WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest energy procurement

  1. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  2. New harvesting technology in forest fuel procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raitila, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), Email: jyrki.raitila@vtt.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    In order to increase the use of forest fuels, a regional development project was launched in the fall of 2008. The co-ordinator of the project is Metsaekeskus Keski-Suomi (Forestry Centre of Central Finland), while VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) is in charge of research and technical development. The aim of this project is to enhance energy wood procurement from early thinnings, to develop the supply chains of pine stump extraction, and to reduce storage losses of energy wood at roadside landings and at terminals. The results of a pre-feasibility study on the first-generation feller-bundler (Fixteri) by Metsaeteho Oy and the Finnish Forest Research Institute indicates that whole-tree bundling might enable undercutting of the current costs of separate procurement of pulp-wood and energy wood from first-thinning stands. The greatest cost-saving potential lies in small-diameter (d{sub 1.3} = 7-10 cm) first-thinning stands, which are currently relatively unprofitable sites for conventional pulpwood procurement based on single-tree harvesting. Preliminary tests of seasoning of whole-tree bundles have been very encouraging. In some cases the moisture content of energy wood bundles has decreased from 55 % to 25 % after about year of seasoning at the roadside (two summers). One of the most promising devices for pine stump harvesting was developed by Karelian Puu ja Metalli Oy. (orig.)

  3. Carbon emissions associated with the procurement and utilization of forest harvest residues for energy, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Dennis R. Becker; Anthony W. D' Amato; Alan R. Ek; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of forest-derived biomass for energy has prompted comparisons to fossil fuels and led to controversy over the atmospheric consequences of its utilization. Much of the debate has centered on the carbon storage implications of utilizing whole trees for energy and the time frame necessary to offset the carbon emissions associated with fixed-life...

  4. Procurement of timber for the Finnish forest industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    1995-01-01

    The procurement of timber to the forest industries in the Nordic countries is based on the log-length or shortwood system, and employs load-carrying forwarders and chainsaw of single-grip harvesters. This technology is characterized by high productivity, safety, suitability for small-sized trees, high recovery of timber, and environmental friendliness. About one fourth of the industrial timber in the whole world is harvested using the log-length system. The challenge of ecological sustainability, multiple use of forests, adoption of thinnings as a tool of management, trend toward improved utilization of forest biomass, and shift from natural forests to plantations all increase the global interest in the log-length system. The paper presents a review of the Finnish forest sector, the technology of timber harvesting and transport, productivity of logging work, and costs of timber at the mill. The highly mechanized logging systems of the forest industries and the lighter technology of self-employed forest owners are discussed separately. Furthermore, the use of residual biomass as a source of clean and renewable energy, the Finnish logging machine industry, and forest operations research in Finland are also reviewed. (46 refs., 35 figs., 8 tabs.)

  5. Energy wood procurement in connection with conventional wood procurement; Energiapuun hankinnan organisointi muun puunhankinnan yhteydessae - PUUT02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The research consisted of two sub-projects. The present role of forestry associations in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the first sub- project. The possibilities and willingness of them to increase the energy wood procurement were also studied. The role of forest machine and forestry service entrepreneurs in procurement of energy wood was investigated in the second sub-project. The effects of energy wood procurement on the operation of the forest machine companies in general were also studied in this sub-project. The sub-project three studied the requirements of the customer companies for the energy wood suppliers. All the material of the sub-projects was collected by personal inquiries. According to the executive directors of the forestry associations the role of the forestry associations in energy wood procurement varied between a by-stander and active participant. Active forestry associations announced the companies for stands available for cutting. They told also that they directed the harvesting to correct sites and deliver stems at the roadside. The role of the forestry association was emphasised especially when the associations on the basis of a letter of attorney carried out the timber trade. It was estimated that in the near future the operation of forest machine entrepreneurs in harvesting of energy wood would increase significantly. From the employment and turnover point of view the role of harvesting of energy wood was not seen as a significant matter. On the other hand, that harvesting of energy wood impede the harvesting of commercial timber was seen as a more significant matter. In the future the end-users of energy wood would like to have more competition in the energy wood markets. However, the energy wood suppliers were desired to be relative large so that the reliability of deliveries could be ensured. Simultaneously as the end-users wanted to decrease the price of forest chips, the machine entrepreneurs estimated the price to

  6. Wood-energy market impact on competition, procurement practices, and profitability of landowners and forest products industry in the U.S. south

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, Joseph L. IV.; Bolding, M. Chad; Smith, Robert L.; Aust, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recent emphasis on producing energy from woody biomass has raised questions about the impact of a wood-energy market on the U.S. South's wood supply chain. We surveyed wood-energy facilities, fibermills, sawmills, private landowners, and government landholders to investigate the expected impact of a vibrant wood-energy market on the southern wood supply chain. Specifically, our study was designed to document potential competition for resources, wood supply chain profitability, and landowner willingness to sell timber to energy facilities. Results indicate that wood-energy facilities and traditional mills were not competing for raw material on a large scale at the time of the study, but competition is expected over the next decade. Almost 90% of fibermills reported that traditional forest industry mills should enter the wood-energy market, but most were skeptical that the new market would improve profitability. Ninety percent of responding landowners reported a willingness to sell to energy facilities if the right price is offered and all of those who had already sold timber to an energy facility were satisfied with the experience. Only 3.5% of respondents were unwilling to sell timber to an energy company, and only one of these respondents listed timber production as a primary objective, which indicates those who would not harvest timber for energy, may be unlikely to harvest timber for other purposes also. This study suggests that the southern wood supply chain is in position to profit from a wood-energy market; however, concerns remain about the coexistence of the forest products and wood-energy industries. (author)

  7. Utilization of peat procurement network for purchase of energy wood. Subproject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukaanniemi, E.; Tervo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to investigate and develop the energy wood procurement to the mire-terminals for production of mixed fuels, carried out by the peat contractors and forest machine entrepreneurs. The investigation of the costs of the chips produced for mixed fuels, the deviation of them and the possibilities to reduce them form the main part of the project. The duration of the project is two years, and it started in the summer 1997. Procurement of energy wood, carried out by forest machine and peat entrepreneurs, to the bog terminals for production of mixed fuels by the side of peat, will be studied in the project both experimentally and calculationally. The utilization of peat procurement network for energy wood procurement will mainly be studied. Costs and the harvesting logistics will be estimated using the software developed in the research. The project is divided into five sub-tasks: (1) survey on the contractor and machine needs of the experimental work; (2) selection of entrepreneurs and the harvesting sites; (3) practical harvesting experiments; (4) development of the cost calculation software; (5) analysis and reporting of the results

  8. Energy Performance Indicators in the Swedish Building Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Allard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2. Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy; and (ii to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  9. Energy-efficient Public Procurement: Best Practice in Program Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Weber, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Semple, Abby [Public Procurement Analysis, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    This document illustrates the key issues and considerations involved in implementing energy-efficient public procurement. Our primary sources of information have been our partners in the Super Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative Procurement Working Group. Where applicable, we have highlighted specific ways in which working group participants have successfully overcome barriers to delivering effective programs. The following key points emerge from this analysis of programs for energy-efficient public procurement. Lessons for both developed and developing programs are highlighted throughout the guide. 1. Policy: Policy provides the initiative to begin a transition from first cost to life-cycle cost based purchasing methods and culture. Effective policy is well-communicated, establishes accountability from top to bottom of organizations and simplifies the processes necessary to comply. Flexibility and responsiveness are essential in policy development and implementation. Mandatory and voluntary policies may complement one another. 2. Procurement Criteria: Procurement staff must be confident that energy-efficient procurement criteria offer the best long-term value for their organization’s money and represent real environmental gains. Involving multiple stakeholders at the early stages of the criteria creation process can result in greater levels of cooperation from private industry. Criteria should make comparison of products easy for purchasers and require minimal additional calculations. Criteria will need to be regularly updated to reflect market developments. 3. Training: Resources for the creation of training programs are usually very limited, but well-targeted training is necessary in order for a program to be effective. Training must emphasize a process that is efficient for purchasers and simplifies compliance. Purchaser resources and policy must be well designed for training to be effective. Training program development is an

  10. Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement. Cost or benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, J.; Roeser, D. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Research Unit (Finland)), email: johannes.windisch@metla.fi; Sikanen, L.; Gritten, D. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input. (orig.)

  11. Green Power Procurement Library | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ., and E.S. Brown. 2006. Utility-Marketer Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series. EPA 430-R-09-045. Green Power Developing New Renewable Energy Projects. NREL/TP-6A20-51904. July. Natural Marketing Institute. 2011

  12. Can Structural Timber Foster Short Procurement Chains within Mediterranean Forests? A Research Case in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fragiacomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the idea of a timber short procurement chain as a means to provide an increased value to Mediterranean forests. It is based on the evidence that timber buildings are increasingly used for a number of reasons including sustainability, the speed of erection, and excellent structural and seismic performance. However, most of the timber currently used around the Mediterranean is imported from outside this area. Materials and Methods: The idea is to use the best part of the tree to produce timber boards, while all the remaining part of the tree including the production waste is used for energy production. Important issues to address are the generally low mechanical properties of locally-grown timber such as maritime pine in Sardinia, which would make some wood-based products such as glue-laminated timber not technically viable. Cross-laminated timber panels are a possible solution to this problem because this wood-based product is manufactured in such a way that even with low-quality timber boards it is possible to obtain a medium quality panel. The panel is made of layers of timber boards with the adjacent layers glued under pressure at a right angle. Another issue is the need to grade the local timber, for which a number of specimens must be tested to destruction in order to identify a visual or a machine-stress grading procedure. Last but not least, the panels must be tested to destruction to correlate their mechanical properties to the properties of the boards. Results: The preliminary mechanical tests carried out on Sardinia maritime pine confirm that the material is low-grade because it is characterized by large knots and a significant grain deviation. Nevertheless, when used in the cross-laminated panels, the properties are significantly improved due to the layout of the panel which reduces the influence of defects in the boards on the mechanical properties of the panel. Conclusions

  13. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  14. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  15. Integrated Procurement of Pulpwood and Energy Wood by Whole-Tree Bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jylhae, Paula (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus Unit, P.O. Box 44, FI-69101 Kannus (Finland)); Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, P.O. Box 101, FI-00171 Helsinki (Finland)); Laitila, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Unit, P.O. Box 68, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland))

    2008-10-15

    Total supply chain costs of pulpwood and energy wood harvested from early thinnings can be reduced by applying an integrated procurement system based on whole-tree bundling using a newly-developed whole-tree bundler. Pulpwood-dimensioned whole trees are incorporated into pulpwood bundles. The pulp and energy fraction are not separated before the wood reaches the debarking drum of the pulp mill. Based on industrial trials with Scots pine harvested from first thinnings, pulp made from blend of bundles and conventional pulpwood meets the quality requirements of chemical pine pulp. Small-diameter trees and undesirable tree species can be accumulated into separate energy wood bundles, which are transported to energy generation. Due to load compaction, cost savings are expected especially in forest haulage and road transportation. The system shows greatest potential when harvesting first-thinning stands with a breast-height diameter of 7-10 cm

  16. Innovative procurement frameworks for energy performance contracting in the UK public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nolden, Colin; Sorrell, Steve; Polzin, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Procurement Frameworks for Energy Performance Contracting (PFEPCs) simplify the process of negotiating, developing and implementing Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). This paper analyses their role in promoting the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures in the UK public sector. Compared to conventional approaches to procuring goods and services involving detailed specifications, PFEPCs translate the challenge of upgrading, retrofitt...

  17. Forest industries energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. C.

    1977-10-15

    Data on energy use in the manufacturing process of the wood products industry in 1974 are tabulated. The forest industries contributed 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consumed 25% of all industrial energy (including that produced from self-generated sources such as waste heat liquors and wood wastes) in that year. An evaluation of the potential for savings in process heat systems in existing production levels is shown to be 3% in the short, medium, and long-term time periods. The industry has a high potential for fuel substitution in all sectors. The payback periods for the implementation of the conservation measures are indicated.

  18. Cooperative procurement: market transformation for energy efficient products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.; Dreher, C.

    1999-07-01

    Cooperative procurement is a variation of public purchasing which may be used as an instrument to transform the market and stimulate innovation enhancing environmental performance. The core of the procedure is the following: Coordinated by a central agency a group of buyers - public administrations, but also private companies, associations, etc. - gets together and jointly formulates a catalogue of performance requirements for a specific product truly suiting their preferences. This catalogue may contain (combinations of) requirements not yet available on the market and includes energy efficiency and/or environmental performance among other preferences important to the users. On the basis of the product requirements the buyer group launches a call for tenders, evaluates the bids received from the manufacturers and commits to buying the winning product. Thus, a market is provided for the most successful innovators in a given area of technology. The paper discusses the effectiveness of cooperative procurement as a policy instrument in the context of innovation theory and learning curves and it presents some empirical results on the feasibility of the transfer of this policy instruments to a wider range of European countries and/or to the European level. (orig.)

  19. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  20. Contracting for Efficiency: A Best Practices Guide for Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  1. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  2. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-02-07

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network is investigated. For a one-day operation cycle, the cellular network aims to reduce energy procurement costs from the smart grid by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from their locally deployed RE sources as well as from the smart grid. In addition to that, it aims to determine the extra amount of energy to be sold to the electrical grid at each time period. Chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the randomness in the RE generation. Then, to make the optimization problem tractable, two well- know convex approximation methods, namely; Chernoff and Chebyshev based-approaches, are analyzed in details. Numerical results investigate the optimized energy procurement for various daily scenarios and compare between the performances of the employed convex approximation approaches.

  3. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  4. Forest Energy Project of Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergiaprojekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Regional Council of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Fuel Production

    1997-12-01

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland (1994 - 1996) was one of the leading regional demonstration projects in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilisation. The target of this provincial project was to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilisation of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co- operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organisations. The project was a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains were formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they were also demonstrated. The project offered hence a wide test field for regional and national techno / economical wood fuel development. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland was a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project was a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. VTT Energy and the Forestry Board of Central Finland were responsible for the practical development work. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels took part in the project. The project were carried out during the years 1994 - 1996. The total costs were 4.4 million FIM. The aim is to create a practical model for the entire system, by which enables the economically profitable increment of the utilisation of chip fuels in Central Finland by 100 GWh/1996 and 500 GWh/a (about 250 000 m{sup 3}) to the end of the decade. (orig.)

  5. Public Procurement and Forest Governance: A German Case Study of Governmental Influences on Market-Driven Governance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Albrecht

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased privatization of natural resource regulation, green or sustainable public procurement policies are emerging as incentives for sustainable development. Thus, a revival of governmental influences on so-called non-state, market-driven governance systems takes place. The paper exemplifies this development by reference to the green public procurement directives for wood products in Germany and its influence on major forest certification systems and forest governance. Using an approach of governmentality in relational space, the paper displays how governmental entities play a significant role in influencing forest governance systems and the greening of markets. The importance of the underlying relations that shape governmental instruments and their influences on forest certification and governance are evaluated from a German perspective. Acknowledging the market-driven aspects of forest certification systems, the paper highlights the often-neglected impacts of governmental regulation on emerging forest governance systems. Thus, the framework allows insights into how relations among political entities and their means of knowledge production are essential for processes of forest governance.

  6. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  7. Strategic Use of Government Procurement to Spur Renewable Energy Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    KhairulNaim Adham; Chamhuri Siwar; Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan; Sarah Aziz Abd Ghani Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The energy sectorplays an important rolein Malaysia’s socioeconomic development. However energy productionisthe largest contributor toair pollution. Malaysia’s emission intensity levels of green house gases (GHGs) in the energy sector are above the global average. In this view, government procurement which refers to the acquisition of supplies, services and works by the government plays a vital role as an economic instrument to promote sustainable use of energy - by intensifying the developme...

  8. Forest industries energy reserch: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G C

    1976-01-01

    The forest industries, which contribute 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consume 25% of all industrial energy (including self-generated sources such as waste liquors and wood wastes), were closely investigated to determine the extent to which imported energy sources can be substituted by local sources and savings made in the specific energy consumption of the industry's products. Issues considered as fundamental to the study were conservation of the nation's fossil fuels; nuclear power should be considered only after full study of its implications; restraints on the growth of energy demands; a greater emphasis on renewable energy resources; and new energy-intensive industries must account for the environmental and social costs of providing the energy. The study was commenced in February 1975 and involved a series of visits to all the major plants and a few representative smaller plants. Energy balances for all the major plants were prepared and are published in the text of the report. The forest-based industries have developed from a large number of small scattered sawmills, drawing from indigenous resources into a few large industrial units which are capital-intensive and produce a wide variety of products serving the home and export markets. They fall into four categories, roughly as follows: large integrated units; intermediate-size integrated mills; sawmills and chip plants; and manufacturing.

  9. EU's forest fuel resources, energy technology market and international bioenergy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asikainen, A.; Laitila, J.; Parikka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the project is to provide for the Finnish bioenergy technology, machine and appliance manufactures information about forest fuel resources in the EU and international bioenergy trade mechanisms. The projects results act as an instrument for market potential assessments and provide information to the local energy producer about biomass as an energy source. The possibilities to use forest chips in CHP and heating plants will be investigated in the case studies. Total number of case studies will be 3-4, and they will mainly be located in Eastern Europe, where also large forest resources and utilisation potential are found. Case studies include three main tasks: 1) Assessment of forest fuel resources around the CHP or heating plant. 2) Forest fuel procurement cost study and 3) Study on the economics forest fuel based energy production. The project will be carried out as cooperation between Finnish research institutes and companies, and local actors. First case study was carried out at Poland. (orig.)

  10. Energy from forests: environmental and wildlife implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, D [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Chick, S; Vergara, W

    1981-09-01

    This report analyzes the feasibility of utilizing forests in North America as an energy source. The analysis focuses on three major aspects: (1) the technology of converting wood biomass to energy; (2) the potential of wood as a source of energy; and (3) the environmental implications of using forest products for energy. 49 references, 6 tables.

  11. Forest biomass as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.E. Laks; R.W. Hemingway; A. Conner

    1979-01-01

    The Task Force on Forest Biomass as an Energy Source was chartered by the Society of American Foresters on September 26, 1977, and took its present form following an amendment to the charter on October 5, 1977. It built upon the findings of two previous task forces, the Task Force on Energy and Forest Resources and the Task Force for Evaluation of the CORRIM Report (...

  12. Forest energy project in Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergia -projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M. [Association of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P.J. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is one of the topleading regional demonstration project in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilization. It is a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains are formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they are also demonstrated. The project offers hence a wide test field for regional and national techno/economical wood fuel development. The target of this provincial project is to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilization of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co-operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organizations. An essential target of the project is to direct the know-how, concentrated in the project, to development of the energy field. The project is directed to international information delivery, to concrete widening of cooperation, on transfer of testing and training activities and utilization experiences in the field of wood energy. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels, e.g. energy wood suppliers, energy producers, communes, forest industry, forestry boards, forestry associations, wood delivery contractors, and equipment producers, take part in the project

  13. Forest energy project in Central Finland; Keski-Suomen metsaeenergia -projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, M [Association of Central Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kuitto, P J [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is one of the topleading regional demonstration project in Finland for testing and studying of the complete energy wood delivery chains and energy wood utilization. It is a large development and technology transfer venture concentrated primarily on practical needs. Total delivery chains are formed of the best machine and method alternatives, and they are also demonstrated. The project offers hence a wide test field for regional and national techno/economical wood fuel development. The target of this provincial project is to collect and demonstrate the most promising energy wood procurement technologies and methods for utilization of energy producers, forest industry and small and medium sized industries co-operating with forest owners, contractors and forest organizations. An essential target of the project is to direct the know-how, concentrated in the project, to development of the energy field. The project is directed to international information delivery, to concrete widening of cooperation, on transfer of testing and training activities and utilization experiences in the field of wood energy. The Forest Energy Project of Central Finland is a demonstration project supervised by the Regional Council of Central Finland. The project is a part of the national Bioenergy Research Programme. A large number of provincial partners interested in wood fuels, e.g. energy wood suppliers, energy producers, communes, forest industry, forestry boards, forestry associations, wood delivery contractors, and equipment producers, take part in the project

  14. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for the Energy Procurement Problem in Multi-Period Markets under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Konishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated electricity markets, minimizing the procurement costs of electricity is a critical problem for procurement agencies (PAs. However, uncertainty is inevitable for PAs and includes multiple factors such as market prices, photovoltaic system (PV output and demand. This study focuses on settlements in multi-period markets (a day-ahead market and a real-time market and the installation of energy storage systems (ESSs. ESSs can be utilized for time arbitrage in the day-ahead market and to reduce the purchasing/selling of electricity in the real-time market. However, the high costs of an ESS mean the size of the system needs to be minimized. In addition, when determining the size of an ESS, it is important to identify the size appropriate for each role. Therefore, we employ the concept of a “slow” and a “fast” ESS to quantify the size of a system’s role, based on the values associated with the various uncertainties. Because the problem includes nonlinearity and non-convexity, we solve it within a realistic computational burden by reformulating the problem using reasonable assumptions. Therefore, this study identifies the optimal sizes of ESSs and procurement, taking into account the uncertainties of prices in multi-period markets, PV output and demand.

  15. Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupak Moeller, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, and political action plans at European and national levels exist for an increased use. The use of forest biomass for energy can imply different economic and environmental advantages and disadvantages for the society, the energy sector and forestry. For the achievement of an increased and sustainable use of forest biomass for energy, the EU 5th Framework project WOOD-EN-MAN aimed at synthesising current knowledge and creating new knowledge within the field

  16. Optimized smart grid energy procurement for LTE networks using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can contribute significantly to reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Moreover, introducing renewable energy as an alternative power source has become a real challenge among network operators. In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem that aims to maximize the profit of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operators and to simultaneously minimize the CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired quality of service (QoS). The BS sleeping strategy lends itself to an interesting implementation using several heuristic approaches, such as the genetic (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. In this paper, we propose GA-based and PSO-based methods that reduce the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (renewable energy and electricity retailers), as well. A comparison with another previously proposed algorithm is also carried out to evaluate the performance and the computational complexity of the employed methods.

  17. Energy forest cultivation and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Simon

    1994-01-01

    The place of energy forestry in the landscape is discussed, principally with reference to Britain and Europe. The importance of design as a means of ensuring an attractive appearance, while meeting functional and economic requirements, is stressed. Simple design principles which help energy forests, mainly short rotation arable coppice, to fit into the landscape are suggested. (author)

  18. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Partyka, E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents an overview of the process for successfully planning for and installing solar technology on a federal site. It is specifically targeted to managers of federal buildings and sites, contracting officers, energy and sustainability officers, and regional procurement managers. The solar project process is outlined in a concise, easy-to-understand, step-by-step format. Information includes a brief overview of legislation and executive orders related to renewable energy and the compelling reasons for implementing a solar project on a federal site. It also includes how to assess a facility to identify the best solar installation site, project recommendations and considerations to help avoid unforeseen issues, and guidance on financing and contracting options. Case studies with descriptions of successful solar deployments across multiple agencies are presented. In addition, detailed information and sample documents for specific tasks are referenced with Web links or included in the appendixes. The guide concentrates on distributed solar generation and not large, centralized solar energy generation.

  19. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Partyka, E.

    2010-09-01

    This guide presents an overview of the process for successfully planning for and installing solar technology on a federal site. It is specifically targeted to managers of federal buildings and sites, contracting officers, energy and sustainability officers, and regional procurement managers. The solar project process is outlined in a concise, easy-to-understand, step-by-step format. Information includes a brief overview of legislation and executive orders related to renewable energy and the compelling reasons for implementing a solar project on a federal site. It also includes how to assess a facility to identify the best solar installation site, project recommendations and considerations to help avoid unforeseen issues, and guidance on financing and contracting options. Case studies with descriptions of successful solar deployments across multiple agencies are presented. In addition, detailed information and sample documents for specific tasks are referenced with Web links or included in the appendixes. The guide concentrates on distributed solar generation and not large, centralized solar energy generation.

  20. Energy of forest biomass in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupin, N.; Krivak, B.; Dundovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Forest biomass is organic substance raised in forest ecosystem, consisting of trees and bushes which are used for mechanical processing and thermal use. Croatia, with 44 percent of surface under forests, has the renewable energy potential in forest biomass that could cover as much as about 50 percent of the current heating consumption. The existence of an appropriate heating consume and district heating are a prerequisite for exploitation of the mentioned potential. At the same time, heating consumption enables the utilization of cogeneration plants and the paper gives examples of such possibilities in industry, community and special facilities (sport centres, hotels, hospitals etc.). Among them, the so called 'Croatian energy absurdum' is mentioned. The paper underlines the feasibility of exploitation of forest biomass at the national level and suggests that, in order to promote and accelerate the development of cogeneration plants, the HED expert group should be established. The task of the expert group would be to draft proposal for appropriate measures in this regard and submit it to the Government for consideration.(author)

  1. Summary history of domestic uranium procurement under US Atomic Energy Commission contracts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrethsen, H. Jr.; McGinley, F.E.

    1982-09-01

    During the period 1947 through 1970, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) fostered the rapid development and expansion of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry by providing a market for uranium. Some thirty-two mills were constructed during that period to produce U 3 O 8 concentrates for sale to the AEC. In addition, there were various pilot plants, concentrators, upgraders, heap leach, and solution mining facilities that operated during the period. The purpose of this report is to compile a short narrative history of the AEC's uranium concentrate procurement program and to describe briefly each of the operations that produced uranium for sale to the AEC. Contractual arrangements are described and data are given on quantities of U 3 O 8 purchased and prices paid. Similar data are included for V 2 O 5 , where applicable. Mill and other plant operating data were also compiled from old AEC records. These latter data were provided by the companies, as a contractual requirement, during the period of operation under AEC contracts. Additionally, an effort was made to determine the present status of each facility by reference to other recently published reports. No sites were visited nor were the individual reports reviewed by the companies, many of which no longer exist. The authors relied almost entirely on published information for descriptions of facilities and milling processes utilized

  2. Swedish-Estonian energy forest research cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.; Kirt, E.; Koppel, A.; Kull, K.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, V.; Ross, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Organization of Estonian energetic economy is aimed at cutting the usage of oil, gas and coal and increasing the local resources firewood, oil-shale and peat for fuel. The resources of low-valued firewood-brushwood, fallen deadwood etc. are available during the following 10-15 years, but in the future the cultivation of energy forest (willow) plantations will be actual. During the last 20 years the Swedish scientists have been extensively studying the willow forest selection, cultivation and use in energetics and waste water purification systems. A Swedish-Estonian energy forest research project was started in 1993 between the Swedish Agricultural University on one hand and Toravere Observatory, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Academy of Sciences and Estonian Potato Processing Association on the other hand. In spring 5 willow plantations were established with the help of Swedish colleagues and obtained from Sweden 36000 willow cuttings. The aim of the project: a) To study experimentally and by means of mathematical modelling the biogeophysical aspects of growth and productivity of willow plantations in Sweden and Estonian climatological conditions. b) To study the possibility of using the willow plantations in waste waters purification. c) To study the economical efficiency of energy forest as an energy resource under the economic and environmental conditions of Estonia. d) To study the economic efficiency of willow plantations as a raw material for the basket industry in Estonia. e) To select the most productive and least vulnerable willow clones for practical application in energy plantations. During 1993 in all five plantations detailed analysis of soil properties has been carried out. In the plantation at Toravere Observatory phytometrical measurements were carried out - the growth of plant biomass leaf and stem area, vertical distribution of dry matter content, biomass and phyto area separately for leaves and stems has been performed. Some

  3. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  4. 10 CFR 436.43 - Procurement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement planning. 436.43 Section 436.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.43 Procurement planning. (a) Agencies should consider the...

  5. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network

  6. Buying green! A handbook on green energy procurement. 2nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-10

    Over 2 trillion Euros is spent on public contracts on a yearly basis in the EU, translating to 19 percent of its GDP. ICLEI has been working with the European Commission to produce guidance on green public procurement (GPP) which will help public authorities to reduce their environmental impact, while complying with the procurement rules. The result is the new edition of the Buying Green! handbook. The handbook identifies strategies for GPP, and explains in detail how these can be implemented at each stage of the procurement process. It is intended for public sector procurers but is also a useful reference for policy makers and businesses who are either implementing their own green purchasing or responding to tenders. In addition to explaining how GPP can be implemented under the EU procurement rules, the handbook includes examples of green contracts from across the EU-27. The resource has been fully updated from the previous 2004 edition and includes expanded sections on life-cycle costing (LCC) and the construction, timber, electricity and food and drink sectors.

  7. Nutrient balances in the forest energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Bengt

    2006-02-01

    In Sweden, recycling of stabilised wood-ashes to forests is considered to compensate for nutrient removals from whole-tree harvesting (i.e. use of harvest residues - slash - for energy purposes). This study has analysed nutrient fluxes through the complete forest energy cycle and estimated mass balances of nutrients in harvested biomass with those in ashes, to investigate the realism in large-scale nutrient compensation with wood-ash. Expected nutrient fluxes from forests through energy plants were calculated based on nutrient and biomass data of forest stands in the Nordic countries, and from data on nutrient fluxes through CFB-plants. The expected stoichiometric composition of wood-ashes was compared with the composition of CFB-fly ashes from various Swedish energy plants. Nutrient contents for different tree fractions were calculated to express the average nutrient concentrations in slash and stems with bark, respectively. A nutrient budget synthesis of the effects of whole-tree harvesting on base cation turnover in the following stand was presented for two experimental sites. Major conclusions from the study are: In the CFB-scenario, where the bottom ash is deposited and only the fly ash can be applied to forests, the fly ash from the slash do not meet the demands for nutrient compensation for slash harvesting. Stem material (50% wood, 50% bark) must be added at equivalent amounts, as the slash to produce the amounts of fly ash needed for compensation of slash harvesting. In the scenario where more stem material was added (75% of total fuel load), the amounts of fly ashes produced hardly compensated for nutrient removals with both stem and slash harvesting. The level of nutrient compensation was lowest for potassium. The stoichiometric nutrient composition of CFB-fly ashes from Swedish energy plants is not similar with the nutrient composition of tree biomass. The higher Ca/P ratio in ashes is only partly explained by the mixture of fuels (e.g. increasing bark

  8. Procurement for market transformation for energy-efficient products. A study under the SAVE-programme[SAVE = Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This report summarises the findings from the SAVE study, 'Procurement for Market Transformation for Energy Efficient Products', focusing on the possibility of executing co-operative procurement activities at the European level. The conclusions are based upon findings from 36 market studies carried out in nine European countries regarding four different products: induction motors, solar-energy systems for water heating, office lighting systems, and combined fridge-freezers, as well as practical experience from about 30 procurements carried out by NUTEK in Sweden, and the experience of the IEA DSM Implementing agreement annex III 'Co-operative Procurement of Innovative Technologies'. The study concludes that co-operative procurement is a promising instrument for consideration in combination with other instruments for future energy-efficiency policy at the EU level. By seeking to transform the European market in its totality, the current prevailing differences between national markets can be softened contributing to the completion of a single European market and providing a basis for a more integrated market transformation approach. However, carrying out the process at the EU level is complex and it therefore needs careful designing in order to be successful. A main barrier to measures of this kind being implemented is the lack of experience, and therefore trust in the process as such, which is why further practical experience on both a national and international level is needed. To encourage member states to participate and co-operate whatever the form chosen, the study suggests that concrete and active support from the Commission is an important signalling effect, since the importance of energy efficiency on the political agenda differs considerably between countries that, furthermore, are more or less flexible when it comes to adopting new policy instruments.

  9. Energy balance of a pine forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E.; Dexter, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of the energy balance of a pine forest were initiated at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to gain information on the exchange of gaseous materials between the atmosphere and the forest ecosystem. This information allows better estimates of the deposition velocities of gaseous pollutants necessary for plume calculations and ecosystem modeling studies. Studies to date show that the exchange of water vapor is influenced most by diffusion resistances associated with the vegetative canopy. Vegetative and atmospheric diffusion resistance vary diurnally, with high values occurring at night and low values observed during the day. Thus, water vapor exchange is greatest during the daylight hours. Future plans include measurements of exchange of other gases such as carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide

  10. Optimal selling price and energy procurement strategies for a retailer in an electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, A.R.; Seifi, H.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In an electricity market, the retailer sets up contracts with the wholesale side for purchasing electricity and with the customers for its selling. This paper proposes a mathematical method based on mixed-integer stochastic programming to determine the optimal sale price of electricity to customers and the electricity procurement policy of a retailer for a specified period. The retailer has multiple choices for electricity procurement, such as spot market, forward contracts, call options and self-production. Risk is considered and modeled by conditional value-at-risk methodology. Also, the competition between retailers is modeled using a market share function. A case study is illustrated to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. (author)

  11. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system......‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...

  12. Multi-market energy procurement for a large consumer using a risk-aversion procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Kazem; Conejo, Antonio J.; Carrion, Miguel; Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both the day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. Price uncertainty is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory, which allows deriving robust decisions with respect to price volatility. Risk aversion is built implicitly within the proposed model. Correlations among prices in the day-ahead and the adjustment markets are properly modeled. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  13. Multi-market energy procurement for a large consumer using a risk-aversion procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Kazem [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-111 (Iran); Conejo, Antonio J. [Castilla-La Mancha University, Ciudad Real (Spain); Carrion, Miguel [Castilla-La Mancha University, Toledo (Spain); Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper provides a technique to derive the bidding strategy in the day-ahead market of a large consumer that procures its electricity demand in both the day-ahead market and a subsequent adjustment market. Price uncertainty is modeled using concepts derived from information gap decision theory, which allows deriving robust decisions with respect to price volatility. Risk aversion is built implicitly within the proposed model. Correlations among prices in the day-ahead and the adjustment markets are properly modeled. The proposed technique is illustrated through a realistic case study. (author)

  14. Consequences of forest energy for flora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruuse, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report examines the effects of forest energy on the field layer vegetation, and includes whole-tree harvesting, liming, fertilization, wood ash distribution and the importance of broadleaved trees. Whole-tree harvesting is negative for some of the vascular plant species, and positive for others, and can have a drastically negative effect on lichens, mosses and decomposing fungi. Whole-tree harvesting can be accepted from the viewpoint of the flora if: - between 10 and 30 % of the slash is left on the clearcut area, - hardwood stands or mixed stands with hardwood are excepted from whole-tree harvesting, - dead lying or standing trees, a few broadleaved trees and old trees, are left on the clearcut area. Liming has some effects on the flora, especially a very negative effect on lichens and mosses. Liming can be accepted if; - it only takes place where whole-tree harvesting has been used or where acidification caused by air pollution has been observed, - the amounts are moderate, 2 to 4 tonnes/ha, and the liming material has a rather large grain size, - it is unevenly distributed, and - it is avoided in naturally acid stands with a special vegetation. Fertilization has negative effects on all the considered vegetation groups. It can only be accepted as compensation for whole-tree harvesting, and no more nitrogen must be added than is taken away in the harvest. In southern Sweden even the compensatory fertilization should be avoided. The consequences of wood ash distribution are little known. Until more facts are presented, only enough wood ash as to compensate for the loss through whole-tree harvesting should be distributed. If the use of forest energy would lead to an increase of the broadleaved tree ratio it would be positive. (54 refs.)

