WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest cover type

  1. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  2. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  3. Computer-aided classification of forest cover types from small scale aerial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, John C.; Bonnicksen, Thomas M.; Mace, Thomas H.

    1980-11-01

    The US National Park Service must map forest cover types over extensive areas in order to fulfill its goal of maintaining or reconstructing presettlement vegetation within national parks and monuments. Furthermore, such cover type maps must be updated on a regular basis to document vegetation changes. Computer-aided classification of small scale aerial photography is a promising technique for generating forest cover type maps efficiently and inexpensively. In this study, seven cover types were classified with an overall accuracy of 62 percent from a reproduction of a 1∶120,000 color infrared transparency of a conifer-hardwood forest. The results were encouraging, given the degraded quality of the photograph and the fact that features were not centered, as well as the lack of information on lens vignetting characteristics to make corrections. Suggestions are made for resolving these problems in future research and applications. In addition, it is hypothesized that the overall accuracy is artificially low because the computer-aided classification more accurately portrayed the intermixing of cover types than the hand-drawn maps to which it was compared.

  4. Forest-cover-type separation using RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Kathleen T. Ward; Marvin E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar data, speckle reduction, and texture measures provided for separation among forest types within the Twin Cities metropolitan area, MN, USA. The highest transformed divergence values for 16-bit data resulted from speckle filtering while the highest values for 8-bit data resulted from the orthorectified image, before and after...

  5. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  6. Simulation of Forest Cover Dynamics for Eastern Eurasian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H.; Yan, X.; Zhang, N.; Isaev, A. S.; Shuman, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing and testing a boreal zone forest dynamics model capable of simulating the forest cover dynamics of the Eurasian boreal forest, a major biospheric ecosystem with potentially large roles in the planetary carbon cycle and in the feedback between terrestrial surface and the atmosphere. In appreciating the role of this region in the coupling between atmosphere and terrestrial surface, on must understand the interactions between CO2 source/sink relationships (associated with growing or clearing forests) and the albedo effects (from changes in terrestrial surface cover). There is some evidence that in the Eurasian Boreal zone, the Carbon budget effects from forest change may oppose the albedo changes. This creates complex feedbacks between surface and atmosphere and motivates the need for a forest dynamics model that simultaneous represents forest vegetation and carbon storage and release. A forest dynamics model applied to Eastern Eurasia, FAREAST, has been tested using three types of information: 1. Direct species composition comparisons between simulated and observed mature forests at the same locations; 2. Forest type comparisons between simulated and observed forests along altitudinal gradients of several different mountains; 3. Comparison with forest stands in different succession stages of simulated forests. Model comparisons with independent data indicate the FAREAST model is capable of representing many of the broad features of the forests of Northeastern China. After model validation in the Northeast China region, model applications were developed for the forests of the Russian Far East. Continental-scale forest cover can be simulated to a relatively realistic degree using a forest gap model with standard representations of individual-plant processes. It appears that such a model, validated relatively locally in this case, in Northeastern China, can then be applied over a much larger region and under conditions of climatic change.

  7. Using the Landsat Archive to Estimate and Map Changes in Agriculture, Forests, and other Land Cover Types in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, S. P.; Oduor, P.; Cohen, W. B.; Yang, Z.; Ouko, E.; Gorelick, N.; Wilson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Every country's land is distributed among different cover types, such as: agriculture; forests; rangeland; urban areas; and barren lands. Changes in the distribution of these classes can inform us about many things, including: population pressure; effectiveness of preservation efforts; desertification; and stability of the food supply. Good assessment of these changes can also support wise planning, use, and preservation of natural resources. We are using the Landsat archive in two ways to provide needed information about land cover change since the year 2000 in seven East African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia). First, we are working with local experts to interpret historical land cover change from historical imagery at a probabilistic sample of 2000 locations in each country. This will provide a statistical estimate of land cover change since 2000. Second, we will use the same data to calibrate and validate annual land cover maps for each country. Because spatial context can be critical to development planning through the identification of hot spots, these maps will be a useful complement to the statistical, country-level estimates of change. The Landsat platform is an ideal tool for mapping land cover change because it combines a mix of appropriate spatial and spectral resolution with unparalleled length of service (Landsat 1 launched in 1972). Pilot tests have shown that time series analysis accessing the entire Landsat archive (i.e., many images per year) improves classification accuracy and stability. It is anticipated that this project will meet the civil needs of both governmental and non-governmental users across a range of disciplines.

