provides a critical analysis of the planned policy changes. Based on this analysis, alternative approaches to targeting fuel poverty within future supplier obligations are proposed. - Highlights: • First comprehensive analysis of energy savings obligations and fuel poverty. • Systematic comparison of targeting efficiency of fuel poverty programmes. • Critical analysis of fuel poverty provisions in British supplier obligations. • Proposal of a new approach to targeting fuel poverty within energy savings obligations

  14. Hyphomycetes isolados da água e do solo da Reserva Florestal de Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brasil Hyphomycetes from water and soil at the Dois Irmãos Forest Reserve, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene da Silva Cavalcanti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Hyphomycetes isolados da água e do solo, da Reserva Florestal de Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE, Brasil. Visando ampliar o conhecimento sobre a diversidade de fungos em ambientes aquáticos, coletas da água e do solo das margens dos açudes do Vale do Prata e do Meio foram efetuadas na Reserva Florestal de Dois Irmãos, Recife, Estado de Pernambuco. Dentre outras, foram isoladas cinco espécies pouco comuns de Hyphomycetes. As amostras de água foram coletadas abaixo da lâmina d'água e as de solo nas margens dos referidos açudes. As amostras de solo foram submetidas a diluições até 1:10000 e 1 mL de cada suspensão foi plaqueado no meio de Martin acrescido de cloranfenicol (50 mg/L. Alíquotas (1 mL das amostras de água foram semeadas no mesmo meio. As placas foram deixadas em temperatura ambiente (27 ºC±2, durante 3-4 dias, para o desenvolvimento de colônias e posterior isolamento dos fungos. Dentre as espécies identificadas Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Dendrosporium lobatum Plakidas & Edgerton ex Crane, Dichotomophthoropsis nymphaearum (Rand M. B. Ellis, Phaeoisaria glauca (Ellis & Everh. Hoog & Papendorf e Trichurus spiralis Hasselbring são destacadas porque haviam sido pouco referidas e não descritas anteriormente no Brasil.(Hyphomycetes from water and soil at the Dois Irmãos Forest Reserve, Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. To increase our knowledge regarding fungal diversity in aquatic environments, water and soil were collected at the edge of two dams (Açude do Vale do Prata and Açude do Meio at the Dois Irmãos Forest Reserve, Recife, Pernambuco state. Five uncommon species of Hyphomycetes were found, among others. Water samples were collected below the water surface and soil samples from the shores of these dams. Soil samples were diluted to 1:10000, and 1 mL of each suspension was plated in Martin's medium with 50 mg/L chloranphenicol. Water samples (1 mL were plated in the same medium. The plates were left at room

  15. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE...

  16. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Holm, S

    1995-11-04

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation.

  17. Revising Sangiovanni's reciprocity-based internationalism: towards international egalitarian obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Heaney

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To whom do we owe obligations of socio-economic justice? How are such obligations generated? Internationalism denotes a range of approaches to these questions. This paper examines Andrea Sangiovanni's—an internationalist—response to these questions. Sangiovanni argues that we owe egalitarian obligations only to those in the state, and that egalitarian obligations are generated through relationships of ‘reciprocity’. His is a ‘reciprocity-based internationalism’ (RBI. RBI has two components—one normative and another empirical. In this paper, I will assume the normative component, but reject its empirical component. My rejection of the empirical component has normative implications for RBI, which generate egalitarian obligations beyond the state. In other words, my revision of RBI is an argument in favour of international egalitarian obligations not generated through cosmopolitanism, but through internationalism.

  18. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm others by making them ill where this is avoidable, and this obligation not to communicate disease applies as much to relatively trivial diseases like the common cold as it does to HIV disease. The reasonableness of expecting people to live up to this obligation, however, depends on society reciprocating the obligation in the form of providing protection and compensation. Images p1216-a p1216-b p1217-a PMID:7488907

  19. Is there a moral obligation not to infect others?

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, J.; Holm, S.

    1995-01-01

    The emergence of HIV infection and AIDS has refocused concern on the obligations surrounding the carrying and transmission of communicable diseases. This article asks three related questions: Is there a general duty not to spread contagion? Are there special obligations not to communicate disease in the workplace? And does the mode of transmission of the disease affect the ethics of transmission and, if so, how and to what extent? There seems to be a strong prima facie obligation not to harm ...

  20. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...... declaratively express timed provisions and obligations as causal relationships between events, and DCR states explicitly represent pending obligations. As key technical results, we show that enforceability of DCR policies is decidable, we give a sufficient polynomial time verifiable condition for a policy...... to be enforceable, and we give an algorithm for determining from a DCR state a sequence of actions that discharge impending obligations....

  1. Implementation of State Obligations and Responsibility Ensuring the Availability of Clean Water in Karimunjawa Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu; Soeprobowati, Tri Retnaningsih

    2018-02-01

    This article aims to analyze the implementation of state obligations and responsibility ensuring the availability of clean water as part of human rights in Karimunjawa islands. The analysis based on principle of the State obligations and responsibility to fulfill their citizen right. Water sources in Karimunjawa Islands is very limited. It depend on forest conservation. Around 9.600 peoples live in Karimunjawa Islands, but Karimunjawa is non groundwater basin region. It means, Karimunjawa doesn't have groundwater potential. The quantity of water depends on the season. The solution to maintain the sustainability of clean water is piping from water reservoir to residential areas. The problem is there are so many hotels in Karimunjawa islands, it disrupted the fulfillment of clean water. Besides utilizing water from reservoir, many hotels drilled the ground to get water. It had impact to the availibity of water in dry season and affected to fulfillment of water supply for Karimunjawa people. There is no specific regulation and policy to solve this problem. Clean water management is doing by Karimunjawa's people. Meanwhile, based on Mahkamah Konstitusi Decree number 85/PUU-XI/2013, state is a rights holder to dominate the water in accordance with the Articles 33 paragraph (2) and (3) UUD NRI 1945, so the government has an obligation to make a policy, regulations, management, and supervision.

  2. On A Recent Theory of 'Legal Obligation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Leoni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, by the late Bruno Leoni, was originally published in the Italian journal Il Politico in 1966. In the article, Leoni reviews H.L.A. Hart’s The Concept of Law (1961. Hart first analyzes the concept of law by resorting to the classical concept of “obligation.” But he later tries a “fresh start” by resorting to the concept of “secondary rules.” In his review, Leoni argues that the former attempt is confronted with serious difficulties, and that the latter attempt (to which professor Hart possibly resorts in view of overcoming some of said difficulties is ultimately inconsistent with the former

  3. Modernizing international maintenance obligations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordaš Bernadet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modernization of private international law of maintenance in Serbia in the light of the two newest international instruments drawn up by the Hague Conference on Private International Law. As Serbia has ratified the Hague Protocol on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations in January 2013 introducing modern rules to the legal system of Serbia, the issue of ratification of the Hague Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance has arisen, in order to modernize this aspect of the international maintenance as well. In order to establish a position on the issue, the paper presents and analyzes the essential provisions of the Convention (scope of application, administrative cooperation, recognition and enforcement of decisions, stricto sensu enforcement. Based on the analyses, the concluding remarks offers some elements on the bases of which the competent authorities could form an opinion on the necessity and desirability of the ratification of the Convention.

  4. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  5. [Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins.

  6. The impact of regulatory obligations on fishers’ income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjimichael, Maria; J. Kaiser, Michel; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    as a marketing tool to identify fishers’ most and least preferred regulatory obligations in terms of the impact these obligations have on their income. Significant differences were identified in fishers’ preferences that depended on the regulatory measures fishers operated under at the time of the study (which...

  7. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yacht privileges and obligations. 4.94 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94 Yacht privileges and obligations...) A cruising license may be issued to a yacht of a foreign country only if it has been made to appear...

  8. Deconfounding Distance Effects in Judgments of Moral Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jonas; Waldmann, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    A heavily disputed question of moral philosophy is whether spatial distance between agent and victim is normatively relevant for the degree of obligation to help strangers in need. In this research, we focus on the associated descriptive question whether increased distance does in fact reduce individuals' sense of helping obligation. One problem…

  9. 12 CFR 13.100 - Obligations concerning institutional customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations concerning institutional customers... GOVERNMENT SECURITIES SALES PRACTICES Interpretations § 13.100 Obligations concerning institutional customers... to institutional customers. (b) The OCC's suitability rule (§ 13.4) is fundamental to fair dealing...

  10. Engineering of obligate intracellular bacteria: progress, challenges and paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over twenty years have passed since the first report of genetic manipulation of an obligate intracellular bacterium. Through progress interspersed by bouts of stagnation, microbiologists and geneticists have developed approaches to genetically manipulate obligates. A brief overview of the current ge...

  11. 18 CFR 367.22 - Accounting for asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for asset... GAS ACT General Instructions § 367.22 Accounting for asset retirement obligations. (a) An asset... measurement changes to the initial liability for the legal obligation recorded in account 230, Asset...

  12. 16 CFR 436.2 - Obligation to furnish documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PROHIBITIONS CONCERNING FRANCHISING Franchisors' Obligations § 436.2 Obligation to furnish documents. In connection with the offer or sale of a franchise to be located in the United States of America... to the address specified by the prospective franchisee by first-class United States mail at least...

  13. Displacement and gratitude: accounting for the political obligation of refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D'Cruz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On what basis, and to what extent, are refugees obligated to obey the laws of their host countries? Consideration of the specific case of asylum-seekers generates, I think, two competing intuitions: (1 the refugee has a prima facie obligation to obey the laws of her host country and (2 none of the popularly canvassed substrates of political obligation—consent, tacit consent, fairness, or social role—is at all apt to explain the presence of this obligation. I contend that the unfashionable gratitude account of political obligation does the best job of accounting for the intuitions. As has been noticed by other commentators, obligations of gratitude are difficult to specify and subject to numerous cancelling conditions. I analyze these conditions in detail and conclude that if one accepts that gratitude is the basis of the political obligation of the refugee, then one must face up to just how frangible the obligation is. In particular, the obligation is conditional on the fair and generous treatment of refugees that is consistent with their dignity as human beings.

  14. [Long-term storage of obligate anaerobic microorganisms in glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A I; Netrusov, A I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the possibility of storing the cultures of obligate anaerobic microorganisms (clostridia. acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea) in 25% glycerol at -70 degrees C for a long time (up to 3 years). This method of storage is adequate to preserve cell viability in most obligate anaerobes.

  15. 7 CFR 400.166 - Obligations of the Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligations of the Corporation. 400.166 Section 400... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Reinsurance Agreement-Standards for... Corporation. The Agreement will include the following among the obligations of the Corporation. (a) The...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.27 - Borrower contractual obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower contractual obligations. 1755.27 Section 1755.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE... CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.27 Borrower contractual obligations. (a) Loan agreement. As a condition of a loan or...

  17. 29 CFR 4.146 - Contract obligations after award, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract obligations after award, generally. 4.146 Section 4.146 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Period of Coverage § 4.146 Contract obligations after...

  18. 49 CFR 371.10 - Duties and obligations of brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duties and obligations of brokers. 371.10 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS BROKERS OF PROPERTY § 371.10 Duties and obligations of brokers. Where the broker acts on behalf of a person bound by...

  19. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  20. 36 CFR 406.161-406.169 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.161-406.169 Section 406.161-406.169 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.161-406.169 [Reserved] ...

  1. 36 CFR 406.131-406.139 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.131-406.139 Section 406.131-406.139 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.131-406.139 [Reserved] ...

  2. 36 CFR 406.141-406.148 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.141-406.148 Section 406.141-406.148 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.141-406.148 [Reserved] ...

  3. 36 CFR 406.112-406.129 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.112-406.129 Section 406.112-406.129 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.112-406.129 [Reserved] ...

  4. 36 CFR 406.171-406.999 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.171-406.999 Section 406.171-406.999 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.171-406.999 [Reserved] ...

  5. 36 CFR 406.104-406.109 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.104-406.109 Section 406.104-406.109 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.104-406.109 [Reserved] ...

  6. 36 CFR 406.152-406.159 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false [Reserved] 406.152-406.159 Section 406.152-406.159 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION... BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION §§ 406.152-406.159 [Reserved] ...

  7. Review of International Experience with Renewable Energy Obligation Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    2005-06-01

    The main policy instruments currently used in the EU Member States to achieve the targets set for electricity produced from renewable energy sources are: (1) the quota obligation system; (2) the feed-in tariff system; and (3) the tendering system. The current study aims to review the experience gained with the quota obligation system. The report provides an overview of the regions where obligation systems have been implemented and contains a detailed evaluation of the performance of the obligation systems in the USA, the UK and in Sweden. The obligation systems in these countries have been evaluated based on the following criteria: Effectiveness; Market efficiency; Certainty for the renewable energy industry; Cost effectiveness; Stakeholder support for the obligation system; and Equity. The evaluation of international experiences with the obligation system gives rise to a mixed picture. Although an obligation in theory is effective and cost effective, it seems too early to conclude that the system delivers these promises in practice. On the one hand this is due to the limited period of implementation that makes it hard to distinguish between the direct effect of the system and some teething problems that will be solved in due time. On the other hand, the conclusion can be drawn that the obligation is a complex system, which will only function well if designed carefully. It does seem worthwhile, however, to continue monitoring the experiences with the obligation system abroad, because this will further reveal whether the system is indeed effective and cost effective in practice. In the longer term, e.g. beyond 2010, the introduction of an obligation system in the Netherlands could be considered. Finally, as the design of support schemes is being improved, it appears that the basic concepts of both the obligation system and the feed in system have been refined in such a way that the two systems are gradually converging. An important difference between the two systems

  8. Safety Training: a right or an obligation?

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Safety Training programme currently offers around 50 classroom courses and 17 e-learning courses. Although anyone can attend any of these courses, some are compulsory for everyone working at CERN. In particular, “CERN Safety Introduction” and “Safety during LS1” are compulsory for all new arrivals.   The "Self-Rescue Mask" training course. Photo: Christoph Balle. However, depending on the type of activities, the type of workstation, the role you have been assigned (TSO, project leader, etc.) and/or the area where you will be working (e.g. confined spaces), you might be required to follow additional safety training provided by CERN. In accordance with the provisions of the CERN Safety Policy, members of the personnel must keep themselves informed of their obligations in terms of safety training and of the actions they must take to keep up to date. Most training courses are valid for three years, and as they reach the ...