  15. 10 CFR 21.31 - Procurement documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement documents. 21.31 Section 21.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE Procurement Documents § 21.31 Procurement documents. Each individual, corporation, partnership, dedicating entity, or other entity subject to the...

  16. 10 CFR 603.1300 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Used in this Part § 603.1300 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement contract. 603.1300 Section 603.1300 Energy... Government and a State, a local government, or other non-government entity when the principal purpose of the...

  17. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  18. Forests, energy and the New Zealand home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, J B

    1976-02-25

    Any increase in output of electrical energy in New Zealand is in the face of mounting capital requirements and increasingly intractable social costs. However, a peculiarity of New Zealand overall energy distribution is the large proportion of electricity (47%) devoted to domestic heat production. Alternative developments in the use of combustion for this purpose are considered and the unique potential of fuelwood in New Zealand highlighted. Logging wastes and thinnings in existing exotic forests could in theory supply more than current calorific requirements. Inconvenience and inefficiency arising from partial combustion, rather than the low calorific value, have eliminated consideration of fuelwood as a serious fuel option. The actual retail price, on a heat value basis, is at present only about one-fifth that of fuel oil and could become much less. Complete combustion of fuelwood is a realisable possibility. A suitable domestic unit might embody controllable forced draught, countercurrent heating of incoming air, and heat-shielding of combustion zone; all heating applications would use the driven steam of effluent gases. One such device is outlined tentatively. Successful development and widespread adoption of such a unit would have considerable material and social benefits for New Zealand. Research costs would be trivial in relation to potential return.

  19. Nordic Forest Energy Solutions in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gerasimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The situation in Karelia, a region in Northwest Russia, is analyzed in the context of forest energy. The annual potential energy available from wood harvesting is about 7 tera watt hours (TWh (3.6 million m3, which is equal to the total need of Karelia in energy for municipal heating. We point out that the contribution to the municipal economy, the moderate heating cost, the enhanced energy security in the cold Russian climate, the environmental friendliness, the better access to the forests and the utilization of the proven Nordic forest energy solutions (NFES might have important consequences for strategy-making processes in forest energy development. For this purpose, connecting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with SWOT (internal strengths (S or weaknesses (W and external opportunities (O or threats (T analysis is proposed to identify local operational strategies and assign priorities. Major threats include lack of government support, an insufficient road network, the dominance of extensive forest management, gasification and financial indiscipline. Analysis indicates that NFES are viewed positively for the Russian conditions. The forest biomass market has virtually unlimited opportunities for growth. Together, with the transition to intensive forest management, favorable policy in terms of forestry development programs can support bioenergy development. The advantageous location of existing power plants next to forests, increasing fossil fuel prices, the improvement of the road network and the availability of new technology are seen as potential opportunities for NFES. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets benefit forest leaseholders who would like to adopt forest energy. The lack of bioenergy technology development, high transportation cost, low awareness of NFES, high demands for roads, the requirement for skilled specialists and wood fuel quality are the main

  20. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  1. Environmental effects of energy forest (short rotation willow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects of producing and combusting energy forest fuel. Energy forest means short rotation willow (Salix). Supposed effects of sewage sludge application are discussed as well. Energy forestry on agricultural land implies both advantages and disadvantages for the environment. Leaf litter (humified leaves) increases the humus content in the top soil. The soil fauna is also positively affected. Until now performed studies about nitrogen leakage from fields cultivated with energy forest (Salix), have not given any distinct results. A retarded drainage within energy forest fields is on the other hand noticed. While the root system of Salix is active during a long period of the year, the nitrogen leakage become less compared to traditional cultivation. The content of plant nutrients and organic matter in sewage sludge make a resource that can be useful for agricultural purposes, especially for energy forest cultivation. The content of heavy metals and organic emissions contradicts sludge application to agricultural land. Sewage sludge with todays quality increases somewhat the content of heavy metals in the soil. This condition can be counteracted to a certain extent by growing energy forest. It has been established that Salix has high ability to heavy metal uptake, especially cadmium. Growing energy forest on drained farm land is connected with a risk for root penetration into the drainage system. With enough water and plant nutrients in the top soil the risk is reduced. Shallow depth of the pipes increases the risk. Combustion of wood chip from energy forests (and other types of biomass) gives especially two advantages. It does not give any net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulphur discharge will be minimal since the sulphur content in wood fuels is low. Discharge of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons may give some problems. These can be reduced by technological measures when combusting. 27 refs, 4 tabs

  2. Sustainable Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telles, Pedro; Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2017-01-01

    and within it how sustainable requirements have increased the level of compliance required, particularly regulatory compliance. Compliance was already present in previous EU public procurement frameworks, but its extent on Directive 2014/24/EU leads the authors to consider the current legal framework...

  3. Demand response and energy efficiency in the capacity resource procurement: Case studies of forward capacity markets in ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingqi

    2017-01-01

    Demand-side resources like demand response (DR) and energy efficiency (EE) can contribute to the capacity adequacy underpinning power system reliability. Forward capacity markets are established in many liberalised markets to procure capacity, with a strong interest in procuring DR and EE. With case studies of ISO New England, PJM and Great Britain, this paper examines the process and trends of procuring DR and EE in forward capacity markets, and the design for integration mechanisms. It finds that the contribution of DR and EE varies wildly across these three capacity markets, due to a set of factors regarding mechanism design, market conditions and regulatory provisions, and the offering of EE is more heavily influenced by regulatory utility EE obligation. DR and EE are complementary in targeting end-uses and customers for capacity resources, thus highlighting the value of procuring them both. System needs and resources’ market potential need to be considered in defining capacity products. Over the long-term, it is important to ensure the removal of barriers for these demand-side resources and the capability of providers in addressing risks of unstable funding and forward planning. For the EDR Pilot in the UK, better coordination with forward capacity auction needs to be achieved. - Highlights: • Trends of demand response and energy efficiency in capacity markets are analysed. • Integration mechanisms, market conditions and regulatory provisions are key factors. • Participation of energy efficiency is influenced by regulatory utility obligations. • Procuring both demand response and energy efficiency in capacity market is valuable. • Critical analysis of the design of capacity products and integration mechanisms.

  4. Optimized smart grid energy procurement for LTE networks using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can contribute significantly to reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off

  5. The Impact of Industrial Context on Procurement, Management and Development of Harvesting Services: A Comparison of Two Swedish Forest Owners Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Erlandsson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing demands to harvesting production and quality require improved management practices. This study’s purpose was to analyze the impact of industrial context on procurement, management, and development of harvesting services. Using interviews, functions were modeled at two forest owners associations (FOAs with outsourced harvesting services. One FOA had its own sawmills, requiring frequent harvesting production adjustments to meet varying volume demand in the short-term. The long-term uncertainty was however low because of good visibility of future demand (>6 months. The other FOA did not own mills and produced wood according to fixed six-month delivery contracts. This meant few short-term production adjustments, but long-term uncertainty due to low visibility of future demand. Demand uncertainty resulted in corresponding needs for harvesting capacity flexibility. This could have been met by a corresponding proportion of short-term contracts for capacity. In this study, however, a large proportion (>90% of long-term contracts was found, motivated by a perceived contractor shortage. It was also noted that although contractor investment cycles (4–6 years matched the FOAs’ strategic horizons (3–5 years, contractors’ investment plans were not considered in the FOAs’ strategic planning. The study concludes with a characterization of different FOA contexts and their corresponding needs for capacity flexibility.

  6. Forecasting forest chip energy production in Finland 2008-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Energy policy measures aim to increase energy production from forest chips in Finland to 10 TWh by year 2010. However, on the regional level production differences are large, and the regional estimates of the potential base of raw materials for the production of forest chips are heterogeneous. In order to analyse the validity of the above target, two methods are proposed to derive forecasts for region-level energy production from forest chips in Finland in the years 2008-2014. The plant-level data from 2003-2007 gives a starting point for a detailed statistical analysis of present and future region-level forest chip production. Observed 2008 regional levels are above the estimated prediction 95% confidence intervals based on aggregation of plant-level time averages. A simple time trend model with fixed-region effects provides accurate forecasts for the years 2008-2014. Forest chip production forecast confidence intervals cover almost all regions for the 2008 levels and the estimates of potential production levels for 2014. The forecast confidence intervals are also derived with re-sampling methods, i.e. with bootstrap methods, to obtain more reliable results. Results confirm that a general materials shortfall is not expected in the near future for forest chip energy production in Finland.

  7. Local Content Requirements in Renewable Energy Schemes - Government Procurement or a Violation of International Obligations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Numerous States have adopted renewable energy schemes aimed at incentivising investments in renewable energy generation capacity that contain local content requirements as an eligibility criterion to obtain support, such as a feed-in tariff. However, these requirements may violate the international

  8. The forest products industry at an energy/climate crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; Baek, Youngsun

    2010-01-01

    Transformational energy and climate policies are being debated worldwide that could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. Because woody biomass can produce alternative transportation fuels, low-carbon electricity, and numerous other 'green' products in addition to traditional paper and lumber commodities, the future use of forest resources is highly uncertain. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), this paper assesses the future of the forest products industry under three possible U.S. policy scenarios: (1) a national renewable electricity standard, (2) a national policy of carbon constraints, and (3) incentives for industrial energy efficiency. In addition, we discuss how these policy scenarios might interface with the recently strengthened U.S. renewable fuels standards. The principal focus is on how forest products including residues might be utilized under different policy scenarios, and what such market shifts might mean for electricity and biomass prices, as well as energy consumption and carbon emissions. The results underscore the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and climate policies in order to moderate electricity and biomass price escalation while strengthening energy security and reducing CO 2 emissions. - Research highlights: →Transformational energy and climate policies such as a national renewable electricity standard, a national policy of carbon constraints, and incentives for industrial energy efficiency could have significant impact upon the future of the forest products industry. →Each policy scenario reduces CO 2 emissions over time, compared to the business-as-usual forecast, with the carbon constrained policy producing the largest decline. As a package, the three policies together could cut CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector by an estimated 41% by 2030. →This study underscores the value of incentivizing energy efficiency in a portfolio of energy and

  9. Wind energy availability above gaps in a forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Mann, Jakob; Dellwik, Ebba

    2009-01-01

    installation strategies. The canopy-planetary boundary-layer model SCADIS is used to investigate the effect of forest gap size (within the diameter range of 3 - 75 tree heights, h) on wind energy related variables. A wind turbine was assumed with following features: the hub height and rotor diameter of 3.5h...... were estimated from modelled data. The results show that the effect of the forest gaps with diameters smaller than 55h on wind energy captured by the assumed wind turbine and located in the centre of round low-roughness gap is practically insignificant. The high level of spatial variation of considered......There is a lack of data on availability of wind energy above a forest disturbed by clear-cuts, where a wind energy developer may find an opportunity to install a wind farm. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can provide spatial patterns of wind and turbulence, and help to develop optimal...

  10. Role of forest biomass energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Forest biomass holds a significant position for energy production in developing countries. Its importance is elucidated through various activities performed by the rural industries. The socio-economic and environmental aspects in utilizing this type of energy are also discussed. (Author)

  11. Mainstreaming Governance in Tajikistan through its Energy, Extractives, and Public Procurement Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulova, Kristina; Johns, Kimberly; Kunicova, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The governance partnership facility (GPF) supported program mainstreaming governance in Tajikistan portfolio (FY2010-14) was a landmark achievement in applying governance analysis and looking for entry points to improve transparency and accountability in key sectors in Tajikistan. This brief provides recommendations from its energy-efficiency audit, the extractive industries sector, and pu...

  12. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  13. 36 CFR 1207.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement. 1207.36 Section 1207.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES... resonableness can be established on the basis of a catalog or market price of a commercial product sold in...

  14. Remote sensing mapping of carbon and energy fluxes over forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, G.J.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Pelgrum, H.; Mücher, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the EU project "Carbon and water fluxes of Mediterranean forests and impacts of land use/cover changes". The objectives of the project can be summarized as follows: (I) surface energy balance mapping using remote sensing, (ii) carbon uptake mapping using remote

  15. Future of forest energy in Europe in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riala, M.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The need to increase the use of forest energy is connected to the EU goals for use of renewable energy. If the targets are to be reached, forest energy should play a role. The share of forest energy out of all renewable energy will vary between countries. This study focuses on the future of forest energy. The method chosen was a two-round dissensus-based Delphi. The respondents consisted of members of the COST action FP 0902 and in the second round also of members of the RoK-FOR programme. Most of the respondents were experts in the field of forestry, from more than 20 countries. The first section of the survey addressed the issue of trends and operational environment. The respondents assessed the likelihood and desirability of several trends happening by 2030. They also, for example, estimated the increase in use of forest energy and the constraints to its use. There seemed to be a strong belief in technological development and beneficial policy interventions, but the respondents also recognised the problematic competitive situation in relation to other sources of energy. In terms of technological development, the experts saw that the main challenge to address is transport and logistics. This included a wide range of different issues, such as the handling of bulky, low-value product in an efficient way. The experts saw greatest development potential in improving energy density before transport, and multi-tree handling. Driver-assisting systems would be particularly useful in helping with the planning of felling, e.g. in the case of placing of tracks. Labour shortages are also a pertinent issue. The respondents gave many suggestions on ways to attract new workers to forestry, for example by increasing the salary to the level of manufacturing industry, and by promoting forestry as an environmentally friendly and technologically advanced employer. Overall, this report describes some alternative future prospects, which could be achieved by decisive action. Hopefully

  16. National procurement of private-sector treatment for U.S. Department of Energy mixed low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Jones, D.W.; Seeker, W.R.; Alex, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated

  17. National procurement of private-sector treatment for U.S. Department of Energy mixed low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.; Jones, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Seeker, W.R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Alex, L.J. [Committee for Environmental Management, Washington (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The cost of bringing DOE into compliance with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act may be dramatically reduced if the private sector treats DOE mixed low level waste. If the DOE clearly defines this market by using national procurement contracts, the private sector will be able to decide if investing in DOE waste treatment contracts is good business. DOE can structure the mixed waste treatment market to influence the profitability of the contracts and to influence the quality of private sector responses. National procurement contracts will incorporate advice from the private sector so that issues of concern to industry are adequately incorporated.

  18. Energy from the forests in Mediterranean countries; L'energie forestiere dans les pays mediterraneens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Montgolfier, J. [Strasbourg Univ., Alsace (France). Ecole nationale du genie de l' eau et de l' environnement

    2009-07-15

    Lands around the Mediterranean Sea have unique forested areas because of the climate that is characterized by dry summers and mild and rainy winters. The article described how communities in the Mediterranean have relied on forested areas as a source of wood energy for generations. It discussed the social and economic importance of Mediterranean forests, particularly for rural people in the south and east Mediterranean where forested areas play a role in the fight against poverty and food security. The damage to these areas resulting from forest neglect or overuse include an irreversible loss of biodiversity, risk of fire and the associated impacts. The role of sustainable forest management in the mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change was also discussed. 2 figs.

  19. Procurement and participation opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovatt, D.

    1998-01-01

    The elements which drive the Sable Offshore Energy Project and its procurement processes were described. The project is privately financed, hence business practices must adhere to strict principles to be able to compete with alternative energy sources and to ensure success for all stakeholders including owners, contractors, suppliers and the business community. One of the objectives of the project is to adhere to the requirements of applicable legislation and not to compromise health, safety and environmental standards. To ensure this compliance by all concerned, the regulatory requirements are embedded in the contracting and procurement procedures. Details of the procurement cycle are described. A list of some of the successes that Nova Scotian companies have had in getting work on the project was provided as an illustration of the ingenuity and foresight of these companies to develop appropriate quality assurance and health, safety and environmental procedures, and to bring in the needed capacity and technology through the formation of joint ventures and alliances. The list of contracts represents more than 100 million dollars worth of work to date. 3 figs

  20. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  1. Fuel forests: a spreading energy resource in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N J.H.

    1981-09-01

    The fuel potential of forests, particularly in Third World countries, to raise the contribution of fuelwood to global energy resources is receiving positive notice in the incentive programs for forestry projects offered by lending institutions and actions taken by governments to arrest the loss of forest cover. Residential and industrial use of wood must be balanced by rigorous woodland protection and management to increase tree planting. The example of Korea's success in increasing fuelwood supplies illustrates the importance of public understanding and community involvement so that local environmental and cultural factors are considered and local leaders are involved. 56 references, 1 table. (DCK)

  2. Biomass energy, forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Hall, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO 2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO 2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO 2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

  3. Towards energy self sufficiency in the North: Energy conservation and forest biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A symposium was held to address the issues of controlling energy demand through conservation, and increasing the range of energy supply using forest products (biomass) as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels in Canada's northern climates. Sections on retrofitting of thermal insulation, production of wood fuels, and unconventional energy analyses of these technologies are included. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 23 papers.

  4. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  5. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Low Energy Hydrogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Müller

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The North-east German Lowlands is a region with one of the highest forest fire risks in Europe. In order to keep damage levels as low as possible, it is important to have an effective early warning system. Such a system is being developed on the basis of a hydrogen sensor, which makes it possible to detect a smouldering forest fire before the development of open flames. The prototype hydrogen sensor produced at the Humboldt University Berlin has a metal/ solid electrolyte/insulator/ semiconductor (MEIS structure, which allows cost-effective production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarchic working unit could be installed in the forest. Field trials have shown that it is possible to identify a forest fire in its early stages when hydrogen concentrations are still low. A significant change in the signal due to a fire was measured at a distance of about 100m. In view of the potential impacts of climate change, the innovative pre-ignition warning system is an important early diagnosis and monitoring module for the protection of the forests.

  6. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  7. Summertime influences of tidal energy advection on the surface energy balance in a mangrove forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Barr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove forests are ecosystems susceptible to changing water levels and temperatures due to climate change as well as perturbations resulting from tropical storms. Numerical models can be used to project mangrove forest responses to regional and global environmental changes, and the reliability of these models depends on surface energy balance closure. However, for tidal ecosystems, the surface energy balance is complex because the energy transport associated with tidal activity remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify impacts of tidal flows on energy dynamics within a mangrove ecosystem. To address the research objective, an intensive 10-day study was conducted in a mangrove forest located along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park, FL, USA. Forest–atmosphere turbulent exchanges of energy were quantified with an eddy covariance system installed on a 30-m-tall flux tower. Energy transport associated with tidal activity was calculated based on a coupled mass and energy balance approach. The mass balance included tidal flows and accumulation of water on the forest floor. The energy balance included temporal changes in enthalpy, resulting from tidal flows and temperature changes in the water column. By serving as a net sink or a source of available energy, flood waters reduced the impact of high radiational loads on the mangrove forest. Also, the regression slope of available energy versus sink terms increased from 0.730 to 0.754 and from 0.798 to 0.857, including total enthalpy change in the water column in the surface energy balance for 30-min periods and daily daytime sums, respectively. Results indicated that tidal inundation provides an important mechanism for heat removal and that tidal exchange should be considered in surface energy budgets of coastal ecosystems. Results also demonstrated the importance of including tidal energy advection in mangrove biophysical models that are used for predicting ecosystem

  8. Minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost in electricity markets based on the prediction error of energy consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hori, Maiya; Ideguchi, Yoshinari

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a method for minimising the expectation value of the procurement cost of electricity in two popular spot markets: {\\it day-ahead} and {\\it intra-day}, under the assumption that expectation value of unit prices and the distributions of prediction errors for the electricity demand traded in two markets are known. The expectation value of the total electricity cost is minimised over two parameters that change the amounts of electricity. Two parameters depend only on t...

  9. Drivers behind the development of forest energy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The use of forest fuels has more than doubled in Sweden over the last 25-30 years. Almost a fifth of the utilized energy is now based on forest biomass. Concurrently, real prices of bioenergy have decreased to less than a third of what they were 25 years ago. Some principal driving forces behind this development are identified and discussed in this paper. The origin of this development was equally the result of a foreseen shortage of fibre and a reaction to this vulnerable position, made obvious through the 'oil crises'. Although Sweden has a long tradition of large-scale use of forest energy, 35 years ago she was almost totally dependent on imported oil. Forest mechanisation provided rational solutions to handling small diameter wood and stumps in conventional industrial processes, but also enabled the economical use of such wood for energy. During 3 decades of development, drivers and obstacles have shifted. What started to reduce dependence on fossil fuels was later driven by increased general environmental awareness. An emerging 'green' lobby blocked the development of nuclear power and expanded harnessing of hydropower which were alternative means of self-sufficiency. In the last 10-15 years, focus has changed again. Global concern for climatic change due to emissions of greenhouse gases is a powerful driver, endorsing increased use of CO 2 -neutral energy sources. Sustainability, resource cycling and the welfare of future generations are seen as goals for continued development. Ideals and policies do not, however, automatically induce change in regular operations. A set of drivers is identified, that has played the decisive role in practice. These include the direct technical-operational drivers, as well as indirect drivers through market development, taxation and other legislation

  10. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  11. Forest availabilities for energy and materials by 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Antoine; Pilate, Marion; Py, Nicolas; Thivolle-Cazat, Alain; Bouvet, Alain; Rantien, Caroline; Buitrago, Miriam; Mousset, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    In order to reduce its dependency on fossil energies and to struggle against effects of climate change, France defined an ambitious objective of 40 per cent for biomass in its renewable energy mix by 2020, with a large part of forestry products. This study aims at determining future exploitable wood volumes, in quantity as well as in quality by 2035, in order to support the elaboration of national and regional forest-wood policies. By using several data (in situ measurements, maps of private forests, regulatory zoning maps), a precise and realistic assessment of exploitable volumes has been performed. The authors also assessed capacities of the French forest to meet production objectives which could be defined for the twenty years to come. Two scenarios have been used in the implemented models: a scenario of constant forestry (same practices as now over 20 years) and a scenario of progressive dynamic management (evolution of species to obtain an increase of volume production). Wood availabilities are distributed among different potential uses: construction, industry and energy, and small woods. Unworkable volumes are taken into account. Demand is also modelled according to different market scenarios, and results obtained by supply scenarios and demand scenarios are compared

  12. Interest in energy wood and energy crop production among Finnish non-industrial private forest owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Jaervinen, E.; Latvala, T.; Toivonen, R.; Silvennoinen, H.

    2009-01-01

    EU targets and regulations regarding energy production and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been tightening in the 2000s. In Finland the targets are planned to be achieved mainly by increasing the use of biomass. Wood already accounts for a marked proportion of Finnish energy production, but additional reserves are still available. Energy crop production also has considerable potential. Practically all Finnish farmers are also forest owners. Therefore, private forest owners are in a decisive position regarding the supply of energy wood and crops in Finland. In this paper the future supply of biomass is examined according to their past behaviour, intentions and attitudes. Finnish forest owners have a positive attitude towards the use of wood and crops in energy production. Price is becoming more critical as a motive for the supply of energy wood. Recreation and nature conservation play a smaller role than factors related to wood production and forest management as for motives for harvesting energy wood. However, almost a half of forest owners in this study were uncertain of their willingness to supply biomass. This is partly due to limited knowledge of the issues involved in energy wood and agricultural energy crop production and the underdeveloped markets for energy biomass. In order to achieve the targets, supply should be activated by further developing market practices, information, guidance and possibly other incentives for landowners. In general, there is interest among landowners in increasing the supply of energy biomass. However, the growth of supply presumes that production is an economically attractive and competitive alternative, that the markets are better organized than at present, and that more comprehensive information is available about bioenergy and biomass markets and production techniques.

  13. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...

  14. Procurement Tracking System (PTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  15. Discriminatory public procurement policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssennoga, Francis

    2010-01-01

    To achieve social economic objectives, governments usually institute discriminatory practices in their country’s public procurement framework. Discriminatory procurement is the practice by governments to favour their own domestic suppliers over foreign firms for advertised contracts. Favouring

  16. Public procurement process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG Policy Brief: April 2017. Public ... transparency in public procurement; and greater concerns about efficiency, fairness, and equity. ... government enacted the Public Procurement Act (2007) [1] which provides legislative framework for.

  17. Management of tropical forests for products and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John I. Zerbe

    1992-01-01

    Tropical forests have always been sources for prized timbers, rubber, tannin, and other forest products for use worldwide. However, with the recent concern regarding global change, the importance of effective forest products management and utilization has increased significantly. The USDA Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, Wisconsin, has...

  18. Procurement Career Management Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is the result of the Treasury Department's efforts to increase professionalism among its procurement employees nationwide through its Procurement Career Management Program. First, the scope and objectives of the Procurement Career Management Program are discussed. The remaining sections of the handbook deal with the following program…

  19. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  20. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  1. Forest biomass diversion in the Sierra Nevada: Energy, economics and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Springsteen; Thomas Christofk; Robert A. York; Tad Mason; Stephen Baker; Emily Lincoln; Bruce Hartsough; Takuyuki Yoshioka

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to open pile burning, use of forest wastes from fuel hazard reduction projects at Blodgett Forest Research Station for electricity production was shown to produce energy and emission benefits: energy (diesel fuel) expended for processing and transport was 2.5% of the biomass fuel (energy equivalent); based on measurements from a large pile...

  2. Use of forest biomass to provide energy in a context of sustainable rural development - Three case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Lopera, Jose Antonio

    2000-01-01

    The author includes topics like energy and global climatic change; sustainable development and study of cases (conservation and restoration of forests in the Atrato, pacific Colombian, forest handling, forest handling and forest systems in the Colombian Amazonian and conversion of subjected lands to cattle rising and itinerant agriculture to forest and other systems

  3. Energy partitioning at treeline forest and tundra sites and its sensitivity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, P.M. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada); Rouse, W.R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A study was conducted to examine the inter-annual variability in energy fluxes of treeline tundra and forest and to investigate the sensitivity of forest and tundra energy balances to climatic changes. A five year record of energy balance data from contiguous wetland tundra and subarctic forest sites near Churchill, Manitoba was analyzed. The data included snow free periods only. Wind direction was used as an analogue for changing climatic conditions where onshore winds are cooler and moister than offshore winds. Sensible and latent heat fluxes at both sites varied significantly between onshore and offshore wind regimes. The differences between onshore and offshore fluxes at the tundra site were larger than for the forest. The tundra-to-forest Bowen ratios decreased with increasing vapour pressure deficit and increasing air temperature. Results suggest that energy partitioning in the wetland tundra is more sensitive to climate change than in the treeline forests. 22 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. Modeling future U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in wood energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew D. Kramp; Kenneth E. Skog; Do-il Yoo; V. Alaric Sample

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to modeling U.S. forest sector market and trade impacts of expansion in domestic wood energy consumption under hypothetical future U.S. wood biomass energy policy scenarios. The U.S. Forest Products Module (USFPM) was created to enhance the modeling of the U.S. forest sector within the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM), providing a...

  5. Indonesia - Procurement Modernization

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation seeks to establish evidence on the possible effects of an intervention designed to modernize public procurement: effects on cost savings, performance...

  6. Public Procurement and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    be understood as a special case of innovation, where social processes – and consequently the institutions governing these social processes – need to be considered. This book contributes to our understanding with a detailed institutional analysis of the public procurement of innovation.......Max Rolfstam examines the increasing emphasis on public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation and the theoretical implications of this policy development. While ‘regular’ public procurement may be regarded as the outcome of anonymous market processes, public procurement of innovation must...

  7. Energy efficiency in U.S. Forest Service facilities: a multiregion review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachelle S. Meyer; David L. Nicholls; Trista M. Patterson; Rachel E. White

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed energy efficiency measures in facilities across the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, examining opportunities and obstacles, and identifying factors of project success. The adoption of energy efficiency measures at Forest Service sites was seen to be most likely when decision control was local to the site and when budget timing and structures...

  8. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  9. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  10. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  11. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Forest Management Act (NFMA); Executive Order (E.O.) 13212, which states increased production and... Service Handbooks 2609.13 and 2709.11; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 150 / Thursday..., Forest Service Handbooks 2609.13 and 2709.11 AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of issuance of...

  12. Stakeholder perspectives on converting forest biomass to energy in Oregon, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stidham, Melanie; Simon-Brown, Viviane [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Within the state of Oregon, USA, there is considerable interest in the possibility of converting forest biomass to energy. A number of studies have assessed the technical feasibility of forest biomass energy, but few have focused on social aspects, an important consideration in projects involving public forests. This study explores the social context of converting forest biomass to energy, using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty individuals representing nine different stakeholder groups. Information gained through interviews was used to understand stakeholder views on forest biomass energy, including their perspectives on potential barriers and opportunities in Oregon. Findings indicate the most challenging barrier will be access to long-term, consistent supply. A related challenge is the long history of contention between parties over forest products coming from public lands. However, findings also show that there are many areas of common ground between these groups that have historically been at odds, such as agreement on the necessity of restoration treatments in certain forest types, the by-product of which could be used for biomass generation. Potential conflicts still exist, for instance over projects in mixed conifer forests. Development of policies and projects through inclusive, collaborative approaches could alleviate controversies, potentially allowing more activities to move forward. Information provided by this research creates a foundation for discussions as forest biomass energy becomes an increasingly prominent issue in Oregon, the western USA, and other regions of the world. (author)

  13. Organ procurement: Spanish transplant procurement management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyalich, Martí; Mestres, Carlos A; Ballesté, Chloë; Páez, Gloria; Valero, Ricard; Gómez, María Paula

    2011-06-01

    Transplantation is an accepted therapeutic option to save or improve the quality of life when organ failure occurs or tissue replacements are needed. However, the lack of organs is the major limitation. The deceased organ procurement organization and professionals provide the solution to this international problem. In this review, we identify the elements involved in the organ procurement management process to analyze the possibility of implementation of deceased organ procurement for a transplantation program. While the donation rates are subject to several negative factors including religious, economic, cultural, and legal issues, the existence of well-trained professionals may considerably increase them. Professional training in organ donation along with the establishment of a solid organizational system has been identified as the crucial factor in developing efficient organ donation and transplantation programs.

  14. New Energy Landscapes of Pennsylvania: Forests to Farms to Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah A.

    landscapes such as clear-cut forests, coal mining, and conventional drilling that linger in forests, in the minds of older residents, and photos of the past. Contest ensues between "green forces" and industry that utilize different tools for land use control. Differences surface between what the oil and gas industry knew before, and what it is learning in the early 21st century. The magnitude of shale gas technology includes larger and more sophisticated machinery, higher pressured fracking, increased material amounts, varied land use, and impact on public infrastructure. Cultural differences occur between Texan gas field workers and local Pennsylvanians generated by different physical geography, climate, and regulatory framework. Further findings demonstrate a wide gap in communication between those of differing ideologies. Some stakeholders show up in the matrix as "omitted" from decision-making including small businesses and conventional drillers, public health sector professionals, and water well drillers. Other findings show an unwillingness to share in the costs of energy development. Interviewees explain the costs that they endure as the country pursues energy security, while others outside of Pennsylvania take in only the benefits. Over time, society conforms as a new "normal" is formed. All of this takes place while the world is watching Pennsylvania evolve through the early stages and unknown outcomes of shale gas extraction.

  15. Food, Paper, Wood, or Energy? Global Trends and Future Swedish Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Westholm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a futures study of international forest trends. The study, produced as part of the Swedish Future Forest program, focuses on global changes of importance for future Swedish forest use. It is based on previous international research, policy documents, and 24 interviews with selected key experts and/or actors related to the forest sector, and its findings will provide a basis for future research priorities. The forest sector, here defined as the economic, social, and cultural contributions to life and human welfare derived from forest and forest-based activities, faces major change. Four areas stand out as particularly important: changing energy systems, emerging international climate policies, changing governance systems, and shifting global land use systems. We argue that global developments are, and will be, important for future Swedish forest use. The forest sector is in transition and forest-, energy, climate- and global land use issues are likely to become increasingly intertwined. Therefore, the “forest sector” must be disembedded and approached as an open system in interplay with other systems.

  16. Costs, CO{sub 2}- and primary energy balances of forest-fuel recovery systems at different forest productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Here we examine the cost, primary energy use, and net carbon emissions associated with removal and use of forest residues for energy, considering different recovery systems, terrain, forwarding distance and forest productivity. We show the potential recovery of forest fuel for Sweden, its costs and net carbon emissions from primary energy use and avoided fossil carbon emissions. The potential annual net recovery of forest fuel is about 66 TWh, which would cost one billion EUR{sub 2005} to recover and would reduce fossil emissions by 6.9 Mt carbon if coal were replaced. Of the forest fuel, 56% is situated in normal terrain with productivity of >30 t dry-matter ha{sup -1} and of this, 65% has a forwarding distance of <400 m. In normal terrain with >30 t dry-matter ha{sup -1} the cost increase for the recovery of forest fuel, excluding stumps, is around 4-6% and 8-11% for medium and longer forwarding distances, respectively. The stump and small roundwood systems are less cost-effective at lower forest fuel intensity per area. For systems where loose material is forwarded, less dry-matter per hectare increases costs by 6-7%, while a difficult terrain increases costs by 3-4%. Still, these systems are quite cost-effective. The cost of spreading ash is around 40 EUR{sub 2005} ha{sup -1}, while primary energy use for spreading ash in areas where logging residues, stumps, and small roundwood are recovered is about 0.025% of the recovered bioenergy. (author)

  17. Communication on climate, energy, natural gas and forests as a problem for energy planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Danish energy planning has since its inception in the end of the 1970s been politically controversial, which led to language problems of communicating on alternatives (natural gas, nuclear energy). But previously alternative scenarios were in the 1990s successfully transformed into law...... that it can happen on the ground of wrong premises (on CO2 neutrality e.g.) that a shift say from natural gas to wood combustion can be interpreted as a solution to climate problems, whereas this in reality aggravates them. Not the least because forests because of continuously high emissions of CO2...