  8. Surface albedo in different land-use and cover types in Amazon forest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Faria

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Albedo is the portion of energy from the Sun that is reflected by the earth's surface, thus being an important variable that controls climate and energy processes on Earth. Surface albedo is directly related to the characteristics of the Earth’s surface materials, making it a useful parameter to evaluate the effects of original soil cover replacement due to human occupation. This study evaluated the changes in the surface albedo values due to the conversion of vegetation to other land uses and to analyze the applicability of the use of albedo in the spatial delimitation of land-use classes in the transitional region between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. Surface albedo measurements were obtained from processing of Landsat Thematic Mapper data in the Geographic Information System (GIS, and land-use information were collected using Google Earth high-resolution images. The results show that human activities such as the cultivation of crops and burning have contributed substantially to variations in the surface albedo, and that albedo estimates from Landsat imagery have the potential to help in the recognition and delimitation of features of land use and cover.

  9. Spatio-temporal change in forest cover and carbon storage considering actual and potential forest cover in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kijun; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, Moonil; Kwak, Doo-Ahn; Byun, Woo-Hyuk; Yu, Hangnan; Kwak, Hanbin; Kwon, Taesung; Sung, Joohan; Chung, Dong-Jun; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzes change in carbon storage by applying forest growth models and final cutting age to actual and potential forest cover for six major tree species in South Korea. Using National Forest Inventory data, the growth models were developed to estimate mean diameter at breast height, tree height, and number of trees for Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus rigida, Larix kaempferi, Castanea crenata and Quercus spp. stands. We assumed that actual forest cover in a forest type map will change into potential forest covers according to the Hydrological and Thermal Analogy Groups model. When actual forest cover reaches the final cutting age, forest volume and carbon storage are estimated by changed forest cover and its growth model. Forest volume between 2010 and 2110 would increase from 126.73 to 157.33 m(3) hm(-2). Our results also show that forest cover, volume, and carbon storage could abruptly change by 2060. This is attributed to the fact that most forests are presumed to reach final cutting age. To avoid such dramatic change, a regeneration and yield control scheme should be prepared and implemented in a way that ensures balance in forest practice and yield.

  10. BOREAS SERM Forest Cover Data of Saskatchewan in Vector Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A condensed forest cover type digital map of Saskatchewan and is a product of the Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management, Forestry Branch-Inventory Unit...

  11. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  12. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) distribution in two differents soil types (Podzol and Andosol) under natural forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2017-04-01

    Andosols are young soils that shall know a successive evolution towards pedological types where the dominant pedogenetic processes are more evident. Vegetation and climate influence Andosols evolution to other order of soils. In cold and wet climates or on acid vulcanite under heavy leaching young Andosols could change into Podzols (Van Breemn and Buurman, 1998). Were investigated a Podzol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Zoniën (Belgium), were and an Andosol soil (World References Base, 2014) at Lago Laceno (Avellino, Italy). This study shows the data on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in two profiles from two natural pine forest soils. Together with the conventional activities of sampling and analysis of soil profile were examined surveys meant to fractionation and characterization of SOC, in particular: Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Extractable Carbon (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis (Mi.P.A.F. (2000)). Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC), Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC), Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. In the whole profile, therefore, were also assayed cellulose and lignin contents. The aim of this work was to compare the distribution of different soil organic components in a podzol and a soil with andic properties. The data show great similarity, among the selected profiles, in the organic components distribution estudied. References: - Mi.P.A.F. - Ministero per le Politiche Agricole e Forestali - Osservatorio Nazionale Pedologico e per la Qualità del Suolo (2000): Metodi Ufficiali di Analisi Chimica del Suolo. In: Franco Angeli (Editor), Collana di metodi analitici per l'agricoltura diretta da Paolo Sequi, n. 1124.2, Milano, Italy. - Van Breemn N. and Buurman P. (1998) Chapter 12 Formation of Andisols. In: Soil formation. Kluwer Ed., Wageningen, The Netherlands, 271-289. -Ussiri D.A.N., Johnson C

  13. Forest Cover Mapping in Iskandar Malaysia Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Mohd Najib, N. E.; Vu, T. T.