  9. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  10. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Måns; Dahlberg, Anders; Ranius, Thomas; Thor, Göran

    2013-01-01

    The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent) organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years), managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1) total lichen species richness, (2) species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3) the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  11. Occurrence patterns of lichens on stumps in young managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Svensson

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for forest-derived bio-fuel may decrease the amount of dead wood and hence also the amount of available substrate for saproxylic ( = dead-wood dependent organisms. Cut stumps constitute a large portion of dead wood in managed boreal forests. The lichen flora of such stumps has received little interest. Therefore, we investigated which lichens that occur on stumps in young (4-19 years, managed forests and analyzed how species richness and occurrence of individual species were related to stump and stand characteristics. We performed lichen inventories of 576 Norway spruce stumps in 48 forest stands in two study areas in Central Sweden, recording in total 77 lichen species. Of these, 14 were obligately lignicolous, while the remaining were generalists that also grow on bark, soil or rocks. We tested the effect of characteristics reflecting successional stage, microclimate, substrate patch size, and the species pool in the surrounding area on (1 total lichen species richness, (2 species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens and (3 the occurrence of four obligately lignicolous lichen species. The most important variables were stump age, with more species on old stumps, and study area, with similar total species richness but differences in occupancy for individual species. Responses for total lichen species richness and species richness of obligately lignicolous lichens were overall similar, indicating similar ecological requirements of these two groups. Our results indicate that species richness measurements serve as poor proxies for the responses of individual, obligately lignicolous lichen species.

  12. Facultative and obligate methanotrophs how to identify and differentiate them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedysh, Svetlana N; Dunfield, Peter F

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic methanotrophs are metabolically unique bacteria that are able to utilize methane and some other C1-compounds as sole sources of carbon and energy. A defining characteristic of these organisms is the use of methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes to catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol. For a long time, all methanotrophs were considered to be obligately methylotrophic, that is, unable to grow on compounds containing C-C bonds. This notion has recently been revised. Some members of the genera Methylocella, Methylocystis, and Methylocapsa are now known to be facultative methanotrophs, that is, capable of growing on methane as well as on some multicarbon substrates. The diagnosis of facultative methanotrophy in new isolates requires a great degree of caution since methanotrophic cultures are frequently contaminated by heterotrophic bacteria that survive on metabolic by-products of methanotrophs. The presence of only a few satellite cells in a culture may lead to false conclusions regarding substrate utilization, and several early reports of facultative methanotrophy are likely attributable to impure cultures. Another recurring mistake is the misidentification of nonmethanotrophic facultative methylotrophs as facultative methanotrophs. This chapter was prepared as an aid to avoid both kinds of confusion when examining methanotrophic isolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  14. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  15. Resolving Conflicts between Beliefs, Obligations, Intentions, and Desires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersen, J.M.; Dastani, M.M.; Torre, L. van der

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a logical analysis of conflicts between informational, motivational and deliberative attitudes such as beliefs, obligations, intentions, and desires. The contributions are twofold. First, conflict resolutions are classi ed based on agent types, and formalized in an extension

  16. NSF Obligations for Top 200 Institutions by Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation — An text/xml file containing FY 2001 through FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) obligations by institution for the top 200 recipients defined in terms of total...

  17. 47 CFR 76.56 - Signal carriage obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified local NCE station affiliated with a State public television network shall not be required to carry... stations in fulfillment of these must-carry obligations may do so, subject to approval by the franchising...

  18. 18 CFR 154.315 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as gas plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected in rates and must be...

  19. 18 CFR 346.3 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as carrier property and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  20. 18 CFR 35.18 - Asset retirement obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to asset retirement obligations that would impact the calculation of rate base, such as electric plant and related accumulated depreciation and accumulated deferred income taxes, may not be reflected...

  1. SDC Supplier Obligation project : household energy from 2011 : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on 'SDC Supplier Obligation engagement project : process plan'. Evaluation of the engagement process used in this report can be found in 'SDC Supplier Obligation project : an evaluation of the Sustainable Development Commission's stakeholder and public engagement process'. This report presents the findings of the Sustainable Development Commission’s stakeholder and public engagement process and informs the development of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Af...

  2. THE SELLER'S OBLIGATION TO DELIVER THE GOODS ACCORDING TO CISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan VELICU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the seller's obligations under the Convention on International Sale of Goods (CISG and in particular the obligation to deliver the goods showing the main issues that arise in an international sale. We also wish to point the major innovations or improvements brought by the CISG in comparison to the European civil codes regulation and to conclude if the CSIG managed to revolutionize the tradition view on this issue.

  3. Novation as a method of termination of obligations

    OpenAIRE

    Perović Marko

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the issue of novation in contract law. Novation is a contract between the creditor and debtor in order to replace its existing obligation with a new one. Unlike the other methods of termination of obligations (e.g. fulfillment, compensation, remission of debt), novation extinguishes existing contractual relationship between the creditor and the debtor, so that among them arise a new contractual relationship, which in relation to the previous one, differs on t...

  4. Contractual and non-contractuall obligations in private international Law

    OpenAIRE

    Čejková, Martina

    2010-01-01

    67 8 Summary 8.1 Contractual and Non-contractual Obligations in Private International Law This thesis deals with the European international private law and discusses the current law-crash modification of contractual and non-contractual obligations. Characteristic of the European community is the absence of unification of the substantive law, which is compensated, by the unification of conflict standards. The unification of conflict standards, as an instrument of the international private law,...

  5. Lessee's obligations under the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Obligations of a lessee under the present day freehold petroleum and natural gas lease are described. The effect of recent cases relating to fiduciary and good faith duties on the lessee's obligations are also examined. Every lease under the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) must specifically deal with rights to be granted, the obligations to drill, royalties, the length of the primary term, the amount of the rental rights, rights to pool, and offset obligations. In Alberta, the most accepted petroleum and natural gas lease form is the CAPL 91. This form is presently being revised to create the 1998 version. The contents of this discussion included: (1) historical lease interpretation, (2) fiduciary obligations, (3) the definition of the doctrine of good faith, (4) implied and express covenants, (5) application of the default clause and (6) force majeur provisions. Although Alberta law does not recognize the doctrine of good faith, nevertheless the court will review the obligations of the lessee and if they do not feel that the lessee has acted fairly with respect to the lessor and damages have resulted, the court will find for the lessor

  6. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  7. Where to place the saving obligation: Energy end-users or suppliers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Labanca, Nicola; Rezessy, Silvia; Steuwer, Sibyl; Oikonomou, Vlasis

    2013-01-01

    Obligations to save energy differentiate, among other features, by obliged parties. These are obligations on energy suppliers and energy end-users. Supplier obligations have been introduced in North America, Europe and Australia. Under supplier obligations energy suppliers have to comply with mandatory energy saving targets and thus they implement (directly or via third parties) energy efficiency projects on their clients’ premises, or they decide to trade certified project savings if this option is envisaged by their obligation scheme. In several emerging schemes such as the UK Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, the Tokyo Emission Trading Scheme or the Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Scheme in India, the obligation to reduce energy consumption is placed on large end-users directly and end-users are allowed to trade emissions allowances or energy saving certificates. The paper starts with presenting these two conceptually different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. Then it analyses advantages and disadvantages of end-users obligations compared to suppliers obligations. The preliminary conclusion of the paper is that supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector, but end-user saving obligations may offer advantages when it comes to the industrial and commercial sectors. - Highlights: • We present different ways for introducing energy saving obligations. • We analyse energy end-users obligations vs. supplier obligations. • Supplier obligations seem to be well-suited for the residential sector. • End-user obligations offer advantages in the industrial and commercial sectors

  8. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  9. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  10. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  11. Replacing reserve requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Edward J. Stevens

    1993-01-01

    An examination of the fading significance of the Federal Reserve System's reserve requirements and the recent flowering of required clearing balances, a rapidly growing feature of Reserve Bank operations.

  12. Managing Phytophthora ramorum at Bloedel Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darren Strenge; Marianne Elliott; Gary Chastagner; Casey Sclar

    2017-01-01

    Bloedel Reserve is a 150-acre botanical garden and nature preserve on the north end of Bainbridge Island in Washington on the Puget Sound. The grounds encompass undeveloped forest, pastures, a bird marsh, woodland plantings, and intensely maintained gardens within the limits of the City of Bainbridge Island. The garden is part of the Sentinel Plant Network, a...

  13. Advances in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eBeare

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections by obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. These bacteria include Chlamydia spp., which causes millions of cases of sexually transmitted disease and blinding trachoma annually, and members of the α-proteobacterial genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Orientia and Rickettsia, agents of serious human illnesses including epidemic typhus. Coxiella burnetii, the agent of human Q fever, has also been considered a prototypical obligate intracellular bacterium, but recent host cell-free (axenic growth has rescued it from obligatism. The historic genetic intractability of obligate intracellular bacteria has severely limited molecular dissection of their unique lifestyles and virulence factors involved in pathogenesis. Host cell restricted growth is a significant barrier to genetic transformation that can make simple procedures for free-living bacteria, such as cloning, exceedingly difficult. Low transformation efficiency requiring long term culture in host cells to expand small transformant populations is another obstacle. Despite numerous technical limitations, the last decade has witnessed significant gains in genetic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria including allelic exchange. Continued development of genetic tools should soon enable routine mutation and complementation strategies for virulence factor discovery and stimulate renewed interest in these refractory pathogens. In this review, we discuss the technical challenges associated with genetic transformation of obligate intracellular bacteria and highlight advances made with individual genera.

  14. Regular periodical public disclosure obligations of public companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanski Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Public companies in the capacity of capital market participants have the obligation to inform the public on their legal and financial status, their general business operations, as well as on the issuance of securities and other financial instruments. Such obligations may be divided into two groups: The first group consists of regular periodical public disclosures, such as the publication of financial reports (annual, semi-annual and quarterly, and the management's reports on the public company's business operations. The second group comprises the obligation of occasional (ad hoc public disclosure. The thesis analyses the obligation of public companies to inform the public in course of their regular reporting. The new Capital Market Law based on two EU Directives (the Transparency Directive and the Directive on Public Disclosure of Inside Information and the Definition of Market Manipulation regulates such obligation of public companies in substantially more detail than the prior Law on the Market of Securities and Other Financial Instruments (hereinafter: ZTHV. Due to the above the ZTHV's provisions are compared to the new solutions within the domain of regular periodical disclosure of the Capital Market Law.

  15. Growth of Araucaria angustifolia in the Embrapa/Epagri forest reserve, Caçador, SC, Brazil Crescimento de Araucaria angustifolia na Reserva Florestal Embrapa/ Epagri, Caçador, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria Forest is one of most threatened phyto-physiognomies in the Atlantic Forest domain,
    presenting great ecological-economical importance. Nevertheless, there are still lacks of knowledge concerning growth and dynamic of important species, as Araucaria angustifolia. The objective of this work was to recover  the past growth of Araucaria angustifolia, native from Caçador, SC, Brazil, by measuring growth rings and to estimate the average periodic diametric increment. The growth rings were counted and measured, using a stereoscope microscope, in increment cores of 0.5 cm collected from 32 adult trees. The measurements were done with LINTAB measuring table, with 0.01 mm of precision. The samples sizes were irregular, varying from 4.2 to 20.2 cm long. The trees presented average diameter breast height (DBH of 76.3 cm, varying from 10.7 to 141.3 cm. The periodic diameter increment from the last 10 years was 0.4 cm, varying from 0.11 to 1.15 cm. It was observed differences among trees, but there was a tendency of reduction of growth rhythm in larger trees, being more
    evident in trees with more than 110 cm of DBH.A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM é uma das fitofisionomias mais ameaçadas da área de domínio da
    Mata Atlântica, apresentando grande importância ecológico-econômica. Apesar disso, ainda existem lacunas de conhecimento sobre a produtividade primária, o crescimento e a dinâmica de espécies importantes, como a Araucaria angustifolia. O presente trabalho tem por objetivo estudar o crescimento anual de Araucaria angustifolia, nativa do Município de Caçador, SC, pela medição dos anéis de crescimento. A contagem e medição dos anéis de crescimento foram feitas com o auxílio de um microscópio estereoscópico, em baguetas de 0,5 cm de diâmetro, coletadas de 32 árvores adultas. As medições foram feitas com o medidor de anéis de crescimento LINTAB, com precisão de 0,01 mm. O comprimento das amostras

  16. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota.

  17. Topical review of the Finnish forest sector 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuluvainen, K.

    1996-01-01

    The present report is e review of the Finnish forest sector, made by several authors. The topics reviewed are: Economic trends of forest sector; The operational conditions of the forest sector; Development of the forest sector; Conjuncture reviews; Special topics including the certification of the forests, the forest reserves in Finland, the financial support forest economy, export prices of sawn timber and cellulose, raw-wood markets, forests and forest industry shares as targets for investments, recreational use of the state owned areas. (8 refs.)

  18. Impacts of cattle on ecological restoration of coastal forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock from communities bordered by dune mining, urban areas and commercial forestry in northern KwaZulu-Natal spend substantial time foraging in the coastal forest that the mining company is obliged to restore. A survey of livestock owners and an experimental study of impacts of cattle on restoration processes were ...

  19. [Analysis of DNA-DNA homologies in obligate methylotrophic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Govorukhina, N I; Lysenko, A M; Trotsenko, Iu A

    1988-01-01

    The genotypic affinity of 19 bacterial strains obligately dependent on methanol or methylamine as carbon and energy sources was studied by techniques of molecular DNA hybridization. The high homology level (35-88%) between motile strain Methylophilus methanolovorus V-1447D and nonmotile strain Methylobacillus sp. VSB-792 as well as other motile strains (Pseudomonas methanolica ATCC 21704, Methylomonas methanolica NRRL 5458, Pseudomonas sp. W6, strain A3) indicates that all of them belong to one genus. Rather high level of homology (62-63%) was found between Methylobacillus glycogenes ATCC 29475 and Pseudomonas insueta ATCC 21276 and strain G-10. The motile strain Methylophilus methylotrophus NCIB 10515 has a low homology (below 20%) to other of the studied obligate methylobacteria. Therefore, at least two genetically different genera of obligate methylobacteria can be distinguished, namely Methylophilus and Methylobacillus, the latter being represented by both motile and nonmotile forms.

  20. Endosymbiosis In Statu Nascendi: Close Phylogenetic RelationshipBetween Obligately Endosymbiotic and Obligately Free-LivingPolynucleobacter Strains (Betaproteobacteria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannini, Claudia; Pockl, Matthias; Petroni, Giulio; Wu, Qinglong; Lang, Elke; Stackebrandt, Erko; Schrallhammer, Martina; Richardson, PaulM.; Hahn, Martin W.

    2006-07-21

    Bacterial strains affiliated to the phylogenetically shallowsubcluster C (PnecC) of the 28 Polynucleobacter cluster, which ischaracterized by a minimal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of approx.98.5 percent, have been reported to occur as obligate endosymbionts of 30ciliates (Euplotes spp.), as well as to occur as free-living cells in thepelagic zone of freshwater habitats. We investigated if these two groupsof closely related bacteria represent 32 strains fundamentally differingin lifestyle, or if they simply represent different stages of afacultative endosymbiotic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analysis of 16SrRNA gene and 16S34 23S ITS sequences of five endosymbiont strains fromtwo different Euplotes species and 40 pure culture strains demonstratedhost-species-specific clustering of the endosymbiont 36 sequences withinthe PnecC subcluster. The sequences of the endosymbionts showedcharacteristics indicating an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle.Cultivation experiments 38 revealed fundamental differences inphysiological adaptations, and determination of the genome sizesindicated a slight size reduction in endosymbiotic strains. We concludethat the 40 two groups of PnecC bacteria represent obligately free-livingand obligately endosymbiotic strains, respectively, and do not representdifferent stages of the same complex lifecycle. 42 These closely relatedstrains occupy completely separated ecological niches. To our bestknowledge, this is the closest phylogenetic relationship between obligateendosymbionts and 44 obligately free-living bacteria everrevealed.