  18. Procurement with Specialized Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Schottmuller, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal procurement mechanisms in a setting where the procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms’ cost functions and cares about quality as well as price. Low type firms are cheaper than high type firms in providing low quality but more expensive when

  19. Procurement with specialized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Jan; Schottmuller, C.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze optimal procurement mechanisms when firms are specialized. The procurement agency has incomplete information concerning the firms' cost functions and values high quality as well as low price. Lower type firms are cheaper (more expensive) than higher type firms when providing low (high)

  20. Heat storage in forest biomass improves energy balance closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation very well. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy covariance

  1. Protect and bring up forest of Kuse Town. New energy vision at Kuse Town area; 2001 nendo Kuse cho chiiki shin energy vision. Kuse no mori to machi wo mamori sodateru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    With an objective of accelerating introduction of and uplifting consciousness on new energies at Kuse Town in Okayama Prefecture, investigations and discussions were given on the current situation of energy demand, quantity of new energies available, and the idea of introducing new energies, thus a new energy vision was established. The estimated amount of energy consumption in Kuse Town is 304,768 MWh/year, and the amount of carbon dioxide discharge associated therewith is 22,300 t-C. Regarding the energy consumption by departments, the industrial department accounts for 40%, followed by the transportation department accounting for 30%. The basic new energy introduction ideas have discussed town resident enlightenment and town resident participation projects, bio-mass energy utilization, such as bark combustion plant, procurement of wood resources remaining in forest, ligneous pellet and transportation fuel manufacture, utilization of edible oil into diesel fuel, introduction of photovoltaic power generation at public facilities and places of refuge, introduction of solar heat utilization system into public facilities and homes, large size wind power generation project, introduction of small size wind power generation into road illumination and places of refuge at disaster, small hydro-energy utilization system, and introduction of clean energy fueled automobiles and fuel cells. (NEDO)

  2. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...

  3. Chinese academic experts' assessment for forest bio-energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Mei; Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Tahvanainen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Paavo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current situation of the forest bio-energy development in China. This assessment is based on opinions of Chinese academic experts. Key drivers and uncertainties regarding the implementation, and the strategies for the future practices in the development of forest bio-energy were investigated. In addition, the purpose of this study was also to determine whether there is a consensus among the experts concerning forest bio-energy and if this consensus agrees with policy-makers in China. A thorough assessment was conducted using a two-round Delphi survey of sixty-one bio-energy experts in China. The results revealed the advantages, potential problems, and the experts' recommendations for the future development. Furthermore, the experts agreed that the Chinese government plays a dominant role in the development process of forest bio-energy in the country. The experts recognized that the process of developing forest bio-energy is a challenging task both domestically and globally. At the same time they also highlighted the potential benefits of developing forest bio-energy in China during the next ten years. The outcomes of this study could be used to give advice to policy-makers and to support the implementation of the future forest bio-energy policies in China.

  4. Towards an ecologically sustainable energy production based on forest biomass - Forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegaard, Pia-Maria; Aakerback, Nina; Sahlen, Kenneth; Sundell, Markus [Swedish Polytechnic, Vasa (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The project is a collaboration between Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences in Umeaa, Swedish Polytechnic, Finland in Vaasa and the Finnish Forest Research Institute in Kannus. Today there are pronounced goals within the EU that lead towards an ecologically sustainable community and there is also a global goal to decrease net carbon dioxide emissions. These goals involve among other things efforts to increase the use of renewable biofuel as energy source. This will result in an enlarged demand for biomass for energy production. Therefore, the forest resources in the Nordic countries will be required for energy production to a far greater extent in the future. One way to meet this increased tree biomass demand is to increase forest tree growth through supply of nutrients, of which nitrogen is the most important. Organic nutrient rich waste matter from the society, such as sewage sludge and mink and fox manure compost from fur farms might be used as forest fertilizer. This would result in increased supply of renewable tree biomass, decreased net carbon dioxide emissions, increased forest ecosystem carbon sequestration, decreased methane emissions from sewage sludge landfill and decreased society costs for sludge landfill or incineration. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop methods for forest fertilisation with nutrient rich organic waste matter from municipal wastewater, sludge and manure from mink and fox farms. The project may be divided into three main parts. The first part is the chemical composition of the fertiliser with the objective to increase the nitrogen content in sludge-based fertilisers and in compost of mink and fox manure. The second part involves the technique and logistics for forest fertilisation i.e., to develop application equipment that may be integrated in existing forest technical systems. The third part consists of field fertilisation investigations and an environmental impact assessment

  5. Temperate forest impacts on maritime snowpacks across an elevation gradient: An assessment of the snow surface energy balance and airborne lidar derived forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. R.; Nolin, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate forests modify snow evolution patterns both spatially and temporally relative to open areas. Dense, warm forests both impede snow accumulation through increased canopy snow interception and increase sub-canopy longwave energy inputs onto the snow surface. These process modifications vary in magnitude and duration depending on climatic, topographic and forest characteristics. Here we present results from a four year study of paired forested and open sites at three elevations, Low - 1150 m, Mid - 1325 m and High - 1465 m. Snowpacks are deeper and last up to 3-4 weeks longer at the Low and Mid elevation Open sites relative to the adjacent Forest sites. Conversely, at the High Forest site, snow is retained 2-4 weeks longer than the Open site. This change in snowpack depth and persistence is attributed to deposition patterns at higher elevations and forest structure differences that alter the canopy interception efficiency and the sub-canopy energy balance. Canopy interception efficiency (CIE) in the Low and Mid Forest sites, over the duration of the study were 79% and 76% of the total event snowfall, whereas CIE was 31% at the High Forest site. Longwave radiation in forested environments is the primary energy component across each elevation band due to the warm winter environment and forest presence, accounting for 82%, 88%, and 59% of the energy balance at the Low, Mid, and High Forest sites, respectively. High wind speeds in the High elevation Open site significantly increases the turbulent energy and creates preferential snowfall deposition in the nearby Forest site. These results show the importance of understanding the effects of forest cover on sub-canopy snowpack evolution and highlight the need for improved forest cover model representation to accurately predict water resources in maritime forests.

  6. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  7. Conflicts in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lindskog

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of years, there has been a tendency to include more and more political goals into public procurements, such as environmental and societal considerations. This can result in higher prices paid by the public sector compared with similar procurements in the private sector. The decision makers at local level are elected and should represent the interest of their communities and voters, which includes promoting regional/local companies and economic development. This task can sometimes get into conflict with public procurement law or the political goals of a central government. (original abstract

  8. Brexit and government procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Kamala

    2017-01-01

    This briefing paper looks at some of the legal issues that will affect the UK’s public procurement laws and policies following Brexit. For, once the UK revokes the European Communities Act 1972, it will no longer be obligated to follow the EU Procurement Directives, nor will it be subject to the commitments the EU has signed up to on behalf of the UK in the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) and in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Additionally, under the Devolution Settlement of ...

  9. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  10. Ukraine : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the country procurement assessment are to diagnose the public procurement system in Ukraine, assess compatibility of the country's laws, policies and procedures with international best practices, review compliance with the procurement laws and regulations and identify areas for improvement of the procurement system in Ukraine. With due recognition of the considerable...

  11. Croatia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Based on the CPAR's analysis of the legislative framework, procurement practices, institutional capacity and the opportunity for corruption, the assessment found that the environment for conducting public procurement in Croatia is average. This report makes a series of recommendations designed to strengthen the public procurement environment of Croatia, including legislative reform, improving procurement procedures and practices, institutional reform, capacity building, and the development of...

  12. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In

  13. Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylitalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    A specific Action Plan for Renewable Energy was introduced in 1999 in order to increase the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Finland. The Plan was renewed in 2002, taking into account a revision of the goals defined in the statements given by the Parliament in the de-bate on national Climate Strategy and the decision on building a new nuclear power plant. The main reason for increasing the consumption of renewable energy is the aim of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases caused by fossil fuels. The renewed Action Plan includes aims and means of how to increase the consumption of renewable energy in practice in the future. Specific goals for separate renewable energy sources were set for the years 2005, 2010 and 2025. Proportional targets were set for the consumption of forest chips: in 2010 consumption is expected to be four times larger than in 2001 and in 2025 seven times larger. In Finland, the most important source for renewable energy is wood and wood waste, which currently makes up approximately 20 per cent of total energy consumption. Wood waste (incl. waste liquor and solid wood waste) produced by the forest industries can be considered as being fully utilized at the moment. Therefore, the most important means of increasing the consumption of wood energy in the future is in the utilisation of forest chips resources. Since 2000, the Finnish Forest Re-search Institute has compiled statistics on the consumption of forest chips and forest industry by-products used in energy generation. One aim of these statistics is to monitor the fruition of the Action Plan mentioned. In 2003, the volume of forest chips consumed in energy generation was 2.1 mill. m3, i.e. approximately five per cent of all energy sources consumed. According to the statistics, the consumption of forest chips has doubled during the period 2000-2003 with an annual average increase of 0.4 mill. m 3 . The goals set in the Action Plan can be considered to be high. In order to achieve

  14. Evolving Procurement Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey

    Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... and external contingency factors and having a more detailed look at the structural dimensions chosen, beyond the well-known characteristics of centralization, formalization, participation, specialization, standardization and size. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be leveraged...

  15. Sustainable Bridge Infrastructure Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safi, Mohammed; Du, Guangli; Simonsson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a flexible but systematic approach for integrating lifecycle aspects into bridge investment decisions is a major obstacle hindering the procurement of sustainable bridge infrastructures. This paper addresses this obstacle by introducing a holistic approach that agencies could use...... to procure the most “sustainable” (lifecycle-efficient) bridge through a fair design-build (D-B) tendering process, considering all the main aspects: life-cycle cost (LCC), service life-span, aesthetic demands and environmental impacts (LCA)....

  16. Drug procurement and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, V S

    2003-03-01

    A strong drug procurement and management system under the RNTCP is critical to programme success. Significant improvements in manufacturing, inspection, supply, storage and quality control practices and procedures have been achieved due to an intensive RNTCP network. Drugs used in RNTCP are rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and streptomycin. Patients of TB are categorised into I, II and III and each category has a different standarised treatment. Procurement, distribution system and quality assurance of drugs are narrated in brief in this article.

  17. Small Business Procurement Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  18. Fighting corruption in tactical procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Obanda Wanyama, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Vast amount of public resources are spent on procurement. Effective public procurement yields additional budget space, hence it ought to be conducted with due diligence. However, public procurement most especially tactical procurement in local governments in Uganda is vulnerable to corruption. In this thesis we analyze how tactical procurement can be managed to fight corruption and promote integrity in the decentralized context in local governments in Uganda. Specifically, we identify the mos...

  19. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  20. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  1. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  2. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  3. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  4. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif; Bergh, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO 2equiv if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission.

  5. Primary energy and greenhouse gas implications of increasing biomass production through forest fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Bergh, Johan [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Oestersund (Sweden); Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp (Sweden)

    2010-04-15

    In this study we analyze the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of increasing biomass production by fertilizing 10% of Swedish forest land. We estimate the primary energy use and GHG emissions from forest management including production and application of N and NPK fertilizers. Based on modelled growth response, we then estimate the net primary energy and GHG benefits of using biomaterials and biofuels obtained from the increased forest biomass production. The results show an increased annual biomass harvest of 7.4 million t dry matter, of which 41% is large-diameter stemwood. About 6.9 PJ/year of additional primary energy input is needed for fertilizer production and forest management. Using the additional biomass for fuel and material substitution can reduce fossil primary energy use by 150 or 164 PJ/year if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively. About 22% of the reduced fossil energy use is due to material substitution and the remainder is due to fuel substitution. The net annual primary energy benefit corresponds to about 7% of Sweden's total primary energy use. The resulting annual net GHG emission reduction is 11.9 million or 18.1 million tCO{sub 2equiv} if the reference fossil fuel is fossil gas or coal, respectively, corresponding to 18% or 28% of the total Swedish GHG emissions in 2007. A significant one-time carbon stock increase also occurs in wood products and forest tree biomass. These results suggest that forest fertilization is an attractive option for increasing energy security and reducing net GHG emission. (author)

  6. Data feature: Fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a review of the effect of fuel costs on the procurement strategies of a utility and a conjecture that the same strategies may have an effect on the price of fuel. Factors affecting fuel costs are reviewed, and a number of procurement strategies taken to trim fuel costs are reviewed. The major trend is away from long-term enrichment contracts and into such strategies as: (1) Spot market purchases, (2) Inventory reduction, (3) Purchase of CIS material, and (4) Market-related contracts instead of base-escalated contracts

  7. Indonesia - Country Procurement Assessment Report : Reforming the Public Procurement System

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Country Procurement Assessment Review (CPAR) are to diagnose the public procurement system in Indonesia, assess actual compliance with the country's procurement laws and regulations on the ground, and identify reforms to improve the existing system in line with internationally accepted principles. Section 1 gives an overview. Section 2 describes Indonesia's exist...

  8. Forest management strategies for producing wood for energy from conventional forestry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Puttock, G.D. (Silv-Econ Ltd., Newmarket, ON (CA)); Richardson, J. (Forestry Canada, Science and Sustainable Development, Ottowa, ON (CA))

    1992-01-01

    The report reviews the current developments in forest management planning and practices to integrate the production of biomass for energy along with more conventional forest management goals. Efforts are under way to adapt management practices and silvicultural treatments to biomass production. These begin at the planning stage with the development of management tools and more accurate forest inventory data. They include silvicultural treatments such as shelterwood thinning in mixed wood stands and the interplanting of various tree species with the dual purpose of producing energy wood and conventional forest products. Three systems are available for recovering residues at time of final harvesting. The postharvest recovery of residues area is commonly used in Europe but is generally uneconomic in North America where the harvesting of small stems and integrated harvesting are favoured. (author).

  9. CORRELATES OF PROCUREMENT PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-22

    Feb 22, 2013 ... Purpose of this study is to investigate if procurement challenges, contractual procedures, designer's experience ... Design and Build, Project Management, Direct. Labour and ..... Government Procurement Performance in.

  10. Blowing in the wind: evaluating wind energy projects on the national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Schlichting; Evan Mercer

    2011-01-01

    The 650 million ac of federal lands are facing increased scrutiny for wind energy development. As a result, the US Forest Service has been directed to develop policies and procedures for siting wind energy projects. We incorporate geospatial site suitability analysis with applicable policy and management principles to illustrate the use of a Spatial Decision Support...

  11. Slovakia : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    This update of the 1995 CPAR is based on the September 1999 PPA and the findings of the Bank CPAR mission to Slovakia in November 1999. The 1999 Public Procurement Act (PPA) is an improvement upon the previous PPAs in some respects, including the creation of an OPP, more detailed and clear procurement procedures, accreditation of procurement professionals, introduction of the Public Procu...

  12. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  13. OAS :: Accountability :: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Performance Contract reports from January 2013 to June 2017 may be found.) Travel Information and Control

  14. Procurement Sustainable Building Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Two aspects will be stressed in the frame of this topic: The Procurement Aspects and the Aspects of Conflict and Dispute Resolution. The Right for Environment - to introduce the following aspects - is not only the consequence of care-taking for Nature as an admirable phenomenon, but also as a source

  15. Possible effects of the hurricane Gudrun on the regional Swedish forest energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerheden, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a snapshot speculative analysis of some possible effects of the massive windthrow in south Sweden on January 8-9, 2005. Hurricane Gudrun damaged buildings and blocked roads, making large areas inaccessible except by helicopter. Electricity and telecommunications were shambolic. Around 70 million cubic metres were windthrown, equalling a 'normal' Swedish annual felling-a gross value exceeding EUR20,000,000,000. The paper presents the subsequent restoration work that has placed a special focus on the forest sector. In south Sweden, logging work will last for a couple of years. The roundwood market will be severely strained. For individual forest owners, the economic effects of the storm are often disastrous. To ensure that forest owners will retrieve at least part of the pre-storm forest value, restoration aims at the salvaging of maximum value. Sawmills try to store the most valuable timber for years to come, decreasing the risk of painful capacity adjustments and protecting export opportunities. Forest fuel value is low compared to sawlogs and pulpwood. Thus, the forest energy sector has received little attention. Forest chippers normally contribute important marginal quantities of wood fuels, but since no logging residues will be harvested from the windthrown forests for a period of 2-3 years, they are put out of business and may disappear from the market. Heating and power plants will receive an abundance of industrial by-products in the coming 2-3 years, followed by a period of expected shortage of woody biomass for energy production. With few forest chippers left, the situation will be troublesome. (author)

  16. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  17. Cost, energy use and GHG emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang; Yu, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

    For forest-based biomass to become a significant contribution to the United States' energy portfolio, harvesting operations must be physically feasible and economically viable. An assessment of cost, energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of forest biomass harvesting was conducted. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems by cut-to-length and whole tree; harvest types of 30%, 70%, and 100% cut; and forest types of hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations. Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment and life cycle energy and emission assessment was applied to calculate energy and emissions for different harvesting scenarios, considering material and energy inputs (machinery, diesel, etc.) and outputs (GHG emissions) for each harvesting process (felling, forwarding/skidding, etc.). The developed harvesting cost models and the life cycle energy and emission assessment method were applied in Michigan, U.S. using information collected from different sources. A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operations in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations. - Highlights: • Life cycle energy and emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations. • Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment. • Productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost. • Fuel use contributes the most emissions while lubricants contribute the least.

  18. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  19. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  20. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  1. Hydrological and Meteorological Role of Forests: Implications for the Regulation of Water and Energy Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.; Bettin, D. M.; Molina, R.; Henao, J. J.; Rodríguez, E.; Rendón, A.; Hoyos, I.; Poveda, G.

    2016-12-01

    In last decades, there has been increasing debate about the hydrological and meteorological role of forests, particularly regarding its role in the regulation of the energy and water balances. Here we summarize results from an ongoing research program studying this problem. First, we introduce the notion of ecohydrological scaling to show the existence of two alternative states of regulated or unregulated streamflows in the main tributaries of the Amazon river basin. The transition between both states is associated with the loss of forest cover, with a potential critical threshold at around 40% forest loss in the Amazon. These results imply that large-scale forest loss can force the entire Amazon basin system beyond a critical threshold where its natural streamflow regulation is lost. More generally, our proposed framework provides insights for a physical interpretation of the scaling relations in river basins, as well as foundations and tools to develop early warnings of critical transitions in river basins. Second, we show that long-term rainfall-streamflow ratios converge to low values with low spatial variability in forested basins of the world, independent of location, climatic regime, basin size or forest type. We interpret this as evidence that high forest cover provides long-term regulation of the water balance. Third, we examine the linkage between the presence of tropical forests in South America and the long-term spatial distribution of continental precipitation, and found evidence suggesting that the Amazon forests enhance the atmospheric rivers flowing inland from the Atlantic ocean, particularly during the austral and boreal summers. The associated effects on precipitation may be highly relevant for water availability in river basins located downstream such atmospheric rivers, such as the La Plata and the Orinoco river basins. Finally, we explore the linkage between forest-induced temperature inversions and the vertical transport of atmospheric

  2. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.; Bruin, H.A.R. de

    2001-01-01

    was simulated for a three month period. For conditions with a cloud cover of less than 7 oktas good agreement between model predictions and measurements were found. For cloud cover 7 and 8 oktas a considerable spread can be observed. To apply the proposed energy balance model, the global radiation must......Measurements carried out in Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse, sub-arctic boreal forest with snow covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent late winter conditions characterised by low solar elevation angles. During the experiment (12-24 March 1997) day...... and night were about equally long. At low solar elevation angles the forest shades most of the snow surface. Therefore an important part of the radiation never reaches the snow surface but is absorbed by the forest. The sensible heat flux above the forest was fairly large, reaching more than 100 W m(-2...

  3. Nonindustrial private forest owners' opinions to and awareness of energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification. Results of a case study from Finnish Karelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Mei, Qu; Pelkonen, Paavo [Eastern Finland Univ., Joensuu (Finland). School of Forest Sciences; Weckroth, Timo

    2012-12-01

    Nonindustrial private forest owners (NIPFs) in Finland are important stakeholders of forest management and roundwood supply decisions. Their role will also be significant to supply energy wood to meet Finland's target for renewable energy in the future. The main objectives of this study were to explore the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to the energy wood market and forest-based bioenergy certification issues in Finland and their relevance for future bioenergy policies. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among NIPFs in Finnish Karelia (N = 79). NIPFs considered price as the main deciding factor in harvesting and selling of energy wood. The present low price of energy wood compared to pulpwood did not motivate them to increase harvesting and selling of energy wood. The NIPFs appeared to be unaware of the forest-based bioenergy certification. However, they expected that such certification schemes would be easy to follow, develop energy wood market, and promote environmentally sound forest management practices in Finland. Private forest owners' associations and personal information letters emerged as the most favored means to disseminate information on forest-based bioenergy certification to the Finnish NIPFs. The study explored the opinions and awareness of the Finnish NIPFs related to energy wood market and forest based bioenergy certification from Finnish Karelia. The conclusions derived from the study might be highly policy-relevant concerning the development of energy wood market and related certification schemes. Future studies should include larger sample size for increasing the representativeness of the findings. (orig.)

  4. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...... to develop mandatory procurement systems have also been gradually developing, while the focus on innovation has been relatively modest in Danish procurement policies until recently. This picture is currently changing, as several initiatives emphasising public procurement as a means of stimulating innovation...... have been launched. Whether this gradual change of focus in Danish procurement policies will make a deep and lasting impact on the role of public procurement as a driver for innovationis, however, yet an open question....

  5. Kinetic energy of throughfall in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in the humid subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, Christian; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    After decades of research it is generally accepted that vegetation is a key factor in controlling soil erosion. Therefore, in ecosystems where erosion is a serious problem, afforestation is a common measure against erosion. Most of the studies in the last decades focused on agricultural systems and less attention was paid to natural systems. To understand the mechanisms preventing soil erosion in natural systems the processes have to be studied in detail and gradually. The first step and central research question is on how the canopies of the tree layer alter the properties of rainfall and generate throughfall. Kinetic energy is a widely used parameter to estimate the erosion potential of open field rainfall and throughfall. In the past, numerous studies have shown that vegetation of a certain height enhances the kinetic energy under the canopy (Chapman 1948, Mosley 1982, Vis 1986, Hall & Calder 1993, Nanko et al. 2006, Nanko et al. 2008) in relation to open field rainfall. This is mainly due to a shift in the drop size distribution to less but larger drops possessing a higher amount of kinetic energy. In vital forest ecosystems lower vegetation (shrubs, herbs) as well as a continuous litter layer protects the forest soil from the impact of large drops. The influence of biodiversity, specific forest stands or single species in this process system is still in discussion. In the present study calibrated splash cups (after Ellison 1947, Geißler et al. under review) have been used to detect differences in kinetic energy on the scale of specific species and on the scale of forest stands of contrasting age and biodiversity in a natural forest ecosystem. The splash cups have been calibrated experimentally using a laser disdrometer. The results show that the kinetic energy of throughfall produced by the tree layer increases with the age of the specific forest stand. The average throughfall kinetic energy (J m-2) is about 2.6 times higher in forests than under open field

  6. Monitoring and evaluation of green public procurement programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, Aure [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Schaefer, Bettina [Ecoinstitut, Barcelona (Spain); Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Corry, Jenny [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Effective procurement policies can help governments save considerable amounts of money while also reducing energy consumption. Additionally, private sector companies which purchase large numbers of energy-consuming devices can benefit from procurement policies that minimize life-cycle energy costs. Both public and private procurement programs offer opportunities to generate market-transforming demand for energy efficient appliances and lighting fixtures. In recent years, several governments have implemented policies to procure energy efficient products and services. When deploying these policies, efforts have focused on developing resources for implementation (guidelines, energy efficiency specifications for tenders, life cycle costing tools, training, etc.) rather than defining monitoring systems to track progress against the set objectives. Implementation resources are necessary to make effective policies; however, developing Monitoring and Evaluation (M and E) mechanisms are critical to ensure that the policies are effective. The purpose of this article is to provide policy makers and procurement officials with a preliminary map of existing approaches and key components to monitor Energy Efficient Procurement (EEP) programs in order to contribute to the improvement of their own systems. Case studies are used throughout the paper to illustrate promising approaches to improve the M and E of EEP programs, from the definition of the system or data collection to complementary instruments to improve both the monitoring response and program results.

  7. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  8. Price competition in procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market's competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs

  9. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  10. Designing flexible procurement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1990-01-01

    The systems used for the procurement of buildings are organizational systems. They involve people in a series of strategic decisions, and a pattern of roles, responsibilities and relationships that combine to form the organizational structure of the project. To ensure effectiveness of the building team, this organizational structure needs to be contingent upon the environment within which the construction project takes place. In addition, a changing environment means that the organizational s...

  11. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  12. Opportunities for a forest energy industry in a developing country: an example from Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalie Gulca; Robert Deal

    2010-01-01

    Developing sustainable energy from forest biomass presents both opportunities and challenges for the future generations of Moldova. Located in the southeastern part of Europe between Ukraine and Romania, Moldova is a relatively poor country with limited natural resources compared with other developing European countries such as Albania or Bosnia. This lack of fossil...

  13. Idaho forest growth response to post-thinning energy biomass removal and complementary soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren A. Sherman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of woody biomass for biofuel can help meet the need for renewable energy production. However, there is a concern biomass removal will deplete soil nutrients, having short- and long-term effects on tree growth. This study aimed to develop short-term indicators to assess the impacts of the first three years after small-diameter woody biomass removal on forest...

  14. Evaporation and the sub-canopy energy environment in a flooded forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of canopy cover and a free water surface makes the sub-canopy environment of flooded forested wetlands unlike other aquatic or terrestrial systems. The sub-canopy vapor flux and energy budget are not well understood in wetlands, but they importantly control water level and understory...

  15. Modelling the potential consequences of future worldwide biomass energy demand for the french forests and timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buongiorno, Joseph; Raunikar, Ronald; Zhu, Shushuai

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation conducted, using a world model for the forestry and forest-based industries, on the effects of the current unpredictable changes in worldwide demand for biomass energy on this sector in France. Two contrasting scenarios are tested. The results are commented and the potential conflict between various would uses - workable timber, industrial timber and dendro-energy - is underscored. (authors)

  16. Multicriteria analysis in public procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan T. Tošev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The public procurement is one of the most important processes in modern company daily business. The quality of that process and its realization affect the overall company success and reputation. For that purpose, the management is obliged to prepare and carry out the procurement process carefully. The process is based on multicriteria tendering and the purpose of this paper is to present the analytical and hierarchical procurement methods in order to minimize failing in the selection and decision making process.

  17. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  18. Procuring load curtailment from local customers under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatović, Aleksandar; Moriarty, John; Vogrinc, Jure

    2017-08-13

    Demand side response (DSR) provides a flexible approach to managing constrained power network assets. This is valuable if future asset utilization is uncertain. However there may be uncertainty over the process of procurement of DSR from customers. In this context we combine probabilistic modelling, simulation and optimization to identify economically optimal procurement policies from heterogeneous customers local to the asset, under chance constraints on the adequacy of the procured DSR. Mathematically this gives rise to a search over permutations, and we provide an illustrative example implementation and case study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuling, A.J.; Seneviratne, S.I.; Stöckli, R.

    2010-01-01

    on the exchange of water and energy and the interaction of this exchange with the soil water balance during heatwaves is largely unknown. Here we analyse observations from an extensive network of flux towers in Europe that reveal a difference between the temporal responses of forest and grassland ecosystems...... and induces a critical shift in the regional climate system that leads to increased heating. We propose that this mechanism may explain the extreme temperatures in August 2003. We conclude that the conservative water use of forest contributes to increased temperatures in the short term, but mitigates...

  20. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Coe, Michael T.; Costa, Marcos H.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; McGrath, David G.; Dias, Livia C. P.; Rodrigues, Hermann O.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations’ energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local “direct” effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional “indirect” effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world’s largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4–8% and 10–12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6–36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry’s own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests. PMID:23671098

  1. Energy and industrial wood harvesting from young forests; Energia- ja ainespuun korjuu nuorista metsistae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieppo, K.; Mutikainen, A.; Jouhiaho, A. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    In the METKA Forest Energy Profitably project TTS (Work Efficiency Institute) compared methods suitable for the harvesting of energy wood and industrial wood. During the thinning of a young forest by a forest worker, the whole-tree logging method was one-third less expensive than the pulpwood method, including terrain transport. In harvesting whole trees as part of the thinning of young forests, methods based on combinations of manual and mechanized workproved to be several dozen per cent less expensive than the entirely mechanized method. When cutting energy wood with a Harveri small harwarder productivity was slightly higher when using 40-metre distances two cutting trails than when using 20-metre distances. When using a Tehojaetkae small harvester, creating two cutting trails in addition to the standard four-metre-wide cutting trail resulted in slightly higher productivity than creating three narrow cutting trails. A Risutec L3A energy head was used in tests involving both clearing and energy wood cutting. This method proved to be very promising, and it seems highly proable that advance clearing will no longer be needed in energy wood harvesting under all circumstances. When using traditional harvester-forwarder chains and a harvarder for first thinning in pine stands, the harvesting of entirely or partly non-delimbed trees was 20 to 40 per cent less expensive per harvested cubic meter than the harvesting of delimbed trees. In tests carried out using the Naarva RS25 harvester head for first thinning in pine stands, the integrated method resulted in approximately one-third productivity than the traditional cutting of industrial wood. In a spruce-dominant site with delayed first thinning, the unit costs of harvesting delimbed energy wood were 16 per cent lower than those of the harvesting of pulpwood. In the future development of machinery, it will be important to aim at continuous motion, at least in terms of cutting small trees. (orig.)

  2. The economic efficiency of forest energy wood chip production in regional use – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Šafařík

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This regional project case study deals with the limiting factors of economic efficiency in the production of forest energy wood chips. The evaluation of production efficiency made use of data obtained from the Lesy města Brna, a.s. (Forest of the City of Brno, Corp., which were subjected to two static methods of investment evaluation: an analysis of the tipping point and determination of the limit of variable costs and a dynamic modified tipping point analysis using cash flow (i.e. cash break even analysis. The results have confirmed an established hypothesis, namely that the decisive factor in the profitability of the production of forest energy wood chips hinges on the costs incurred in the gathering of raw material and the distribution of the produced chips. The results include a further limiting factor: transportation costs to the final consumption location. The output of the study is a recommendation that the concentration of residual forest materials not exceed a distance of 250 m from the place of production to the point of disintegration and that the transport distance of energy chips not exceed 50 km from the place of disintegration to the final consumption point. These limiting values help quantify the full internal costs per cost unit, full internal cost profitability, total revenue profitability and annual profitability expressed in terms of fixed assets depreciation without factoring in financial aid.

  3. How is service procurement different from goods procurement? Exploring ex ante costs and ex post problems in IT procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; Rooks, Gerrit; Snijders, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Several studies suggest that, in practice, service procurement is more challenging than goods procurement. The underlying but largely implicit argument is that the procurement process for services involves higher buyer uncertainty and therefore requires extra efforts to mitigate this uncertainty.

  4. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  5. Procurement Sustainability Tensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayezi, Sajad; Zomorrodi, Maryam; Bals, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    as stakeholder and institutional theory. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use a multiple case study approach. Data are collected through multiple interviews and archival data from eight case companies in Australia. Findings: The authors identify supply chain and company procurement sustainability...... of institutional distance, can characterize the manifestation of PSTs. Practical implications: The findings are instrumental for managers to make informed decisions when dealing with PSTs, and they pave the way for paradoxical leadership given the increasing importance of simultaneous development and balancing...

  6. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of the use of forest residues for bioenergy production in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Carly; Mortimer, Nigel; Murphy, Richard; Matthews, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is used to assess the energy requirements and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with extracting UK forest harvesting residues for use as a biomass resource. Three forest harvesting residues were examined (whole tree thinnings, roundwood and brash bales), and each have their own energy and emission profile. The whole forest rotation was examined, including original site establishment, forest road construction, biomass harvesting during thinning and final clear-fell events, chipping and transportation. Generally, higher yielding sites give lower GHG emissions per ‘oven dried tonne’ (ODT) forest residues, but GHG emissions ‘per hectare’ are higher as more biomass is extracted. Greater quantities of biomass, however, ultimately mean greater displacement of conventional fuels and therefore greater potential for GHG emission mitigation. Although forest road construction and site establishment are “one off” events they are highly energy-intensive operations associated with high diesel fuel consumption, when placed in context with the full forest rotation, however, their relative contributions to the overall energy requirements and GHG emissions are small. The lower bulk density of wood chips means that transportation energy requirements and GHG emissions are higher compared with roundwood logs and brash bales, suggesting that chipping should occur near the end-user of application. -- Highlights: ► GHGs and fuel consumption assessed for UK clear-fell conifer forest residues. ► Energy use and GHG emissions for forest road construction characterised. ► Lower energy requirements and GHG emissions per ODT for higher yielding sites. ► Transport energy and GHG emissions higher for wood chip than roundwood or brash bales. ► Results useful in predicting GHG mitigation potential from UK commercial conifer forest residues.

  7. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  8. Feedstock specific environmental risk levels related to biomass extraction for energy from boreal and temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamers, Patrick; Thiffault, Evelyne; Paré, David; Junginger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Past research on identifying potentially negative impacts of forest management activities has primarily focused on traditional forest operations. The increased use of forest biomass for energy in recent years, spurred predominantly by policy incentives for the reduction of fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions, and by efforts from the forestry sector to diversify products and increase value from the forests, has again brought much attention to this issue. The implications of such practices continue to be controversially debated; predominantly the adverse impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity, and the climate change mitigation potential of forest bioenergy. Current decision making processes require comprehensive, differentiated assessments of the known and unknown factors and risk levels of potentially adverse environmental effects. This paper provides such an analysis and differentiates between the feedstock of harvesting residues, roundwood, and salvage wood. It concludes that the risks related to biomass for energy outtake are feedstock specific and vary in terms of scientific certainty. Short-term soil productivity risks are higher for residue removal. There is however little field evidence of negative long-term impacts of biomass removal on productivity in the scale predicted by modeling. Risks regarding an alteration of biodiversity are relatively equally distributed across the feedstocks. The risk of limited or absent short-term carbon benefits is highest for roundwood, but negligible for residues and salvage wood. Salvage operation impacts on soil productivity and biodiversity are a key knowledge gap. Future research should also focus on deriving regionally specific, quantitative thresholds for sustainable biomass removal. -- Highlights: ► Synthesis of the scientific uncertainties regarding biomass for energy outtake. ► With specific focus on soil productivity, biodiversity, and carbon balance. ► Balanced determination of the risk levels

  9. Energy wood reserves and the utilisation conditions of them 1/1994 - 4/1997; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskimoeloe, A [Metsaetalouden Kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the D105 project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood by developing a model for establishing the procurable volumes of energy wood. This will be done by using forestry planning data on private forests and numeric road data. Position data (GRASS) and database (Ms Access) programs are used in the model. The project was launched in the beginning of 1994 and will run until April 1997. Basic information needed was collected from pilot areas in co-operation with the PUUHA project launched in Mikkeli. Later the work continued with the Forest Energy Project of Central Finland. The position-data program is used to produce forest and road haulage distances for each forest figure. The distance data is then transferred to the database program. In the database program the procurement costs of energy wood are established by using cost models based on productivity curves. After that, it is possible to establish if the figure is economically worthwhile for energy wood harvesting purposes or not. By using this information, the model calculates first the amount of energy wood on the figure and secondly the procurable volumes of energy wood that can be delivered to the local heating plant. (orig.)

  10. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J Das

    Full Text Available Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1 drought stress, or (2 the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California's Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes.