  1. Global Redistributive Obligations in the Face of Severe Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    ? In the debate on global justice, a number of theorists argue that this discrepancy can indeed be justified (so-called anti-cosmopolitans). Thus, to bring us closer to answer regarding our redistributive obligations towards foreigners, I analyze and evaluate such arguments. My critical examination reveals...... comprehensive obligations to foreigners and compatriots simultaneously. Thus, even if we are duty-bound to redistribute comprehensively to compatriots, this does not entail that we could not also do so towards non-compatriots. Hence, their arguments are incomplete. Thirdly, I show that anti...

  2. The landing obligation in view of different management regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Hoff, Ayoe

    2017-01-01

    The European Union adopted a landing obligation in 2015 implying that all catches of fish subject to quota management must be landed. We compare and contrast the economic consequences for fisheries of the landing obligation in view of the management system on which it is super-imposed. Four types...... the strongest influence on both industry profitability and catch of unwanted species in the case of management with shared non-transferable quotas. In addition, the move from management with shared quotas to individual transferable quotas (ITQ) increases industry profitability and reduces unwanted catches...

  3. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  4. Image analyzing method to evaluate in situ bioluminescence from an obligate anaerobe cultivated under various dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Yamada, Ryuji; Matsumoto, Masami; Fukiya, Satoru; Katayama, Takane; Ogino, Chiaki; Shimizu, Nobuaki

    2013-02-01

    An image analyzing method was developed to evaluate in situ bioluminescence expression, without exposing the culture sample to the ambient oxygen atmosphere. Using this method, we investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on bioluminescence from an obligate anaerobe Bifidobacterium longum expressing bacterial luciferase which catalyzes an oxygen-requiring bioluminescent reaction. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 22 CFR 211.5 - Obligations of cooperating sponsor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USE IN DISASTER RELIEF, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND OTHER ASSISTANCE § 211.5 Obligations of cooperating... of books and records maintained by recipient agencies that receive monetized proceeds and/or program..., reported and accounted for as provided in this Regulation, with special reference to paragraphs (k) and (l...

  6. 22 CFR 231.07 - Fiscal Agent obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fiscal Agent obligations. 231.07 Section 231.07 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  7. Assignments of rights and obligations under a gas sales contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowch, J.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the principles of assignment in a gas sales contract was presented. Assignment is a process wherein the rights or obligations under a contract are transferred from one of the contracting parties to a third party. It is, in other words, the introduction of a new party to the original contractual relationship. Under the rights and obligations of a gas sales contract, the most important right of the seller is to have its gas taken and to be paid. Likewise, the most important obligation of the buyer is to take the gas and pay for it. An assignment by either party has the potential to alter the original expectations of the parties or the basis of which they committed to the contract in the first place. Prior to deregulation and unbundling initiatives, gas sellers and buyers could enter a 20 year sales contract and deal exclusively with each other over the entire 20 year term. Since deregulation, there are more players, and a higher level of corporate acquisitions, divestitures, rationalizations, and restructuring. Today, there are greater chances than ever before that the original party to a contract may change, or that certain rights and obligations may be assigned to a third party and affect the expectations under the contract

  8. Asset retirement obligations: a reporting concern for healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gary G; Bayes, Paul E; Morgan, Robert G

    2008-11-01

    FASB statements and SEC guidelines give direction as to how healthcare organizations should account for their asset retirement obligations (AROs) where environmental issues are concerned. A key consideration is that current costs associated with environmental problems, such as encapsulating asbestos, are to be accounted for as part of an asset's cost and depreciated over the asset's remaining life.

  9. 34 CFR 75.707 - When obligations are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When obligations are made. 75.707 Section 75.707 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Are the Administrative... services. (f) Travel When the travel is taken. (g) Rental of real or personal property When the grantee...

  10. 34 CFR 76.707 - When obligations are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When obligations are made. 76.707 Section 76.707 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Are the... subgrantee receives the services. (f) Travel When the travel is taken. (g) Rental of real or personal...

  11. Obama states obligation to act on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Obama states obligation to act on climate change Noting increased global temperatures, Arctic ice melt, and severe weather events, President Barack Obama said that climate change is real and called for a conversation across the country to determine what can be done about it.

  12. 34 CFR 686.43 - Obligation to repay the grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligation to repay the grant. 686.43 Section 686.43 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  13. Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation. H van Erp. Abstract. The example of a political leader who has to decide whether he would allow the torture of a suspect in order to get information about a ticking bomb has become notorious in ethical discussions concerning the tension between moral ...

  14. Life-Long Learning and Social Responsibility Obligations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The literature affirms that widespread lapses in corporate social responsibility obligations (unethical behaviors) have periodically brought about extensive forfeitures of economic wealth and countless job losses leaving the world economy in recession or depression. Put forth as a resolution to unemployment issues the academic literature champions…

  15. 14 CFR 272.8 - Obligation to continue service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE TO THE FREELY ASSOCIATED STATES § 272.8 Obligation to... eligible Freely Associated State place below the level of essential air service to such place, whether or not the Department has previously determined the level of essential air service to such place, the...

  16. Should Social Value Obligations be Local or Global?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rahul; Shah, Seema K

    2017-02-01

    According to prominent bioethics scholars and international guidelines, researchers and sponsors have obligations to ensure that the products of their research are reasonably available to research participants and their communities. In other words, the claim is that research is unethical unless it has local social value. In this article, we argue that the existing conception of reasonable availability should be replaced with a social value obligation that extends to the global poor (and not just research participants and host communities). To the extent the social value requirement has been understood as geographically constrained to the communities that host research and the countries that can afford the products of research, it has neglected to include the global poor as members of the relevant society. We argue that a new conception of social value obligations is needed for two reasons. First, duties of global beneficence give reason for researchers, sponsors, and institutions to take steps to make their products more widely accessible. Second, public commitments made by many institutions acknowledge and engender responsibilities to make the products of research more accessible to the global poor. Future research is needed to help researchers and sponsors discharge these obligations in ways that unlock their full potential. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. 13 CFR 500.213 - Termination of obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of obligations. 500.213 Section 500.213 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD... the Application, the Guarantee or the Loan Documents; (5) A Lender fails to make a demand for payment...

  18. Family Obligations in Micronesian Cultures: Implications for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliffe, Katherine T.

    2010-01-01

    Micronesian people, a new group of immigrants to the USA, have a strong system of responsibilities to family members that guides their priorities and actions. When family obligations clash with school priorities, conflicts can occur. I interviewed 26 adults to learn about the relationships and responsibilities of family members to each other in…

  19. 15 CFR 711.4 - Assistance in determining your obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance in determining your obligations. 711.4 Section 711.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  20. 31 CFR 223.18 - Performance of agency obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance of agency obligations. 223.18 Section 223.18 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  1. Short communications : Are wild African lungfish obligate air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory studies have resulted in classification of the marbled African lungfish, Protopterus aethiopicus, as an obligate air-breather. However, there have been no investigations of the extent of dependence on aerial respiration by this species in the wild. We used radio telemetry to obtain quantitative information on the ...

  2. Filial obligations today : moral practice, perception and ethical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuifbergen, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the meaning of filial obligations in Dutch society today. The thesis consists of a general introduction, two quantitative sociological studies, two qualitative studies, an ethical analysis and a general discussion. In the introduction, the background for the research questions

  3. 45 CFR 1226.13 - Obligations of sponsors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligations of sponsors. 1226.13 Section 1226.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Sponsor Employee Activities § 1226.13...

  4. Novation as a method of termination of obligations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the issue of novation in contract law. Novation is a contract between the creditor and debtor in order to replace its existing obligation with a new one. Unlike the other methods of termination of obligations (e.g. fulfillment, compensation, remission of debt, novation extinguishes existing contractual relationship between the creditor and the debtor, so that among them arise a new contractual relationship, which in relation to the previous one, differs on the case or legal basis. In most of the modern codifications of civil law, novation obtained a particular use in relation to the classical Roman law, which included a change of persons in obligations. In Serbian law, novation also has took the particular use and it takes an important place among many other termination methods of obligations. The analysis made in this paper, focused to the theoretical arguments and practical significance of the novation, brings the author to the conclusions and recommendations relevant to the novation in the theory and practices of contract law.

  5. \\"Forgotten\\" Humanitarian Obligations: The case of the Saharawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lay at the bar of international justice to call the international community to account for failures of performance on humanitarian obligations. It is their case that I take up here, as a problem of ethics in international affairs, as the minimum of a philosopher's recompense owed this people today. African Studies Monograph Vol.

  6. The obligate respiratory supercomplex from Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Baymann, Frauke; Neehaul, Yashvin; Hellwig, Petra; Richers, Sebastian; Vonck, Janet; Bott, Michael; Hunte, Carola

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are closely linked to human life as industrial producers of bioactive molecules and as human pathogens. Respiratory cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3 oxidase are key components of their aerobic energy metabolism. They form a supercomplex in the actinobacterial species Corynebacterium glutamicum. With comprehensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis we show that genes for cyt bcc-aa3 supercomplex are characteristic for Actinobacteria (Actinobacteria and Acidimicrobiia, except the anaerobic orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales). An obligatory supercomplex is likely, due to the lack of genes encoding alternative electron transfer partners such as mono-heme cyt c. Instead, subunit QcrC of bcc complex, here classified as short di-heme cyt c, will provide the exclusive electron transfer link between the complexes as in C. glutamicum. Purified to high homogeneity, the C. glutamicum bcc-aa3 supercomplex contained all subunits and cofactors as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BN-PAGE, absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Highly uniform supercomplex particles in electron microscopy analysis support a distinct structural composition. The supercomplex possesses a dimeric stoichiometry with a ratio of a-type, b-type and c-type hemes close to 1:1:1. Redox titrations revealed a low potential bcc complex (Em(ISP)=+160mV, Em(bL)=-291mV, Em(bH)=-163mV, Em(cc)=+100mV) fined-tuned for oxidation of menaquinol and a mixed potential aa3 oxidase (Em(CuA)=+150mV, Em(a/a3)=+143/+317mV) mediating between low and high redox potential to accomplish dioxygen reduction. The generated molecular model supports a stable assembled supercomplex with defined architecture which permits energetically efficient coupling of menaquinol oxidation and dioxygen reduction in one supramolecular entity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The assessment of environmentally sensitive forest road construction in Calabrian pine forest areas of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Metin

    2006-07-01

    Forest road construction by bulldozers in Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests on mountainous terrain of Turkey causes considerable damage to the environment and the forest standing alongside the road. This situation obliges a study of environmentally sound road construction in Turkey. This study was carried out in 4 sample sites of Antalya Forest Directorate in steep (34-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-70% gradient) conditions with bulldozer and excavator machine and direct damages to forest during road construction was determined, including forest area losses and damages to downhill trees in mountainous areas. It was determined that in steep terrain when excavators were used, less forest area (22.16%) was destroyed compared to bulldozers and 26.54% less area in very steep terrain. The proportion of damage on trees where bulldozer worked was nearly twofold higher than excavator was used. The results of this research show that the environmentally sensitive techniques applied for the road construction projects are considerably superior to the traditional use of bulldozers on steep slopes. The environmentally sound forest road construction by use of excavator must be considered an appropriate and reliable solution for mountainous terrain where areas of sensitive forest ecosystems are to be opened up.

  8. Distribución espacial de la macrofauna edáfica en bosque mesófilo, bosque secundario y pastizal en la reserva La Cortadura, Coatepec, Veracruz, México Spatial distribution of soil macrofauna in cloud forest, secondary forest and grassland in La Cortadura reserve, Coatepec, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis N. De la Rosa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La conversión de un área de bosque para la agricultura o el pastoreo homogeniza las propiedades del suelo y las comunidades de macroinvertebrados. Este trabajo estudió si la diversidad (H', densidad y heterogeneidad espacial (tamaño de parche de macroinvertebrados de hojarasca y suelo se recuperan en una secuencia sucesional pastizal (Pas-bosque secundario (Bsec-bosque mesófilo maduro (BMM. En el sustrato hojarasca se observó un gradiente de aumento para todas las variables estudiadas en la secuencia Pas-Bsec-BMM. Sin embargo, este patrón no se presentó en el suelo, ya que la mayor diversidad y densidad (por taxón y total se encontraron en el Bsec. Mediante un análisis de variografía, en la hojarasca se encontraron distribuciones espaciales heterogéneas de los macroinvertebrados en ambos bosques, mientras que en el pastizal la distribución fue homogénea, lo que apoya la idea de que el disturbio va acompañado de una homogenización espacial de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados, pero la restructuración espacial se recupera en la sucesión temprana. En el suelo de los 3 sitios, la distribución de todas las variables fue en parches (5 a 60 m de diámetro, pero no se encontró disminución en la heterogeneidad espacial predicha para la secuencia Pas-Bsec-BMM.The conversion of forest to agriculture or pasture homogenizes soil properties, including the communities of macroinvertebrates. This study examined whether the diversity (H', density and spatial heterogeneity (patch size of litter and soil macroinvertebrate recover through the secondary successional sequence pasture (Pas-secondary forest (Bsec- mature cloud forest (BMM. In the litter an increasing gradient for all variables was observed through the successional sequence. However, this pattern was not present in the soil, where the highest diversity and density (per taxon and total were found in the Bsec. Using variography, we found heterogeneous spatial distributions of

  9. HYDROCARBONS RESERVES IN VENEZUELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Cruz, D.J.

    2007-07-01

    Venezuela is an important player in the energy world, because of its hydrocarbons reserves. The process for calculating oil and associated gas reserves is described bearing in mind that 90% of the gas reserves of Venezuela are associated to oil. Likewise, an analysis is made of the oil reserves figures from 1975 to 2003. Reference is also made to inconsistencies found by international experts and the explanations offered in this respect by the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum (MENPET) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) regarding the changes that took place in the 1980s. In turn, Hubbert's Law is explained to determine peak production of conventional oil that a reservoir or field will reach, as well as its relationship with remaining reserves. Emphasis is placed on the interest of the United Nations on this topic. The reserves of associated gas are presented along with their relationship with the different crude oils that are produced and with injected gas, as well as with respect to the possible changes that would take place in the latter if oil reserves are revised. Some recommendations are submitted so that the MENPET starts preparing the pertinent policies ruling reserves. (auth)

  10. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria from clinical samples of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Melissa; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn; López-Ureña, Diana; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of veterinary infectious diseases has been the focus of considerable research, yet relatively little is known about the causative agents of anaerobic infections. Susceptibility studies have documented the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and indicate distinct differences in resistance patterns related to veterinary hospitals, geographic regions, and antibiotic-prescribing regimens. The aim of the present study was to identify the obligate anaerobic bacteria from veterinary clinical samples and to determinate the in vitro susceptibility to eight antimicrobials and their resistance-associated genes. 81 clinical specimens obtained from food-producing animals, pets and wild animals were examined to determine the relative prevalence of obligate anaerobic bacteria, and the species represented. Bacteroides spp, Prevotella spp and Clostridium spp represented approximately 80% of all anaerobic isolates. Resistance to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline and fluoroquinolones was found in strains isolated from food-producing animals. Ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and cephalotin showed the highest resistance in all isolates. In 17%, 4% and 14% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, the resistance genes tetL, tetM and tetW were respectively amplified by PCR whereas in 4% of clindamycin-resistant strains the ermG gene was detected. 26% of the isolates were positive for cepA, while only 6% harbored the cfxA (resistance-conferring genes to beta-lactams). In this study, the obligate anaerobic bacteria from Costa Rica showed a high degree of resistance to most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, in the majority of cases this resistance was not related to the resistance acquired genes usually described in anaerobes. It is important to address and regulate the use of antimicrobials in the agricultural industry and the empirical therapy in anaerobic bacterial infections in veterinary medicine, especially since antibiotics and resistant bacteria can persist in the

  11. Combining forest inventory, satellite remote sensing, and geospatial data for mapping forest attributes of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Greg Liknes; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and display of forest composition, structure, and pattern provides information for a variety of assessments and management decision support. The objective of this study was to produce geospatial datasets and maps of conterminous United States forest land ownership, forest site productivity, timberland, and reserved forest land. Satellite image-based maps of...