  11. Uzbekistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Uzbekistan inherited the Soviet system for the procurement of goods, works and services for State needs. This system was suitable for a command economy but lacks the essential elements of competitiveness, transparency and accountability, which are the hallmarks of a market-based approach to government contracting. This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR) comes at a time when a num...

  12. Examining the Competition for Forest Resources in Sweden Using Factor Substitution Analysis and Partial Equilibrium Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Anna

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of the thesis is to analyse the procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. In paper I a translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970 to 2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing and this increase is believed to continue. The increase is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Such policies could lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. The calculated substitution elasticities indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited. In paper II a partial equilibrium model is constructed in order to asses the effects an increasing utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector. The increasing utilisation of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In countries where forests already are highly utilised such policies will lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest sector and

  13. Geographic information system-based spatial analysis of sawmill wood procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel M. Anderson; Rene H. Germain; Eddie Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    In the sawmill sector of the forest products industry, the clustering of mills and wide variation in forest stocking and ownership result in sawlog markets that are complex and spatially differentiated. Despite the inherent spatial attributes of markets for stumpage and logs, few studies have used geospatial methods to examine wood procurement in detail across...

  14. Bioenergy production systems and biochar application in forests: potential for renewable energy, soil enhancement, and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin McElligott; Debbie Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from forest biomass offers a unique solution to reduce wildfire hazard fuel while producing a useful source of renewable energy. However, biomass removals raise concerns about reducing soil carbon and altering forest site productivity. Biochar additions have been suggested as a way to mitigate soil carbon loss and cycle nutrients back into forestry...

  15. Surface energy exchanges along a tundra-forest transition and feedbacks to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Chapin, F. S.; Thompson, Catharine Copass; McGuire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Surface energy exchanges were measured in a sequence of five sites representing the major vegetation types in the transition from arctic tundra to forest. This is the major transition in vegetation structure in northern high latitudes. We examined the influence of vegetation structure on the rates of sensible heating and evapotranspiration to assess the potential feedbacks to climate if high-latitude warming were to change the distribution of these vegetation types. Measurements were made at Council on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, at representative tundra, low shrub, tall shrub, woodland (treeline), and boreal forest sites. Structural differences across the transition from tundra to forest included an increase in the leaf area index (LAI) from 0.52 to 2.76, an increase in canopy height from 0.1 to 6.1 m, and a general increase in canopy complexity. These changes in vegetation structure resulted in a decrease in albedo from 0.19 to 0.10 as well as changes to the partitioning of energy at the surface. Bulk surface resistance to water vapor flux remained virtually constant across sites, apparently because the combined soil and moss evaporation decreased while transpiration increased along the transect from tundra to forest. In general, sites became relatively warmer and drier along the transect with the convective fluxes being increasingly dominated by sensible heating, as evident by an increasing Bowen ratio from 0.94 to 1.22. The difference in growing season average daily sensible heating between tundra and forest was 21 W m-2. Fluxes changed non-linearly along the transition, with both shrubs and trees substantially enhancing heat transfer to the atmosphere. These changes in vegetation structure that increase sensible heating could feed back to enhance warming at local to regional scales. The magnitude of these vegetation effects on potential high-latitude warming is two to three times greater than suggested by previous modeling studies. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Energy from wood biomass: The experience of the Brazilian forest sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couto, L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Graca, L.R. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Floresta, Colombo (Brazil); Betters, D.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Wood biomass is one of the most significant renewable sources of energy in Brazil. Fuelwood and charcoal play a very important role not only for household energy consumption but also for the cement, iron and steel industries. Wood is used as an energy source by the pulp and paper, composite board and other industries of the country, mainly for steam and electricity generation. Ethanol, lignin-based coke and methanol from wood were produced at experimental units in Brazil but were not implemented on a commercial scale. Currently, a new experimental plant using a technology developed in the US is being built in the state of Bahia to generate electricity from Eucalyptus. This technology is a Biomass Integrated Gasification/Gas Turbine process which is expected to make the use of wood biomass economically feasible for electricity generation. Forest plantations are the main source of wood biomass for energy consumption by the Brazilian industrial sector. Fiscal incentives in the 1960s helped the country to begin a massive reforestation program mainly using Eucalyptus and Pinus species. A native species, bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) has also been used extensively for wood energy plantations in southern Brazil. Technical, economic, social and environmental impacts of these plantation forests are discussed along with a forecast of the future wood energy utilization in Brazil.

  17. Collaborative procurement for developing a sustainable campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Ismail, Mohd. Noorizhar

    2016-08-01

    It is particularly challenging to achieve sustainability in campus universities, where a high volume of users and activities has made it more imperative to promote green buildings that reduce energy and water consumption while having a minimal carbon footprint. At present, the frameworks for sustainable campus have seldom focused on the project procurement method which would improve construction team integration in developing the physical aspect of campus development. Therefore, in response to that challenge, this paper investigates how the delivery team, responsible for the design and construction of a project, can be integrated to work together more efficiently and more using the collaborative procurement method known as partnering. This paper reports part of a previous research and sets the base for ongoing research on the critical factors in partnering for sustainable campus development. The outcome or result of this study will meet and support the requirement for construction, maintenance, and operation process for universities towards sustainable building/campus in the future.

  18. Technical and economic analysis of electricity generation from forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels in a Finnish heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    The Finnish energy industry is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency. Conventional electricity generation has environmental side-effects that may cause global warming. Renewable fuels are superior because they offer near-zero net emissions. In this study, I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels in southern Finland on a 1-year strategic decision-making horizon. I solved the electricity generation problem using optimization of the energy products and fuel mixtures based on energy efficiency and forest technology. The decision environment was complicated by the sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses. The combinatorial complexity of the problem required the use of adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. I discuss the properties of the decision-support system and methodology and illustrate pricing of electricity generation based on real industrial data. The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis that accounts for procurement of local forest fuels in a holistic supply chain model. -- Highlights: → I use adaptive techniques to solve a multiple-objective linear programming system with industrial relevance. → I investigated a heating mill's ability to generate electricity from forest fuels. → The electricity-generation, -purchase, and -sales decisions are made based on a comprehensive technical and economic analysis. → The optimal product and fuel mixtures were selected by minimizing procurement costs, maximizing production revenues, and minimizing energy losses.

  19. Status of bio energy based on forest material - from the stub to the stove door; Status for bioenergi basert paa skogsvirke - fra stubben til ovnsdoera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lileng, Joern K.; Gjoelsjoe, Simen

    1999-07-01

    It is not well documented in Norway who possesses the competence and who is the user of forest material as bio fuel. Forest material is forest chips, secondary products from forestry, and firewood. The project reported was a literature study that throws light on the problem by referring to central persons and institutions in this field. The report also is a general introduction to bio energy based on forest material. The principle sections deal with (1) Climate policy, (2) Energy carriers based on forest material, (3) Systems for selection and treatment of bio fuel, (4) Methods for calculation of the supply of biomass in the forest, (5) Returning ash to the forest, (6) Transport, (7) Storage, (8) Assessment of bio energy, (9) Abstract of relevant Norwegian reports, (10) Bio energy projects and bio energy actors in Norway and (11) Proposed research projects and research work on forest material as fuel.

  20. 'Procurement quality engineering': A measurement driven system to assure quality at each step in the procurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderman, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Procurement Quality Function' is an element of the Body of Knowledge of Quality Engineering, as defined by the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). This paper describes the Procurement Quality function which has been installed as an integral part of the Quality Engineering group of the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Each of the elements of the T ampersand MSS Procurement Quality Engineering (PQE) system is discussed along with the measurements obtained. With the installation and development of the PQE system we have attained more meaningful evaluation of supplier capability, reduction of procurement document review reject ratios from 31% to less than 2% per quarter, more effective measurement and control of supplier performance, and the ability to enter into a meaningful teaming effort with T ampersand MSS suppliers

  1. Interactivity of marketing and procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available General conclusions regarding the close links between marketing and procurement side of the marketing process would be expressed as follows: Interactive link between marketing and procurement is just proportionate to a level of company's market orientation. Establishment of an interactive link between marketing and procurement fields would reflect on pricing. Besides price competition, establishment of an integral approach through comprehensive understanding of market relations, will set up conditions for company to meet customers' needs in the most optimal way. Therefore the total result will be advanced and a company with this kind of orientation can become a market leader.

  2. Air pollution impacts from logistics related to forest biomass to energy chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, C.; Tarelho, L.; Lopes, M.; Monteiro, A.; Cascao, P.; Miranda, A.M. [CESAM and Dept. of Environment and Planning, Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal)], e-mail: anacristina@ua.pt

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, pressures on global environment and energy security have led to an increasing demand on renewable energy sources, and diversification of world's energy supply. Among these resources the forest biomass could exert an important role, since it is considered a renewable and CO{sub 2} neutral energy resource, and can potentially provide energy for heat, power and transport fuels. In this study were presented the results of the amounts of forest biomass residues (FBR) available in Portugal, taking into account some conditioning related with land characteristics (e.g. slope). Comparing the FBR consumption for industrial thermal power plants it is possible to verify that the FBR available (1.91x10{sup 6} ton (dry) year{sup -}1) in Portugal is enough to address the needs of industrial plants, but if the planned plants come into operation, the FBR available is no longer sufficient. The operations associated with the FBR harvesting were described, emphasizing the transport between the production locations and the industrial thermal plants. By applying a TRaffic Emission Model (TREM), it was estimated the fuel consumption and related gaseous emissions (CO, CO{sub 2}, PM, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O) associated with the transport of the FBR.

  3. 40 CFR 35.6565 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement methods. 35.6565 Section 35... Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6565 Procurement methods. The... purchase procedures are those relatively simple and informal procurement methods for securing services...

  4. PROMIS (Procurement Management Information System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The PROcurement Management Information System (PROMIS) provides both detailed and summary level information on all procurement actions performed within NASA's procurement offices at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It provides not only on-line access, but also schedules procurement actions, monitors their progress, and updates Forecast Award Dates. Except for a few computational routines coded in FORTRAN, the majority of the systems is coded in a high level language called NATURAL. A relational Data Base Management System called ADABAS is utilized. Certain fields, called descriptors, are set up on each file to allow the selection of records based on a specified value or range of values. The use of like descriptors on different files serves as the link between the falls, thus producing a relational data base. Twenty related files are currently being maintained on PROMIS.

  5. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jolliffe, Richard B; Burton, Bruce A; Carros, Deborah L; Schaefer, Beth K; Truong, Linh; Palmer, Kevin A; Chun, Judy M; Smith, Jessica M; Abraham, Amanda M; Peters, Anthony R

    2007-01-01

    Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter requested that the Inspector General (IG), DoD review the DoD procurement history for body armor and armored vehicles and determine whether officials properly followed contracting policies...

  6. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, A.; Bohlin, F.; Hektor, B.; Hillring, B.

    2003-01-01

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  7. The economy of chip, tree section and short wood methods in the procurement of a pulp mill; Hake-, puu- ja puutavaralajimenetelmien taloudellisuus massatehtaan kuitu- ja energiapuun hankinnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imponen, V [Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Regional forest management plans for Finland`s private, non-industrial forestry indicate that first thinnings account for 13 % of the felling potential in these forests. The majority of first thinnings focus on pine-dominated stands. First-thinnings wood represents 29 % of the allowable cut consisting of pine pulpwood. However, small-diameter pine has not enjoyed great demand as raw material by the chemical pulp industry due to the high associated production costs and due to its inferior fibre properties when compared to large-sized softwood logs. Consequently, research and development work has been focused on the procurement, handling and usage of small-diameter wood, and especially of first-thinning pine. Both defibration and use as fuel are options when considering how to exploit small-diameter softwood raw material. Integrated procurement of industrial wood and wood fuel have improved the profitability of wood from thinnings in pulp manufacture and in energy generation at the mill. These methods would appear to be economic in regard to both the wood procurement of the pulp mills even at the present prices paid for alternative fuels. Advances in combustion technology and increased generation of electric power improve the competitiveness of methods based on the harvesting tree sections in comparison with the shortwood system yielding delimbed roundwood. The adoption of longer timber lorry-trailer combination as recognised by EU directives will have the effect of reducing the transportation costs for non-delimbed and partially delimbed wood. (orig.)

  8. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargerstock, S.B. (TENERA, L.P., Chattanooga, TN (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station.

  9. The organization of organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, J M

    1989-01-01

    The American organ procurement system has improved and matured in the last five years. At the same time, the basic challenges facing it have remained substantially the same because the moral and legal framework of the system has not changed. Success at organ procurement continues to depend on the voluntary cooperation of medical professionals and the families of potential organ donors. The generosity of the American public is so great that the primary challenge facing organ procurement agencies is obtaining cooperation from hospitals and medical professionals. This calls for a "marketing" orientation aimed at those hospitals and professionals who are most likely to treat potential donors. The last five years have seen a more general acceptance of this appreciation of the central task of organ procurement. As a result, the overall effectiveness of the system has improved, as measured by the number of organs procured on a per capita basis and by the number of multiorgan donors obtained. Much of this improvement can be attributed to the diffusion of organizational techniques and approaches, and this diffusion has been encouraged by the involvement of national organizations and public bodies in the organ procurement community. The system remains uneven in its effectiveness and further improvement is possible. It is also possible that the next general round of improvement will result from the application of businesslike information management and marketing techniques.

  10. Procurement engineering - the productivity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargerstock, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    The industry is several years on the road to implementation of the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) initiatives on commercial-grade item dedication and procurement. Utilities have taken several approaches to involve engineering in the procurement process. A common result for the approaches is the additional operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost imposed by the added resource requirements. Procurement engineering productivity is a key element in controlling this business area. Experience shows that 400 to 500% improvements in productivity are possible with a 2-yr period. Improving the productivity of the procurement engineering function is important in today's competitive utility environment. Procurement engineering typically involves four distinct technical evaluation responsibilities along with several administrative areas. Technical evaluations include the functionally based safety classification of replacement components and parts (lacking a master parts list), the determination of dedication requirements for safety-related commercial-grade items, the preparation of a procurement specification to maintain the licensed design bases, and the equivalency evaluation of alternate items not requiring the design-change process. Administrative duties include obtaining technical review of vendor-supplied documentation, identifying obsolete parts and components, resolving material nonconformances, initiating the design-change process for replacement items (as needed), and providing technical support to O ampersand M. Although most utilities may not perform or require all the noted activities, a large percentage will apply to each utility station

  11. Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow forest. Variation with season and stand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritz, Z.

    1996-10-01

    Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow (Salix viminalis L.) forest was studied in relation to season and stand development. The developmental stage of the forest stand considerably influenced how the energy, received as net radiation, was partitioned between the connective fluxes and the storage components. The main part of the available energy was utilised for evaporation during most of the season. Only at the beginning of the season did the willow forest supply heat to the atmosphere. Later in the season, energy was taken from air and utilised for evaporation, which resulted in negative sensible heat fluxes. Soil heat storage was also a significant term in the energy balance and also strongly depended on canopy development. Changes in energy partitioning relative to leaf area indices indicated the existence of a threshold value for leaf area index of the developing canopy. The analysis suggested that the canopy of the willow forest could be considered as closed at a leaf area index of 2. It was further found that evaporation from well-irrigated willow forest occurred also during night-time, particularly in windy and dry weather conditions. The sources of nocturnal evaporation were both the canopy, i.e. indicating non-closed stomata, and the soil surface. Partitioning of the total evaporation into components was investigated using a physically-based model with a two-layer aboveground representation and a two-layer soil module. The model estimates evaporation with respect to developmental stage of the willow stand and also takes into account the interaction between the fluxes from the canopy and the soil surface. Good performance of the model indicated that, after further testing in drier conditions, it could be used as a tool for analysing the prerequisites for energy-forest establishment, and practical management of energy forest stands. 37 refs, 9 figs

  12. Sector-based political analysis of energy transition: Green shift in the forest policy regime in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This article examines energy transition political process from a sector-based approach, through the analysis of recent shift in the French forest policy regime. We demonstrate that, since 2007, energy transition policies have led to a harvesting turn within the French forest policy framework, meaning that priority is given to wood mobilisation, mainly for biomass uses. In addition, our findings suggest that the political authority wielded by the state over forest policy has shifted from forest administrative services to energy agencies and local authorities. Finally, we show that, although implementation of the harvesting turn is a cause of sectoral and inter-sectoral tensions, energy transition challenge also contributes to a process of (re)institutionalisation of mediation relationships among forestry stakeholders and wood-based industries representatives. The article concludes by arguing that sectors should retain relevant institutional frameworks for actors when choosing political arrangements required for implementing energy transition policy. - Highlights: • Implementing energy transition policy potentially challenges sector-based politics. • We propose a policy regime framework and socio-political investigations. • We analyse the political impact of energy transition policy on French forest sector. • Shifts occur in sectoral policy framework, authority, and mediation relationships

  13. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  14. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner L; Merbold, Lutz; Ziegler, Waldemar; Mukelabai, Mukufute M; Muchinda, Maurice; Kolle, Olaf; Scholes, Robert J

    2011-08-19

    This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other

  15. Sustainable Procurement in Practice: Explaining the Degree of Sustainable Procurement from an Organisational Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grandia (Jolien); S.M. Groeneveld (Sandra); B.S. Kuipers (Ben); A.J. Steijn (Bram)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSustainable procurement is often used to reduce negative environmental impacts related to production and consumption. Several studies in the sustainable procurement literature have identified potential drivers of and barriers to sustainable procurement, which are often organisational in

  16. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study, Weiss Building & Development, LLC., System Home, River Forest, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The Passive House Challenge Home located in River Forest, Illinois, is a 5-bedroom, 4.5-bath, 3,600 ft2 two-story home (plus basement) that costs about $237 less per month to operate than a similar sized home built to the 2009 IECC. For a home with no solar photovoltaic panels installed, it scored an amazingly low 27 on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) score.An ENERGY STAR-rated dishwasher, clothes washer, and refrigerator; an induction cooktop, condensing clothes dryer, and LED lighting are among the energy-saving devices inside the home. All plumbing fixtures comply with EPA WaterSense criteria. The home was awarded a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the "systems builder" category.

  17. Water flow and energy balance for a tropical dry semideciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J. L.; Garruña-Hernandez, R.; Leon-Palomo, M.; Us-Santamaria, R.; Sima, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    Tropical forests cool down locally because increase water evaporation from the soil to the atmosphere, reduce albedo and help forming clouds that reflect solar radiation back to the atmosphere; this, aligned to the carbon catchment, increase forests value. We will present an estimation of the sap flow and energy balance for the tropical dry semideciduous forest at Kiuic, Yucatan, Mexico during a year. We use a meteorological tower equipped with a rain gauge, temperature and relative humidity, heat flow plates, thermocouples and volumetric soil water content. We recorded net radiation and soil heat flux and estimated sensible heat and latent heat. Besides, we estimated latent heat by measuring sap flow directly in tres using disispation constant heat probes during the rainy season. Results show the influence of the seasonality on net radiation, air temperatura and vapor pressure deficit, because during the dry season his variables were higher and with more duation than during the rainy and early dry season. Sap flow was different for trees belonging to the family Fabaceae compared to trees from other families.

  18. Water, energy and CO2 exchange over a seasonally flooded forest in the Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergoat, L.; Le Dantec, V.; Timouk, F.; Hiernaux, P.; Mougin, E.; Manuela, G.; Diawara, M.

    2014-12-01

    In semi-arid areas like the Sahel, perennial water bodies and temporary-flooded lowlands are critical for a number of activities. In some cases, their existence is simply a necessary condition for human societies to establish. They also play an important role in the water and carbon cycle and have strong ecological values. As a result of the strong multi-decadal drought that impacted the Sahel in the 70' to 90', a paradoxical increase of ponds and surface runoff has been observed ("Less rain, more water in the ponds", Gardelle 2010). In spite of this, there are excessively few data documenting the consequence of such a paradox on the water and carbon cycle. Here we present 2 years of eddy covariance data collected over the Kelma flooded Acacia forest in the Sahel (15.50 °N), in the frame of the AMMA project. The flooded forest is compared to the other major component of this Sahelian landscape: a grassland and a rocky outcrop sites. All sites are involved in the ALMIP2 data/LSM model comparison. The seasonal cycle of the flooded forest strongly departs from the surroundings grassland and bare soil sites. Before the rain season, the forest displays the strongest net radiation and sensible heat flux. Air temperature within the canopy reaches extremely high values. During the flood, it turns to the lowest sensible heat flux. In fact, due to an oasis effect, this flux is negative during the late flood. Water fluxes turn from almost zero in the dry season to strong evaporation during the flood, since it uses additional energy provided by negative sensible heat flux. The eddy covariance fluxes are consistent with sap flow data, showing that the flood greatly increases the length of the growing season. CO2 fluxes over the forest were twice as large as over the grassland, and the growing season was also longer, giving a much larger annual photosynthesis. In view of these data and data over surroundings grasslands and bare soil, as well as data from a long-term ecological

  19. Assessing the Impacts of forest degradation on water, energy, and carbon budgets in Amazon forest using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M.; Xu, Y.; Longo, M.; Keller, M.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Fisher, R.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forest degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation not only alters carbon stocks and carbon fluxes, but also impacts physical land-surface properties such as albedo and roughness length. Such impacts are poorly quantified to date due to difficulties in accessing and maintaining observational infrastructures, and the lack of proper modeling tools for capturing the interactions among biophysical properties, ecosystem demography, and biogeochemical cycling in tropical forests. As a first step to address these limitations, we implemented a selective logging module into the Functional Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) and parameterized the model to reproduce the selective logging experiment at the Tapajos National Forest in Brazil. The model was spun up until it reached the steady state, and simulations with and without logging were compared with the eddy covariance flux towers located at the logged and intact sites. The sensitivity of simulated water, energy, and carbon fluxes to key plant functional traits (e.g. Vcmax and leaf longevity) were quantified by perturbing their values within their documented ranges. Our results suggest that the model can reproduce water and carbon fluxes in intact forests, although sensible heat fluxes were overestimated. The effects of logging intensity and techniques on fluxes were assessed by specifying different disturbance parameters in the models (e.g., size-dependent mortality rates associated with timber harvest, collateral damage, and mechanical damage for infrastructure construction). The model projections suggest that even though the degraded forests rapidly recover water and energy fluxes compared with old-growth forests, the recovery times for carbon stocks, forest structure and composition are much longer. In addition, the simulated recovery trajectories are highly dependent on choices of values for functional traits. Our study highlights the advantages of an Earth system modeling approach

  20. Fuelling a BioMess. Why Burning Trees for Energy Will Harm People,the Climate and Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainville, N.

    2011-10-01

    The global bioenergy boom is driven by a surge of interest in biological materials - or biomass - to produce heat, electricity and fuels. In a world of declining fossil fuel deposits and rising fuel prices, industries and governments are hastily switching back to an ancient source of energy: trees. In Canada, forest bioenergy once referred to a sensible, small-scale and local solution to produce heat and power by using mill and pulp residues at the plant. This is no longer the case. Now, the sector is rapidly developing into large-scale, industrial use of natural forests for energy. This is due to new government biomass extraction policies and subsidies. Without public hearings, exhaustive science or adequate environmental standards in place, provincial governments have allocated large volumes of biomass from publicly owned forests to be burnt, thereby radically changing the way forests are used in Canada. This is turning to ash sustainable job opportunities, threatening the greening of the forest sector and the value-added product trend that has been emerging in recent years. The premise on which the forest bioenergy industry is based - i.e. that woody biomass is infinitely available and that burning it is clean and carbon neutral - does not stand up to scientific scrutiny and needs to be revisited. Exploiting forests for energy increases carbon emissions and contributes to climate change for decades, even centuries, before proving to be better than fossil fuels. The Canadian government has failed to report those emissions. Accounting properly for the climate footprint of forest bioenergy is crucial if governments really want to tackle climate change and meet greenhouse gas reduction targets by 2020 and 2050. Large-scale combustion of wood is also a health hazard due to significant toxic emissions of fine particulates, carbon monoxide and heavy metals. Because enormous amounts of forest biomass are needed to produce small amounts of energy, drastic ecological

  1. PROCUREMENT INSOURCING VS. PROCUREMENT OUTSOURCING: EVIDENCE FROM SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Acimovic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic decisions of a company is to choose whether to insource or outsource a particular group of activities or a business function. The trend of outsourcing those activities which do not form a part of the company core competences is becoming more and more present in business practice. The aim of the analysis within this paper is to review the mentioned trend from the position of organizing the company procurement activities. The analysis shows that there is no unique trend concerning outsourcing all logistics activities, which do not form a part of the company core competences. Unlike the majority of other logistics activities, which as non-basic, tend to be outsourced, procurement dominantly stays insourced. Finally, based on the empirical evidence obtained from a survey carried out among 52 companies in Serbia, it is concluded that even if procurement is outsourced, this trend is more present among service than production companies.

  2. Energy research in the mechanical forest industry 1980-1982. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenius, A.

    1982-12-01

    The energy research project of the mechanical forest industry studied the energy consumption in 1979 and the possibilities to save energy in the sawmill, plywood, particleboard, fibreboard, joinery, wooden houses, gluelam and impregnation industries. The energy consumption per product unit is on the minimum level in sawmilling, 1.38 GJ/m/sup 3/, and on the maximum level in fibreboard manufacturing, 9.98 GJ/t. In plywood production, 6.95 GJ/m/sup 3/, the energy consumption is about double compared with the consumption in particleboard production, 3.40 GJ/m/sup 3/. The main part of the energy is heat. In the drying process about 70-85% of the total energy is used in individual processes. Over a half, 53.9%, of the total energy consumption, 23 169 TJ, is used in sawmill industry. The proportion of plywood industry is 19.2%, of particleboard industry 12.2% and of fibreboard industry 7.2%. The proportion of the processing industry is 7.5%; the main part is used in joinery industry. The fuel consumption in transportation of wooden raw materials was 2 260 TJ and in transportation of products 4 800 TJ. In fibreboard industry it is possible to save energy by leading the waste steam from defibratory into chip silos for preheating of the chips. In veneer and chip drying it is possible to save energy by using higher moisture content of the drying air and by utilizing the drying capacity as well as possible. In kiln drying of timber the changing of drying circumstances can in some cases save 50-150 FIM per 1 cbm of dried timber.

  3. THE BARRIERS OF IMPLEMENTING E-PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Pop Sitar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of e-procurement has many different meanings ranging from shopping on theinternet (through reverse auction to collaborative initiatives taking place in virtualmeetings. There are many forms of e-procurement that can be found in the literature. In thispaper we define the most important forms of e-procurement. Next, we present the mainbarriers of implementing an e-procurement found in the literature. Furthermore, we presenta matrix with the main barriers of e-procurement classified in four main categories. Finally,we elaborated for managers some guidelines in order to overcome the barriers ofimplementing e-procurement.

  4. NASA Procurement Career Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Procurement Career Development Program establishes an agency-wide framework for the management of career development activity in the procurement field. Within this framework, installations are encouraged to modify the various components to meet installation-specific mission and organization requirements. This program provides a systematic process for the assessment of and planning for the development, training, and education required to increase the employees' competence in the procurement work functions. It includes the agency-wide basic knowledge and skills by career field and level upon which individual and organizational development plans are developed. Also, it provides a system that is compatible with other human resource management and development systems, processes, and activities. The compatibility and linkage are important in fostering the dual responsibility of the individual and the organization in the career development process.

  5. Managing forests because carbon matters: integrating energy, products, and land management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Malmsheimer; James L. Bowyer; Jeremy S. Fried; Edmund Gee; Robert Izlar; Reid A. Miner; Ian A. Munn; Elaine Oneil; William C. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The United States needs many different types of forests: some managed for wood products plus other benefits, and some managed for nonconsumptive uses and benefits. The objective of reducing global greenhouse gases (GHG) requires increasing carbon storage in pools other than the atmosphere. Growing more forests and keeping forests as forests are only part of the...

  6. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  7. Energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} -eq emissions of forest chip supply chains in Finland 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, A.; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi, Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWhin 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho OY's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 245000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 79 million litres and petrol 1,5 millions litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 15 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Some 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.030 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.022 to 0.044 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant. (orig.)

  8. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  9. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect ...... government authorities to engage in public procurement for innovation, and by issuing guidance on the topic.......Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation...

  10. Procurement strategic analysis of nuclear safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Caixia; Yang Haifeng; Li Xiaoyang; Li Shixin

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear power development plan in China puts forward a challenge on procurement of nuclear safety equipment. Based on the characteristics of the procurement of nuclear safety equipment, requirements are raised for procurement process, including further clarification of equipment technical specification, establishment and improvement of the expert database of the nuclear power industry, adoption of more reasonable evaluation method and establishment of a unified platform for nuclear power plants to procure nuclear safety equipment. This paper makes recommendation of procurement strategy for nuclear power production enterprises from following aspects, making a plan of procurement progress, dividing procurement packages rationally, establishing supplier database through qualification review and implementing classified management, promoting localization process of key equipment continually and further improving the system and mechanism of procurement of nuclear safety equipment. (authors)

  11. Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980-2002 based on exergy-Part 2: Renewable energy sources and forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    This second part is the continuation of the first part on fossil fuels and energy minerals. The major renewable energy sources and forest products entering the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002, including sunlight, wind power, tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and heating, biomass, hydroelectric resource and forestry products, are calculated and analyzed in detail in this paper. The solar exergy inputs from solar photovoltaics and solar collectors, including water heater, solar oven and solar building, are calculated and discussed. The development of the wind power plant is presented. Major tidal power plants, which are still working, are addressed. Wave power devices and plants are introduced. Geothermal resources, mainly for power generation and heating, associated with distribution, are depicted. The utilization of biomass, embracing firewood, straw and biogas, which served as the main obtainable local resources for private consumption and production in the rural areas, is illustrated. Development of hydroelectric resources as complement to scarce fossil fuels is represented, of which the small hydropower project adapted for rural areas is emphasized. Finally, forest products from timber forest and economic forest are presented, with the forestation, reproducing, tending areas and sum of odd forestation trees being manifested

  12. 76 FR 60810 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Additions and Deletion AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to and Deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add... Activity: Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID. DELETION Regulatory Flexibility...

  13. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  14. public procurement, governance and economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    Development (OECD) sees public procurement ―as a strategic policy lever to advance ... financial markets and provision of advisory services to businesses and government. ... Procurement established by the Section 3 of the Act. The BPP is the ... present annual reports to the Minister on the public procurement processes;.

  15. 78 FR 37525 - Procurement List; Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Contracting Activity: Dept of the Air Force, FA7014 AFDW A7KI, Andrews AFB, MD. Service Type/Location: Laundry... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action deletes products and services from the Procurement List that were... products and services listed below are no longer suitable for procurement by the Federal Government under...

  16. 22 CFR 226.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement records. 226.46 Section 226.46 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.46 Procurement records...

  17. 7 CFR 225.17 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Procurements by public sponsors comply with applicable State or local laws and the standards set forth in 7 CFR part 3016; and (2) Procurements by private nonprofit sponsors comply with standards set forth in 7 CFR... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement standards. 225.17 Section 225.17...

  18. 32 CFR 37.1330 - Procurement contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1330 Procurement contract. A Federal Government procurement contract. It is a legal instrument which, consistent with 31 U.S... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procurement contract. 37.1330 Section 37.1330...

  19. Tanzania : Country Procurement Assessment Report, Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Country Procurement Assessment Report (CPAR)intends to determine the compatibility of national procurement law, and practices, with the principles of economy, and with international procurement practices. This CPAR, the second of its kind in Tanzania, looks at the legislative framework, the performance of regulatory functions, the enforcement regime, and the capacity of public sector ...

  20. 76 FR 43988 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... this work, based on applicable experience. Finally, the purpose of the JWOD Act and the responsibility... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.72 - Procurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement methods. 1780.72 Section 1780.72..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.72 Procurement methods. Procurement shall be made by one of the following methods: Small purchase procedures; competitive sealed bids (formal advertising); competitive negotiation...

  2. 76 FR 26279 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ...-service area; clean and sanitize food service equipment, utensil cleaning, and dishwashing; clean pots... additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add services to the Procurement... in this notice will be required to procure the services listed below from nonprofit agencies...

  3. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V. [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  4. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  5. Competitive Procurement and Asset Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorana, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of asset specificity on the performance of procurement auctions with subcontracting and asset sales.The analysis highlights the role of several asset features like transfer costs, type of alternative uses and maintenance requirements.It is argued that, if bargaining

  6. Organ procurement: let's presume consent

    OpenAIRE

    Moustarah, F

    1998-01-01

    IN WINNING FIRST PRIZE in the Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest in 1997, Dr. Fady Moustarah made a strong and compelling argument in favour of presumed consent in the procurement of donor organs. He stressed that a major education campaign will be needed when such a policy is adopted lest some people begin to regard physicians as "organ vultures."

  7. Pakistan : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report analyzes Pakistan's procurement system, and presents an extensive set of recommendations for strengthening same. It reviews the legal, and regulatory framework, as well as the mandatory registration and/or pre-qualification of suppliers, and contractors, and negotiation practices, and, analyzes bidding document issues for recommendation. Human resources development, auditing pr...

  8. ENERGY POTENTIAL OF SPECIES FROM FOREST MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE RIO GRANDE DO NORTE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Cavalcante dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989293The objective was to evaluate the energy potential of woods of species under forest management plan from Seridó region in the Rio Grande do Norte state. It was used the wood species Jurema Preta, Pereiro, Marmeleiro, Catingueira, Mororó, Imburana, Jurema Branca and Mofumbo, at 20 years old, originated from the Dominga´s farm in the Caicó/RN municipality. The density, the content of volatiles, the ash and fixed carbon, calorific value, elemental composition and carbon/nitrogen (C/N and carbon/hydrogen (C/H analysis were carried out in the wood. Additionally, the amount of energy produced in kW.h.m-3 and kW.h.ha-1 for all species was estimated. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with eight treatments (species, four replicates (sample trees, adding up to 32 sampling units. There were significant differences, at 5% significance between treatments for all variables, except for hydrogen percentage and C/H ratio. It was concluded that Mororó´s wood shows high energy potential, and along with Jurema Preta, presents higher energy generation per m3, and provides greater economy for the same productivity. The energy potential Jurema Preta wood´s stands out among the species. Pereiro´s wood stands for energy production per hectare. Marmeleiro and Jurema Branca´s woods are indicated as direct burning potential and Imburana´s wood is not recommended for power generation.

  9. Biological nitrogen fixation in relation to energy forest production. Progress report, 1978-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarholm, M; Granhall, U

    1981-01-01

    Different pasture legumes, Alnus incana and Myrica gale have been tested in pot experiments and field trials with respect to their use as biological N-fertilizers in relation to energy forest production. So far experiments have been mainly concerned with their establishemnts as on intercrop with Galix at a mire site with ombrotrophic peat and in two clayish arable soils. Laboratory experiments have been made to determine optimal conditions for growth and nitrogen fixation of wild and Alaska lupines in relation to varous soil amendments in the form of lime, ash, NPKMo, and Fe. A pilot experiment of the terrelations between willows and grey alder growing together in peat has been started at Uppsala.

  10. Development of SVAT model for computing water and energy balance of the forest intensive monitoring plots on Olkiluoto island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, T.

    2009-06-01

    This Working Report presents the main results of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere- Transfer) model that was developed to analyze the different water and energy balance components of the Forest Intensive monitoring plots (FIP) on Olkiluoto Island. The Olkiluoto SVAT model divides above ground vegetation in two layers: overstorey (trees) and understorey. Hydrological processes that are quantified in the SVAT model of forest stands include precipitation, interception, evaporation, transpiration, snow accumulation and melt, soil and ground water movement, overland flow, horizontal subsurface flow and flow to forest ditches. In this report outlines for simplifying the existing SVAT model to a computational tool that can be used in biosphere modeling for long-term safety purposes are also given. The functioning of forest ecosystems on Olkiluoto Island is studied in Forest Intensive monitoring Plots (FIP): FIP4 (Scots pine forest), FIP10 (Norway spruce forest) and FIP11 (young Norway spruce/birch forest). Within the forest intensive monitoring plots (FIP4, 10 and 11) stand meteorological measurements are recorded once an hour. The parameters are air temperature, minimum and maximum temperature inside the crown layer and above the canopy, radiation, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture content, soil temperature and sap flow measurements (May 2007- June 2008). Measured versus computed cumulative stand throughfall were in good agreement with each other indicating that the SVAT model can be calibrated to reproduce very well the measured throughfall rates. Estimated stem flow was around 10% of precipitation for the Scots pine forest (FIP4), around 4 % for Norway spruce forest (FIP10) and about 3 % for young Norway spruce/birch forest (FIP11). For FIP4 the computed interception values were approximately 3-4 % bigger than the measured values but SVAT model predicted the yearly variation very well. For FIP10 average computed value was around 1 % smaller than the

  11. Forest biomass supply chains in Ireland: A life cycle assessment of GHG emissions and primary energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood energy supply chains are analysed for energy requirements and GHG emissions. • Use of residues and stumps for energy is evaluated for Irish conditions. • Results highlight transportation as the most energy and GHG emission intensive step. • Wood energy compares favourably with other biomass sources and fossil fuels. - Abstract: The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m 3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m 3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps in terms of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions across the life cycle in Ireland. The results of the analysis on wood energy supply chains highlights transport as the most energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensive step in the life cycle. This finding illustrates importance of localised production and use of forest biomass. Production of wood chip, and shredded bundles and stumps, compares favourably with both other sources of biomass in Ireland and fossil fuels

  12. Admixture of lime in connection with deep rotary cultivation for short rotation energy forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danfors, B; Stambeck, A; Aasberg, G

    1985-01-01

    Spaghnum soils, which could be used for production of short rotation energy forests (Salix), require lime for the adjustment of the pH-level to obtain production at acceptable levels. It is necessary that the lime is distributed uniformly in the soil profile to a depth of at least 40-50 cm. The investigation has studied three methods of spreading and incorporating lime in the uppermost layer of soil. The first method concerned ploughing of peat soil with a conventional agricultural plough, the second method concerned rotovation with an agricutural rotovator to maximally 20 cm depth. In both cases the lime has been spread with a centrifugal broadcaster before the soil tillage. The third method implied simultaneous spreading of the lime and rotovation of the peat to a depth of maximally 50 cm, JTI has built and constructed a machine for this purpose. Ploughing as the only method of soil tillage of peat soils before planting of short rotation energy forests is rejected for two reasons. 1. Certain peat soils which have such mechanical properties that they immediately completely clog a plough. 2. The deficient distribution of lime in the ploughed layer. Rotovation with an agricultural rotovator has been done with good results. The delivery of lime in connection with the rotovation works well provided that the lime is dry. The peat is efficiently disintegrated and the lime gets a sufficiently uniform admixture. The cultivation depth, 40-50 cm, appears to be sufficient for the Salix plants to cope with the water supply during the summer. Limitations which should be discussed concern the cost of such an intensive and deep tillage of the peat.

  13. Harvesting techniques for energy wood of forest owners; Metsaenomistajien energiapuun korjuutekniikat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)] Ihonen, M. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop harvesting techniques and methods for small-wood and logging residues, suitable for use by forest owners and small-scale entrepreneurs. Examples of such methods are piling of logging residues at site and forest transport with farm tractors. The project is carried out by field experiments with new machines and methods and by work-studies at sites in practice. A cost-accounting model for firewood production will also be revised. The work study of the harvesting method of first- thinning wood and energy wood based on the use of SykeNaarva logging equipment was carried out as part of chips supply to Perho Energy Co-operative. The productivity of logging was in practice significantly higher than in previous field tests with the prototype equipment. The costs were lower than in manual logging. Field experiments were also carried out with manual logging with a chain saw equipped with felling grips (Reo-Tuote Ky). Operation experiments with a chain-limbing device for farm tractors (Eskon Paja Oy), related to product development, were also carried out. A literature study, specialist interviews and field experiments were carried out on the transports of logging residues with farm factors. A four-drive tractor equipped with a timber loader and a trailer is suited technically for this work. Productivity is reduced by slow loading and in particular by a small load size when operating with the basic fleet. The costs are reduced by small capital costs and by rapid transports between the sites. To improve the economy of harvesting logging residues, inexpensive technical solutions were studied for farm tractors in co-operation with engineering works

  14. Simulation of Forest Evapotranspiration Using Time-Series Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS over the Qilian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a long-term parameterization scheme for two critical parameters, zero-plane displacement height (d and aerodynamic roughness length (z0m, that we further use in the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS. A sensitivity analysis of SEBS indicated that these two parameters largely impact the estimated sensible heat and latent heat fluxes. First, we calibrated regression relationships between measured forest vertical parameters (Lorey’s height and the frontal area index (FAI and forest aboveground biomass (AGB. Next, we derived the interannual Lorey’s height and FAI values from our calibrated regression models and corresponding forest AGB dynamics that were converted from interannual carbon fluxes, as simulated from two incorporated ecological models and a 2009 forest basis map These dynamic forest vertical parameters, combined with refined eight-day Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS LAI products, were applied to estimate the eight-day d, z0m, and, thus, the heat roughness length (z0h. The obtained d, z0m and z0h were then used as forcing for the SEBS model in order to simulate long-term forest evapotranspiration (ET from 2000 to 2012 within the Qilian Mountains (QMs. As compared with MODIS, MOD16 products at the eddy covariance (EC site, ET estimates from the SEBS agreed much better with EC measurements (R2 = 0.80 and RMSE = 0.21 mm·day−1.

  15. Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.Y. Zhu; C. Tim Scott; Roland Gleisner; Doreen Mann; D.P. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. Edwards

    2007-01-01

    High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U.S. national forests is a potentially important contributor to sustainable forest health. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP). Both whole-log chips (primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs...

  16. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  17. Regulations in the German countries in the field of green public procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Andreas; Acker, Hendrik [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The task of the Oeko-Institut e.V. (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) consisted in creating an overview of the regulations currently in force at country level concerning the promotion of green public procurement. The investigation focused on legally binding targets contributing to the green public procurement of goods and services. Of particular interest to the investigation was the question of whether the countries have in the intervening period heeded the call of the Federal government on the procurement of energy-intensive products and services or the joint instruction on the procurement of wood products. The aim of the investigation under consideration was to use the overview to make a contribution to the description of the status quo in green public procurement in Germany and, where applicate, to identify examples of best practice.

  18. Water and Energy Balances of Loblolly Pine Plantation Forests during a Full Stand Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Mitra, B.; Domec, J. C.; Gavazi, M.; Yang, Y.; Tian, S.; Zietlow, D.; McNulty, S.; King, J.; Noormets, A.

    2017-12-01

    partitioning of precipitation and solar energy in pine forests. In addition, we conclude that accessible groundwater was important factor for stabilizing forest water and energy balances during a drought in the lower coastal ecosystems.

  19. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  20. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2003-01-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of November

  1. Modelling renewable supply chain for electricity generation with forest, fossil, and wood-waste fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palander, Teijo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a multiple objective model to large-scale and long-term industrial energy supply chain scheduling problems is considered. The problems include the allocation of a number of fossil, peat, and wood-waste fuel procurement chains to an energy plant during different periods. This decision environment is further complicated by sequence-dependent procurement chains for forest fuels. A dynamic linear programming model can be efficiently used for modelling energy flows in fuel procurement planning. However, due to the complex nature of the problem, the resulting model cannot be directly used to solve the combined heat and electricity production problem in a manner that is relevant to the energy industry. Therefore, this approach was used with a multiple objective programming model to better describe the combinatorial complexity of the scheduling task. The properties of this methodology are discussed and four examples of how the model works based on real-world data and optional peat fuel tax, feed-in tariff of electricity and energy efficiency constraints are presented. The energy industry as a whole is subject to policy decisions regarding renewable energy production and energy efficiency regulation. These decisions should be made on the basis of comprehensive techno-economic analysis using local energy supply chain models. -- Highlights: → The energy policy decisions are made using comprehensive techno-economic analysis. → Peat tax, feed-in tariff and energy efficiency increases renewable energy production. → The potential of peat procurement deviates from the current assumptions of managers. → The dynamic MOLP model could easily be adapted to a changing decision environment.

  2. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  3. The role of clouds in the surface energy balance over the Amazon forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, E.A.B.; Humphries, E.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon region will initially impact the energy balance at the land surface through changes in land cover and surface hydrology. However, continuation of this human activity will eventually lead to atmospheric feedbacks, including changes in cloudiness which may play an important role in the final equilibrium of solar and terrestrial radiation at the surface. In this study, the different components of surface radiation over an undisturbed forest in the Amazon region are computed using data from the Amazon region micrometerological experiment (ARME). Several measures of cloudiness are defined: two estimated from the terrestrial radiation measurements, and one from the solar radiation measurements. The sensitivity of the surface fluxes of solar and terrestrial radiation to natural variability in cloudiness is investigated to infer the potential role of the cloudiness feedback in the surface energy balance. The results of this analysis indicate that a 1% decrease in cloudiness would increase net solar radiation by ca. 1.6 W/m 2 . However, the overall magnitude of this feedback, due to total deforestation of the Amazon forest, is likely to be of the same order as the magnitude of the decrease in net solar radiation due to the observed increase in surface albedo following deforestation. Hence, the total change in net solar radiation is likely to have a negligible magnitude. In contrast to this conclusion, we find that terrestrial radiation is likely to be more strongly affected; reduced cloudiness will decrease net terrestrial radiation; a 1% decrease in cloudiness induces a reduction in net terrestrial radiation of ca. 0.7 W/m 2 ; this process augments the similar effects of the predicted warming and drying in the boundary layer. Due to the cloudiness feedback, the most significant effect of large-scale deforestation on the surface energy balance is likely to be in the modification of the terrestrial radiation field rather than the classical albedo

  4. Moisture management, energy density and fuel quality in forest fuel supply chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvanainen, T. [Joensuu Science Park Ltd., Joensuu (Finland); Sikanen, L. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Roser, D. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided tools for reducing the moisture content (MC) in wood chips, as moisture is one of the main quality factors for woody biomass, along with energy density and cleanness. The amount of water in solid wood fuels has a considerable effect on transportation efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions. Under favourable storage conditions, MC can be decreased from typical fresh cut 50-55 per cent to 20-30 per cent in relatively short periods of storing by natural or artificial drying. Minor modifications can boost natural drying in fuel wood supply chains. This natural drying effect can have significant effects on the total energy efficiency and emissions of supply chains. The effect of improved packing density on transportation phase was discussed along with the need to control chip purity and size distribution. A procedure developed at the University of Joensuu and in the Finnish Forest Research Institute was used to estimate transportation costs and emissions according to transportation fleet and MC of the transported fuel. tabs., figs.

  5. Wood energy in Eucalyptus forest; A energia da madeira em floresta de eucalipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Eder Aparecido [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], e-mail: os_garcias@fca.unesp.br; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural; Guerra, Saulo Philipe Sebastiao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Rezende, Marcos Antonio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica; Maziero, Felipe Luiz [Faculdadede Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-SP), Borucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to address the energy productivity of forest density. In an area of dystrophic, seedlings of clones of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla were planted in 2008, considering factors spacing and fertilization. The first dose is equivalent to 70 g/plant of NPK 6-30-6 and total coverage of 110 g/plant of NPK 20-0-20 with B and Zn, the doses were the two three double and four times the dose 1. The spacings were 2.8x0.5 m, 2.8 x1.0 m, 2.8x1.5 m, 2.8x2.0 m and 2.8x2.5 m. At 18 months, sample trees were harvested to analyze the gross calorific value of wood with bark. An evaluation of economic viability was based on the sale of briquettes. The highest income in the spacing was 2.8x1.0 m with level 2. The average values of calorific value were between 4717 and 4862 kcal/kg. The greatest potential energy was 109,845 kcal/tree obtained at spacing 2.8x2.5 m, with 3 doses of fertilization, but was similar to two doses. The highest yield was 316 Gcal/ha, in treating 2.8x0.5 m with higher fertilizer application. (author)

  6. Ethics and regulation in organ procurement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Terrence F; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2002-12-01

    This article explores the role of ethics and regulation in human research conducted by organ procurement agencies; basic ethical principles for human research are outlined. Organ procurement agencies are not required to observe federal regulations; however, voluntary adherence will ensure that procurement research is conducted according to current standards of ethical practice. Although most organ procurement research will qualify for exempt status, this determination should be made by an institutional review board. Even if studies qualify for exempt status, there is a moral presumption that informed consent should be sought, unless certain narrow conditions for waiver of consent are satisfied. Finally, when future research utilizing organ procurement records is anticipated, procurement coordinators should provide sufficiently detailed information to families about such plans to permit their advance informed consent to research activities.

  7. SWOT-AHP as an inclusive analytical tool of the forest-wood-energy chain: the case study of the Sarntal (South Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodinoska N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the use of forest biomass for energy purpose is steadily increasing to tackle energy security issues and to mitigate climate change by stabilizing greenhouse gases (GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. In Italy, the new National Energy Strategy established that the renewable energy must cover 20% of gross energy demand by 2020. In order to achieve this objective the forest biomass could be of fundamental importance. In this context of increasing extraction of wood residues from forests, it is relevant to analyse two key aspects: (1 the involvement of stakeholders in the strategy for the valorization of forest-wood-energy chain at local level; and (2 the potential impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on environment. This paper analyses these two aspects through the stakeholders’ opinions in a case study in the Alto Adige (Sarentino valley. Stakeholders’ opinions concerning the analysis of SWOT categories (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats of the bioenergy supply chain were investigated using the SWOT-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process approach. The results show that the local stakeholders emphasize some strengths (e.g., additional income over time for private forest owners and opportunities (e.g., development of shared forest management strategies among small forest owners of forest-wood-energy chain, and consider less relevant the weaknesses and threats. The results concerning one of most important potential threats - impacts on environment - show that all groups of stakeholders (public administrations, associations and NGO, research bodies and universities, and actors of rural sector consider positive the impacts of increased forest biomass extraction on recreational activities and negative on other three ecosystem services (carbon sequestration, hydrogeological protection, and biodiversity.

  8. Controlling fuel costs: Procurement strategies and regulatory standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, H.A.; Levi, B.I.

    1992-01-01

    Since the oil price shocks and inflation of the 1970s, regulatory authorities and utilities have devoted considerable attention to controlling energy costs while maintaining reliable service. Although much of this concern has been directed towards capital cost containment, increasing scrutiny has been applied to a broad range of variable costs, especially to fuel procurement expenditures. With some 40% to 65% of the electric utility industry's annual operation and maintenance expenses paid to secure fuel supplies, even a small difference in fuel costs could have a substantial impact on costs to ratepayers. This increased attention to fuel cost containment can be expected to intensify as implementation of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act affects fuel purchase decisions. To assure that fuel is purchased in a responsible and cost-effective manner, some state jurisdictions have initiated periodic reviews (audits) of the procurement practices that electric utilities follow when purchasing fuel. While a utility must demonstrate how it purchases fuel, there is wide variation in interest and scope of audits among jurisdictions. In this paper, the authors review: (1) the regulatory environment within which fuel procurement and audits occur, and (2) some particularly controversial issues that will receive increasing attention as the practice of conducting fuel procurement audits spreads

  9. Handbook for preparation of Individual Procurement Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS) provides a mechanism for collecting, assembling, organizing, and presenting acquisition and assistance data for the Department of Energy (DOE). This handbook and associated documents establish a uniform system to report acquisition/assistance data to PADS for the collection, processing, and dissemination of official statistical data on the Department`s acquisition and assistance actions. The data provides, based on information available at the time of request, a basis for any recurring and special reports to the senior procurement executive, Congress, General Accounting Office (GAO), Federal executive agencies, Office of management and Budget (OMB), and the general public. It provides information for measuring and assessing the extent to which small business firms and small disadvantages business enterprises are sharing in DOE placement, and for other acquisition and assistance policy and management control purposes. The Handbook for the Preparation of the Individual Procurement Action Report (IPAR) has been designed in two sections; Procurement and Financial Assistance to support the individual forms.

  10. The effects of location, feedstock availability, and supply-chain logistics on the greenhouse gas emissions of forest-biomass energy utilization in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappinen, E,

    2013-11-01

    Forest biomass represents a geographically distributed feedstock, and geographical location affects the greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of a given forest-bioenergy system in several ways. For example, biomass availability, forest operations, transportation possibilities and the distances involved, biomass end-use possibilities, fossil reference systems, and forest carbon balances all depend to some extent on location. The overall objective of this thesis was to assess the GHG emissions derived from supply and energy-utilization chains of forest biomass in Finland, with a specific focus on the effect of location in relation to forest biomass's availability and the transportation possibilities. Biomass availability and transportation-network assessments were conducted through utilization of geographical information system methods, and the GHG emissions were assessed by means of lifecycle assessment. The thesis is based on four papers in which forest biomass supply on industrial scale was assessed. The feedstocks assessed in this thesis include harvesting residues, smalldiameter energy wood and stumps. The principal implication of the findings in this thesis is that in Finland, the location and availability of biomass in the proximity of a given energyutilization or energy-conversion plant is not a decisive factor in supply-chain GHG emissions or the possible GHG savings to be achieved with forest-biomass energy use. Therefore, for the greatest GHG reductions with limited forest-biomass resources, energy utilization of forest biomass in Finland should be directed to the locations where most GHG savings are achieved through replacement of fossil fuels. Furthermore, one should prioritize the types of forest biomass with the lowest direct supply-chain GHG emissions (e.g., from transport and comminution) and the lowest indirect ones (in particular, soil carbon-stock losses), regardless of location. In this respect, the best combination is to use harvesting residues

  11. Diagnosing the influence of model structure on the simulation of water, energy and carbon fluxes on bark beetle infested forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, D. J.; Gutmann, E. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Reed, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.; Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Barnard, H. R.; Hu, J.

    2011-12-01

    Forest dynamics induced by insect infestation can have a significant, local impact on plant physiological regulation of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Rapid mortality succeeded by more gradually varying land cover changes are presently thought to initiate a cascade of changes to water, energy and carbon budgets at the forest stand scale. Initial model sensitivity results have suggested very strong changes in land-atmosphere exchanges of these variables. Specifically, model results from the Noah land surface model, a relatively simple model, have suggested that loss of transpiration function may result in a nearly 50% increase in seasonal soil moisture values and similar increases in runoff production for locations in the central Rocky Mountains. However, differing model structures, such as the representation of plant canopy architecture, snowpack dynamics, dynamic vegetation and hillslope hydrologic processes, may significantly confound the synthesis of results from different modeling systems. We assess the performance of new suite of model simulations from three different land surface models of differing model structures and complexity levels against a comprehensive set of field observations of land surface flux and state variables. The focus of the analysis is in diagnosing how model structure influences changes in energy, water and carbon budget partitioning prior to and following insect infestation. Specific emphasis in this presentation is placed on verifying variables that characterize top of canopy and within canopy energy and water fluxes. We conclude the presentation with a set of recommendations about the advantages and disadvantages of various model structures in their simulation of insect driven forest dynamics.

  12. Evolution in public procurement and the impact of e-procurement platforms: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Pedro Manuel Mariano

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics The aim of this project is to understand the evolution that occurred in the public procurement due to the new Public Contracts Code that changed the procurement procedures and forced public entities to use electronic procurement platforms. This work is a contribution to the understanding of the main procurement changes with this ...

  13. Services procurement under the WTO’s agreement on government procurement: whither market access?

    OpenAIRE

    Shingal, Anirudh

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the government procurement of services from foreign suppliers by conducting a statistical analysis of data submitted by Japan and Switzerland to the WTO's Committee on Government Procurement. Using several metrics, the paper examines if the WTO’s Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) has led to greater market access for foreign suppliers in services procurement. Our results indicate that despite the GPA, the proportions of services contracts awarded to foreigners have d...

  14. Infrastructure procurement skills gap amongst procurement personnel in Nigeria’s public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Manu, P.; Booth, C.; Olomolaiye, P.; Coker, A.; Ibrahim, A. ed; Lamond, J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Procurement of public infrastructure that is fit for purpose partly depends on the competencies of procurement personnel. In many developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, there is a deficit in the quantity and quality of infrastructure and their procurement is further riddled with deficiencies in the capacity of public procuring entities. It is, however, unclear from the extant literature, what are the critical skills development needs of public personnel invol...

  15. Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System is used for gathering consistent data from U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) program...

  16. Contracting Out Government Procurement Functions: An Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamm, David; Yoder, Cory

    2008-01-01

    ...)), asked the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to analyze the contracting out of procurement functions currently being accomplished by Navy, Marine Corps, and other Department of Defense (DOD) Activities...

  17. The International Experience in Public Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenna Mariia S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the foreign experience of implementing public procurement, analyzing peculiarities of organizational, normative and procedural provision of public procurement in the Member States of the European Union. The relevance of the research topic is due to the need to harmonize the procurement policy of the Government of Ukraine with the international legal framework and with broad political objectives within the European integration strategy. The organizational framework and principles of implementing public procurement in the EU Member States were analyzed. Special attention was paid to normative provision of public procurement by the EU Member States; peculiarities of the use of national or harmonized rules of public procurement in accordance with the amount of the procurement contract; restrictions and conditions for public authorities in the selection of applicants for bidding. Five types of public procurement procedures used in the EU have been characterized, namely: open procedure, limited procedure, negotiation procedure, competitive dialog, electronic auctions. The need to address the social and legal aspects of public procurement in international practice has been substantiated and the possibilities for resolving these problems have been presented.

  18. Risk Management in Public Procurement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Manea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Public procurement represents an important part of the current economy reality. Throughout the procurement process, due to the effect of the interaction among the components of the public procurement system, certain actions with significant negative effects on its optimal operation may occur. Risks may turn into certainty either because of a simple error in the development and administration of the procurement process, or because of a deliberate deviation from the existing legal provisions. Therefore, there is an imperative for the implementation of certain risk-avoiding measures, as well as of measures aiming to reduce their negative effects in case of their occurrence.

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE Comprehensive Community Renewable Energy Implementation Plan in Forest County and Milwaukee County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Nathan [Forest County Potawatomi Community, Crandon, WI (United States)

    2014-06-27

    Forest County Potawatomi Community (the “Community”) sought and obtained Community Renewable Energy Deployment funding from the Department of Energy to evaluate and implement a diverse number of renewable energy technologies throughout its lands held in trust or owned in fee simple in Forest County and Milwaukee County (the “Project”). The technologies and sites evolved during the Project, ultimately leading to the investigation of biomass and solar projects on the Community’s reservation in Forest County, as well as the investigation and eventual deployment of a solar project and an anaerobic digestion and biogas project on Community lands in Milwaukee.

  20. Forest biomass and energy-wood potential in the southern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saucier, J.R. [Forestry Sciences Lab., Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Timber resource data were compiled from the most recent USDA Forest Service inventory data for the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. Timber resource inventories traditionally include only trees 5 inches dbh and greater and their volumes to the prevailing merchantable top diameter expressed in cubic feet, board feet, or cords. For this paper, conversion factors were developed to express timber inventories in weight and to expand the inventories to include the crowns of merchantable trees and trees less than 5 inches dbh. By so doing, the total aboveground biomass is estimated for the timberlands in the South. The region contains 185 million acres of timberland. Some 14.6 billion green tons of woody biomass are present on southern timberland -- about 79 tons per acre. When mature stands are harvested, the average acre in the South has 22.2 tons of woody material left in crowns and sapling, and 5.1 tons in cull stems. Thus, an average of 27.3 green tons per acre of potential energy wood are left after conventional harvests. Conversion factors that are presented permit estimates for specific tracts, areas, counties, or states.

  1. Evaluation of the pilot procurement project in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, Katrin

    2003-01-01

    Energy+ represents a European cooperative procurement initiative which aims at increasing the market share of highly energy-efficient cold appliances. Three years after its start, the project was recently evaluated in Germany. This paper discusses the main evaluation results and their implications for the project's further development. It covers the impacts of Energy+ on technology development and the commercial importance of the targeted appliances. Due to the project's relatively recent start, however, the main focus of the evaluation lies on the procurement process and practical implementation elements. Of particular interest are the specificities of the considered market segment which, in Germany and also in other participating countries, is characterised by highly dispersed consumers and the lack of large institutional buyers as candidates for a buyer group. The project therefore developed a new approach emphasising the role of retail organisations and of marketing activities by the project coordinators. The evaluation discusses several challenges related to this approach. This includes issues concerning the interfaces between international producers, their national branch offices and retailers as well as conflicts between the marketing approaches of producers and retailers, in particular with respect to the use of brand names and trade marks. Further, in Energy+ the communication between users and producers, an essential innovative element of cooperative procurement, cannot take its usual role, since consumers are not directly involved in the process. The paper shows how the project has dealt with these challenges and provides recommendations for the future project design

  2. Forest-Industry of the Future; Industrial Partnerships: Advancing Energy and Environmental Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Office of Industrial Technologies

    2001-01-01

    This tri-fold brochure describe the partnering activities of the Office of Industrial Technologies' (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) for Forest Products. Information on what works for the Forest Products industry, examples of successful partnerships, and benefits of partnering with OIT are included

  3. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  4. Energy reserch in the mechanical forest industry 1980-1982. Energy consumption in the manufacture of joinery products, wooden houses and in the further processing of sawn timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.; Froeblom, J.

    1983-03-01

    Energy consumption in the mechanical forest industry in 1979 was studied by sending questionnairies to all the significant factories Information was requested on power and heat consumption and installed power in separate process phases. For background information, some aspects of the production process were also requested. The factories which answered the inquiry produced about one half of the doors and windows manufactured in 1979, one sixth of the finger jointed timber and about one third of other products in the branch. The total energy consumption in the branch was 1 556 TJ, 77% was heat. The share of the joinery industry (doors, windows and fixtures) in the total was 2/3, of which 86% was heat energy. The energy needed in the wooden house industry was 219 TJ, in planing works 137 TJ, in the gluelam industry 86 TJ, in finger jointing 76 TJ and in the production of roof trusses about 6 TJ. The investigated brances accounted for 7% of the energy consumption of the whole mechanical forest industry. The energy consumption in producing products of the same type in different factories varied very much. The differences were partially structural. However, there is considerable room for energy savings in many of the factories.

  5. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla V. Trofimovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains information on the theoretical-methodological research of the Institute of public procurement. The focus is on the consideration of the implementation of the priority tasks for the state contract system and the role in their solving that regional level of management can play. Opportunities in the sphere of state regulation, that Moscow, as the subject of the Federation, has, are educed in the article. The problem of transformation the existing contractual mechanisms for the formation of the model of public contract system, is studied.

  6. International overview of hospital procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Maud; Lariviere, David; Laurent, Claire; Roque, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article was written by four French hospital director students at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique (EHESP-School of Public Health) from a study conducted jointly with students at the Grenoble School of Management to present an international overview of hospital procurement methods in ten countries. An analysis of these methods showed that there was a general trend towards group purchasing, with some common aims in terms of costs and performance and some differences in legislation (competition), size of the public sector and centralization or decentralization.

  7. Energy efficiency and economic analysis of the thermomodernization of forest lodges in the Świętokrzyski National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wciślik, Sylwia

    This paper analyses energy efficiency of thermomodernization project on the example of three forest lodges located in the Świętokrzyski National Park. Currently, one of the basic requirements posed for the buildings subjected to modernization is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions even above 80% in comparison with the original values. In order to fulfil such criteria, it is necessary to apply alternative solutions based on renewable energy sources. Due to limited budget, low cubic capacity and location of the buildings, solar collectors with storage tanks and biomass boilers provide a rational option. For such a case, the emissions of basic pollutants such as CO2, SOx, NOx or particulates is obtained. The study also gives the results of calculations of payback time (SPBT) for the investment for exemplary forest lodge.

  8. Energy efficiency and economic analysis of the thermomodernization of forest lodges in the Świętokrzyski National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wciślik Sylwia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses energy efficiency of thermomodernization project on the example of three forest lodges located in the Świętokrzyski National Park. Currently, one of the basic requirements posed for the buildings subjected to modernization is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions even above 80% in comparison with the original values. In order to fulfil such criteria, it is necessary to apply alternative solutions based on renewable energy sources. Due to limited budget, low cubic capacity and location of the buildings, solar collectors with storage tanks and biomass boilers provide a rational option. For such a case, the emissions of basic pollutants such as CO2, SOx, NOx or particulates is obtained. The study also gives the results of calculations of payback time (SPBT for the investment for exemplary forest lodge.

  9. The value chain of small-sized energy wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, K.; Foehr, J.; Ranta, T. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland), LUT Energy), Email: kalle.karttunen@lut.fi, Email: jarno.fohr@lut.fi, Email: tapio.ranta@lut.fi; Ahtikoski, A. (The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi (Finland)), Email: anssi.ahtikoski@metla.fi; Valsta, L. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Economics), Email: lauri.valsta@helsinki.fi

    2009-07-01

    Finland has agreed to increase the share of renewable energy to the level of 38% by the end of 2020. Most of the increase is to be based on bioenergy. According to the National Climate and Energy Strategy, the need for forest biomass will come to more than 20 TWh, or some 10 million cubic meters per year. Energy wood from young stand thinnings are the biomass resource with the most potential at the moment. The purpose of this study was to compare cost differences between forest management incorporating energy wood thinning and forest management based on traditional roundwood thinning. In addition, alternative supply chain costs for small-sized wood were studied. The results of the study show that it is worth considering the following points if the demand and average price for forest chips remain high. 1. Forest-owners: Forest management including energy wood thinning is financially feasible. 2. Supply chain: A terminal chipping chain enables large-scale procurement of small-sized energy wood. 3. Power plants: Currently, subsidies, emission trading, and decreasing pulpwood prices together enable large-scale use of small-sized wood for energy purposes. The value chain of small-sized energy wood in large-scale power plants could be mobilised. (orig.)

  10. Public Procurement and the Private Supply of Green Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Simcoe; Michael W. Toffel

    2012-01-01

    We measure the impact of municipal policies requiring governments to construct green buildings on private-sector adoption of the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard. Using matching methods, panel data, and instrumental variables, we find that government procurement rules produce spillover effects that stimulate both private-sector adoption of the LEED standard and supplier investments in green building expertise. Our findings suggest tha...

  11. 48 CFR 752.225-71 - Local procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1997) (a) Local procurement involves the use of appropriated funds to finance the procurement of goods... currency of the cooperating country. (b) All locally-financed procurements must be covered by source/origin...

  12. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  13. Reserve price: Lessons learned from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Erik Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Auctions have been used in several formats in the electric energy industry. In general, regulators may be uncomfortable initiating a reverse auction at a higher-than-expected final price, fearing that participants may sell their energy at an excess profitability. Nevertheless, evidence from electricity procurement auctions conducted in Brazil supports the findings that these types of auctions have the opposite effect. By attracting a larger number of agents, these auctions can trigger stronger competition and lead to lower settlement pricing. Accordingly, the Brazilian cases examined in this article present significant evidence to support this directional theory. In fact, there are some cases of electricity procurement auctions that show that inadequate auction reserve pricing leads to inefficient outcomes and may also cause the auction to fail. On the other hand, auctions with adequate price caps have led to lower final clearing prices, thus contributing to reasonable final energy pricing. - Highlights: • Outcomes from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions were analyzed. • Cases of success and frustration after adopting (in)adequate reserve prices. • Setting different price caps per source is inefficient. • Higher-than-normal price cap is more effective than fine-tuning reserve prices

  14. public procurement, governance and economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    (2003: 2), ―strong procurement management in the public sector is a tool for achieving political, economic and social goals‖. Thus .... professionalism in the public sector procurement system (Section 4, PPA, 2007). The functions and powers of the ..... K., Bose, N. and Haque, M.E. (2004). Public Expenditures, Bureaucratic.

  15. 75 FR 47550 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...--Macintosh Apple NSN: MR 473--Fresh Linen NPA: Industries for the Blind, Inc., West Allis, WI Contracting... Service, 5777 S. Aviation Blvd., N. Charleston, SC NPA: Goodwill Industries of Lower South Carolina, Inc... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be...

  16. 75 FR 22745 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... General Services Administration. Services Service Type/Location: Laundry Services, Alaska VA Healthcare... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the products and services and impact of the...

  17. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ARMY, W6QL ECC MIAMI DIV, MIAMI, FL. Service Type/Location: Industrial Laundry Service, Bureau of... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be provided by... concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the services and impact of the additions on...

  18. 78 FR 48656 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit agencies employing persons who...

  19. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. Service Type/Location: Laundry, Refurbishment, and Warehouse Services... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds products and services to the Procurement List that will be... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  20. 77 FR 29596 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    .../Location: Laundry Service, Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), (offsite: 1809 W 2nd Avenue... Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add products and services to the... identified in this notice will be required to procure the products and services listed below from nonprofit...

  1. 75 FR 14576 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Inspection Service, Minneapolis, MN. M.R. Laundry Products NSN: MR 1103--Heavy Duty Laundry Bag. NSN: MR 1104... procurement list. SUMMARY: This action adds to the Procurement List products and services to be furnished by... products and services and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee...

  2. 22 CFR 226.44 - Procurement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.44 Procurement procedures. (a... and assistance, as appropriate, of such organizations as the Small Business Administration and the...

  3. Measuring the effect of Sustainable Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp MC; Kok L; Valk E de; DMG; M&V; M&V

    2018-01-01

    Many purchasing services of the Dutch local and central governments, aim to include the effects of products and services on human health and the environment in the procurement process. Sustainable procurement (SP) encompasses more than just price and quality considerations. SP can result, for

  4. 42 CFR 457.940 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement standards. 457.940 Section 457.940... Integrity § 457.940 Procurement standards. (a) A State must submit to CMS a written assurance that title XXI... public or private payment rates for comparable services for comparable populations, consistent with...