  12. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  13. Skyline Reservation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Flight reservation application used for in-country flights by USAID and DoS staff in Afghanistan. The application is managed and maintained by the vendor and USAID...

  14. Regional Assessment of Remote Forests and Black Bear Habitat from Forest Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; John B. Tansey

    1995-01-01

    We developed a spatially explicit modeling approach, using a county-scaled remote forest (i.e., forested area reserved from or having no direct human interference) assessment derived from 1984-1990 forest resource inventory data and a 1984 black bear (Ursus americantus) range map for 12 states in the southern United States.We defined minimum suitable and optimal black...

  15. 24 CFR 206.131 - Contract rights and obligations for mortgages on individual dwelling units in a condominium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract rights and obligations for... MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Condominiums § 206.131 Contract rights and obligations...] Termination of Insurance Contract ...

  16. Warranty obligations for the management and underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauho, P.; Silvennoinen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The need for financial assurances and institutional arrangements for waste management and disposal is discussed from the viewpoint of public interest. The basic principles stated in the paper include the requirement of accumulating funds for future contingencies during the active lifetime of the reactors and the fuel cycle facilities. A governmental role is seen as indispensable in assuming responsibility over at least the surveillance of underground repositories. The stage at which the operational responsibility is transferred from the plant operator to the government is determined in general by the status of the waste conditioning and disposal technology. A brief survey is presented of the current situation and technical issues.The need for special funds is discussed as well. For the part of waste management and disposal that will be taken over by the government an escrow fund should be established. Parallel to this public fund the plant operator would be obliged to reserve funds and provide guarantees within the company to cover liabilities for the remaining part of waste management and disposal obligations. A case study is presented in the paper covering the estimation of the escrow charges for spent fuel or high-level waste. (author)

  17. To what do we have moral obligations and why? II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, R

    1985-06-08

    Following up on his 1 June 1985 article on moral obligations to living human beings versus other sentient beings, Gillon focuses on arguments for and against prohuman "speciesism," the claim that "viability" is a justifiable criterion for differentiating between humans that may be killed and those that may not, and claims that "personhood" is a morally relevant differentiating concept. He discusses the positions taken by Peter Singer and Dame Mary Warnock on "speciesism," and the theories of such philosphers as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, and Michael Tooley regarding the essence of personhood. He sees no solid basis for grounding the scope of moral obligations on simple sentience, membership in the human species, or technical differentia such as viability, and concludes that medical ethics still suffers from the lack of an adequate theory on which to base a right to life.

  18. Genetic Information, the Principle of Rescue, and Special Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew; Mackenzie, Jordan

    2018-05-01

    In "Genetic Privacy, Disease Prevention, and the Principle of Rescue," Madison Kilbride argues that patients have a duty to warn biological family members about clinically actionable adverse genetic findings. The duty does not stem from the special obligations that we may have to family members, she argues, but rather follows from the principle of rescue, which she understands as the idea that one ought to prevent, reduce, or mitigate the risk of harm to another person when the expected harm is serious and the cost or risk to oneself is sufficiently moderate. We doubt, however, whether the principle of rescue can ground a duty to warn in the cases Kilbride envisages, and we suggest that Kilbride may have underappreciated the role that special obligations could play in generating a duty to warn family members. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  19. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  20. Duty of care is underpinned by a range of obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    The courts have long established that nurses are in a duty situation and owe a duty of care to their patients (Kent v Griffiths [2001]). Traditionally, the profession set the standard of care and nurses were required to act in accordance with a practice accepted by a responsible body of their peers (Bolam v Friern HMC [1957]).The introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998 gave rise to a positive obligation on government to ensure that laws, policies and procedures are in place to protect violations of human rights. Nurses must now inform their practice with relevant statute law, common law and professional standards in order to properly discharge their duty of care. Richard Griffith considers the law that now underpins a nurse's duty of care and uses a recent report from the Health Service Ombudsman for England to illustrate the obligations that underpin the nurse-patient relationship.

  1. Controls Over Unliquidated Obligations in the Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    .... Funds no longer needed may be deobligated. The purpose of this audit was to determine the amount of IRRF unliquidated obligations retained by DoD, DoS, and USAID and whether those agencies have established adequate management controls over their unliquidated obligations. This audit focused on annual reviews of unliquidated obligations that agencies should have completed for fiscal year 2006.

  2. 21 CFR 312.52 - Transfer of obligations to a contract research organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer of obligations to a contract research... and Investigators § 312.52 Transfer of obligations to a contract research organization. (a) A sponsor may transfer responsibility for any or all of the obligations set forth in this part to a contract...

  3. Obligation de rendre compte | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les mécanismes qui appuient l'obligation de rendre compte, comme les comités spéciaux, les unités organisationnelles spécialisées et les pratiques administratives quotidiennes, englobent la gestion du risque, les audits, les évaluations, l'accès à l'information, la production de rapports à l'intention du Parlement et la ...

  4. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  5. US uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current low level of demand, compounded by rapidly rising costs and low prices, has caused a significant reduction in drilling for uranium in the United States, and the trend is likely to continue for a few more years. The effect on uranium reserves will be fewer additions to reserves because less exploration is being done. Further reductions will occur, especially in low-cost reserves, because of increasing costs, continuing depletion through production, and erosion through the high grading of deposits to fulfill previous contractual commitments. During the past several years, it has been necessary to increase the upper reserve cost level twice to compensate for rising costs. Rising costs are reducing the $15 reserves, the cost category corresponding most closely to the present market price, to an insignificant level. An encouraging factor related to US uranium reserves is that the US position internationally, as far as quantity is concerned, is not bad for the longer term. Also, there is a general opinion that US consumers would rather contract for domestic uranium than for foreign because of greater assurance of supply. Still another factor, nearly impossible to assess, is what effect rising costs in other countries will have on their uranium reserves. The annual conferences between the Grand Junction Area Office staff and major uranium companies provide a broad overview of the industry's perception of the future. It is not optimistic for the short term. Many companies are reducing their exploration and mining programs; some are switching to other more marketable mineral commodities, and a few are investing more heavily in foreign ventures. However, there is general optimism for the long term, and many predict a growth in demand in the mid-1980s. If the industry can survive the few lean years ahead, rising prices may restore its viability to former levels

  6. Yucca aloifolia (Asparagaceae) opts out of an obligate pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentsch, Jeremy D; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2014-12-01

    • According to Cope's 'law of the unspecialized' highly dependent species interactions are 'evolutionary dead ends,' prone to extinction because reversion to more generalist interactions is thought to be unlikely. Cases of extreme specialization, such as those seen between obligate mutualists, are cast as evolutionarily inescapable, inevitably leading to extinction rather than diversification of participating species. The pollination mutualism between Yucca plants and yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula) would seem to be locked into such an obligate mutualism. Yucca aloifolia populations, however, can produce large numbers of fruit lacking moth oviposition scars. Here, we investigate the pollination ecology of Y. aloifolia, in search of the non-moth pollination of a Yucca species.• We perform pollinator exclusion studies on Yucca aloifolia and a sympatric yucca species, Y. filamentosa. We then perform postvisit exclusion treatments, an analysis of dissected fruits, and a fluorescent dye transfer experiment.• As expected, Yucca filamentosa plants set fruit only when inflorescences were exposed to crepuscular and nocturnal pollinating yucca moths. In contrast, good fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded from Y. aloifolia inflorescences from dusk to dawn, and no fruit set was observed when pollinators were excluded during the day. Follow up experiments indicated that European honeybees (Apis mellifera) were passively yet effectively pollinating Y. aloifolia flowers.• These results indicate that even highly specialized mutualisms may not be entirely obligate interactions or evolutionary dead ends. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. Manipulation of Host Cholesterol by Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhritiman Samanta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis. Once a pathogen gains entrance to the intracellular space, it can manipulate host cholesterol trafficking pathways to access nutrient-rich vesicles or acquire membrane components for the bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuole. To acquire cholesterol, these pathogens specifically target host cholesterol metabolism, uptake, efflux, and storage. In this review, we examine the strategies obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens employ to manipulate cholesterol during host cell colonization. Understanding how obligate intracellular pathogens target and use host cholesterol provides critical insight into the host-pathogen relationship.

  8. Conditions applying to Australian uranium exports - safeguards obligations under NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotsey, W.B.

    1975-08-01

    The Australian Government's expressed desire to inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons and its wish to prevent Australia's uranium exports being used for manufacture of nuclear explosives are underwritten by Australia's formal international obligations. Australia is not free to export its material without paying due regard to supra-national requirements. This paper defines two safeguards regimes, one applying to countries such as Australia which are party to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the other to those which are not parties. The application of safeguards and the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are briefly explained. Australia's obligations under the NPT and those stemming from specific undertakings to the IAEA are stated. The latter require Australia to ensure that Non-Nuclear Weapons States not party to the NPT give assurances that Australian uranium will not be used for the manufacture of nuclear explosives and that they will permit verification by the IAEA. These obligations give rise to a set of minimum conditions applying to exports of Australian uranium which vary according to the NPT status of the importing countries. (author)

  9. Kant's assessment of motivation in the fulfillment of social obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the motivations of physicians who promote the health of their communities through the fulfillment of social obligations beyond the boundaries of their own patients. Based on the assumption that physicians do not have social obligations, this paper looks at the normative, motivational question, namely "How should physicians be motivated to fulfill social obligations?" The paper traces the Kantian view of morality and motivation. The distinctions between required, merely permissible, and forbidden actions is drawn. Furthermore, Kant's view that required actions done in accordance with duty are of no moral worth is critiqued from three stand points. First, it is argued that just because motivations outside of Kantian-based duty are not as good, it does not follow that these motivations are of no moral worth. Second, it is argued that there are some motivations behind required actions that are clearly better than other motivations. Third, it is argued that required actions done in accordance with duty are clearly better than those actions done without relevance to duty. The paper concludes that many required actions done in accordance with duty are performed from motivations that do have moral worth.

  10. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  11. Bird checklist, Guánica Biosphere Reserve, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt; John Faaborg; Miguel Canals; Jerry Bauer

    2015-01-01

    This research note compiles 43 years of research and monitoring data to produce the first comprehensive checklist of the dry forest avian community found within the Guánica Biosphere Reserve. We provide an overview of the reserve along with sighting locales, a list of 185 birds with their resident status and abundance, and a list of the available bird habitats....

  12. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  13. Brazilian uranium reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Due to a growing demand of electric power to support Brasil's development, the use of nuclear energy will be indispensable. The nuclear fuel cycle for the production of energy, starts with the uranium exploration. The work performed in this field led to the discovery of several deposits in the country, which to-date totalize a reserve of 236,300t of U 308 , ranking Brazil in the 6th place among the nations of the western world holding uranium reserves. (Author) [pt

  14. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  15. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  16. The birds of Gongoni Forest Reserve, South Coast, Kenya | Ogoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. A survey of Echuya Central Forest Reserve, Uganda, for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Session 7: Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.; Crockford, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reserve session was devoted to some issues that came up through the workshop, which were grouped into three main areas: The Global Accelerator Network, Problems of stress and how to get organized to minimize them, What should an operations group be responsible for? This paper summarizes the discussions that took place. (author)

  19. SUIKERBOSRAND NATURE RESERVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reserve, the total length being 66 km with six overnight huts. There are also the BokmakiePie. Nature Troil. and the Cheetah Interpretive Troil. which can be used by day visitors. The former has two loops, one of 10 km and another of 17 km. The. Cheetah Troil. is much shorter and various points of interest are interpreted en ...

  20. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  1. Uranium reserves fall: AAEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Figures released by the AAEC show that Australia's reasonably assured resources of uranium recoverable at US$80 a kg fell by 5,000 tonnes during 1980-81. Reserves at 30 June 1981 totalled 294,000 tonnes. This represented 17 per cent of the Western World's low cost reasonably assured resources

  2. Mid and later life care work migration: Patterns of re-organising informal care obligations in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Gudrun; Österle, August

    2016-04-01

    Many women in mid or later life from Central and Eastern Europe commute for live-in 24-hour care work to Austria. In addition to paid care work abroad, the majority of women in this age group is confronted with informal (family) care obligations towards children, towards older relatives or towards grandchildren. This study aims to explore the patterns of re-organising these informal care obligations (childcare, long-term care and domestic work) in the respective home country and to analyse the factors that determine the re-organisation. The study builds on qualitative interviews with 20 migrant care workers aged 40years and over, 9 Romanian and 11 Slovakian women providing 24-hour care work in Austria. All interviewees commute in 2- to 4-weekly shifts between the home country and Austria and report multiple informal care obligations towards family members in the respective home country. In most cases, members of the nuclear and extended family, and in many cases husbands or partners of migrant care workers, act as the main substitute caregivers. Institutional care provision plays a more important role for child care as against for older people in need of care for whom care services are hardly available or accessible in the countries observed. While re-organisation depends much on the specific family constellations, strong assumptions towards family care, the limitations in (monetary) resources and the lack of public welfare provisions strongly co-determine the arrangements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chicle harvesting and extractive reserves in the Maya Biosphere b: Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugelby, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chicle latex has been extracted from the forests of northern Guatemala for over 100 years and is a key element in the extractive reserve component of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. The carrying capacity of the reserve for chicle extraction can be estimated from a model incorporating ecological data (such as latex yields per tree and population structure of chicle trees, Manilkara zapota, Sapot.) with socio-ecological and political information concerning camp and chicle resource availability, harvester tapping behavior, and historical and present-day institutional organization. I estimate that chicle harvestors currently utilize and area larger than the multiple use zone of the reserve in a unsustainable manner. Simple reduction of harvestors numbers will not ensure sustainability; institutional reforms are also in order. Extractive reserves can play an important role in preserving tropical forests. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on prevailing ecological, socio-economic, and political conditions. Wise planning and management of extractive reserves demands an understanding of the system`s carrying capacity. In addition, a strong institutional foundation is necessary to assure effective monitoring and enforcement of harvesting regulations.