  5. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  6. 7 CFR 210.21 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Responsibilities § 210.21 Procurement. (a) General. State agencies and school food authorities shall comply with... violation of law are to be referred to the local, State, or Federal authority that has proper jurisdiction... title are followed. A school food authority may use its own procurement procedures which reflect...

  7. 7 CFR 220.16 - Procurement standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nature. Matters concerning violation of law are to be referred to the local, State or Federal authority... § 3016.60(b) and (c) of this title are followed. The school food authority may use its own procurement procedures which reflect applicable State and local laws and regulations, provided that procurements made...

  8. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Requirement as aggregated by the General Services Administration. NSN: 7920-00-NIB-0564--Towel, Cleaning, Non... Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a products and services to the Procurement List that will be... presented to it concerning capability of qualified nonprofit agencies to provide the products and services...

  9. How does procurement capability maturity affect e-Procurement adoption and leverage purchasing in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpanga Pongsuwan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the research model of Batenburg (2008 which defined procurement functions to six maturity dimensions; strategy, processes, control, organization, information, e-Technology as the starting point and indicates twenty two items to support capability maturity measurement which is called “Procurement Competitive Capability Maturity”(PCCM. This model is used for a company to assess current practices of procurement function and perceives the level of its capabilities. The data collection is from a survey of fifty-two selected procurement organizations in Southeast Asia (SEA countries; from Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the significant value of industry type, size of spending and centralized/decentralized procurement that affect procurement capability maturity. The results show that the industry has no relation to the capability maturity; the size of procurement spend has a positive relation to the capability maturity; and the centralized procurement has higher capability maturity than the decentralized. Moreover, this study extends the knowledge of e-Procurement and digital context to leverage procurement processes and visible procurement integration in an organization and across the supply chain.

  10. Measuring effects of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Underway for quite some time now has been the discussion on using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. However - with some exceptions this has been mainly a conceptual discussion vastly surpassed a corresponding development of appropriate monitoring tools. Also, even if both...... qualitative and quantitative studies have been made, they tend to lack connection to the underlying mechanisms envisaged in the conceptual and/or case based literature. A challenge in this endeavour prevails in the nature of how public procurement of innovation works. Some of the effects rendered may...... about the usefulness of public procurement of innovation are at all realistic and feasible in practice. After reviewing different currently available means to measure both public procurement of innovation measures, as well as public procurement of innovation, the paper outlines a case-based approach...

  11. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given...... to potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  12. ONLINE PROCUREMENT IN SME`s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ICHIM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available E-Marketplaces are new business places for buying, selling products and services in many industries to support customers. The emergence of business-to-business (B2B in the online environment has opened up opportunities for effective online transactions between businesses. Research in this area is not enough to offer only fragmented perspectives in this area. Therefore, the targeted research problem was designed to investigate how business performance of online B2B purchases can be analyzed. The proposed study focuses on the online procurement in. Specifically, they try to answer questions such as: Does site, product, and vendor characteristics affect the online procurement in? Does online buying experience influence online procurement by? Participants are that use the Internet to procure products or services. Study respondents were SME managers who believe that online procurement will save time, money and effort, reducing costs.

  13. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimor, Hans; Arya, Anil; Mittendorf, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied and conf......The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied...... and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  14. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, G.

    1995-06-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  15. Non-energy markets for small roundwood, forest residues and short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition for roundwood is intense at the present time with prices ranging from approximately Pound 20 to Pound 51 per green tonne delivered at mill. The sawmilling industry produces nearly 2 million green tonnes of residues annually from converting British roundwood and about 85% of this is used by the panelboard and paperboard mills. The remaining 15%, comprising mostly bark, and some of the unpeeled chips are used as material for mulching, landscaping and horticultural use, play areas, paths and horse gallops, soil composting and soil conditioning. Wood shavings and sawdust is produced by joinery and milling firms from imported sawn timber and amounts to about 300,000 tonnes/annum. Approximately 70% of this is used for higher priced markets, bedding for horses, chicken and turkeys, cattle and other uses. The remaining 30% is used in the wood processing industry. An increasing volume of solid wood waste which previously went for landfill sites is now being recycled and this trend is expected to continue. Only a very small proportion of the forest residues (tree tops and branches) produced each year is utilised and most of this material is used as mulch for horticultural and landscape uses. Markets for material from traditional short rotation coppice are limited relative to potential production but work is underway to develop new markets. There are no established markets for recently planted non-traditional coppice of willow and poplar with potential for energy production. Trials organised by ETSU and the DTI have indicated the suitability of the material for chipboard production provided the bark percentage is not too high. (author)

  16. Modeling long-term changes in forested landscapes and their relation to the Earth's energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H.; Emanuel, W. R.; Solomon, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamics of the forested parts of the Earth's surface on time scales from decades to centuries are discussed. A set of computer models developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere are applied as tools. These models simulate a landscape by duplicating the dynamics of growth, death and birth of each tree living on a 0.10 ha element of the landscape. This spatial unit is generally referred to as a gap in the case of the forest models. The models were tested against and applied to a diverse array of forests and appear to provide a reasonable representation for investigating forest-cover dynamics. Because of the climate linkage, one important test is the reconstruction of paleo-landscapes. Detailed reconstructions of changes in vegetation in response to changes in climate are crucial to understanding the association of the Earth's vegetation and climate and the response of the vegetation to climate change.

  17. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  18. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  19. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  20. A Preliminary Review of U.S. Forest Service Business Practices To Authorize Special Uses, Including Energy Infrastructure Projects, on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wescott, K. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); May, J. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moore, H. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunner, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Special Uses-Lands Program is in jeopardy. Although this program, authorized in Title 36, Part 251, of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (36 CFR Part 251), ranks among the top four revenue-generating programs for use of National Forest System (NFS) lands, along with the Timber, Minerals, and Special Uses-Recreation Programs, the Special Uses-Lands Program is in a state of neglect. Repeated cuts in funding (a decrease of 26% from fiscal years 2010 to 2014) are adversely affecting staffing and training, which in turn is affecting timely permit processing and ultimately the public’s ability to use and benefit from NFS lands. In addition, highly experienced staff with valuable institutional knowledge of the program have begun to retire. The ability of the program to function under these dire circumstances can be attributed to the dedication of Special Uses staff to the program and their commitment to the public. The initial focus of this report was to identify opportunities for improving performance of permitting and review for large energy infrastructure-related projects. However, it became clear during this analysis that these projects are generally adequately staffed and managed. This is due in large part to the availability of cost-recovery dollars and the high-profile nature of these projects. However, it also became apparent that larger issues affecting the bulk of the work of the Special Uses-Lands Program need to be addressed immediately. This report is a preliminary examination of the state of the Special Uses-Lands Program and focuses on a few key items requiring immediate attention. Further investigation through case studies is recommended to dig deeper into the Special Uses-Lands Program business process to determine the most costeffective strategies for streamlining the overall process and the metrics by which performance can be evaluated, including for the permitting and tracking of energy infrastructure projects.

  1. Bio-methanol potential in Indonesia: Forest biomass as a source of bio-energy that reduces carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suntana, Asep S. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Indonesian Ecolabeling Institute/Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (LEI), Taman Bogor Baru Blok BIV No. 12, Bogor 16152 (Indonesia); Vogt, Kristiina A. [Forest Systems and Bio-Energy Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Interforest LLC, Holderness, NH 03245 (United States); Renewol LLC, 63260 Overtree Road, Bend, OR 97701 (United States); Turnblom, Eric C. [Forest Biometrics Program, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, WA 98195-2100 (United States); Upadhye, Ravi [ARU Associates, Pleasanton, CA 94566 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Since Indonesia has significant land area in different forest types that could be used to produce biofuels, the potential to sustainably collect and convert forest materials to methanol for use in energy production was examined. Using the annually available aboveground forest biomass, from 40 to 168 billion l of bio-methanol could be produced for use as a transportation fuel and/or to supply fuel cells to produce electricity. When a lower forest biomass availability estimate was used to determine how much electricity (methanol fed into fuel cells) could be produced in Indonesia, more than 10 million households or about 12,000 villages (20% of the total rural villages in Indonesia) would be supplied annually with electricity. Collecting forest biomass at the higher end of the estimated available biomass and converting it to methanol to supply fuel cells could provide electricity to more than 42 million households annually. This would be approximately 52,000 villages, or 86% of the total rural villages in Indonesian. When electricity is produced with bio-methanol/fuel cells, it could potentially supply from half to all of the current electricity consumed in Indonesia. By generating electricity using bio-methanol/fuel cells instead of from fossil fuels, from 9 to 38% of the total carbon currently emitted each year in Indonesia could be avoided. In contrast, substituting this same amount of bio-methanol for gasoline could provide all of the annual gasoline needs of Indonesia and contribute towards reducing their carbon emissions by about 8-35%. (author)

  2. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  3. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  4. Integrative measurements focusing on carbon, energy and water fluxes at the forest site 'Hohes Holz' and the grassland 'Grosses Bruch'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebmann, Corinna; Claudia, Schütze; Sara, Marañón-Jiménez; Sebastian, Gimper; Matthias, Zink; Luis, Samaniego; Matthias, Cuntz

    2017-04-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the optimization of Carbon sequestration by ecosystems have become priority objectives for current climate change policies. In this context, the long term research project TERENO and the research infrastructure ICOS have been established. The eddy covariance technique allows obtaining an integrative estimate of the ecosystem carbon, water and energy balances at the ecosystem level. The relative contributions of evaporation and transpiration as well as carbon sources and sinks need, however, to be determined separately for thorough process understanding. Two different ecosystem observatories have recently been established in the Magdeburger Börde: a deciduous forest (Hohes Holz) and a meadow (Grosses Bruch). A comprehensive system of instrumentation provides continuous data for the evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes at the 1500 ha large forest site, including a 50 m high eddy covariance (EC) tower for micrometeorological investigations in different heights above and below canopy, throughfall and stem flow sensors, a soil moisture and temperature sensor network, soil respiration chambers, sap flow sensors, and ancillary analysis of trees such a dendrometer and leaf area index measurements. Eddy covariance measurements allow the assessment of the carbon (Net Ecosystem Exchange, NEE) and water balance at the ecosystem scale. To better understand the contributing processes we partition water und carbon fluxes of the forest ecosystem by different methods. Tower-based data of NEE are therefore complemented and validated by continuous automatic and manual campaign measurements of soil effluxes and their drivers. Water fluxes into the ecosystem are partitioned by stem flow and throughfall measurements and a distributed soil moisture network. Gap fraction in the forest has a strong influence on the distribution on the water fluxes and is therefore determined on a regular basis. Since the establishment of the

  5. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    an example 50-mile haul distance at $0.14 per one-way ton-mile). For longer haul distances, these savings in trucking costs become even more significant. These results have demonstrated how significant savings in transportation costs can be achieved through transpirational drying. Also, these results show that it may be possible to increase the procurement radius for a biorefinery by using transpirational drying. Further cost reductions can be realized by the biorefinery when drying costs are reduced. The goal of this study was development of a timber harvesting system as productive in stands optimized for biomass production as it was in stands grown for roundwood markets. If that goal is achieved, a logger can invest in a single suite of equipment and operate efficiently in any future silvicultural regime that might include energy feedstocks as an output. It was the premise of the study that a future biomass market would shift the age distribution and stem size in stands grown for energy downward, and the key strategy in developing a harvest system for that scenario would be creating one with logging costs relatively insensitive to tree size. Our vision for such a system included a felling machine with a large capacity head to minimize time spent building bunches, plus a skidder capable of moving large volumes of small trees. The study proposed building the system and testing it against existing equipment in stands similar to those envisioned as resulting from biomass-optimized silviculture. As stated previously, the new feller buncher and skidder evaluated on their own merits showed their designs were clearly a step in the right direction - their productivity was indeed high and less sensitive to reductions in stem size. Cost projections based on extensive time and production studies of the high tonnage and benchmark operations showed modest advantages in FOB costs of the new system in both ‘average’ and simulated ‘energy’ stands (7.7% and 9

  6. Towards the procurement of the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Tivey, R.; Martin, A.; Pick, M.

    2006-01-01

    The procurement of the ITER divertor is planned to start in 2009. On the basis of the present common understanding of the sharing of the ITER components, the Japanese Participating Team (JAPT) will supply the outer vertical target, the Russian Federation (RF) PT the dome liner and will perform the high heat flux testing, the EU PT will supply the inner vertical targets and the cassette bodies, including final assembly of the divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs). The manufacturing of the PFCs of the ITER divertor represents a challenging endeavor due to the high technologies which are involved, and due to the unprecedented series production. To mitigate the associated risks, special arrangements need to be put in place prior to and during procurement to ensure quality and to keep to the time schedule. Before procurement can start, an ITER review of the qualification and production capability of each candidate PT is planned. Well in advance of the assumed start of the procurement, each PT which would like to contribute to the divertor PFC procurement, should first demonstrate its technical qualification to carry out the procurement with the required quality, and in an efficient and timely manner. Appropriate precautions, like subdivision of the procurement into stages, are also to be adopted during the procurement phase to mitigate the consequences of possible unexpected manufacturing problems. In preparation for writing the procurement specification for the vertical targets, the topic of setting acceptance criteria is also being addressed. This activity has the objective of defining workable acceptance criteria for the PFC armour joints. A complete set of analyses is also in progress to assess the latest design modifications against the design requirements. This task includes neutronic, shielding, thermo-mechanical and electromagnetic analyses. More than half of the ITER plasma parameters that must be measured and the related diagnostics are located in the

  7. Digitizing business processes in the intersection of energy, forest and ICT industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, T.; Karvonen, M.; Soininen, L.; Hellsten, K.; Kaessi, T.

    2008-07-01

    The focal question of the study was to increase the understanding of electronic business in the forest and energy sectors. To recognize trends, business potential and best ideas in this field, we have used interviews, the Delphi method, Scenario method, Idea session methods, analysis of alliances, Clustering and Portfolio management tools. One purpose of this study is to combine 'top down' approaches in describing alternative future views in electronic business field and 'bottom up' approaches to situate business ideas into different scenarios and contexts. Electrification of business processes can be divided into the electrification of organizations' internal processes, processes between organizations, and electrification of customer interface. According to results organizations are already quite advanced in optimizing internal processes and the next phase is to optimize processes between different actors, which also provide opportunities for new kind of services and products. At the customer interface value orientation instead of an 'IT as your service' orientation is one of the main driving forces. Although the motivation for e-business projects primarily come now from cost savings and productivity improvements, opportunities for new business innovations increase significance in the future. Most important technological drivers of change include common global standards, interoperability, service oriented architecture (SOA), Web Services, radio frequency identification (RFID) and IT outsourcing. Business logic has changed toward a more networked action with a customer value orientation. An overall view resulting from the study is that the industries' opportunity spectrum for digital business development is relatively wide. Key questions in digitization strategies of industries include the division between industry core processes and support processes and in the outsourcing strategies of these different processes. The results

  8. Mexico - The Federal Procurement System : Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The World Bank carried out the first country procurement assessment review (CPAR) jointly with the Government in 2001, focusing on the features and performance of the federal procurement system. Based on the action plan included in the 2001 CPAR, the government reformed federal procurement laws and regulations in 2005 and furthered the development of Government Procurement Electronic Syste...

  9. 75 FR 49481 - Procurement List; Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... added to the Procurement List: Services Service Type/Locations: Laundry Service, Atlanta VA Medical...: Additions to and deletion from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement... disabilities and deletes a service from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agency. DATES...

  10. 78 FR 21916 - Procurement List; Addition And Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., the following service is added to the Procurement List: Service Service Type/Location: Laundry Service...: Addition to and Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement... disabilities, and deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies...

  11. 22 CFR 201.23 - Procurement under private sector procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement under private sector procedures... § 201.23 Procurement under private sector procedures. (a) General requirements. Procurements under private sector procedures will normally be carried out by importers using negotiated procurement...

  12. Structural complexity and land-surface energy exchange along a gradient from arctic tundra to boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C.; Beringer, J.; Chapin, F. S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Question: Current climate changes in the Alaskan Arctic, which are characterized by increases in temperature and length of growing season, could alter vegetation structure, especially through increases in shrub cover or the movement of treeline. These changes in vegetation structure have consequences for the climate system. What is the relationship between structural complexity and partitioning of surface energy along a gradient from tundra through shrub tundra to closed canopy forest? Location: Arctic tundra-boreal forest transition in the Alaskan Arctic. Methods: Along this gradient of increasing canopy complexity, we measured key vegetation characteristics, including community composition, biomass, cover, height, leaf area index and stem area index. We relate these vegetation characteristics to albedo and the partitioning of net radiation into ground, latent, and sensible heating fluxes. Results: Canopy complexity increased along the sequence from tundra to forest due to the addition of new plant functional types. This led to non-linear changes in biomass, cover, and height in the understory. The increased canopy complexity resulted in reduced ground heat fluxes, relatively conserved latent heat fluxes and increased sensible heat fluxes. The localized warming associated with increased sensible heating over more complex canopies may amplify regional warming, causing further vegetation change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  13. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  14. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryning, S.E.; Batchvarova, E.; DeBruin, H.A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements carried out in Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse, sub-arctic boreal forest with snow covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent late winter conditions characterised by low solar elevation angles. During the experiment (12-24 March 1997) day

  15. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Alphonse H. Gilbert; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1992-01-01

    Describes factors affecting the availability of fuelwood from nonindustrial private forests (NIPF) in the Northeast. The availability of market fuelwood depends heavily on tract size. The demand for land to supply the expanding urban fringe may result in a lower supply of market wood but also in more wood being cut to satisfy the owner's need for wood. NIPF owners...

  16. 40 CFR 30.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and basis for award cost or price. ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.46...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.146 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.146... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  18. 32 CFR 32.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.46... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards...) Justification for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  20. 22 CFR 145.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 145... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) basis for award cost or price. ...

  1. 2 CFR 215.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.46... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  2. 24 CFR 84.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84... for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained; and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ...

  3. 7 CFR 3019.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Justification for lack of competition bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. ... HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement...

  4. 78 FR 38953 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After... Punch, Paper, Desktop, 3-Hole, Adjustable, 11 sheet capacity, Metallic Base, Black Grip. Coverage: A...

  5. 78 FR 12295 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... published notices of proposed additions to the Procurement List. After consideration of the material..., 508 Compliant, 12 Digit, Portable, Desktop, Battery Operated NPA: MidWest Enterprises for the Blind...

  6. Standard Procurement System Use and User Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The audit was performed in response to concerns expressed by the Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on Budget that DoD was not effectively spending Federal funds to acquire the Standard Procurement System (SPS...

  7. Federal Procurement Data System - FPDS API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The Federal Procurement Data System (FPDS) Next Generation has been re-engineered as a real-time federal enterprise information system. Web services based on SOAP...

  8. Assessment of procurement methods used for executing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of procurement methods used for executing maintenance works in Lagos state. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... Others are risk allocation, price competition and flexibility of contract. Finally, better ...

  9. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products Towel.... 12/BX Cleaner, Brake Parts NSN: 6850-01-167-0678--17 oz. NPA: The Lighthouse for the Blind, St. Louis...

  10. 78 FR 35874 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products... Cleaner NPA: Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC Contracting Activity: Defense...

  11. Industry Analysis for Body Armor Procurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foust, Coleen; Jenson, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition, the Office of Management and Budget has required that each agency create strategic sourcing initiatives, monitor the cost savings and report the results to the Office of Federal Procurement Policy...

  12. Turning the Kaleidoscope: Five Perspectives on Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkgaard Møller, Morten; Vammen, Søren

    Purpose of this paper The purpose of the paper is to provide a conceptual foundation to enhance the body of knowledge related to procurement and sourcing through a framework consisting of five perspectives. The perspectives are: (1) Strategic, (2) Organizational, (3) Capability, (4) Supplier......, and a (5) Customer Perspectives. The aim is to develop a holistic perspective of procurement by applying these five essential, but very different perspectives in order to achieve a holistic picture of the function. Design/methodology/approach The foundation is derived from various well-established theories...... within the five perspectives. Specifically, procurement was viewed from the perspective of organizational theory, network theory, resource/knowledge based views of the firm, transaction cost theory and various theories within the strategic field of research Findings By viewing procurement through...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF PROCUREMENT METHODS USED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... client/or representatives so as to arrive at a tender figure and other ... client have a great influence on maintenance procurement. ... satisfaction and project success and the ... Construction Industries, and Hotels) top the list.

  14. Government Procurement Agreements and Telecommunications Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Won Kang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the telecommunications market is acceleration due to the world trends of deregulation and privatization under the WTO basic telecommunications agreements. Diversification of services and fast and efficient equipment procurement are becoming necessary conditions for the survival of telecommunications operators. However, the issue here is that telecommunications operators are still bound by the GPA (Government Procurement Agreement based on conditions of monopoly even though the procurement market in Korean is open substantially since 1997. Under such conditions, the continued application of the GPA on telecommunications operator who is highly competitive may result in a negative impact on the telecommunications business and quality of telecommunications service by undermining the autonomy of operator and decreasing operator’s procurement competitiveness. Therefore, this study examines the GPA and the issues raised by the agreement, and also attempts to suggest revisions or means of abrogating the unfair GPA with regards to the development and deregulation of the telecommunications business.

  15. A random forest classifier for the prediction of energy expenditure and type of physical activity from wrist and hip accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Katherine; Lanckriet, Gert; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Wing, David; Marshall, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Wrist accelerometers are being used in population level surveillance of physical activity (PA) but more research is needed to evaluate their validity for correctly classifying types of PA behavior and predicting energy expenditure (EE). In this study we compare accelerometers worn on the wrist and hip, and the added value of heart rate (HR) data, for predicting PA type and EE using machine learning. Forty adults performed locomotion and household activities in a lab setting while wearing three ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers (left hip, right hip, non-dominant wrist) and a HR monitor (Polar RS400). Participants also wore a portable indirect calorimeter (COSMED K4b2), from which EE and metabolic equivalents (METs) were computed for each minute. We developed two predictive models: a random forest classifier to predict activity type and a random forest of regression trees to estimate METs. Predictions were evaluated using leave-one-user-out cross-validation. The hip accelerometer obtained an average accuracy of 92.3% in predicting four activity types (household, stairs, walking, running), while the wrist accelerometer obtained an average accuracy of 87.5%. Across all 8 activities combined (laundry, window washing, dusting, dishes, sweeping, stairs, walking, running), the hip and wrist accelerometers obtained average accuracies of 70.2% and 80.2% respectively. Predicting METs using the hip or wrist devices alone obtained root mean square errors (rMSE) of 1.09 and 1.00 METs per 6 min bout, respectively. Including HR data improved MET estimation, but did not significantly improve activity type classification. These results demonstrate the validity of random forest classification and regression forests for PA type and MET prediction using accelerometers. The wrist accelerometer proved more useful in predicting activities with significant arm movement, while the hip accelerometer was superior for predicting locomotion and estimating EE. (paper)

  16. A random forest classifier for the prediction of energy expenditure and type of physical activity from wrist and hip accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katherine; Kerr, Jacqueline; Godbole, Suneeta; Lanckriet, Gert; Wing, David; Marshall, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Wrist accelerometers are being used in population level surveillance of physical activity (PA) but more research is needed to evaluate their validity for correctly classifying types of PA behavior and predicting energy expenditure (EE). In this study we compare accelerometers worn on the wrist and hip, and the added value of heart rate (HR) data, for predicting PA type and EE using machine learning. Forty adults performed locomotion and household activities in a lab setting while wearing three ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers (left hip, right hip, non-dominant wrist) and a HR monitor (Polar RS400). Participants also wore a portable indirect calorimeter (COSMED K4b2), from which EE and metabolic equivalents (METs) were computed for each minute. We developed two predictive models: a random forest classifier to predict activity type and a random forest of regression trees to estimate METs. Predictions were evaluated using leave-one-user-out cross-validation. The hip accelerometer obtained an average accuracy of 92.3% in predicting four activity types (household, stairs, walking, running), while the wrist accelerometer obtained an average accuracy of 87.5%. Across all 8 activities combined (laundry, window washing, dusting, dishes, sweeping, stairs, walking, running), the hip and wrist accelerometers obtained average accuracies of 70.2% and 80.2% respectively. Predicting METs using the hip or wrist devices alone obtained root mean square errors (rMSE) of 1.09 and 1.00 METs per 6 min bout, respectively. Including HR data improved MET estimation, but did not significantly improve activity type classification. These results demonstrate the validity of random forest classification and regression forests for PA type and MET prediction using accelerometers. The wrist accelerometer proved more useful in predicting activities with significant arm movement, while the hip accelerometer was superior for predicting locomotion and estimating EE.

  17. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 1. Building Procurement Capacity and Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  18. EU contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzetto, Patrick; Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris; Boireau, Bruno; Bucci, Philippe; Cicero, Tindaro; Conchon, Denis; Dellopoulos, Georges; Hardaker, Stephen; Marshall, Paul; Nogué, Patrice; Pérez, Marcos; Gutierrez, Leticia Ruiz; Samaniego, Fernando; Sherlock, Paul; Zacchia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the blanket first wall design concept to be procured by Europe. • Presentation of the main outcome of the R&D programme with the resulting FW fabrication route. • Presentation of the ITER first wall pre-qualification programme with the results achieved so far. • Presentation of the on-going irradiation experiments. • Presentation of the EU procurement strategy. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Union’s Domestic Agency for ITER, is responsible for the procurement of about 50% of the ITER blanket first wall (FW), called normal heat flux FW. A procurement strategy has been implemented by the In-Vessel Project Team at F4E aimed at mitigating technical and commercial risks for the procurement of ITER blanket FW panels, promoting as far as possible competition among industrial partners. This procurement strategy has been supported by an extensive Research and Development (R&D) programme, implemented over more than 15 years in Europe, to develop various fabrication technologies. It includes in particular the manufacture and testing of small-scale, medium-scale mock-ups and full-scale prototypes of blanket FW panels. In this R&D programme, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of a reliable materials joining technique. Hot Isostatic Pressing was selected for the manufacture of the FW panels made from beryllium, copper–chromium–zirconium alloy and 316L(N)-IG austenitic stainless steel. This paper presents the main outcome of the on-going R&D programme, the latest results of the FW qualification programme together with the procurement strategy implemented by F4E for the supply of the European contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket FW.

  19. EU contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetto, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Lorenzetto@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boireau, Bruno [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Bucci, Philippe [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Cicero, Tindaro [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Conchon, Denis [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Dellopoulos, Georges [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hardaker, Stephen [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Paul [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Nogué, Patrice [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Pérez, Marcos [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Gutierrez, Leticia Ruiz [Iberdrola Ingeniería y Construcción S.A.U., Avenida Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Fernando [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Sherlock, Paul [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Zacchia, Francesco [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the blanket first wall design concept to be procured by Europe. • Presentation of the main outcome of the R&D programme with the resulting FW fabrication route. • Presentation of the ITER first wall pre-qualification programme with the results achieved so far. • Presentation of the on-going irradiation experiments. • Presentation of the EU procurement strategy. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Union’s Domestic Agency for ITER, is responsible for the procurement of about 50% of the ITER blanket first wall (FW), called normal heat flux FW. A procurement strategy has been implemented by the In-Vessel Project Team at F4E aimed at mitigating technical and commercial risks for the procurement of ITER blanket FW panels, promoting as far as possible competition among industrial partners. This procurement strategy has been supported by an extensive Research and Development (R&D) programme, implemented over more than 15 years in Europe, to develop various fabrication technologies. It includes in particular the manufacture and testing of small-scale, medium-scale mock-ups and full-scale prototypes of blanket FW panels. In this R&D programme, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of a reliable materials joining technique. Hot Isostatic Pressing was selected for the manufacture of the FW panels made from beryllium, copper–chromium–zirconium alloy and 316L(N)-IG austenitic stainless steel. This paper presents the main outcome of the on-going R&D programme, the latest results of the FW qualification programme together with the procurement strategy implemented by F4E for the supply of the European contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket FW.

  20. Utility procurement policies in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lurf, G.; Nikazmerad, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; market history (historical uranium demand and production in the USA); recent long-term contract activity (expected US reactor demand and uranium production; expected US reactor demand and contracted uranium supplies); utility procurement attitudes; impact of inventories on procurement; current regulatory environment (spot-market price vs average long-term contract price); embargo and imports; conclusion. (U.K.)

  1. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  2. Best Value Procurement - The Practical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Storteboom, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Traditional procurement methods leave much room for improving risk management and value creation. However, Best Value Procurement (BVP) is designed to increase project value by mitigating risks and increasing the transparency by underscoring the pre-award phase. This shift in paradigm is reached by following a sequence of elements with the principles of transparency, performance information measuring and contractor clarification. The BVP philosophy is developed in the USA. Following is ...

  3. Empirical Analysis of Competition in Procurement Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tukiainen, Janne

    2008-01-01

    A vast amount of public services and goods are contracted through procurement auctions. Therefore it is very important to design these auctions in an optimal way. Typically, we are interested in two different objectives. The first objective is efficiency. Efficiency means that the contract is awarded to the bidder that values it the most, which in the procurement setting means the bidder that has the lowest cost of providing a service with a given quality. The second objective is to maximize ...

  4. Multidimensional procurement auctions with unknown weights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Thomas

    This paper studies the consequences of holding a procurement auction when the principal chooses not to show its preferences. My paper extends the procurement auction model of Che (1993) to a situation where both the principal and the agents have private information. Thus, unknown parameters of bo...... gives rise to an analysis of a principal that can not fully commit to the outcome induced by the scoring rule. Therefore, my result apply to contract theory and it’s problems with imperfect commitment....

  5. International public procurement: From scant facts to hard data

    OpenAIRE

    Cernat, Lucian; Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa

    2015-01-01

    Public procurement is a negotiating area gaining in importance at multilateral and bilateral level, as evidenced by a brief review of procurement provisions in existing trade agreements. The size of procurement spending stands in most developed economies at double-digit percentage points of GDP. However, despite the size and importance of these markets, the factual information available to trade negotiators remains scarce. Although public procurement patterns (e.g. size of procurement markets...

  6. What Is the Status of Indonesian E-Procurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Nurmandi

    2013-01-01

    E-procurement is an important intrument to prevent corruption in goods and services procurement budget. Indonesia has been implementing the e-procurement project since 2008 based on Presidential Decree. President has stipulating annual order (presidential instruction) has to be obey by all ministries and local governments to procure their budget through r-procurement mechanism. However, untill 2012 fiscal year, this research found that only around 10.26% of central government institution proc...

  7. The Malaysian Public Procurement's Prevalent System and its Weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Rohana Othman; Husein Zakaria; Norlaili Nordin; Zamzam Shahidan; Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study examined the public procurement system as prevalent in the Malaysian government system of administration. Various aspects of public procurement are outlined including types and the processes that entail public procurement. This study also highlighted the weaknesses in the manual public procurement processes that are opened to potential abuse and mismanagement resulting in corruption. This study places the Malaysian Government public procurement system under the s...

  8. Procurement management in scientific research and production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yi

    2008-01-01

    To meet the requirement of development trend of scientific research and production, it is necessary to incorporate the modern procurement management theory in the whole procurement process for the items used in scientific research and production.This paper provided some suggestions to improve the procurement management by introducing the experiences in the application of the modern procurement management methods in the procurement of parts production. (author)

  9. Projection of U.S. forest sector carbon sequestration under U.S. and global timber market and wood energy consumption scenarios, 2010-2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a modeling framework to examine change over time in U.S. forest sector carbon inventory (in U.S. timberland tree biomass and harvested wood products) for alternative projections of U.S. and global timber markets, including wood energy consumption, based on established IPCC/RPA scenarios. Results indicated that the U.S. forest sector’s projected...

  10. An evaluation of transit procurement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Weiner, Marc D; Klein, Nicholas J; Puniello, Orin D

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated a training course called "Orientation to Transit Procurement", designed and conducted by the National Transit Institute. This course is designed to provide Federal Transit Administration (FTA) grantees an overview of regulations and best practices related to the procurement process. Our objective in conducting the evaluation was to understand how transit agency staff made changes in procurement practices in response to the course training. The evaluation was mixed mode: an Internet survey followed by in-depth interviews with a small group of respondents. Survey respondents were also provided with an open-ended question providing us with additional context for our evaluation. Results show that the training is substantially successful at meeting the goal of improving procurement practices at transit agencies; indeed, most respondents report making changes at their agencies as the proximate result of the training. This was at odds with our exploration of knowledge of procurement topics, as most respondents gave inaccurate answers on multiple-choice "knowledge questions". This may have been due to question structure or, more likely, the nature of online surveys. Suitable training on the procurement of information technology was also a main concern. The lack of training in this area is indicative of the broader challenge facing public transit agencies in how to incorporate new forms of technology into their existing practices and bureaucratic structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  12. Energy, water and carbon exchange in a boreal forest landscape - NOPEX experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldin, S.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Gottschalk, L.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the land surface in controlling climate is still underestimated and access to information from the boreal-forest zone is instrumental to improve this situation. This motivated the organisation of NOPEX (Northern hemisphere climate-Processes land-surface Experiment) in the southern part...... as an integrated part of this Special Issue. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Cornea procurement, preservation and transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson Silva

    1999-01-01

    Our experience on this subject is 40 years and we have seen the developments everywhere during this total period. Cornea procurement has been an unsurmountable problem in a large number of countries, mostly due to social and cultural reasons. The requirements for a simple eye bank to manage the supply for a local hospital are minimal. What is the most important is the donor base. In Sri Lanka nurtured in the traditions of Theravada Buddhism the donor base was easy to prepare. We had no difficulties with Christians and Hindus. For Muslims there are Fatwas in favour of donating eyes. But we always found them to be a reluctant group. But in predominantly Muslim countries, it is imperative that social workers should take up this issue, so those thousands may be helped. In all areas where attempts are made to procure comeas, it is important to have a day-and-night service available at short notice to collect any eyes offered. A trained technician with sterilised instruments to obtain eyes and blood sample must be available at a convenient location preferably in a large hospital. Even in places where the supply is infrequent, it is essential to have the readily-sterilised instruments to proceed to a donor site at short notice. To get eyes, general publicity in mass media alone is not sufficient. Such publicity makes people aware of the need for donor eyes and where a technician/doctor is available. What is more important is to canvass personally after a person has died For this purpose trained social workers may be employed, or the technician can do the motivation, as we do in Sri Lanka. Once eyes are removed, it is essential to pay careful attention to the appearance of the cadaver. It should not (and need not) cause any deformity as such event has a profound negative effect on the campaign. Many different preservation methods have been used over the years. Mc Carey-Kaufmann (MK) medium has been the standard for many years, and gives a life span of 4-5 days. The formula

  14. Transformation of fraud activities in procurement system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiani, N.; Huda, S. N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    E-procurement has been applied in Indonesia since 2008 through the adoption of Electronic Procurement System (SPSE). The purpose of the use of SPSE in the procurement process is to improve the efficiency of goods or services procurement. In the bidding process, intensive communication and data exchange between providers and organizers are urgently needed. Through SPSE, the frequency of face to face meetings between providers and the committee can be reduced. This is expected to minimize potential fraud behaviors in the goods or services procurement conducted through the tender process. There exists a transformation of activities in the procurement through SPSE from the tender process that was previously done manually. In this paper, we analyze this transformation between manual procurement process and SPSE-based procurement process. The result of the analysis is exploited for investigating the possibility of fraud behavior transformations in every phase of e-procurement activities.

  15. Networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi Ernest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of public procurement professionals in achieving value for money in public procurement activities is widely acknowledged around the globe. This has inspired the organisation of training programmes and workshops for procurement professionals, particularly those in developing countries in order to hone their knowledge and skills for proper management of government projects. This paper sought to explore the opportunities in networking for knowledge capacity building of procurement professionals in Ghana. The study adopted quantitative research methods for both data collection and analysis. The paper revealed that professional networking can offer procurement professionals the opportunity to acquire new knowledge from external professionals, know global trends about procurement practice, and obtain new information from other institutions about procurement. It is recommended that a platform that can support a network of procurement professionals in Ghana should be developed in order to ensure effective interaction and communication among procurement professionals for their capacity building.

  16. PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN GHANA: THE IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES TO THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT LAW 2003 (ACT 663

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameyaw, Collins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify various implementation bottlenecks to the Ghana Public Procurement Law 2003 (Act 663. The study adopted multiple research approaches, including; review of relevant literature, interviews and questionnaire survey of 49 District Assemblies and Metropolitan and Municipal Assemblies in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions of Ghana. The study identified low capacity of procurement professionals, low interaction between procurement entities and Public Procurement Authority (PPA, deliberate controlling of competition, non-compliance with provisions of the law, splitting of contracts into smaller lots, lack of funds and non-cooperativeness of suppliers, as the major challenges militating against the implementation of the Public Procurement Law.

  17. Fluctuations in daily energy intake do not cause physiological stress in a Neotropical primate living in a seasonal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Palme, Rupert

    2016-12-01

    Animals may face periods of nutritional stress due to short-term food shortage and/or low energy consumption associated with seasonal fluctuations in resource availability. We tested the hypothesis that periods of restricted macronutrient and energy intake result in energy deficits and physiological stress in wild black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) inhabiting seasonal tropical semi-deciduous forests. We conducted full-day follows of focal animals recording feeding rates, time spent feeding, and total amount of food ingested. We carried out nutritional analysis of foods collected from feeding trees and calculated the daily nutrient and energy intake of each focal individual. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) of focal animals were used as an indicator of physiological stress. We found that fluctuations in daily energy intake across seasons did not have significant effects on fGCM of individuals. However, protein intake was negatively associated with fGCM, highlighting the interplay among macronutrients, metabolism, and the endocrine system. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites were also positively related to fruit availability, but this relationship was most likely due to social stress associated with intergroup encounters and resource defense that occurred when preferred trees were fruiting. Behavioral strategies such as dietary shifts and nutrient mixing, and metabolic adaptations such as low energy expenditure allowed individuals to fulfill their minimum energy requirements even during periods of decreased resource availability and intake. The present study suggests that seasonal variations in food, macronutrient, and energy acquisition may have limited physiological costs for animals that exploit different types of plant resources such as howler monkeys.

  18. Logistics of long-distance truck transportation of forest chips; Metsaehakkeen autokuljetuksen logistiikka - PUUT20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, T.; Halonen, P.; Frilander, P. [VTT Processes, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Asikainen, A. [Finnish Forest Research Centre, Joensuu (Finland); Lehikoinen, M.; Vaeaetaeinen, K. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the project was to develop the long-distance transportation of forest chips by means of better transport economy and control of logistics activities. Different loading methods were tested to make the load sufficiently compact and to intensify the use of load space of the chip trucks. The usability of mobile positioning devices was tested in the operational environment of forest chips procurement. The arrivals and inbound logistics activities of power plant were modeled by aid of simulation model to estimate the queuing time of chip trucks with alternative course of action. According to the follow-up study of chip trucks and simulation of receiving activities substantial developing potential was found to decrease the terminal 1.19 times of trucks both in loading stage at forest terminal and unloading stage at power plant receiving area. By trucks with interchangeable containers terminal times can be decreased by developing the logistics of production chain for example by means of the pilot production control system evaluated in the project or by dimensioning the capacity of whole chain to match better for prevailing operational environment. With shorter distances the number of containers or the trailer size can be designed for smaller volume whereas with longer distances the transport economy will be emphasized. The capacity of weight limited the load size except for summer period alongside with dry forest chips. Instead of maximize the load volume, more essential will be to decrease the unloaded weight and effectiveness of loading and unloading stage. Loading method, where belt conveyor was equipped with mechanical ejector, compressed the load some 15% compared with blowing device. The energy consumption was also essentially lower. The pilot-period of production control system showed that the mobile positioning devices and digital maps will improve the planning and control activities of forest chip production. When the procurement amounts of forest

  19. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K.; Oestergaard, I. [Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup. SolEnergiCentret (Denmark); Gramkow, L. [Esbensen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  20. IEA Task 24 Solar procurement 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.; Oestergaard, I.; Gramkow, L.

    2002-04-01

    The objective of the project is to develop and improve large procurements of solar heating systems in order to be able to place large orders with manufacturers and suppliers. The project work will be carried out as an international co-operation under IEA Task 24 with the title 'Solar Procurement'. By co-ordinating the effort between the 4-6 participating countries, the objective is to purchase at least 10,000 solar heating systems, of this amount 1,000-2,000 in Denmark. Such large orders make it possible for manufacturers and suppliers to deliver systems considerably cheaper, and it will be possible to develop systems for given specifications on output and efficiency. These co-ordinated large orders are expected to improve the price/efficiency conditions by up to 50%. The so called 'procurement process' (co-ordinated international procurement based on goal-oriented system development in co-operation between customers and suppliers/manufacturers) will in the project be followed up by information/marketing, education, financing schemes, service schemes, quality assurance and technical support. The project is divided into two main areas (IEA subtasks). 1: 'Procurement and Marketing' and 2: 'Creation of Tools'. Denmark has been requested to be the project manager of subtask 2, 'Creation of Tools'. (EHS)

  1. Monitoring what governments "give for" and "spend on" vaccine procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A S Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. OBJECTIVE: To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. METHODS: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$ for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. FINDINGS: In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013% and United Kingdom (0.0085% disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024% and Canada (0.008% made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a vaccine procurement; and b immunization programs.

  2. Monitoring what governments "give for" and "spend on" vaccine procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E A S; Bloom, David E; Mahoney, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$) for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013%) and United Kingdom (0.0085%) disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024%) and Canada (0.008%) made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a) vaccine procurement; and b) immunization programs.

  3. Finnish farmers' willingness to produce and supply biomass from energy crops and forest residues. A survey of landowners' attitudes and intentions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, A.-K.; Latvala, T. (Pellervo Economic Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland)), Email: anna-kaisa.ramo@ptt.fi; Silvennoinen, H. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)), Email: harri.silvennoinen@joensuu.fi

    2009-07-01

    According to EU's Climate and Energy Plan Finland is obliged to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources considerably by the year 2020. The obligation is challenging and requires among others a considerably increased use of biomass. Besides wood energy crop production provides a considerable potential as energy source in Finland. Farmer forest owners are one of the key groups regarding the supply of field energy crops and energy wood in Finland. Basically, farmers have a positive attitude towards the production of field energy crops and energy wood. Their interest in bio-energy related entrepreneurship has also increased in recent years. However, farmers do not find the business environment of biomass production satisfactory. Still the results indicate that the number of field crop producers would at least double by the year 2012. The increase is, however, considerably less than the estimated potential of recent scenarios. The results also imply that famer forest owners have not any intentions to increase their energy wood supplies in the next few years. This is mainly due to undeveloped energy wood markets and unsatisfactory energy wood prices. In order to enhance the biomass production and supply, both field energy crop and energy wood markets and extension need to be improved to meet farmers' needs. (orig.)

  4. A decade of carbon, water and energy flux measurements of an old spruce forest at the Anchor Station Tharandt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, Thomas.; Bernhofer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    At Tharandt/Germany eddy covariance (EC) measurements of carbon dioxide and heat fluxes are performed above an old spruce forest since 1996. The last ten years cover almost all meteorological extremes observed during the last 45 years: the coldest and warmest year with mean air temperature of 6.1 deg C (1996) and 9.6 deg C (2000) as well as the fourth wettest and the driest year with a precipitation of 1098 mm (2002) and 501 mm (2003), respectively. In general, the observed annual carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) indicates a high net sink from -395 g C/m 2 /a (2003) to -698 g C/m 2 /a (1999) with a coefficient of variation c v = 16.6%. The yearly evapotranspiration (ET) has a lower interannual variability (cv = 9.5%) between 389 mm (2003) and 537 mm (2000). The influence of flux correction and gap filling on the amount of annual NEE and ET is considerable. Using different methods of gap filling (non-linear regressions, mean diurnal courses) yields annual NEE totals that differ by up to 18%. Consistency analysis regarding energy balance closure, comparisons with independent soil respiration and biomass increment measurements indicate reliability of the fluxes. The average gap of the energy balance is 15% of the available energy based on regression slope with an intercept of 3 to 16 W/m 2 , but around zero for annual flux ratios. Between 47% and 63% of the net ecosystem productivity was fixed above ground according to up-scaled tree ring data and forest inventories, respectively. Chamber measurements of soil respiration yield up to 90% of nighttime EC based total ecosystem respiration. Thus, we conclude that the EC based flux represents an upper limit of the C sink at the site

  5. Synthesis report regarding the Forest Industry Program 1997-2002[Energy research]; Skogsindustriell energiforskning syntesrapport 1997-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Olle, Nystroem

    2003-07-01

    This synthesis report commissioned by the Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Varmeforsk) constitutes a summary of the Forest Industry Program up to and including turn of the year 2002/2003. According to the assignment the resulting reports of the program has specifically been related to the present and expected EU-directives and, as a base for interpretation, national rules and regulations of relevance to the programme. Also there is a discussion, from a broad perspective, of the value and usefulness of these reports as well as of how the resources should be spent and prioritised in a coming program. As a basis for the analysis a survey of the program directions and the aims descriptions for the periods 97-98, 99-00 and 01-02 has been carried out. Throughout the three periods there is a tendency going from specific areas of interest to a more general approach which in the last program period has resulted in program directions emphasizing utilization of energy, energy integration and coordination with industry and enterprises outside the forest industry where it applies. A survey of the relevant EU-directives has been carried out. A division was made between directives related to legislation overall, permits related to combustion, operation of combustion plants and landfilling of refuse. In total 26 reports have been summarized and evaluated. They include some, which, at the time of finishing the present report, had not yet been published. The overall result has been synthesized in a discussion covering contents, aims, fulfillment and value of the reports. The work have been structured and presented based on some main activity areas that have been possible to identify from the program directions and policy statements, they are: combustion efficiency, improved energy utilization and novel concepts. Some reports, which have not been possible to arrange under these headings and furthermore are difficult to associate with the main areas defined are covered under a

  6. The role of forests in energy and climate change - integrating objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Atkins

    2010-01-01

    Woody biomass utilization presents a tremendous opportunity to address energy independence directly through the use of domestic wood as an energy source that offsets fossil fuel. It also works indirectly through conservation by the substitution of wood for higher embodied energy construction materials such as concrete and steel. Both the direct and indirect measures...

  7. Diagnostics of Procurement Activity of Industrial Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Veretennikova Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of procurement activity of industrial enterprise is substantiated in the article. The results of the critical analysis of the existing approaches to procurement effectiveness evaluating are presented. The main directions of diagnostics of procurement activity of industrial enterprise such as the quality of the organization and the resources, the effectiveness and efficiency, security of logistics operations.В статье обоснована актуальность диагностирования закупочной деятельнос...

  8. Organ procurement after euthanasia: Belgian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysebaert, D; Van Beeumen, G; De Greef, K; Squifflet, J P; Detry, O; De Roover, A; Delbouille, M-H; Van Donink, W; Roeyen, G; Chapelle, T; Bosmans, J-L; Van Raemdonck, D; Faymonville, M E; Laureys, S; Lamy, M; Cras, P

    2009-03-01

    Euthanasia was legalized in Belgium in 2002 for adults under strict conditions. The patient must be in a medically futile condition and of constant and unbearable physical or mental suffering that cannot be alleviated, resulting from a serious and incurable disorder caused by illness or accident. Between 2005 and 2007, 4 patients (3 in Antwerp and 1 in Liège) expressed their will for organ donation after their request for euthanasia was granted. Patients were aged 43 to 50 years and had a debilitating neurologic disease, either after severe cerebrovascular accident or primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Ethical boards requested complete written scenario with informed consent of donor and relatives, clear separation between euthanasia and organ procurement procedure, and all procedures to be performed by senior staff members and nursing staff on a voluntary basis. The euthanasia procedure was performed by three independent physicians in the operating room. After clinical diagnosis of cardiac death, organ procurement was performed by femoral vessel cannulation or quick laparotomy. In 2 patients, the liver, both kidneys, and pancreatic islets (one case) were procured and transplanted; in the other 2 patients, there was additional lung procurement and transplantation. Transplant centers were informed of the nature of the case and the elements of organ procurement. There was primary function of all organs. The involved physicians and transplant teams had the well-discussed opinion that this strong request for organ donation after euthanasia could not be waived. A clear separation between the euthanasia request, the euthanasia procedure, and the organ procurement procedure is necessary.

  9. Forest and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the challenges the French forest has to face, and a brief overview of the status of forests in the world, this report proposes an overview of actions which are implemented to strengthen the carbon sequestration role of forests, at the international level and in France. It discusses the distribution of carbon, the forest carbon stocks (in the world, Europe and France), the actions against climate change, the costs and financing of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the forest sector. It comments the status of international negotiations and how forests are taken into account. It presents the French forest and wood sector (characteristics of the forest in metropolitan France and overseas, wood as material and as energy). It recalls the commitment of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and indicates the current forest studies

  10. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    strong requirements on the management style and company culture. Limitations of the research: The research is only based on two case studies, which obviously limits the possibility to generalize the results. Practical applications: The research presents two specific examples of innovative procurement......Aim: The aim of the paper is to present, analyse and identify learning from two case studies of innovative procurement in Facilities Management (FM) concerning the establishments of partnerships between clients and providers. Approach and methodology: A major study of FM best practice covering 36...

  11. Greening Non-Product-Related Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Riisgaard, Henrik; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    link to the strategy for greening private consumption, as similarities exist and the purchasers lean on their private experiences when purchasing non-product related items; and finally, 3) Intensify the efforts in product categories in which strict normative legislation makes management more motivated....... environmental benefits of millions of procurement decisions do add up to large environmental improvement potentials. Thus, non-product-related procurement focuses on the similarities in the purchases made across different sectors. Explorative interviews with purchasers in Danish companies form the basis...

  12. Spare parts classification and procurement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adlon, K.L.; Hassaballa, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The cost benefits have been demonstrated for an integrated program, which is currently being implemented for two PWR stations with two 1100-MW units each. The component classification efforts reduced the number of safety-related components in several systems. Furthermore, the knowledge of the component specific function has contributed to the reduction of many safety-related parts per component, in addition to ensuring the procurement of parts to the correct safety level. The use of qualified commercial grade parts and components with their lower cost and reasonable procurement lead time compared to their 10 CFR 21 counterparts has a pronounced economic effect on the utility balance sheets

  13. Vascularized Composite Allografts: Procurement, Allocation, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Axel

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is a continuously evolving area of modern transplant medicine. Recently, vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) have been formally classified as 'organs'. In this review, key aspects of VCA procurement are discussed, with a special focus on interaction with the procurement of classical solid organs. In addition, options for a matching and allocation system that ensures VCA donor organs are allocated to the best-suited recipients are looked at. Finally, the different steps needed to promote VCA transplantation in society in general and in the medical community in particular are highlighted.

  14. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    are highly contested among UN procurement officers and member states. However, so far the debate has mostly been based on assumptions about how the implementation of SP might affect developing country stakeholders. In fact, very few academic studies have been made of the economic, social and environmental......This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  15. Controlled procurement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for establishing a controlled materials management system that facilitates materials procurement at nuclear power plants. This method is based on the determination of informational data requirements, appropriate input and approvals, and extent of administrative controls. Implementation of the techniques described herein will ensure that the accuracy of important procurement information is not compromised by unauthorized initial input or changes and/or failure to maintain the information. Needed material can thus be ordered through the materials management system with a high degree of confidence that the correct items are ordered, with minimal internal lead time and minimum delays during the receiving process

  16. Management of Contracts for F110 Engine Procurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2001-01-01

    This audit was performed in response to an allegation to the Defense Hotline that the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Procurement Contracting Office made poor procurement decisions on F110 aircraft engine contracts...

  17. GPP Webinar: Solar Procurement Templates and Tools for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on solar procurement for Higher Education which features various tools and templates that schools can use to shape and manage the solar procurement process to a successful outcome.

  18. Design of reactive power procurement in deregulated electricity market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    novel reactive power procurement model is proposed, which ensure secure and ..... The simulation is performed in the Matlab. .... focus of this paper is a reactive procurement market model, which is a basically two-step optimization process.

  19. 76 FR 37069 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions and Deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Certification The following products and service are proposed for addition to Procurement List for production by... following product is proposed for deletion from the Procurement List: Product Detergent, Laundry NSN: 7930...

  20. From forest die-back to energy transition; Vom Waldsterben zur Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter, Bernhard

    2013-07-01

    Electricity from coal and nuclear fuels shapes Germany's energy policy for decades. But the overall balance of this policy has made possible the expansion of renewable energies. [German] Strom aus Kohle und Atom praegt seit Jahrzehnten Deutschlands Energiepolitik. Aber die Schadensbilanz dieser Politik hat den Aufschwung der erneuerbaren Energien moeglich gemacht.

  1. Quality of institution and the FEG (forest, energy intensity, and globalization) -environment relationships in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuakwa-Mensah, Franklin; Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-07-01

    The current share of sub-Saharan Africa in global carbon dioxide emissions is negligible compared to major contributors like Asia, Americas, and Europe. This trend is, however, likely to change given that both economic growth and rate of urbanization in the region are projected to be robust in the future. The current study contributes to the literature by examining both the direct and the indirect impacts of quality of institution on the environment. Specifically, we investigate whether the institutional setting in the region provides some sort of a complementary role in the environment-FEG relationships. We use the panel two-step system generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to deal with the simultaneity problem. Data consists of 43 sub-Saharan African countries. The result shows that energy inefficiency compromises environmental standards. However, the quality of the institutional setting helps moderate this negative consequences; countries with good institutions show greater prospects than countries with poor institutions. On the other hand, globalization of the region and increased forest size generate positive environmental outcomes in the region. Their impacts are, however, independent of the quality of institution. Afforestation programs, promotion of other clean energy types, and investment in energy efficiency, basic city infrastructure, and regulatory and institutional structures, are desirable policies to pursue to safeguard the environment.

  2. Development of bench marking services for energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions in forest industry; Metsaeteollisuuden energiatehokkuutta ja CO{sub 2}-paeaestoejae koskevien benchmarking-palvelujen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarentaus, A. [Poeyry Forest Industry Consulting Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2006-12-19

    The goal of the project is to develop energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} missions related benchmarking services for pulp and paper and mechanical wood working industry. The services make it possible to 1) position individual production plants based on their energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} missions, 2) offer process phase level information on energy-efficient and low mission process technology, 3) analyse changes in the competitive position both at production plant as well as country level due to changes in CO{sub 2}-allocation and energy procurement. (orig.)

  3. Regional trade agreements & procurement rules : facilitators or hindrances?

    OpenAIRE

    ANDERSON, Robert D.; MÜLLER, Anna Caroline; PELLETIER, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This Working Paper considers the significance of government procurement chapters in regional trade agreements (RTAs), both in their own right and vis-à-vis the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA). The paper finds, inter alia, that: (i) a strong complementarity exists between government procurement trade commitments and general goods and services trade commitments, making integration of procurement commitments in a more general system such as the WTO Agreements desirable; (ii) govern...

  4. Innovation public procurement in Russia: problems of institutional arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korytcev Maxim, A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the problems of public procurement in innovation sphere in Russia, its institutional organization. In international practice, some strategies of innovation stimulation (by public procurement are developing. There is necessity to use more elements of these strategies in Russian National Procurement System. The active National Public Procurement System has no enough effective methods and instruments for stimulating innovation development now.

  5. Effects of Procurement Related Factors on Construction Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of procurement related factors of procurement selection criteria, tendering methods and variation orders on project performance. Purpose of the study is to ...

  6. 7 CFR 235.9 - Procurement and property management standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement and property management standards. 235.9... Procurement and property management standards. (a) Requirements. State agencies shall comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3016 concerning the procurement of supplies, equipment and other services with State...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.507-2 - Procurement time schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedule. 101-26.507-2 Section 101-26.507-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  8. 7 CFR 248.21 - Procurement and property management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement and property management. 248.21 Section... Provisions § 248.21 Procurement and property management. (a) Requirements. State agencies shall comply with the requirements of 7 CFR part 3016 for procurement of supplies, equipment and other services with...

  9. 41 CFR 101-26.501-5 - Procurement time schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement time schedules. 101-26.501-5 Section 101-26.501-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT...

  10. 76 FR 78248 - Procurement List; Addition and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    .... Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, Stratton Medical Center, 113 Holland Ave, Albany, NY. [[Page 78249...: Addition to and Deletions from the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement... disabilities, and deletes products and services from the Procurement List previously furnished by such agencies...

  11. Greening Operations Management: An Online Sustainable Procurement Course for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Helen L.; Gough, Stephen; Bakker, Elmer F.; Knight, Louise A.; McBain, Darian

    2009-01-01

    In the Operations Management field, sustainable procurement has emerged as a way to green the purchasing and supply process. This paper explores issues in sustainable procurement training. The authors formed an interdisciplinary team to design, deliver and evaluate a training programme to promote and develop sustainable procurement in the United…

  12. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  13. Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and p...

  14. Study on Comparative Efficiencies in Vaccine Procurement Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bumpas, Janet

    2008-01-01

    Vaccinations are amongst the most cost-effective public health interventions. Vaccine procurement is a complex issue that interweaves the domains of public health, commodity security, ethics, and procurement. Its cross-disciplinary nature means that neither a straightforward analysis stemming from just one discipline nor a cookie-cutter application of World Bank procurement principles of e...

  15. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants... purpose is acquisition, then the grants officer shall judge that a procurement contract is the appropriate... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22...

  16. Procurement maturity, alignment and performance: a Dutch hospital case comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement is an important supporting business function, with which competitive advantage can potentially be achieved. In this paper, the relation between maturity and alignment in procurement on the one hand, and procurement performance on the other, is investigated in the case study setting of

  17. Procurement Maturity, Alignment and Performance: a Dutch Hospital Case Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement is an important supporting business function, with which competitive advantage can potentially be achieved. In this paper, the relation between maturity and alignment in procurement on the one hand, and procurement performance on the other, is investigated in the case study setting of

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.602-4 - Procurement of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of coal. 101... PROGRAM 26.6-Procurement Sources Other Than GSA § 101-26.602-4 Procurement of coal. (a) Federal agencies desiring to participate in the Defense Fuel Supply Center coal contracting program for carload delivery...

  19. 20 CFR 627.420 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sources, unless it is demonstrated that the JTPA-funded alternative services or facilities would be more...) Each State and subrecipient shall conduct procurements in a manner which provides full and open... pricing practices between firms or organizations or between affiliated companies or organizations; (iv...

  20. 38 CFR 49.46 - Procurement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.46... of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained, and (c) Basis for award cost or price. (Authority: Pub. L. 104-156; 110 Stat. 1396) ...

  1. 45 CFR 2541.360 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foster greater economy and efficiency, grantees and subgrantees are encouraged to enter into State and... procured, and when necessary, shall set forth those minimum essential characteristics and standards to... grantee or subgrantee desires to have the review accomplished after a solicitation has been developed, the...

  2. 20 CFR 437.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... greater economy and efficiency, grantees and subgrantees are encouraged to enter into State and local... procured, and when necessary, must set forth those minimum essential characteristics and standards to which... desires to have the review accomplished after a solicitation has been developed, SSA may still review the...

  3. Online Reverse Auctions for Procurement of Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.L. Radkevitch (Uladzimir)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOnline reverse auctions, in which a buyer seeks to select a supplier and suppliers compete for contracts by bidding online, revolutionized corporate procurement early this century. Shortly after they had been pioneered by General Electric, many companies rushed to adopt reverse auctions

  4. 21 CFR 1403.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be a selection criteria provided its application leaves an appropriate number of qualified firms... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procurement. 1403.36 Section 1403.36 Food and.... No employee, officer or agent of the grantee or subgrantee shall participate in selection, or in the...

  5. Procurement of medical equipment in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Terio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In many hospitals in Sweden the importance of technology management is already accepted and accepted since the hospital managements have recognised that technology is an integral part of all major policy and planning decisions. Today’s medical devices are technically complex and sometimes a system of interacting devices is required to achieve the desired clinical function. If the hospitals want to use the latest, modern technology, then they need to make substantial investments in both equipment and competence. Complex technology, large investments and need of highly qualii ed personnel to handle the medical devices are factors that indicate a need of well-dei ned procurement process as an essential part of the total health technology management system that should be used in a hospital. In such a procurement process, carefully prepared planning of technology investments can reduce the running costs and costs for maintenance substantially. In addition, a well-dei ned procurement process contributes to increase the patient safety. In Karolinska University Hospital goods and services are purchased for more than 20% of the hospital’s €1.2 billion turnover. It is therefore very important that the procurement is carried out ef ectively.

  6. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... Accordingly, the following products and services are added to the Procurement List: Products Laundry Net... ADMINISTRATION, BOULDER, CO. Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, US Coast Guard Base, Portsmouth, VA. NPA... GUARD, BASE PORTSMOUTH, PORTSMOUTH, VA Service Type/Location: Laundry Service, Federal Bureau of Prisons...

  7. Pre-commercial procurement : regulatory effectiveness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostol, Anca Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Is public procurement of research and development (‘R&D’) services the key to European Union (‘EU’)’s sustainable welfare? Is it being regulated in accordance with economic prescripts for effectiveness? Is the regulatory and policy setting clear and comprehensive in order to stimulate a widespread

  8. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... ADDRESSES: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the...

  9. 78 FR 53734 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  10. 78 FR 77105 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  11. 78 FR 50040 - Procurement List, Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington, Virginia, 22202... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  12. 78 FR 19248 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled, 1401 S. Clark Street, Suite 10800, Arlington... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed...

  13. Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Singh, M Fiatarone; Trey, T; Lavee, J

    2014-10-01

    Organ procurement from executed prisoners in China is internationally condemned, yet this practice continues unabated in 2014. This is despite repeated announcements from Chinese authorities that constructive measures have been undertaken to conform to accepted ethical standards. While there is unanimous agreement on the unethical nature of using organs from executed prisoners, due to its limitations on voluntary and informed consent, there is insufficient coverage of forced organ procurement from prisoners of conscience without consent. Strategies to influence positive change in China over the last few decades have failed to bring this practice to an end. While organ donation and transplantation services in China have undergone considerable structural changes in the last few years, fundamental attempts to shift practice to ethically sourced organs have floundered. In this article, we discuss the organ trade in China, reflect upon organ procurement from executed prisoners (including both capital prisoners and prisoners of conscience) and provide an overview of contradictory Chinese efforts to halt forced organ procurement from executed prisoners. Finally, we highlight current actions being taken to address this issue and offer comprehensive recommendations to bring this ethically indefensible practice to an immediate end. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  15. 77 FR 70738 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Fire Fighters, Metal NSN: CBFF0053--Nameplate, Navy Fire Fighters, 2 Line, Metal NSN: CBFF0054--Collar, Brass, Navy Fire Fighters, Metal NSN: CBFF0055--Shorts, Navy Fire Fighters, Physical Training, Small... following products are added to the Procurement List: PRODUCTS: NSN: CBFF0001--Shirt, Navy Fire Fighters...

  16. SMEs cooperate to meet social procurement conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oden, Petra

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of (semi) public organizations in the Netherlands write tenders with mandatory social conditions. It is important for SMEs to focus on social procurement in their business strategy. SMEs should be proactive and try to affect the conditions (semi) public organizations write in their

  17. 76 FR 57719 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed: Products NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0583--Refills, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0584--Starter Kit, Bathroom Cleaner and Deodorizer, Cartridge Concentrate. NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0585...

  18. 78 FR 12296 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... services are proposed for addition to the Procurement List for production by the nonprofit agencies listed... and Trailer Wash, 55 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0649--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 5 GL NSN: 7930-00-NIB-0650--Cleaner/Degreaser, Heavy Duty, Biodegradable, Car and Trucks, 55 GL...

  19. Antiretroviral procurement and supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripin, David J; Jamieson, David; Meyers, Amy; Warty, Umesh; Dain, Mary; Khamsi, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Procurement, the country-level process of ordering antiretrovirals (ARVs), and supply chain management, the mechanism by which they are delivered to health-care facilities, are critical processes required to move ARVs from manufacturers to patients. To provide a glimpse into the ARV procurement and supply chain, the following pages provide an overview of the primary stakeholders, principal operating models, and policies and regulations involved in ARV procurement. Also presented are key challenges that need to be addressed to ensure that the supply chain is not a barrier to the goal of universal coverage. This article will cover the steps necessary to order and distribute ARVs, including different models of delivery, key stakeholders involved, strategic considerations that vary depending on context and policies affecting them. The single drug examples given illustrate the complications inherent in fragmented supply and demand-driven models of procurement and supply chain management, and suggest tools for navigating these hurdles that will ultimately result in more secure and reliable ARV provision. Understanding the dynamics of ARV supply chain is important for the global health community, both to ensure full and efficient treatment of persons living with HIV as well as to inform the supply chain decisions for other public health products.

  20. Procurement Officer | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... efficient, and ethical and provide the best possible value to the IDRC; supporting the ... procurement processes are perceived by suppliers as fair, open and ethical; ... while ensuring to protect confidential information;; analyses, negotiates and ... and knowledge, and interpret, assess and communicate current IDRC policy, ...

  1. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Logistics Support Detachment, Undisclosed Location*, Ft. Belvoir, VA. NPA: MVLE, Inc., Springfield, VA. Contracting Activity: Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA.... Lineback, Director, Business Operations. [FR Doc. 2013-29139 Filed 12-5-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 6353-01-P ...

  2. 77 FR 60969 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Are Blind or Severely Disabled published a notice for additions to the Procurement List with the... Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published notices of proposed..., Phoenix, AZ. Service Type/Location: Custodial and Grounds Maintenance Services, Austin Courthouse, 501...

  3. Forward Commitment Procurement : A practical methodology that helps to manage risk in procuring innovative goods and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whyles, G.; Meerveld, H. van; Nauta, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Commitment Procurement (FCP) is a Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI) methodology. It was specifically designed to both provide a practical methodology for procurers to follow and to manage the perceived risk of the customer and supplier in innovation investments. The paper describes

  4. The problems of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalova Tatiana Volodymyrivna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated main aspects of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was found essence of accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management, purpose, functions and tasks. It was determined main elements and essence of accountable and analytical information taking into consideration needs of modern management. In the article are exposed structural elements of accountable and analytical procuring. It was formed conceptual approaches of building accountable and analytical procuring of enterprise management. It was analyzed main problems of improving accountable and analytical informational procuring of taking managerial decisions with the aim of solving economic problems due to current situation of national economy.

  5. Potential fraudulent behaviors in e-procurement implementation in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, S. N.; Setiani, N.; Pulungan, R.; Winarko, E.

    2017-03-01

    Corruptions in public procurement have occurred in various parts of the world, especially in developing countries. Implementation of SPSE (electronic procurement system) as the e-procurement system in Indonesia is based on the government’s intentions towards clean and good governance by fighting corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Procurement in Indonesia is carried out through SPSE, which is developed by LKPP (Government Policy on Procurement of Goods/Services). Although this system has brought many positive effects, there are still found many practices of fraud occurring in the implementation of the system. In this paper, we try to identify these practices and then to systematically categorize and analyze them.

  6. Public perspectives on biospecimen procurement: what biorepositories should consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Jamie; Murray, Jeffrey C; Newbury, Elizabeth; Shinkunas, Laura; Simon, Christian M

    2013-06-01

    Human biospecimens are central to biobanking efforts, yet how members of the public think about biobank procurement strategies is not well understood. This study aimed to explore public perspectives toward the procurement of residual clinical material versus "direct" procurement strategies such as the drawing of blood. Members of the public residing in and beyond the biobank catchment area of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics were randomly selected to participate in focus groups and a telephone survey. The majority of survey participants (75%, n=559) found both residual and direct procurement strategies equally workable. Small proportions preferred either residual (15%; n=117) or direct (5%; n=40) procurement. Focus group participants (n=48) could identify benefits to both procurement strategies, but raised concerns about possible donor inconvenience/discomfort and reduced biospecimen accrual in the case of direct procurement. Residual procurement raised concerns about lower-quality samples being procured without full donor awareness. Biobanks should consider that members of the public in their research programs may be willing to make specimen donations regardless of whether a residual or direct procurement strategy is employed. Limiting patient discomfort and inconvenience may make direct procurement strategies more acceptable to some members of the public. Ensuring donor awareness through effective informed consent may allay public concerns about the indirectness of donating clinical biospecimens.

  7. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uttam, Kedar; Faith-Ell, Charlotta; Balfors, Berit

    2012-01-01

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: ► This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. ► Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. ► Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  8. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Kedar, E-mail: kedar@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Faith-Ell, Charlotta, E-mail: charlotta.faith-ell@WSPGroup.se [WSP Sweden (Sweden); Balfors, Berit, E-mail: balfors@kth.se [Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-15

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  9. Monitoring What Governments “Give for” and “Spend on” Vaccine Procurement: Vaccine Procurement Assistance and Vaccine Procurement Baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, E. A. S.; Bloom, David E.; Mahoney, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of...

  10. Concerning equipment procurement for NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pana, N.

    2002-01-01

    After a stagnation in investments for nuclear power which extended over a period of 10-15 years, assessments done by energy forecast institutes, as well as, evaluations by UE institutions, OECD, and DOE (USA) point to the conclusion solid and argued that the electric energy of nuclear origin will record a new boost beginning probably with the year 2005. Particular efforts were concentrated upon improving the performances of existing plants and, on the other hand, towards new, evolutionary concepts in nuclear engineering. Advanced equipment for nuclear reactors and plants resulted and were already implemented. In Europe construction of both advanced PWR and BWR type reactors are underway. The paper consider the issues of Romanian nuclear power and presents the prospects for advanced CANDU reactors in connection with the Romania's infrastructure and necessities. The problem of modernizing the equipment and components for NPP is discussed in the context of financing and investment conditions. In conclusion, the share of nuclear power in Romania is expected to rise in order to compensate the decline in fossil fuel thermal power and to better solve the environmental issues

  11. Green related practices for construction procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Z. A.; Bohari, A. A. M.; Rais, S. L. A.; Saferi, M. M.