  4. Obligations and responsibilities in radiation protection in the medical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly presents the various obligations and responsibilities of the various actors involved in or concerned by radiation protection in the medical field: the hospital administration (with respect to workers and patients), the physician (authorization and declaration, justification, optimization), the medical electro-radiology operator, the person with expertise in medical radio-physics (PSRPM), the radio-pharmacist (he is required in nuclear medicine with internal use of pharmaceutical product), the personnel with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), and other health professionals

  5. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  6. Few Considerations on the Maintenance Obligation in the Romanian Civil Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Costache

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently entered into force, the Romanian Civil Code, systematized on the stable and steady values of the former civil law, reforms the matter of the maintenance obligation, regardless of the source and the legal nature of this obligation. Prior Work: This is the reason why we have chosen this topic and the analysis of the typology to which such an obligation adapts and, of course, the correlative right to which it gives birth. Approach: In our current system of law there are provided different forms of exercising this obligation, preserving, improving, but also innovating, in some aspects, the previous regulation. Specifically, we will relate in this study to a brief analysis of all types of maintenance obligations, generated by two distinct sources: the law and the will of the parties (contract, in this case we are speaking of an obligation based on the law or a contractual obligation. The angle from which we are analyzing this type of obligational relationship between the maintenance creditor and the maintenance debtor also allows us to recall both the passive or active patrimonial side, and also the analysis of the legal characters that it presupposes each of the two above-mentioned generic types of maintenance obligations. Value: Starting from the conceptualization of the maintenance obligation, the present study will be oriented towards the analysis in the current legal context of the doctrinal points of view expressed in the specialized literature, using as a method the documentary research, the interpretative method and the comparative method.

  7. Obligations and responsibilities in radiation protection in the medical field; Obligations et responsabilites en radioprotection dans le domaine medical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document briefly presents the various obligations and responsibilities of the various actors involved in or concerned by radiation protection in the medical field: the hospital administration (with respect to workers and patients), the physician (authorization and declaration, justification, optimization), the medical electro-radiology operator, the person with expertise in medical radio-physics (PSRPM), the radio-pharmacist (he is required in nuclear medicine with internal use of pharmaceutical product), the personnel with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), and other health professionals

  8. Protecting the Minor by Guardianship. Guardian’s Rights and Obligations and Parental Rights and Obligations. Comparative Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilescu, Alin-Gheorghe

    2010-01-01

    The minor’s guardianship is a juridical institution by means of which the person called guardian provides the protection of the child’s person and patrimony, because the child does not have temporarily or irrevocably his parents’ protection or, in order to accomplish his interests, the child cannot be let in their care. As the content of protecting the minor by parents, the one of protecting him or her by guardianship is formed by a personal side, composed of the rights and the obligations ha...

  9. Mechanisms of Funding for Universal Service Obligations: the Electricity Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, Francois; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2001-06-01

    The transition towards a more competitive regime in network industries (and specially in electricity sector) raises the relevant question of funding for the Universal Service Obligations (USOs). Our paper focuses on two ways of funding for universal service and equal treatment obligations (?Ubiquity and Non Discrimination constraints?): the funding through access charge (CS regime) or taxation (T regime). Using a network model including competition between an historical monopoly (in charge for the USOs) and an entrant, we obtain some results concerning gains and losses of social welfare due to those mechanisms. We show that most of the time it is socially better to let the historical monopoly be active whatever the type of funding for USOs applying, and whatever profitability of the firms is. However, when the entrant is active, we can highlight that the introduction of the T regime (compared to the CS one) implies either welfare deterioration or an entry prevention strategy by the historical firm. Therefore, the T regime could not be an argument for the regulator to promote vertical separation of the historical firm (according to the European community line). (authors)

  10. Mechanisms of funding for Universal Service Obligations. The electricity case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, Francois; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2004-01-01

    The transition towards a more competitive regime in network industries (and specially in electricity sector) raises the relevant question of funding for the Universal Service Obligations (USOs). Our paper focuses on two ways of funding for universal service and equal treatment obligations ('Ubiquity and Nondiscrimination constraints, UND'): the funding through access charge (CS regime) or taxation (T regime). Using a network model including competition between a historical monopoly (in charge for the USOs) and an entrant, we obtain some results concerning gains and losses of social welfare due to those mechanisms. We show that most of the time it is socially better to let the historical monopoly be active whatever the type of funding for USOs applying, and whatever profitability of the firms is. However, when the entrant is active, we can highlight that the introduction of the T regime (compared to the CS one) implies either welfare deterioration or an entry prevention strategy by the historical firm. Therefore, the T regime could not be an argument for the regulator to promote vertical separation of the historical firm (according to the European community line)

  11. Mechanisms of funding for Universal Service Obligations: the electricity case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The transition towards a more competitive regime in network industries (and specially in electricity sector) raises the relevant question of funding for the Universal Service Obligations (USOs). Our paper focuses on two ways of funding for universal service and equal treatment obligations ''Ubiquity and Nondiscrimination constraints, UND'': the funding through access charge (CS regime) or taxation (T regime). Using a network model including competition between a historical monopoly (in charge for the USOs) and an entrant, we obtain some results concerning gains and losses of social welfare due to those mechanisms. We show that most of the time it is socially better to let the historical monopoly be active whatever the type of funding for USOs applying, and whatever profitability of the firms is. However, when the entrant is active, we can highlight that the introduction of the T regime (compared to the CS one) implies either welfare deterioration or an entry prevention strategy by the historical firm. Therefore, the T regime could not be an argument for the regulator to promote vertical separation of the historical firm (according to the European community line). (author)

  12. Uranium mine tailings and obligations to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, A.

    1980-01-01

    Low-level wastes from uranium mine/mill operations, because of their huge volume, are a serious problem, yet relatively little attention has been paid to them. Management of tailings piles and waste liquids in the short term is fairly effective. However these management techniques involve continuous, active treatment of the wastes, which may not continue after operations shut down, and rely on containment structures with a short effective life. Tailings can probably be rendered safe for future generations if sufficient resources are devoted to the task. The central moral question is whether we are obligated to assume the costs of tailings management, or whether it is permissible to pass them on to future generations. The basic moral principle that each person has the same value as any other implies that the generation that reaps the benefits of nuclear power must assume the costs of managing mine tailings and not discriminate in favour of one group of persons, our own generation. The argument that people who may exist in the future have intrinsically less value than people currently alive is not accepted by the author. The methodology for determining obligations to future generations which has been applied to mine/mill wastes could be applied to other nuclear issues, too. (LL)

  13. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  14. Physicians' obligations to patients infected with Ebola: echoes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Ecker, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Physicians across the United States are engaged in training in the identification, isolation, and initial care of patients with Ebola. Some will be asked to do more. The issue this viewpoint will address is the moral obligation of physicians to participate in these activities. In order to do so the implicit contract between society and its physicians will be considered, as will many of the arguments that are redolent of those that were litigated 30 years ago when acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was raising public fears to similar levels, and some physicians were publically proclaiming their unwillingness to render care to those individuals. We will build the case that if steps are taken to reduce risks-optimal personal protective equipment and training-to what is essentially the lowest possible level then rendering care should be seen as obligatory. If not, as in the AIDS era there will be an unfair distribution of risk, with those who take their obligations seriously having to go beyond their fair measure of exposure. It would also potentially undermine patients' faith in the altruism of physicians and thereby degrade the esteem in which our profession is held and the trust that underpins the therapeutic relationship. Finally there is an implicit contract with society. Society gives tremendously to us; we encumber a debt from all society does and offers, a debt for which recompense is rarely sought. The mosaic of moral, historical, and professional imperatives to render care to the infected all echoes the words of medicine's moral leaders in the AIDS epidemic. Arnold Relman perhaps put it most succinctly, "the risk of contracting the patient's disease is one of the risks that is inherent in the profession of medicine. Physicians who are not willing to accept that risk…ought not be in the practice of medicine." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Obligations of low income countries in ensuring equity in global health financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barugahare, John; Lie, Reidar K

    2015-09-08

    Despite common recognition of joint responsibility for global health by all countries particularly to ensure justice in global health, current discussions of countries' obligations for global health largely ignore obligations of developing countries. This is especially the case with regards to obligations relating to health financing. Bearing in mind that it is not possible to achieve justice in global health without achieving equity in health financing at both domestic and global levels, our aim is to show how fulfilling the obligation we propose will make it easy to achieve equity in health financing at both domestic and international levels. Achieving equity in global health financing is a crucial step towards achieving justice in global health. Our general view is that current discussions on global health equity largely ignore obligations of Low Income Country (LIC) governments and we recommend that these obligations should be mainstreamed in current discussions. While we recognise that various obligations need to be fulfilled in order to ultimately achieve justice in global health, for lack of space we prioritise obligations for health financing. Basing on the evidence that in most LICs health is not given priority in annual budget allocations, we propose that LIC governments should bear an obligation to allocate a certain minimum percent of their annual domestic budget resources to health, while they await external resources to supplement domestic ones. We recommend and demonstrate a mechanism for coordinating this obligation so that if the resulting obligations are fulfilled by both LIC and HIC governments it will be easy to achieve equity in global health financing. Although achieving justice in global health will depend on fulfillment of different categories of obligations, ensuring inter- and intra-country equity in health financing is pivotal. This can be achieved by requiring all LIC governments to allocate a certain optimal per cent of their domestic

  16. Isolation of obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria from feline subcutaneous abscesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshuyama, S; Kanoe, M; Amimoto, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 113 specimens collected from purulent skin lesions of household cats was examined bacteriologically. Ninety seven isolates obtained from 74 specimens (65.5%). Of these, 11 specimens (9.7%) contained obligate anaerobes only, 18 specimens (15.9%) yielded both obligate and facultative anaerobes. In the obligate anaerobes detected, genus Fusobacterium was the most frequently observed and F. nucleatum was most common species. Pasteurella multocida was the facultative anaerobe which was most frequently detected.

  17. Are uranium reserves adequate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Against a backdrop of growing concerns about global warming and geopolitical pressures on fossil energies, especially natural gas and oil, interest in nuclear power has revived considerably. Conscious of its addiction to oil and reeling from a series of gigantic blackouts, the United States, in the words of its president, must 'aggressively move forward with the construction of nuclear power plants'. Some European countries have approved new power plant construction (Finland and France), while the more reserved ones (Belgium, Germany and Sweden) have begun to show a change in attitude. Asia, meanwhile, is host to the planet's largest number of potential nuclear construction projects in this first half of the 21. century. All these signs point to a sharp rise in uranium consumption, the basic fuel for these plants. But are there enough resources to support a nuclear revival on a planetary scale? The publication of the Red Book on uranium in late May 2006 was an opportunity for Thierry Dujardin, Deputy Director of Science and Development at the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency, to take stock of resources. He gives his opinion in this paper

  18. AÇÃO CIVIL PÚBLICA SOBRE ÁREA DE RESERVA LEGAL: (DESNECESSIDADE DO SEU REGISTRO NA MATRÍCULA DO IMÓVEL / CIVIL ACTION PUBLIC ON AREA OF LEGAL NATURE RESERVES: (NO NEED OF ITS REGISTRY IN THE PROPERTY RECORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Cordeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed to show our position on the (no need of the civil action filing the record in property, subject of the registration of the demand that is intended to be obliged to institute legal nature reserve area, making use, therefore, of the adoption of hypothetical deductive method, combined with the execution of theoretical and documentary research. Legal Nature Reserve is understood as the area of rural land that can not suffer human intervention by deforestation and exploitation of its resources. Its institution and subsequent registration with the Rural Environmental Registry is an propter rem obligation, given the tracking of it and the attachment to the holder of real right. It must be obeyed even that forests or other type of vegetation no longer exist in the property, which thus externalizes its institution being a mandatory requirement for regular registration of the property, making it impossible to any claim of its ignorance, because it clings to the ownership of the property, passing to new owners, they being able to be charged regardless of their proceeding.

  19. Mineralogia e reserva de K de Cambissolos submetidos a diferentes manejos após derrubada e queima da floresta na Amazônia Meridional Mineralogy and K reserve of Cambisols submitted to different managements after slashing and burning of the forest in the Meridional Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Góis Orrutéa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas ocorrentes durante a queima na floresta Amazônica podem induzir transformações mineralógicas da fração argila. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar as alterações mineralógicas nas frações areia, silte e argila e na reserva mineral de solos submetidos a diferentes manejos (11 anos de mata secundária, pastagem e café após a derrubada e queima de floresta nativa situada na Amazônia Meridional, município de Cacoal (RO. Uma área de floresta nativa ombrófila densa, com mesma feição pedológica, foi dividida em quatro partes, sendo três áreas submetidas ao corte e à queima e posteriormente cultivadas. Em cada manejo, os perfis de solos foram descritos e amostras dos horizontes A, AB, B1, 2B2 e 2BC foram coletadas para as análises mineralógicas das frações argila, silte e areia (difratometria de raios X e químicas da fração argila (extração de Fe com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato - DCB e com oxalato de amônio - OA. Os teores de K não trocáveis foram determinados nas amostras de solo após extração com HNO3 1 mol L-1 fervente. Verificou-se o predomínio da caulinita na fração argila e alta reserva mineral de K nos solos, associada à ocorrência de mica nas frações argila, silte e areia. Os diferentes manejos não afetaram os teores de Fe2O3DCB e Fe2O3OA; por outro lado, o maior valor estimado para a relação entre os teores de goethita e hematita [Gt/(Gt+Hm] na fração argila no horizonte A da floresta indica uma possível transformação parcial de Gt em Hm durante a queima da floresta para a implantação dos manejos mata secundária, pastagem e café.The high soil temperatures that take place during the burning of the Amazon rainforest may induce soil mineralogical transformations. This study aimed to evaluate mineralogical changes in sand, silt and clay fractions and to assess K reserve of soils submitted to different managements (11 years of secondary forest, pasture and coffee plantation

  20. Family obligation values as a protective and vulnerability factor among low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents' beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls.

  1. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  2. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantifying deforestation and forest degradation with thermal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hua; Chen, Yajun; Song, Qinghai; Fu, Peili; Cleverly, James; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Law, Beverly E; Gough, Christopher M; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Di Gennaro, Filippo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Montagnani, Leonardo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Shao, Changliang; Kato, Tomomichi; Bonal, Damien; Paul-Limoges, Eugénie; Beringer, Jason; Grace, John; Fan, Zexin

    2017-12-31

    Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types. Mature forests are superior as thermal buffers, and had significantly higher TRN than disturbed and planted forests. There was a clear boundary between TRN of forest and non-forest vegetation (i.e. grassland and savanna) with the exception of shrubland, whose TRN overlapped with that of forest vegetation. We propose to use the TRN of local mature forest as the optimal TRN (TRN opt ). A forest with lower than 75% of TRN opt was identified as subjected to significant disturbance, and forests with 66% of TRN opt was the threshold for deforestation within the absolute latitude from 30° to 55°. Our results emphasized the irreplaceable thermal buffer capacity of mature forest. TRN can be used for early warning of deforestation and degradation risk. It is therefore a valuable tool in the effort to protect forests and prevent deforestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  5. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  6. Transfer of Rights and Obligations Under DCFR and CESL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beale, Hugh; Ringe, Georg

    The rules on assignment and transfer of rights and obligations are currently outside the scope of the proposed CESL. In contrast, the original DCFR from 2009 includes a chapter on these issues. Questions outside the scope of CESL are left to be solved by the ‘domestic’ provisions of the national....... This concerns above all other areas of law, for example the rules that apply upon the insolvency of one of the parties (in particular that of the assignor) and the rules on public policy. Key differences between the jurisdictions include, inter alia, the proprietary aspects of the assignor’s insolvency where...... the assignor is paid by the debtor, the priority rule for competing assignments, and the effects of a non-assignment clause. Here, the choice of the optional instrument rather than either English or German law will lead to diverging results and may therefore prejudice any of the parties involved....

  7. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  8. An integrated moral obligation model for landowner conservation norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhananga, Amit K.; Davenport, Mae A.; Fulton, David C.; Maruyama, Geoffrey M.; Current, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This study applies an integrated moral obligation model to examine the role of environmental and cultural values, and beliefs in the activation of landowner conservation norms. Data for this study were collected through a self-administered survey of riparian landowners in two Minnesota watersheds: Sand Creek and Vermillion River watersheds. Study findings suggest that collectivistic and biospheric–altruistic values form the bases for the activation of personal norms. Further, beliefs about local responsibility and ability to act influence personal norms to protect water resources. Findings suggest that landowners’ personal norms of water conservation are more likely to be activated by conservation strategies that appeal to biospheric–altruistic and collectivistic values, emphasize adverse consequences of water pollution, highlight water resource protection as a local responsibility, and provide the resources needed to protect water resources.

  9. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    together determine the rates of deforestation in any particular place (Luoga et al., 2005). The conversions have not spared the forests in and around Bwindi impenetrable forest in Southern western Uganda. The protected forest has a unique eco-system with diverse gene reserves with worldwide interest. It is most popular for ...

  10. [Characteristic of clinical strains of gram-negative obligate anaerobes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadzielska, Joanna; Kierzkowska, Marta; Sawicka-Grzelak, Anna; Rokosz, Alicja; Łuczak, Mirosław

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles ofGram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria isolated from clinical specimens taken from hospitalized patients in 2005-2006. Biochemical identification and antibiotic susceptibility were done in an automated system ATB Expression (bioMerieux sa). From 12262 specimens examined 867 strains of obligate anaerobes were isolated. Gram-negative strictly anaerobic bacteria were cultured in number of 138 strains (15,9%). All cultures were performed on Columbia agar and Schaedler agar media (bioMerieux sa) supplemented with 5% sheep blood and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48-120 h in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most frequently isolated was Bacteroides spp. (41,3%). For this group beta-lactamase activity was evaluated by using nitrocefin disc test (Cefinase BBL, Becton Dickinson and Co., Cockeysville, MD, USA). Production of ESBLs was detected with the use of two disc diffusion methods: the double-disc synergy test (DDST) according to Jarlier et al. and the diagnostic disc (DD) test according to Appleton. ESBLs were produced by 5,3% strains of Bacteroides spp. For all Bacteroides spp. strains MIC values were determined by gradient diffusion method Etest (AB BIODISK, Sweden). ESBLs and MIC were performed on Wilkins-Chalgren solid medium supplemented with 5% sheep blood (Difco Lab., USA) and all plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 hours in 85% N2, 10% H2, 5% CO2. Most Gram-negative obligate anaerobes isolated from clinical specimens are still susceptible to imipenem (100%), metronidazole (99,3%) and beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors: piperacillin/tazobactam (99,3%), ticarcillin/clavulanate (99.3%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (97.8%).

  11. Exometabolomics Assisted Design and Validation of Synthetic Obligate Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosina, Suzanne M; Danielewicz, Megan A; Mohammed, Mujahid; Ray, Jayashree; Suh, Yumi; Yilmaz, Suzan; Singh, Anup K; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Northen, Trent R

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic microbial ecology has the potential to enhance the productivity and resiliency of biotechnology processes compared to approaches using single isolates. Engineering microbial consortia is challenging; however, one approach that has attracted significant attention is the creation of synthetic obligate mutualism using auxotrophic mutants that depend on each other for exchange or cross-feeding of metabolites. Here, we describe the integration of mutant library fitness profiling with mass spectrometry based exometabolomics as a method for constructing synthetic mutualism based on cross-feeding. Two industrially important species lacking known ecological interactions, Zymomonas mobilis and Escherichia coli, were selected as the test species. Amino acid exometabolites identified in the spent medium of Z. mobilis were used to select three corresponding E. coli auxotrophs (proA, pheA and IlvA), as potential E. coli counterparts for the coculture. A pooled mutant fitness assay with a Z. mobilis transposon mutant library was used to identify mutants with improved growth in the presence of E. coli. An auxotroph mutant in a gene (ZMO0748) with sequence similarity to cysteine synthase A (cysK), was selected as the Z. mobilis counterpart for the coculture. Exometabolomic analysis of spent E. coli medium identified glutathione related metabolites as potentially available for rescue of the Z. mobilis cysteine synthase mutant. Three sets of cocultures between the Z. mobilis auxotroph and each of the three E. coli auxotrophs were monitored by optical density for growth and analyzed by flow cytometry to confirm high cell counts for each species. Taken together, our methods provide a technological framework for creating synthetic mutualisms combining existing screening based methods and exometabolomics for both the selection of obligate mutualism partners and elucidation of metabolites involved in auxotroph rescue.

  12. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 36 CFR 294.2 - Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigation of aircraft within airspace reservation over the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota... Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. (a) Description of areas...

  14. 77 FR 21846 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is amending Regulation D, Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions, to simplify the administration of reserve requirements. The final rule creates a...

  15. 76 FR 16620 - National Estuarine Research Reserve System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ..., water quality, community resilience, and public access. Since the last approved management plan in 1992... quality, and invasive species. In addition to programmatic and staffing advances, the reserve has... maritime forest, coastal shrub, wetlands, tidal marshes and sand beaches. The property provides important...

  16. Ecological and financial assessment of late-successional reserve management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Stevens Hummel; R. James Barbour; Paul F. Hessburg; John F. Lehmkuhl

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents methods for assessing the potential effects of variable-intensity management in late-successional reserves (LSRs) and provides an example (the Gotchen LSR) from the Cascade Range in eastern Washington. The Gotchen LSR study investigates changes in forest vegetation associated with silvicultural treatments, and how different treatment combinations...

  17. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  18. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  19. Policies for encouraging forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, many countries created national parks, forests, nature reserves, and sanctuaries to provide benefits that are underproduced on private lands. Private lands are now especially valuable for providing ecological services that public lands cannot provide, due to the increasing demands for all uses and the political and economic conflicts...

  20. Law and Behaviours in Social Dilemmas : Testing the Effect of Obligations on Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbiati, R.; Vertova, P.

    2005-01-01

    Laws consist of two components: the 'obligations' they express and the 'incentives' designed to enforce them.In this paper we run a public good experiment to test whether or not obligations have any independent effect on cooperation in social dilemmas.The results show that, for given marginal

  1. 25 CFR 163.42 - Obligated service and breach of contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligated service and breach of contract. 163.42 Section... breach of contract. (a) Obligated service. (1) Individuals completing forestry education programs with an... request for waiver. (b) Breach of contract. Any individual who has participated in and accepted financial...

  2. Newcomer Psychological Contracts and Employee Socialization Activities: Does Perceived Balance in Obligations Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie C.; Culbertson, Satoris S.; Boswell, Wendy R.; Barger, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which one's beliefs about the relationship between an employee and an organization at the start of employment influence subsequent socialization activities. The balance of employee exchange relationships, employee perceptions of both their own obligations and the employers' obligations, were collected from 120…

  3. Relation between Teachers' Demographic and Professional Profile and Their Attitude towards Ethical Obligations of Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, I; Ranjith, L.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in higher education are not contrastingly different from the primary and secondary school teachers in terms of their ethical obligations to their stakeholders. However in higher education teachers' professionalism and their attitude towards ethical obligations are believed to be more important for ensuring quality education services. The…

  4. 18 CFR 37.5 - Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties. 37.5 Section 37.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... ACCESS SAME-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS § 37.5 Obligations of Transmission Providers and Responsible Parties...

  5. 28 CFR 43.2 - Obligations of persons receiving care and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obligations of persons receiving care and treatment. 43.2 Section 43.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RECOVERY OF COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43.2 Obligations of persons...

  6. The logic of actual obligation. An alternative approach to deontic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbraak, F.

    In this paper we develop a system of deontic logic (LAO, the logic of actual obligation) with a rather limited scope: we are, only interested in obligations as far as they: are relevant for deciding what actions actually ought to be done in a particular situation, given some normative system N.

  7. 29 CFR 4.177 - Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means... CONTRACTS Compensation Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.177 Discharging fringe benefit obligations by equivalent means. (a) In general. (1) Section 2(a)(2) of the Act, which provides for fringe...

  8. 45 CFR 660.11 - What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Director's obligations in interstate... SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.11 What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations? (a) The Director is responsible...

  9. 45 CFR 660.5 - What is the Director's obligation with respect to Federal interagency coordination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Director's obligation with respect to... Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 660.5 What is the Director's obligation with respect to Federal...

  10. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of

  11. 29 CFR 500.60 - Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations. The Act imposes certain specific recruitment, contractual and general obligations on farm labor contractors and farm labor contractor employees... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and...

  12. 24 CFR 236.755 - Housing owner's obligation under contract to report tenant income increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Rental Assistance Payments § 236.755 Housing owner's obligation under contract to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing owner's obligation under contract to report tenant income increase. 236.755 Section 236.755 Housing and Urban Development...

  13. Anthropogenic Habitats Facilitate Dispersal of an Early Successional Obligate: Implications for Restoration of an Endangered Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina E Amaral

    Full Text Available Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation disrupt the connectivity of natural landscapes, with major consequences for biodiversity. Species that require patchily distributed habitats, such as those that specialize on early successional ecosystems, must disperse through a landscape matrix with unsuitable habitat types. We evaluated landscape effects on dispersal of an early successional obligate, the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis. Using a landscape genetics approach, we identified barriers and facilitators of gene flow and connectivity corridors for a population of cottontails in the northeastern United States. We modeled dispersal in relation to landscape structure and composition and tested hypotheses about the influence of habitat fragmentation on gene flow. Anthropogenic and natural shrubland habitats facilitated gene flow, while the remainder of the matrix, particularly development and forest, impeded gene flow. The relative influence of matrix habitats differed between study areas in relation to a fragmentation gradient. Barrier features had higher explanatory power in the more fragmented site, while facilitating features were important in the less fragmented site. Landscape models that included a simultaneous barrier and facilitating effect of roads had higher explanatory power than models that considered either effect separately, supporting the hypothesis that roads act as both barriers and facilitators at all spatial scales. The inclusion of LiDAR-identified shrubland habitat improved the fit of our facilitator models. Corridor analyses using circuit and least cost path approaches revealed the importance of anthropogenic, linear features for restoring connectivity between the study areas. In fragmented landscapes, human-modified habitats may enhance functional connectivity by providing suitable dispersal conduits for early successional specialists.

  14. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  15. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  16. Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatyev, V.; Bulavik, I.; Baginsky, V.; Goncharenko, G.; Dvornik, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of radionuclide migration and the prediction of the radionuclide redistribution and accumulation by forest phytocoenoses after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident. The current ecological condition of forest ecosystems is evaluated and scientific aspects of forest management in the conditions of the large-scale radioactive contamination are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR THE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE SUNDARBANS MANGROVE FOREST

    OpenAIRE

    Anjan Kumer Dev Roy; Khorshed Alam

    2012-01-01

    Peopleâs participation in forest management has become successful in many countries of the world. The Sundarbans is the single largest mangrove forest in the world, bearing numerous values and holding importance from economic, social and ecological perspectives. It is the direct and indirect sources of the livelihood of 3.5 million people. As a reserve forest, government is always providing extra care through state monopolies for its management with the introduction of policies and guidelines...

  18. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE OBLIGATION AS PROVIDED BY THE ROMANIAN LEGISLATION AND THE DOCTRINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan NAZAT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the latest amendments of the Romanian civil legislation performed through the Civil code of 2009, as further amended, I consider useful to provide the lecturers with a theoretical overview over one of the most important institution in our legal environment, i.e. the obligation. The analyse will start with an introduction comprising the definition of the obligation as provided by the Civil code aand the doctrina, will continue with the structure of the obligation and, further, will offer an overview of its sources, identifying, inter alia, the articles in the Civil code where such sources are regulated (e.g. contract, law. In the end, the paper will provide a doctrinaire classification of the obligation, outlining the main categories of the obligations.

  19. Observer perceptions of moral obligations in groups with a history of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ruth H; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2012-07-01

    The authors investigated when observers assign contemporary group members moral obligations based on their group's victimization history. In Experiment 1, Americans perceived Israelis as obligated to help Sudanese genocide victims and as guiltworthy for not helping if reminded of the Holocaust and its descendants were linked to this history. In Experiment 2, participants perceived Israelis as more obligated to help and guiltworthy for not helping when the Holocaust was presented as a unique victimization event compared with when genocide was presented as pervasive. Experiments 3 and 4 replicated the effects of Experiment 1 with Cambodians as the victimized group. Experiment 5 demonstrated that participants perceived Cambodians as having more obligations under high just world threat compared with low just world threat. Perceiving victimized groups as incurring obligations is one just world restoration method of providing meaning to collective injustice.