    2018-04-01

    Environment degradation issue has been a worldwide problem and various efforts have been done to minimise the problem. Construction sectors are pointed as one of the major contributors to its construction activities. Green-oriented procurement [GP] is considered as an environmental strategy to integrate the environmental practices into the construction delivery. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of GP and the practices related to it. The outcome of this research findings provides a basis for understanding the concept of GP and the further development of GP. The listed GP practices identified from this paper can serve as guidelines for industry practitioners to design, implement, and benchmarking the green practices in their procurement delivery.

  12. Innovative Procurement and Partnerships in Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    A major study of facilities management best practice covering 36 cases from the Nordic countries in Europe shows, that the most outstanding examples of innovation in FM are initiated from the demand side and involves new forms of procurement with long term contracts. This paper considers in depth......-called operational partnerships with private providers concerning all municipal buildings and sports facilities in parts of a city. Each of the case studies has involved both the client and the provider side of the collaboration. The cases show that an essential element in a successful procurement and partnership...... is that the client allows the providers freedom to plan their activities. Thereby the providers can optimize the use of their productive capacity and utilize their competences with incentives to profit from such improvements. A major challenge is to balance the risks between the client and provider and to create...

  13. Energy efficient aerobic treatment of forest industry wastewaters; Energieffektiv aerob rening av skogsindustriella avloppsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Maria; From-Aldaron, Mattias

    2011-01-15

    There is great potential to reduce energy requirements in aerobic biological purification if the oxygen demand can be reduced and oxygen delivery, when process water is aerated, is made more efficient. A model was developed to estimate the possible reduction in oxygen demand. Model variables were COD reduction, sludge withdrawal, oxygen, and alpha-value. Attempts made in an aerator in the lab-scale process shows that water content strongly affects oxygen transport and alpha-value. Surface active extract substances such as fatty acids and resin acids have greatest significance. The effect increases with the concentration of extract substances and decreases with added sodium chloride content

  14. Public Procurement: A performance management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Klevensparr, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this thesis is to explore what performance indicators that exist within public procurement in defence sector context and how such performance indicators can be categorized.   Methodology - For the purpose of this thesis, an abductive approach was applied. This thesis is characterized as an exploratory multimethod qualitative research, which emphasize a single case study and a comprehensive research literature review. The empirical data was collected using semi-structu...

  15. Socially Responsible Award of the Procurement Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hristina Blagoycehva

    2013-01-01

    With the Europe 2020 strategy the EU has set itself, under conditions of a changing world, the goal of becoming an intelligent, sustainable and inclusive economy. Under the current conditions of budget constraints and economic difficulties the conventional mechanisms for promoting social justice and social cohesion are insufficient. Through the inclusion of social criteria in the awarding of public procurement there can be guaranteed the compliance with social insurance legislation, furthered...

  16. Energy evaluation of forest residues originated from shrub species in Galicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Rodriguez-Anon, J.A. [University of Santiago (Spain). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2004-01-01

    In this study we present an alternative for the management of the excess of shrub species that nowadays take up around 800,000 ha in Galicia (NW Spain). This alternative is based on the exploitation of the energetic resources contained in the excess of shrubs by their combustion in specially designed plants for production of electric energy. The different species were sorted into three groups: Ulex europaeus L. (furze), Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Link (broom) and Erica sp. (heaths). Their LHV were calculated through measurements of the corresponding HHV and resulted 7600, 7300 and 7200 kJ kg{sup -1} respectively. Biomass productions (T ha{sup -1}) were also calculated resulting 20 T ha{sup -1} (furze), 30 T ha{sup -1} (broom), and 15 T ha{sup -1} (heaths). Analyses of all these values make these species very valuable for their energy exploitation. Samples were collected over one year in different zones to study the effect of the environmental conditions on the calorific values. (Author)

  17. Innovation, Procurement and Construction Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geard de Valence

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The implications for analysis of innovation in construction of theoretical developments in industrial organisation are considered in this research, as an attempt to outline a new approach to construction innovation incorporating the ideas found in knowledge based, technology centred models. The paper firstly summarises characteristics of the construction industry, focusing on their effects on innovation, before surveying some of the ideas about the sources of innovation and the expansion and application of knowledge. Construction can be seen as an industry with limited scope for knowledge externalities, where the procurement methods used by the industry’s clients do not pay for innovation. The following discussion uses recent developments in the research on the economics of innovation and industrial organization theory, such as research intensity and the endogenous sunk costs in competitive, fragmented, low research intensity industries. The effects on R&D of procurement methods and on industry structure are discussed, with a focus on the appropriability of innovations and the role of the client on the Heathrow Terminal 5 project. The paper concludes that the procurement methods used for building and construction projects appears to be a determining factor in the level of innovation in the construction industry

  18. Paid organ procurement: pragmatic and ethical viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, A S

    2004-09-01

    None of the familiar arguments against paid organ procurement really works. Most arguments spring from revulsion that arises from the abuses of the practice rather than the act itself. This has not stopped official condemnation. However, the evidence we have at present is that such condemnation, aimed at correcting a perceived moral wrong rather than at abuses of a practice (the correction of which might actually bring some moral good), has utterly failed, and many more countries including the United States now harbor paid organ procurement. We can try to develop and articulate a truly compelling moral argument against paid organ procurement or we can try to minimize the harm that comes out of this practice. Since it is unlikely that all countries will agree on a standardized approach in such a muddled field, the best way may be to let every country decide on what is best for itself. Some may want to ban the practice using legislation. Others may want to try regulating the practice, knowing full well that they cannot stop it and that turning a blind eye to the practice, or simply condemning it, does no good whatsoever and actually increases the harm because everything is done underground, with middlemen and mafia-like organizations making a lot of money out of a lot of misery. Some countries may choose to find other, more innovative solutions. We call attention to an important resolution dealing with this subject at the December 2002 ethics and transplantation congress in Munich.

  19. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  20. The Informing Needs of Procurement Officers in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahel Giat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To develop and introduce a questionnaire that investigates the informing needs, information-seeking behavior, and supplier selection of procurement officers in Israel. The questionnaire’s internal consistency reliability is given. Additionally, we describe the demographic description of the procurement officers in Israel. Background: Procurement science is an important field that affects firms’ profits in the private sector and is significant to growth, innovation, sustainability, and welfare in the public sector. There is little research about the informing needs of procurement officers in general and particularly in Israel. Methodology: A quantitative questionnaire that is sent to all the procurement officers in Israel’s procuring association. Contribution: The questionnaire that is developed in this paper may be used by other researchers and practitioners to evaluate the information needs of procurement officers. Findings: The typical procurement officer is male, with a bachelor degree and is digitally proficient. Recommendations for Practitioners: The procuring side can use the questionnaire to develop better tools for obtaining information efficiently. The supplying side can use this knowledge to improve its exposure to potential customers and address its customer’s needs better. Recommendation for Researchers: The questionnaire can address theoretical questions such as how digital literacy affects the procuring process and provide empirical findings about active research areas such as supplier selection and information-seeking behavior. Future Research: Future research will examine the relationship between the various variables and demographic features to understand why specific information needs and information-seeking behaviors arise.

  1. Wood chips procurement and research project at the Mikkeli region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, T.; Auvinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993-94, a large-scale energywood production chain started as a co-operation project by the Mikkeli city forest office and local forestry societies. In 1995 over 115 000 m 3 (about 85 000 MWh of energy) of wood chips were delivered to Pursiala heat and power plant in Mikkeli. About 75 % of these chips was forest processed chips. About 70 % of the forest processed chips was whole tree chips from improvement cuttings of young forest stands and the rest was logging waste chips from regeneration cutting areas. The average total delivery costs of forest processed chips after reduction of energywood and other subsidies were approximately 45 FIM/m 3 (60 FIM/MWh) for the whole tree chips and 38 FIM/m 3 (50 FIM/MWh) for logging waste chips. The delivery costs of forest processed chips could meet the target of Bioenergy Research Programme (45 FIM/MWh) only in the most favourable cases. In an average the delivery costs were about 9 FIM/MWh more than the price obtained when sold to the heat and power plant. However the wood chip production created 27 new jobs and the increase of income to the local economy was about 2.2 milj. FIM /year. The local communities got new tax revenue about 3 FIM/MWh. The gain for the forestry was approximated to be 5 - 6 FIM/MWh. The resources of forest processed chips were studied on the basis of stand measurements. According to the study the most remarkable energywood resources were in young thinning stands on Oxalis-Myrtillus and Myrtillus forest site types. On Oxalis-Myrtillus type almost every and on Myrtillus type every second stand included energywood more than 40 m 3 /ha

  2. Environmental aspects of using waste waters and sludges in energy forest cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    From a waste management point of view, energy crops offer the advantage of being non-food crops. Poplar and willow coppice have longer growing seasons and deeper, longer lasting root systems than annual crops, which enables them to have better utilization of mineralised nutrients from waste products. When using waste waters they have the further advantage of a high evapotranspiration. The removal of nutrients from the growth system by harvests is limited, however, and the applied amounts should be regulated accordingly, to avoid leaching of nutrients. Heavy metal contents of waste products for land use are controlled by national regulations. Applications several times higher than is now allowed has had little documented effect on the environment due to the binding of metals to soil particles. The nitrogen content of wood fuels converts mainly to atmospheric nitrogen, but with high temperatures where the combustion is most efficient, there is also some conversion to nitrogen oxides. (author)

  3. Forest based biomass for energy in Uganda: Stakeholder dynamics in feedstock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, Jennifer A.; Windhorst, Kai; Amezaga, Jaime M.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient energy supply and low levels of development are closely linked. Both are major issues in Uganda where growing demand cannot be met by overstretched infrastructure and the majority still rely on traditional biomass use. Uganda's renewable energy policy focuses on decentralised sources including modern biomass. In this paper, stakeholder dynamics and potential socio-economic impacts of eight modern bioenergy feedstock production models in Uganda are considered, and key considerations for future planning provided. For these models the main distinctions were land ownership (communal or private) and feedstock type (by-product or plantation). Key social issues varied by value chain (corporate, government or farmer/NGO), and what production arrangement was in place (produced for own use or sale). Small, privately owned production models can be profitable but are unlikely to benefit landless poor and, if repeated without strategic planning, could result in resource depletion. Larger projects can have greater financial benefits, though may have longer term natural resource impacts felt by adjacent communities. Bioenergy initiatives which allow the rural poor to participate through having a collaborative stake, rather than receiving information, and provide opportunities for the landless are most likely to result in socio-economic rural development to meet policy goals. The structured approach to understanding stakeholder dynamics used was found to be robust and sufficiently adaptable to provide meaningful analysis. In conclusion; local, context-specific planning and assessment for bioenergy projects, where all stakeholders have the opportunity to be collaborators in the process throughout its full lifecycle, is required to achieve rural development objectives. -- Highlights: • Stakeholder dynamics and socio-economics in 8 Ugandan bioenergy projects considered. • Key distinctions were ownership, feedstock, value chain and production arrangement. • Small

  4. Procurement and participation opportunities onshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines Company is constructing a 1048 km underground gas transmission pipeline that will transport Sable natural gas to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and New England. The Sable Offshore Energy Project brings opportunities for new industries to Atlantic Canada, including the potential for future Sable gas exploration, development and production which will provide thousands of jobs and benefits for local businesses during the construction phase. Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines plan to maximize local content for the construction of the 565 km Canadian portion of the pipeline. The construction phase alone should create about 1,500 jobs during peak times. Seventy per cent of the labour will be sourced locally. Clean-up, landscaping, fencing and tile repair, monitoring services and pipeline inspection are some of the other opportunities that will be contracted to local businesses. Major long-term benefits of the project are expected to be in the construction of lateral or feeder pipelines and in the construction of gas distribution utilities

  5. Procurement of Architectural and Engineering Services for Sustainable Buildings: A Guide for Federal Project Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    This guide was prepared to be a resource for federal construction project managers and others who want to integrate the principles of sustainable design into the procurement of professional building design and consulting services. To economize on energy costs and improve the safety, comfort, and health of building occupants, building design teams can incorporate daylighting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and passive solar design into all projects in which these elements are technically and economically feasible. The information presented here will help project leaders begin the process and manage the inclusion of sustainable design in the procurement process. The section on establishing selection criteria contains key elements to consider before selecting an architectural and engineering (A/E) firm. The section on preparing the statement of work discusses the broad spectrum of sustainable design services that an A/E firm can provide. Several helpful checklists are included.

  6. 2016 Status Report on Major Equipment Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of National Defence made some progress in procurement in 2016 despite obstacles that included a continued drop in spending, the advent of a new federal Liberal government and uncertainty over the outcome of the Defence Policy Review. Four trends affected defence acquisitions in 2016. These include an ongoing slippage in recapitalizing the Canadian Armed Forces, some encouraging moves made on the shipbuilding and fighter jet files, mixed progress on implementing the 2014 Defence Procurement Strategy, and uncertainty over the Defence Policy Review. It is also too early to tell how the Trudeau government’s Policy on Results, known as the “deliverology” approach, will play out for defence procurement. However, Budget 2016’s major focus was not on defence, and it shifted some funding for capital equipment to a new endpoint of 2045. This suggests that delay in the overall defence procurement program continues. While the Liberals kept their pledge to make investment in the Royal Canadian Navy a priority, they also made good last year on a negative promise – not to purchase the F-35 stealth fighter bomber. However, further slowing things is the Liberals’ refusal to launch a competition to replace it until the Defence Policy Review is published. The government has made this situation more fraught with its intention to buy 18 Boeing Super Hornet fighter jets as interim aircraft, since Liberal policy requires the Royal Canadian Air Force to be capable of meeting both NORAD’s and NATO’s operational needs simultaneously. Prior to the release of the new defence policy, both the interim and permanent fighter aircraft projects lacked adequate funding. They were among several large projects that have been approved, but have not yet moved to the contract stage, and whose budgets were inadequate to move forward. Adding to this mix is the fact that a government-wide effort initiated in 2014 to streamline the defence procurement

  7. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program.

  8. Pro short-term procurement - U.S. utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The author expresses the opinion that rather than focusing market discussions around short-term versus long-term procurement strategies, the parties need to be focusing on how long it is going to take to get to a predominantly market-based price both in uranium and enrichment. Long-term contracts are going to be around and will always be an important part of buyers' and sellers' strategies. It is evident that the annual term contract price renegotiations around the world are resulting in continually lower prices. When these price negotiations finally arrive in the range of the market price, a commodity market that resembles other energy commodity markets can be obtained

  9. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, M.; Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE FOREIGN GOVERNMENT AND CORPORATE PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Savchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the experience of foreign government and corporate procurement management. Set out key aspects of the organization of procurement for government and corporate needs, disclosed issues of centralization and decentralization of procurement, as well as given clarifi cation of the concept of "procurement management system" and structured the main elements that make up this system. The purpose / goal. The purpose of the work is to study the nature and characteristics of the functioning of government and corporate experience in procurement management, identifying problems and prospects of its development. Methodology. To perform this work were used legal, comparative and statistical analysis methods. Results. As part of the presentation of the present article the author has examined the nature, objectives and stages of public and corporate procurement management.

  11. Did a local distribution company procure prudently during the California electricity crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.-K.; Lloyd, Debra; Clayton, William

    2006-01-01

    To manage cost risk, prudent procurement of electric power requires that some portion of a buyer's energy demand be met through long-term contracting. Under cost-of-service regulation or performance-based regulation, a local distribution company (LDC) should be allowed to fully recover all prudently incurred power procurement costs. However, the regulatory test of prudence is an ex post review with the threat of disallowance. This paper presents an economic analysis of procurement prudence involving a small LDC, Bear Valley Electric Service (BVES), which serves a resort area in Southern California. The key findings are: (a) high and volatile prices and rolling blackouts characterized the market environment faced by the owner of BVES, Southern California Water Company (SCWC), at its signing of a 5-year fixed price contract; (b) SCWC was a price-taker with no incentive to act imprudently; (c) the contract was obtained via a competitive bidding process; (d) the contract price was comparable to the benchmark price of contemporaneous contracts; (e) the fixed price contract was economic when compared to available alternatives; and (f) despite (a)-(e), a negotiated settlement with the state regulator and a large user resulted in substantial disallowance. The policy implication is that a regulator should approve a prudent procurement plan proposed by an LDC to remove the unreasonable risk of an ex post review. If the LDC strictly adheres to the plan, the resulting electricity purchases are per se prudent and should entitle the LDC to full cost recovery

  12. Assessment of the Public Procurement Role in Public Sector Modernization in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averkieva Elena, S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of public procurement on the Russian economy is investigated in the paper. An assessment of the system’s effect on national competitiveness and the activities of small businesses is provided. Public contract system is a versatile tool that can be used to control a wide variety of economic sectors. Every year, the share of public sector in the Russian economy is increasing, that means the state influence on economic processes taking place in the country is growing steadily. First of all the importance of public procurement in the Russian economy can be estimated by matching parameters of the budgetary system and GDP. The interrelationship of public procurement and national competitiveness is identified in the paper based on the consideration of measures to ensure energy efficiency and national treatment. Efficient spending of budget funds, as stated in the objectives of the contract system, is analyzed by the indicator of the savings in absolute and relative terms. Indicators of system openness, which will improve the monitoring of its transparency, are given to determine the effect on the economy of corruption component of public procurement.

  13. Public Procurement and the Development of the Swedish Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lindskog, Helena

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes and analyses public procurement and its processes in general against the framework of industrial marketing and purchasing. In particular, it focuses on the public procurement of telecommunications (“telecom”) and its effects on the de-monopolization and development of the Swedish telecom market based on empirical material from three case studies, interviews and publicly available written sources. Public procurement is a significant part of any country’s economy. There is...

  14. Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katarina; Svane, Örjan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. ...

  15. Improving the effectiveness of public entities procurement practices

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M. Com. (Business Management) The media and the Auditor General have extensively reported on the ineffective and unethical conduct of public sector employees regarding the procurement of goods and services. The Auditor General’s report demonstrates that there is evidence that public sector procurement processes are less than adequate to achieve constitutional procurement goals, which are to conduct processes that are fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective The delivery...

  16. Considerations regarding procurement activities in institutions of local authority

    OpenAIRE

    Mãdãlina ALBU

    2013-01-01

    Objectives which they propose a public authority requires, among others, providing the necessary resources, including the material occupy a large proportion. This is done through the public procurement system. The procurement is part of the legal and economic reality of the Romanian society and covers all rules and actions on public spending and the application launched by public bodies meets the proposed offer of an operator. This paper presents an analysis of the public procurement system i...

  17. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  18. Opportunities for public procurement procedures efficiency and optimization improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Junevičius, Algis; Ereminaitė, Simona

    2010-01-01

    Public procurement is one of the most actual problems of economics and a potential instrument of successful public policy, which can control money flows and manipulate the appearance of corruption opportunities. Procurement practices are relatively new in the public sector, but everyone knows the complicated regulation and coordination of this process. Despite the fact that society often discus about public procurement problems, the regulation of this process requires an in-depth evaluation b...

  19. Economic risks of the system of state and municipal procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belokrylova Olga, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the audit of economic risks at all stages of procurement for state and municipal needs from both customers and bidders is carried out on the basis of the implementation of the integrated approach . Stages in the procurement under a single contract system, which is characterized by the high economic risks are planning, supplier selection, conclusion and execution of the contract. A number of the measures according to the localization of economic risks are offered, in particular the implementation of compliance programs, which institutionalize the compliance by the organization, anti-corruption legislation; increasing qualification of specialists in public procurement and increased control through centralization of procurement.

  20. Challenges of public procurement in EU funded projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Šostar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membership in the European Union implies adjustment of EU projects to the rules of Structural Funds, but also adoption of legal regulations, thus influencing the process of implementation of the public procurement in EU funded projects. Each successful applicant who expressed the need for procurement of goods, services and works of a certain value, must respect the principles of public procurement. Irregularities in the procurement process can lead to the failure of returning the EU funds even several years after the end of the project. Therefore, the knowledge and proper implementation of public procurement is the main precondition for the correct implementation of each project. In order to obtain information about the current absorption capacity of the public procurement liable parties, and to identify key obstacles that stakeholders face in procurement procedures, the research was conducted by surveying 30 entities that are subject of public procurement in Croatia. Research results imply the poor quality of public procurement in the implemented projects, which often results in financial corrections, disapproving project reports, etc.

  1. Critical factors for sustainable food procurement in zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Food procurement can play an important role in sustainable food supply chain management by zoos, linking organizational operations to the biodiversity conservation and sustainability mission of zoological collections. This study therefore examines the critical factors that shape sustainable food procurement in zoo and aquariums. Using a web-based survey data was collected from 41 members of the British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA). This included information on the sustainable food procurement practices of these institutions for both their human and animal food supply chains, as well as profile information and data on the factors contributing to and inhibiting sustainable procurement practices. Zoological collections operated by charities, and those with a certified sustainability standard, were found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement. Zoos and aquariums whose human food operations were not contracted to an external party were also found to have significantly higher levels of sustainable food procurement in their human food supply chain. The most important drivers of sustainable food procurement were cost savings, adequate financial support and improved product quality. The highest ranking barriers were higher costs, other issues taking priority and a lack of alternative suppliers. The results suggest that a number of critical factors shape sustainable food procurement in zoological collections in the British Isles. Financial factors, such as cost savings, were important considerations. The significance of mission-related factors, such as charity status, indicated that core values held by zoos and aquariums can also influence their food procurement practices. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  3. Playing the game of public procurement of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Given the emergence and diffusion of policies aiming at promoting the utilisation of public procurement as an innovation policy instrument, it is remarkable that very little scholarly attention has been given to the teaching of public procurement of innovation. This paper sets out to contribute...... towards mending this gap, by discussing some considerations made in the context of the development and set up of a university course in public procurement of innovation. A major challenge for such an endeavour is how to bring the complexities of real-life public procurement into a university class...

  4. E-Procurement and the U.S. Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doe, David

    2002-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, companies worldwide are undergoing transformation as they harness the power of Internet-enabled tools, One significant aspect of industry's transformation is electronic or e-procurement...

  5. 75 FR 1355 - Procurement List Additions and Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    .../Location: Janitorial Services, Jamestown Service Center, 8430 Country Club Street, Jamestown, ND. NPA..., the following products and services are deleted from the Procurement List: Products Business Cards NSN...

  6. Utilization of forest biomass for energy production and industrial purposes. Final report. Utilizzazione della biomassa dei boschi cedui per energia e per usi industriali. Rapporto finale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramuzzi, G

    1985-01-01

    The project is part of a larger one promoted by the Italian Agency for Cellulose and Paper (E.N.C.C.) for an enhanced utilization of coppice forests in Italy. It concerns a Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) stand in Calabria. Stand characteristics and results of harvesting trials, first after-felling observations and technological investigations are reported. Results of an estimate of coppice forests biomass availability and of possibilities of expanding its use for energy are also given. Machinery damage to stumps was greatly reduced (1.7% of high-damaged stumps) by sprouts concentration by skyline. Sprouts weight appeared as a major factor affecting harvesting yield, Harvesting costs varied with different stand and terrain characteristics from 28,000 to 39,500 It. liras/t. Because of the high transport costs, the use of current coppice forests biomass is restricted within a short distance from the harvesting area. Industrial trials for fiberboard and paper pulp production from coppice whole-tree chipped biomass proved the possibility of its use in mixture with current raw material up to 75% for fiberboard production and up to 35-50% for corrugated paper pulp production. Relative expansion possibilities of coppice forest biomass consumption for energy were estimated, mainly localized in the central-northern Appennine and the Alpine areas. Given the permanence of a high convenience for its home consumption, wide development programs for coppice biomass industrial use for energy appear to be inconvenient. On the other hand, its use by local communities (schools, hospital, etc.) might be incentived in particular areas with high coppice production potential far from wood industries.

  7. A Procurement Performance Model for Construction Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Y M Lam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative construction frameworks have been developed in the United Kingdom (UK to create longer term relationships between clients and suppliers in order to improve project outcomes. Research undertaken into highways maintenance set within a major county council has confirmed that such collaborative procurement methods can improve time, cost and quality of construction projects. Building upon this and examining the same single case, this research aims to develop a performance model through identification of performance drivers in the whole project delivery process including pre and post contract phases. A priori performance model based on operational and sociological constructs was proposed and then checked by a pilot study. Factor analysis and central tendency statistics from the questionnaires as well as content analysis from the interview transcripts were conducted. It was confirmed that long term relationships, financial and non-financial incentives and stronger communication are the sociological behaviour factors driving performance. The interviews also established that key performance indicators (KPIs can be used as an operational measure to improve performance. With the posteriori performance model, client project managers can effectively collaboratively manage contractor performance through procurement measures including use of longer term and KPIs for the contract so that the expected project outcomes can be achieved. The findings also make significant contribution to construction framework procurement theory by identifying the interrelated sociological and operational performance drivers. This study is set predominantly in the field of highways civil engineering. It is suggested that building based projects or other projects that share characteristics are grouped together and used for further research of the phenomena discovered.

  8. Postmortem sperm procurement: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, S E; Seftel, A D; Resnick, M I

    1999-06-01

    Postmortem sperm procurement with subsequent artificial insemination has become a technically feasible method for posthumous conception. A variety of legal questions exist involving the rights and relationships of the deceased, his family and his issue. We addressed these questions and designed a workable protocol for postmortem sperm procurement. MEDLINE, WESTLAW and LEXIS medical literature, and case law searches were conducted. United States and international case law, United States (federal and state) statutes, Uniform Law Commissions Acts, and law review commentaries and articles were reviewed. While postmortem sperm procurement is being requested throughout the United States, no standard protocol or procedural guidelines have been established by federal or state statute. Furthermore, the courts have not yet addressed this specific scenario in reported case law. Statutes and case law do address related factual scenarios and issues, including property rights in human bodies, rules governing transplantation of human organs/body parts, rights of parties in in vivo sperm bank donations and responsibilities of parents to the conceptus of artificial insemination. A workable protocol can be established by analyzing case law and statutes addressing factually similar scenarios. Urologists must focus on the express intent of the decedent and limit any postmortem sperm retrieval to the specific requests made by the decedent. Decedent requests should be documented in writing. The decedent must be competent and of majority age. In the absence of decedent expressed affirmative directive calling for sperm retrieval, no other relative or guardian may authorize this retrieval. Issues regarding the legitimacy and inheritance rights of the conceptus will most consistently be addressed when explicitly provided for in the will of the decedent.

  9. EXAMINATION OF ETHICAL PROCUREMENT THROUGH ENTERPRISE EXAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Sz. G. Pató

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business world is affected by the 21st century’s processes, like globalization, fluent online attendance, digitalization and their direct consequence depersonalisation. The authors are motivated by these facts and want to vivify the „old fashioned” correct business models and find the indispensable parameter of the well-functioning economy, in one word today’s equivalent of „honorable gentlemen”. The assumed key to success could be useful for the for-profit sector because not only profit can be the impelling in the professional life of a corporation. The human value added is one of the most important keystones of thrift. The aim to establish a balance between economic and ethical behaviour of corporations has been enounced serving the interest of all participants, consumers, corporations and society. The before natural thought values seem nowadays to turn into something different or to be neglected. As a consequence the question has been raised, if society has the force to establish and improve Ethics, will it be able to destroy it as well?! The main focus of the research is therefore the mapping of criteria and marks which belong to on the competitive market successful enterprises whose procurement decisions are ethical as well. These marks can be formal or informal. The results of the research show well that there are parameters of a company, for example, a code of conduct within guidelines concerning the procurement or procedure manuals in which also ethical issues appear in a formal way. From another point of view there are informal signs like customs arising from the corporate culture, daily routine or just human behaviour and convincement of the management and procurement employees that also support the ethical performance of the company. The results of the research can serve as best practice for the other enterprises too in their daily appearance on the market. Particularly in that area the company’s most important

  10. The New EU Public Procurement Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , transparency requirements, competitive dialogue, framework agreements, use of social and environmental criteria, Partnering and Public Private Partnerships and concessions. This book contains contributions based on presentations given by a number of the international and Danish speakers at the conference.......31 March 2004 the EU adopted two new public procurement directives: one for the public sector (2004/18/EC) and one for utilities (2004/17/EC). The new directives aim at simplification and modernisation of the previously existing directives including adaptation to electronic purchasing techniques...

  11. Debating Organ Procurement Policy Without Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippen, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective, I review and critique claims that the transplant waiting list overstates the demand for kidneys and correct a few mischaracterizations of some structural barriers to increasing rates of transplantation. The solutions to the shortage of organs proffered by opponents of financial incentives fail to account for a panoply of clinical, regulatory, and financial realities of transplantation centers in the United States in ways that undermine the thesis that a trial of financial incentives for organ procurement is not warranted at this time. I conclude with some personal pessimistic reflections on the progress of this debate. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stopping Illicit Procurement: Lessons from Global Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-06-19

    Government regulators and the financial sector cooperate to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. This information-sharing relationship is built upon a strong legislative foundation and effective operational procedures. As with money-laundering and terrorist financing, halting the illicit procurement of dual-use commodities requires close coordination between government and industry. However, many of the legal and operational features present in financial threat cooperation do not exist in the export control realm. This article analyzes the applicability of financial industry cooperative measures to nonproliferation.

  13. Modeling Woody Biomass Procurement for Bioenergy Production at the Atikokan Generating Station in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Upadhyay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient procurement and utilization of woody biomass for bioenergy production requires a good understanding of biomass supply chains. In this paper, a dynamic optimization model has been developed and applied to estimate monthly supply and procurement costs of woody biomass required for the Atikokan Generating Station (AGS in northwestern Ontario, based on its monthly electricity production schedule. The decision variables in the model are monthly harvest levels of two types of woody biomass, forest harvest residues and unutilized biomass, from 19,315 forest depletion cells (each 1 km2 for a one year planning horizon. Sixteen scenarios are tested to examine the sensitivity of the cost minimization model to changing economic and technological parameters. Reduction in moisture content and improvement of conversion efficiency showed relatively higher reductions in monthly and total costs of woody biomass feedstock for the AGS. The results of this study help in understanding and designing decision support systems for optimal biomass supply chains under dynamic operational frameworks.

  14. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  15. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  16. Harvest residue removal and soil compaction impact forest productivity and recovery: Potential implications for bioenergy harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda T. Curzon; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of management on forest structure and function is increasingly important in light of projected increases in both natural and anthropogenic disturbance severity and frequency with global environmental change. We examined potential impacts of the procurement of forest-derived bioenergy, a change in land use that has been suggested as a climate...

  17. The World Bank Group and Public Procurement--An Independent Evaluation : Volume 2: Achieving Development Effectiveness through Procurement in Bank Financial Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2014-01-01

    Good public procurement practices are a major determinant of the effectiveness of public expenditure. On behalf of their citizens, governments typically spend as much as 5-20 percent of their gross domestic product on procurement of goods and services, and effective procurement policies enable better use of government budgets. Good national procurement practices are therefore an essential ...

  18. Measuring the Effects of Disturbance & Climate on the CO2 & Energy Exchange of Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverly E. Law; Larry Mahrt

    2007-01-05

    The goal is to quantify and understand the influence of climate and disturbance on ecosystem processes and thus net carbon uptake by forests. The objective is to combine tower and ground-based observations to quantify the effects of disturbance on processes controlling carbon storage and CO{sub 2} and energy exchange in varying climatic conditions. Specific objectives are: (1) Investigate the effects of logging and fire on carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in chronosequences of ponderosa pine, using consistent methodology; (2) Determine key environmental factors controlling carbon storage and carbon dioxide and energy exchange in these forests through a combination of measurements and process modeling; and (3) Assess spatial variation of the concentrations and transport in complex terrain. The eddy covariance method is used for measurements of CO2, water vapor, and energy exchanges in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests (burned in 2002 wildfire, 10 year-old stand, 90 year-old mature stand). The mature stand has been an AmeriFlux site since 2000 (following previous flux sites in young and old stands initiated in 1996). In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, a large suite of biological processes and ecosystem properties are determined for the purpose of developing independent forest carbon budgets and NEP estimates; these include photosynthesis, stand respiration, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes, annual litterfall, foliar chemistry, and bole increment, and soil organic matter among other parameters. The measurements are being integrated and evaluated with two ecosystem models (BIOME-BGC and SPA). Such analyses are needed to assess regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgets. The results will contribute scientific understanding of carbon processes, and will provide comprehensive data sets for forest managers and those preparing national carbon inventories to use in assessments of carbon sequestration in relation to interannual climate

  19. Justification of Estimates for Fiscal Year 1984 Submitted to Congress January 1983: Missile Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    initial procurement of 224 missiles (RDT&E PE 64314F, 27163F) STINGER - STINOER is a man-portable, shoulder fired , anti-aircraft missile system for...864 and will consist of a prefabricated metal wall and roof panels, steel framing, concrete floor (reinforoed/unreinforced), blast walls, monorail ...HVAC, fire protection system and normal facilities required of a building of this nature/function. Building will be designed to include energy

  20. Multi-dimensional sustainability framework to evaluate forest and wood energy production; Moniulotteinen kestaevyyden arviointikehikko puuenergian tuotannolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskinen, P.; Kaehkoenen, T.; Laehtinen, K.; Pasanen, K.; Pitkaenen, S.; Sironen, S.; Myllyviita, T.; Sikanen, L.; Asikainen, A.

    2012-02-15

    The future economy will be more and more dependent on the sustainable use of natural resources, at least if the views on the importance and possibilities of the bioeconomy are realized in practice. The sustainability of the use of natural resources has previously been studied from the perspective of ecological sustainability in particular. Social sustainability has also been examined in several studies. On the other hand, economic sustainability is a prerequisite for developing business activities. As defining and framing of cultural sustainability is challenging, up to now it has only been discussed to some extent, although the importance of cultural sustainability has not been understated. When developing the sustainability of the use of natural resources, all the above-mentioned dimensions of sustainability are present in parallel and they need to be acknowledged in decision-making. The starting point of this study is that natural resources need to be used sustainably and that different options for utilizing natural resources need to be compared from the sustainability perspective, without giving higher priority to any sustainability dimension compared to others beforehand. In this study four production chains based on energy use of forest biomass were examined: (1) local district heating based on forest chips, (2) combined heat and power with wood and peat, (3) wood pellet production from by-products of the wood product industry, and (4) biodiesel production based on wood and peat. The indicators for different sustainability dimensions in the studied production chains were determined through expert interviews and the indicator values were determined through literature review and interviews. The mathematical examination of sustainability was based on multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) so that a computational tool suitable for the calculations was developed. In total, 20 - 40 indicators were defined for each sustainability dimension; out of these, five to