  20. Mothers', fathers' and children's perceptions of parents' expectations about children's family obligations in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Alampay, Liane Peña; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat

    2016-10-01

    Children's family obligations involve assistance and respect that children are expected to provide to immediate and extended family members and reflect beliefs related to family life that may differ across cultural groups. Mothers, fathers and children (N = 1432 families) in 13 cultural groups in 9 countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand and United States) reported on their expectations regarding children's family obligations and parenting attitudes and behaviours. Within families, mothers and fathers had more concordant expectations regarding children's family obligations than did parents and children. Parenting behaviours that were warmer, less neglectful and more controlling as well as parenting attitudes that were more authoritarian were related to higher expectations regarding children's family obligations between families within cultures as well as between cultures. These international findings advance understanding of children's family obligations by contextualising them both within families and across a number of diverse cultural groups in 9 countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. [The right to self-determination versus the obligation to protect one's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Wolfram

    2009-01-01

    "Individual responsibility" and the abidance by any "health-related obligations" are key words of the present political and legal German healthcare debate. In the process of adjusting the German welfare state by focussing the ideal allocation of common health resources patients who do not meet their "health-related obligations" are thus expected to accept cutbacks in medical care services. However, from the perspective of constitutional law there is no "health-related obligation" deriving from the German constitution - the right to self-determination guaranteed in Art. 2 Sect. 2 Sent. 1 of the German constitution has not been amended to impose a corresponding duty. Hence, health-related obligations may only refer to indirect ways of exercising individual responsibility, no more and no less. The present article highlights the few possibilities which the German constitution provides for the implementation of "health-related obligations" and reminds us of the conceptual aspects which have to be considered by the legislator.

  2. Antibiotic-resistant obligate anaerobes during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlitzsch, D; Rintelen, C; Böhm, K; Wollschläger, B; Merkel, N; Borneff-Lipp, M; Döring, G

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here, obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.

  3. The negative influences of the new brazilian forest code on the conservation of riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Normandes Matos da

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available More than one million hectares of riparian forests were degraded or altered in Mato Grosso State (Brazil up to 2009. The aim of the research is to set a comparative scenario to show differences in the quantification of environmental liabilities in riparian forest areas resulting from the change in native vegetation protection rules due to the transition between Laws 4771/65 and 12651/2012. Data collection took place in a marginal stretch of Vermelho River in Rondonópolis County, Mato Grosso State. The following data set was taken into consideration: aerial images derived from unmanned aerial vehicle, Rapid Eye satellite images and orbital images hosted at Google Earth. The spatial resolution of those images was compared. The aerial photos composed a mosaic that was photo-interpreted to generate land use and occupation classes. The riparian forest areas of a rural property were used as parameter, and their environmental situation was compared in 05 meter and 100 meter strips. Thus, by taking into consideration the current rules, 23,501 m2 of area ceased to be an environmental liability within the riparian forest and became a consolidated rural area. According to the previous Forest Code, in a different scenario, that is, in a set of rural properties, the public authority would receive USD 68,600.00 in fines. The new Brazilian Forestry Code of 2012, which replaces the previous one made in 1965, exempts those responsible for rural property from regenerating previously deforested native vegetation - an obligation established by older Forest Code. We have shown that the new Forest Code has diminished the legal responsibility of the rural owners in relation to the maintenance of forest fragments in their properties.

  4. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  5. Distribuição de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemíptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae em Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Amazonas, Brasil Distribution of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Veliidae in Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Leonardo Vieira Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este é o primeiro registro de Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae em fitotelmata de Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. O estudo foi conduzido na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, localizada na rodovia AM 010 km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Foram realizadas doze amostragens, entre abril de 2003 e abril de 2005, seis no período chuvoso e seis no período de seca. Para cada amostragem, 12 bromélias foram analisadas, seis terrestres e seis epífitas, totalizando 144 amostras. Com exceção das amostras de março e outubro de 2004, 94 espécimes de P. recens foram encontrados. O número de indivíduos coletados foi semelhante nos estratos amostrados, sendo 46 terrestres e 48 epífitas. No período chuvoso foi encontrado um maior número de P. recens (teste-t entre períodos; t =2,57; p=0,011, assim como a abundância de indivíduos esteve positivamente correlacionada com o volume de água por bromélia (r s= 0,18; p=0,033. Este fato pode ser explicado pelo maior aporte de água no período chuvoso acarretando o aumento do volume médio de água nas bromélias.This is the first record of Paravelia recens (Drake & Harris, 1935 (Heteroptera: Veliidae in phytotelmata of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule, 1907 (Bromeliaceae. The study was conduced at Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, located on road AM 010 Km 26, Manaus, Amazonas. Twelve samplings were taken between April 2003 and April 2005, namely, six in the wet season and six in the dry season. Twelve bromeliads were analysed for each sampling, six terrestrials and six epiphytics, totaling 144 samples. With the exception of the 2004 March and October samples, 94 specimens of P. recens were found. The number of individuals was similar in the stratums sampled, accounting for 46 terrestrials and 48 epiphytics. P. recens were found in great abundance in the wet season (t-test between season; t=2,57; p=0,011, and the abundance of individuals was positively correlated with water volume

  6. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  7. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  8. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  9. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britaldo Soares-Filho

    Full Text Available Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES. The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  10. Edge effects at an induced forest-grassland boundary: forest birds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bird species diversity and guild composition between the edge (5-10 m from the margin) of primary forest abutting grassland and the deep interior (> 500 m from the margin) in the Dngoye Forest Reserve were compared. Edge and interior sites were chosen that were homogeneous with respect to habitat physiognomy i.e. ...

  11. Status of fossil fuel reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2005-01-01

    Reserves represent the sum of past and future productions up to the end of production. In most countries the reserve data of fields are confidential. Therefore, fossil fuel reserves are badly known because the published data are more political than technical and many countries make a confusion between resources and reserves. The cumulated production of fossil fuels represents only between a third and a fifth of the ultimate reserves. The production peak will take place between 2020 and 2050. In the ultimate reserves, which extrapolate the past, the fossil fuels represent three thirds of the overall energy. This document analyses the uncertainties linked with fossil fuel reserves: reliability of published data, modeling of future production, comparison with other energy sources, energy consumption forecasts, reserves/production ratio, exploitation of non-conventional hydrocarbons (tar sands, extra-heavy oils, bituminous shales, coal gas, gas shales, methane in overpressure aquifers, methane hydrates), technology impacts, prices impact, and reserves growth. (J.S.)

  12. 77 FR 66361 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Requirements of Depository Institutions: Reserves Simplification AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... (Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions) published in the Federal Register on April 12, 2012. The... simplifications related to the administration of reserve requirements: 1. Create a common two-week maintenance...

  13. Czech fiasco with oil reserves has not deterred Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to meet its obligation to keep a 90-day emergency reserve of oil and oil products, Slovakia must purchase about 40% of the required volume of these commodities and complete storage capacity for the reserves. In addition, it must also create a system of storage management for the reserves including a regular exchange of the contents of the tanks. If it does not meet the 2008 deadline, EU structural funds will be decreased. In order to create the missing storage capacity, the Sprava statnych hmotnych rezerv (SSHR - Administration of Public Material Reserves) is considering a solution which Slovnaft, a.s. sees as a major risk for the state. Should the hundreds of millions needed for the building of new tanks not be found in the budget, the state would invite private investors to build the tanks, stated SSHR Chairman, Jan Tusim. Private investors will not endanger public control over the emergency reserves. Other countries also lease tanks. But according to information provided by its chairman, SSHR also wants to make the private investors responsible for the regular exchange of the emergency reserves that must be carried out every four to five years. Given an accurate forecast of price development on international markets, a lot of money can be made on these exchanges. Slovnaft stresses that if the state were no longer responsible for the exchange of the tanks' contents, it would be the state that was at risk not the refineries

  14. THE PRE-CONTRACT OBLIGATIONS REGARDING THE FRANCHISING AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper puts into context the Government Ordinance no. 52/1997 regarding franchising with the new concepts of the Civil Code. Thus, under the old Civil Code there were no specific regulations that could be applied to a pre-contractual obligation of the parties. During any negotiation, because the parties sent each other a series of offers, counter offers, and in the end decided whether to agree or not, some parts of a professional secret, know-how, or any other important information for one or both might be revealed to the other. Under international laws, such as the one in France, or by using internationally established unwritten law, such as the Franchising Model Contract by the International Chamber of Commerce and Arbitration in Paris, such a disclosure of important or secret information is protected from future unauthorized usage by any party or affiliate if the contract is not signed. In the view of the new Civil Code, this stage in the development of an agreement, not yet binding, is now regulated and protected.

  15. Qualité et obligations de résultats

    CERN Document Server

    Guthapfel, C

    1998-01-01

    Un contrat de maintenance peut appartenir à deux grands types ; ceux où la prestation est définie par son contenu ou par son résultat. Dans l'exemple retenu, le résultat est exprimé principalement en terme d'état de référence à maintenir ; ce qui nécessite de définir préalablement l'état requis par rapport aux besoins exprimés ou implicites et l'écart toléré d'où une meilleure définition du besoin. Cette approche qualité responsabilise de manière plus complète le contractant par une facilité accrue de mesurer la conformité au besoin et la preuve de manquements aux obligations contractuelles est plus aisée à établir. Il faut toutefois noter un décalage entre les besoins exprimés et ressentis et la difficulté d'apprécier objectivement les résultats, d'où la nécessité d'améliorer et de formaliser les relations client/fournisseur. C'est uniquement sur ces bases que le partenariat, condition indispensable de l'efficience, peut se développer et les besoins être satisfaits au m...

  16. Hurricane recovery at Cabezas de San Juan, Puerto Rico, and research opportunities at Conservation Trust Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver; Elizabeth Padilla Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    The Cabezas de San Juan Natural Reserve (El Faro), an exposed peninsular area located in the Subtropical dry forest of northeastern Puerto Rico, was impacted by hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Georges (1998). From 1998 to 2008, a 0.10 ha plot was used to assess forest structure, species composition, and stem growth. During post-hurricane recovery, stem density, tree height...

  17. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  18. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  19. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  20. Redefining Secondary Forests in the Mexican Forest Code: Implications for Management, Restoration, and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Román-Dañobeytia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Forest Code establishes structural reference values to differentiate between secondary and old-growth forests and requires a management plan when secondary forests become old-growth and potentially harvestable forests. The implications of this regulation for forest management, restoration, and conservation were assessed in the context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which is located in the Yucatan Peninsula. The basal area and stem density thresholds currently used by the legislation to differentiate old-growth from secondary forests are 4 m2/ha and 15 trees/ha (trees with a diameter at breast height of >25 cm; however, our research indicates that these values should be increased to 20 m2/ha and 100 trees/ha, respectively. Given that a management plan is required when secondary forests become old-growth forests, many landowners avoid forest-stand development by engaging slash-and-burn agriculture or cattle grazing. We present evidence that deforestation and land degradation may prevent the natural regeneration of late-successional tree species of high ecological and economic importance. Moreover, we discuss the results of this study in the light of an ongoing debate in the Yucatan Peninsula between policy makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, landowners and researchers, regarding the modification of this regulation to redefine the concept of acahual (secondary forest and to facilitate forest management and restoration with valuable timber tree species.

  1. Temporal Forest Change Detection and Forest Health Assessment using Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya'acob, Norsuzila; Azize, Aziean Binti Mohd; Mahmon, Nur Anis; Yusof, Azita Laily; Azmi, Nor Farhana; Mustafa, Norfazira

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the detection of Angsi and Berembun Reserve Forest change for years 1996 and 2013. Forest is an important part of our ecosystem. The main function is to absorb carbon oxide and produce oxygen in their cycle of photosynthesis to maintain a balance and healthy atmosphere. However, forest changes as time changes. Some changes are necessary as to give way for economic growth. Nevertheless, it is important to monitor forest change so that deforestation and development can be planned and the balance of ecosystem is still preserved. It is important because there are number of unfavorable effects of deforestation that include environmental and economic such as erosion of soil, loss of biodiversity and climate change. The forest change detection can be studied with reference of several satellite images using remote sensing application. Forest change detection is best done with remote sensing due to large and remote study area. The objective of this project is to detect forest change over time and to compare forest health indicated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using remote sensing and image processing. The forest under study shows depletion of forest area by 12% and 100% increment of deforestation activities. The NDVI value which is associated with the forest health also shows 13% of reduction

  2. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  3. HUMIDIFICATION AS A FACTOR OF STRUCTURIAL ORGANIZATION OF BIRD POPULATIONS IN THE WOOD STANDS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ASKANIA NOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listopadsky M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different humidification types towards appearance of forest vegetation conditions on spatial organization of birds in the wood stands is analyzed. Population density, coefficient of occurrence, and informative connection with six types of soil humidification are given for 53 bird species. The informative estimation of every humidification type is determined for every bird species. Thereby it is definitely a contribution of every gradation of edaphic factor to the structural genesis of dendrophilous bird communities. The strongest informative connection between humidity gradients and the avifauna structure of the wood stands is available in dry edaphotopes for margin representatives and fresh one for typical forest species. These two humidification types play a start function in the structural genesis of some blocks of dendrophilous bird communities per se. It is determined that change of bird species of forest-steppe faunogenetic complex by species from Nemoral complex undergoes in most cases on the border of the gradient between fresh and humid edaphotopes. For 53 species of birds from dendrophilous complex is was revealed that the importance of different levels of soil moisture has a different impact in shaping of the modern structure dendrophilous avifauna. Dry and especially drily edaphotopes determine the spatial structure of the species that are of forest-steppe origin and belong to the representatives of the optional component of dendrophilous bird communities. Wet edafotopes are involved in the formation of the spatial structure of species of predominantly immoral origin and relate to the obligate component of representatives of dendrophilous bitd comminities. Gradient wetting of edaphotopes on the verge of ‘linked’/’fresh’ is restructuring for the bird communities. It takes an optional replacement red communists feature to obligate. Stands rather dry and fresh items currently being the most active formation of

  4. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Marion Adeney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

  5. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  6. Forest offence types, trends and lapses : case study of the Nkawie Forest District of Ghana from 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The documented analysis of the forest offences revealed eight forest offence types with prevalent cases being chainsaw milling, illegal logging and illegal farming. Between 2005 and 2010, the district recorded 121 offences with more offences occurring in the on-reserve areas than in the off-reserve

  7. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  8. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Lees, Eoin; Baudry, Paul; Jeandel, Alexandre; Labanca, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  9. The moral obligation to be vaccinated: utilitarianism, contractualism, and collective easy rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Douglas, Thomas; Savulescu, Julian

    2018-02-10

    We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (both for adults and for children) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies. We show that two types of arguments-namely a utilitarian argument based on Parfit's Principle of Group Beneficence and a contractualist argument-can ground an individual moral obligation to be vaccinated, in spite of the imperceptible contribution that any single vaccination makes to vaccine coverage rates. We add a further argument for a moral obligation to be vaccinated that does not require embracing problematic comprehensive moral theories such as utilitarianism or contractualism. The argument is based on a "duty of easy rescue" applied to collectives, which grounds a collective moral obligation to realise herd immunity, and on a principle of fairness in the distribution of the burdens that must be borne to realise herd immunity.

  10. Energy supplier obligations and white certificate schemes: Comparative analysis of experiences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Rezessy, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.rezessy@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Via E. Fermi 1, TP 450, 21027 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Lees, Eoin, E-mail: eoin@eoinleesenergy.co [Eoin Lees Energy, 4 Silver Lane, West Challow, Wantage, Oxon OX12 9TX (United Kingdom); Baudry, Paul, E-mail: paul.baudry@edf.f [EDF R and D, Centre des Renardieres, 77818 Moret sur Loing (France); Jeandel, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.jeandel@gdfsuez.co [GDF SUEZ, 16, rue Ville L' Eveque, 75008 Paris (France); Labanca, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.labanca@polimi.i [eERG, Politecnico di Milano, Via Lambruschini n. 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    A number of Member States of the European Union (EU) have introduced market-based policy portfolios based on quantified energy savings obligations on energy distributors or suppliers, possibly coupled with certification of project-based energy savings (via white certificates), and the option to trade the certificates or obligations. The paper provides an up-to-date review and analysis of results to date of white certificate schemes in the EU. In the EU supplier obligations and white certificate schemes have delivered larger savings than originally expected with obliged companies exceeding targets and, in some cases, at cost below what policy makers have anticipated. Supplier obligations foster the uptake of standardised energy efficiency actions often targeting smaller energy users (residential sector), lowering the transaction costs and contributing to market transformation. The role of certificate trading is more ambiguous. Trading can bring benefits where the target is set sufficiently high with respect to the energy-saving potential in the sectors covered. Theoretically trading may be better suited for broader systems with comprehensive coverage, but even in smaller schemes trading may reduce the transaction costs of compliance for obliged actors without sufficient expertise on end-use energy efficiency. Yet, trading increases the administrative cost ratio of energy-saving obligations.

  11. The levels of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations by platinum mining companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Sturdy

    2017-06-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which platinum mines listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE comply with a recommended disclosure framework. Setting: South Africa is the largest producer of platinum in the world. The study covers all platinum mines listed on the JSE. Methods: Using a framework, a census of the annual financial statements, integrated annual reports and sustainability reports or websites was conducted to determine the level of compliance of disclosure relating to mine closure obligations to the recommended disclosure framework. Results: The results show disclosure relating to mine closure obligations of platinum mines listed on the JSE is inconsistent and not sufficient for stakeholders to understand the scope, key assumptions, parameters or reliability of the assessment and calculation of mine closure obligations. Conclusion: The assumptions used to determine mine closure obligations are specialised and multi-disciplinary. The accuracy and reliability of mine closure obligations will improve dramatically through greater transparency and access to information. It is recommended that the JSE listings for mining companies should require a competent person’s report to provide disclosure on assumptions, key values and processes applied to determine the mine closure obligations. Furthermore, it is recommended that the Department of Mineral Resources implements a mechanism of independent assessment of mine closure obligations by experts on an ongoing basis.

  12. Filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Menashe, Ravit; Bensimon, Moshe

    2018-03-13

    Much is known about adult children caring for their aging parents, yet the potentially unique experience of offspring caring for traumatized parents is underexplored. Therefore, the current studies assessed filial anxiety and sense of obligation among offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) in caring for their parents. In Study 1, we interviewed 10 OHS (mean age = 61.0) in order to extract themes of filial anxiety. Based on Study 1's data, a newly constructed scale of filial anxiety was administered in Study 2 to 59 adult offspring (mean age = 56.4): 28 OHS and 31 comparisons. Study 3 included 143 dyads of parents and offspring (mean age = 55.4 and 81.7, respectively): 86 Holocaust dyads and 57 comparison dyads. Parents reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and offspring reported filial anxiety and sense of obligation. In Study 1, interviewees referred to concerns about parent experiencing decline alongside caregiving difficulties. In Study 2, OHS reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. This group difference was mediated by sense of obligation. In Study 3, OHS with parental PTSD reported higher filial anxiety and sense of obligation relative to comparisons. Once more, filial sense of obligation served as a mediator. In Studies 2-3, results remained significant after adjusting for offspring symptoms. Parental exposure to the Holocaust, and especially parental PTSD, related to higher filial obligation, which in turn was related to higher filial anxiety. These findings bear important implications for practitioners working with survivors' families.

  13. The 'special obligations' of the modern Hippocratic Oath for 21st century medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric; Bernabeo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Profound advances and discoveries in medicine have markedly improved the lives of many over the 50 years since the modern Hippocratic Oath was written. Regrettably, these advances were and continue to be implemented suboptimally and inequitably across the globe. 'Special obligations to all my fellow humans' is an important theme of the modern Oath. From this perspective, we reflect on the special obligations of the medical profession, and examine how these obligations have changed over the past 50 years. We draw from perspectives of the social contract, professionalism, quality improvement, patient safety and a group of 31 international colleagues involved in medical education as we examine these obligations for individual doctors, health care institutions and medical education systems. The perspectives of the 31 clinician-educators helped us to situate the meaning of the theme of 'special obligations' in the context of challenges facing medical education and health care in the 21st century. Improving the quality of care and patient safety, and reducing health care disparities are now paramount as 'special obligations' for doctors, health care systems and medical education organisations, and require us to work collectively and collaboratively in an increasingly interconnected world. In our view, traditions such as the Hippocratic Oath will be worthy of public support only when the medical profession demonstrates in meaningful and transparent ways that it is meeting its social and civic obligations to make the world, not just health care, a better place. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Obligation for transparency regarding treating physician credentials at academic health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul J; Skill, N James; Koniaris, Leonidas G

    2018-02-26

    Academic health centres have historically treated patients with the most complex of diseases, served as training grounds to teach the next generations of physicians and fostered an innovative environment for research and discovery. The physicians who hold faculty positions at these institutions have long understood how these key academic goals are critical to serve their patient community effectively. Recent healthcare reforms, however, have led many academic health centres to recruit physicians without these same academic expectations and to partner with non-faculty physicians at other health systems. There has been limited transparency in regard to the expertise among the physicians and the academic faculty within these larger entities. Such lack of transparency may lead to confusion among patients regarding the qualifications of who is actually treating them. This could threaten the ethical principles of patient autonomy, benevolence and non-maleficence as patients risk making uninformed decisions that might lead to poorer outcomes. Furthermore, this lack of transparency unjustly devalues the achievements of physician faculty members as well as potentially the university they represent. In this paper, it is suggested that academic health centres have an obligation to foster total transparency regarding what if any role a physician has at a university or medical school when university or other academic monikers are used at a hospital. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  16. 36 CFR 261.73 - Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved] 261.73 Section 261.73 Parks, Forests... § 261.73 Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved] ...

  17. 34 CFR 611.44 - Under what circumstances may the Secretary defer a scholarship recipient's service obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a scholarship recipient's service obligation? (a) Upon written request, the Secretary may defer a service obligation for a scholarship recipient who— (1) Has not begun teaching in a high-need school of a... scholarship recipient's service obligation? 611.44 Section 611.44 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.950 - Who has the responsibility for paying property-related obligations pending transfer or disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for paying property-related obligations pending transfer or disposal of the property? 102-75.950... property-related obligations pending transfer or disposal of the property? Except as otherwise provided in... or other property-related obligations pending transfer or disposal of the property. Decontamination ...

  19. dwindling ethiopian forests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    1999-05-26

    May 26, 1999 ... Shelter for animals: Forests are natural “habitats for many wild animals. .... nificance of forest conservation and development in Ethiopia's combat ...... of forests are not, unfortunately, analogues to traffic lights where the impact.

  20. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  1. 12 CFR 270.4 - Transactions in obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATIONS OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS Regulations Relating to Open Market Operations of Federal Reserve Banks... engage in open market operations as directed by the Committee. (b) Transactions for the System Open... open market operations and the effectuation of open market policies. [38 FR 2753, Jan. 30, 1973, as...

  2. Governing Forest Landscape Restoration: Cases from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora van Oosten

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscape restoration includes both the planning and implementation of measures to restore degraded forests within the perspective of the wider landscape. Governing forest landscape restoration requires fundamental considerations about the conceptualisation of forested landscapes and the types of restoration measures to be taken, and about who should be engaged in the governance process. A variety of governance approaches to forest landscape restoration exist, differing in both the nature of the object to be governed and the mode of governance. This paper analyses the nature and governance of restoration in three cases of forest landscape restoration in Indonesia. In each of these cases, both the original aim for restoration and the initiators of the process differ. The cases also differ in how deeply embedded they are in formal spatial planning mechanisms at the various political scales. Nonetheless, the cases show similar trends. All cases show a dynamic process of mobilising the landscape’s stakeholders, plus a flexible process of crafting institutional space for conflict management, negotiation and decision making at the landscape level. As a result, the landscape focus changed over time from reserved forests to forested mosaic lands. The cases illustrate that the governance of forest landscape restoration should not be based on strict design criteria, but rather on a flexible governance approach that stimulates the creation of novel public-private institutional arrangements at the landscape level.

  3. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  4. Targeting solid tumors with non-pathogenic obligate anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro; Fujimori, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsutsui, Hiroko; Shimatani, Yuko; Seki, Keiichi; Amano, Jun

    2010-09-01

    Molecular-targeting drugs with fewer severe adverse effects are attracting great attention as the next wave of cancer treatment. There exist, however, populations of cancer cells resistant to these drugs that stem from the instability of tumor cells and/or the existence of cancer stem cells, and thus specific toxicity is required to destroy them. If such selectivity is not available, these targets may be sought out not by the cancer cell types themselves, but rather in their adjacent cancer microenvironments by means of hypoxia, low pH, and so on. The anaerobic conditions present in malignant tumor tissues have previously been regarded as a source of resistance in cancer cells against conventional therapy. However, there now appears to be a way to make use of these limiting factors as a selective target. In this review, we will refer to several trials, including our own, to direct attention to the utilizable anaerobic conditions present in malignant tumor tissues and the use of bacteria as carriers to target them. Specifically, we have been developing a method to attack solid cancers using the non-pathogenic obligate anaerobic bacterium Bifidobacterium longum as a vehicle to selectively recognize and target the anaerobic conditions in solid cancer tissues. We will also discuss the existence of low oxygen pressure in tumor masses in spite of generally enhanced angiogenesis, overview current cancer therapies, especially the history and present situation of bacterial utility to treat solid tumors, and discuss the rationality and future possibilities of this novel mode of cancer treatment. © 2010 Japanese Cancer Association.

  5. Strategic Petroleum Reserve annual report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was established in 1975 as an emergency response to the 1973 Arab oil embargo. It is authorized by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), and by the comprehensive energy plans of all Administrations since 1975, in recognition of the long-term dependence of the US on imported crude oil and petroleum products. Section 165 of EPCA requires the Secretary of Energy to submit an Annual Report to the President and the Congress. On May 13, 1998, the Department published a Statement of Administration Policy which reaffirmed its commitment to maintain a Government-owned and controlled, centrally located Strategic Petroleum Reserve of crude oil. The Reserve is to be used solely for responding to the types of severe oil supply interruptions presently contemplated in EPCA. Over the past twenty years, the Reserve has grown as large as 592 million barrels--a peak reached in 1994. From 1994 to 1996, nearly 28 million barrels were sold to raise revenues for the U S Treasury. As of December 31, 1998, the crude oil inventory was 561,108,127 barrels which equated to 60 days of net oil imports during 1998. The US now relies on a combination of both the Reserve and private stocks to meet its oil storage obligations to the International Energy Agency.

  6. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  7. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  8. Data on macrofungal diversity from the Danube Delta iosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZASZ Balazs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite de fact that the Danube Delta has a great biodiversity with more than 2300 plants and more than 4000 animals registered (http://www.ddbra.ro/rezervatia/deltadunarii/biodiversitate, the study of macromycetes is rather scanty, and the number of macromycetes species found so far in the Reserve is 58. As a result of the mycological investigations done by the authors in 2016 May 7-8 and October 21-22 in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in the Letea Forest, Caraorman Forest and at the forest district’s former premises near C.A. Rosetti, the list of the recorded 130 species is presented, out of which 110 species are documented for the first time in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBR. The number of the macrofungi species that occur in the formentioned Reserve - including the buffer zone from Enisala - has grown to 168. Based on the red list of the romanian macromycetes (Tănase and Pop, 2005 we have found three species in the near threatened category (NT: Helvella acetabulum, Morchella esculenta and Pluteus petasatus, and one species in the vulnerable category (VU: Myriostoma coliforme. A short survey from 1932 to 2012 about the former mycological studies concerning the DDBR is presented, and the nomenclaturally updated list of the 38 species not found by us, but present in the DDBR is given.

  9. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  11. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Global War on Terrorism: Reported Obligations for the Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pickup, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    ... based on DOD's monthly Supplemental and Cost of War Execution Reports. This report, which responds to this requirement, contains our analysis of DOD's reported obligations for military operations in support of GWOT through September 2008...

  13. The National Guard Meeting Its Obligation to Provide Capable Forces for Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sellars, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    ... (warfighting versus domestic support/homeland security) be harmonized to best posture the Guard to meet both its state obligations and at the same time continue to play a pivotal role in joint warfighting and stability operations...

  14. 31 CFR 203.6 - Obligations of TT&L depositaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TREASURY TAX AND LOAN PROGRAM General Information § 203.6 Obligations of TT&L depositaries. A TT&L depositary must: (a) Administer a TIP main account balance, SDI account balance, or TIO account balance, as...

  15. 28 CFR 811.6 - Duration of the obligation to register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section. (c) Reversal, vacation, or pardon. A person's obligation to register terminates if the person's conviction, finding of not guilty by reason of insanity, or finding that the person is a sexual psychopath is...

  16. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  17. Unliquidated Obligations for Air Force-Funded Projects Administered by The Naval Facilities Engineering Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... consolidated financial statements. The Air Force Audit Agency requested us to assist in its review of the Statement of Budgetary Resources for the Air Force General Fund by reviewing unliquidated obligations for Air Force-funded...

  18. Obligations to power supply and Antitrust Law of the European Community; Strombezugsverpflichtungen und EG-Kartellverbot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, Dirk

    2008-07-01

    In the European electricity supply industry, a change to competition-oriented national markets under development of a common European electricity market is observed for some years. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on obligations to the current power supply and on the trust prohibition in the European Community. The contribution under consideration consists of the following three chapters: (a) Discussion of fundamental questions regarding to cartel legal evaluation of obligations to power supply; (b) Conditions of the art. 81 sect. 1 EEC and application to obligations for power supply; (c) Exemption from the obligation to power supply according to art. 1 sect. 3 EEC. In particular, the regulation of the group exemption for vertical agreements of 22nd December, 1999, is considered.

  19. 12 CFR 611.1270 - Repayment of obligations-terminating bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-wide obligations in a method that we deem acceptable. Before we make a final decision on your proposal... respect to financing and disclosure. (2) If you and the other Farm Credit banks are unable to reach...

  20. The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations: The Rome I Regulation in Comparative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    De Miguel Asensio, Pedro Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations: The Rome I Regulation in Comparative Perspective I. Introduction II. Party Autonomy III. Applicable Law in the Absence of Choice IV. Protection of Weaker Parties V. Overriding Mandatory Rules and Public Policy