    2016-09-01

    Malaysia is the third largest country in the world that had lost forest cover. Therefore, timely information on forest cover is required to help the government to ensure that the remaining forest resources are managed in a sustainable manner. This study aims to map and detect changes of forest cover (deforestation and disturbance) in Iskandar Malaysia region in the south of Peninsular Malaysia between years 1990 and 2010 using Landsat satellite images. The Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-Lite (CLASlite) programme was used to classify forest cover using Landsat images. This software is able to mask out clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and water bodies and atmospherically correct the images using 6S radiative transfer model. An Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing technique embedded in CLASlite was used to unmix each Landsat pixel into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil surface (S). Forest and non-forest areas were produced from the fractional cover images using appropriate threshold values of PV, NPV and S. CLASlite software was found to be able to classify forest cover in Iskandar Malaysia with only a difference between 14% (1990) and 5% (2010) compared to the forest land use map produced by the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. Nevertheless, the CLASlite automated software used in this study was found not to exclude other vegetation types especially rubber and oil palm that has similar reflectance to forest. Currently rubber and oil palm were discriminated from forest manually using land use maps. Therefore, CLASlite algorithm needs further adjustment to exclude these vegetation and classify only forest cover.

  14. Sustaining forest landscape connectivity under different land cover change scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, L.; Rodriguez-Freire, M.; Mateo-Sanchez, M. C.; Estreguil, C.; Saura, S.

    2012-11-01

    Managing forest landscapes to sustain functional connectivity is considered one of the key strategies to counteract the negative effects of climate and human-induced changes in forest species pools. With this objective, we evaluated whether a robust network of forest connecting elements can be identified so that it remains efficient when facing different types of potential land cover changes that may affect forest habitat networks and ecological fluxes. For this purpose we considered changes both in the forested areas and in the non-forest intervening landscape matrix. We combined some of the most recent developments in graph theory with models of land cover permeability and least-cost analysis through the forest landscape. We focused on a case of study covering the habitat of a forest dwelling bird (nuthatch, Sitta europaea) in the region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seven land-use change scenarios were analysed for their effects on connecting forest elements (patches and links): one was the simplest case in which the landscape is represented as a binary forest/non-forest pattern (and where matrix heterogeneity is disregarded), four scenarios in which forest lands were converted to other cover types (to scrubland due to wildfires, to extensive and intensive agriculture, and to urban areas), and two scenarios that only involved changes in the non-forested matrix (re naturalization and intensification). Our results show that while the network of connecting elements for the species was very robust to the conversion of the forest habitat patches to different cover types, the different change scenarios in the landscape matrix could more significantly weaken its long-term validity and effectiveness. This is particularly the case when most of the key connectivity providers for the nuthatch are located outside the protected areas or public forests in Galicia, where biodiversity-friendly measures might be more easily implemented. We discuss how the methodology can be applied to

  15. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  16. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  17. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Lands 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The state forest boundry coverage is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and will be, and has been in certain areas, adjusted to GPS...

  18. CASA Forest Cover Change Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation and forest fires are global land cover changes that can be caused by both natural and human factors. Although monitoring forest fires in near-real time is critical for operational wildfire management, mapping historical wildfires in a spatially explicit fashion is also important for a number of reasons, including climate change studies (e.g., examining the relationship between rising temperatures and frequency of fires), fuel load management (e.g., deciding when and where to conduct controlled burns), and carbon cycle studies (e.g., quantifying how much CO2 is emitted by fires and for emissions reduction efforts under the United Nations programs for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation -- REDD).

  19. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  20. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2018-01-01

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems......, but rigorous mathematical model of the continuous cover forest, which strictly focuses on the area use dynamics that such an uneven-aged forest must have in equilibrium. This implies explicitly accounting for area reallocation and for weighting the productivity of each age class by the area occupied. We...... present results for unrestricted as well as area-restricted versions of the models. We find that land values are unambiguously higher in the continuous cover forest models compared with the even-aged models. Under area restrictions, the optimal rotation age in a continuous cover forest model...

  1. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  2. Comprehensive monitoring of Bangladesh tree cover inside and outside of forests, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, P.; Siddiqui, B. N.; Iqbal, Z.; Aziz, T.; Zzaman, B.; Islam, A.; Pickens, A.; Talero, Y.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    A novel approach for satellite-based comprehensive national tree cover change assessment was developed and applied in Bangladesh, a country where trees outside of forests play an important role in the national economy and carbon sequestration. Tree cover change area was quantified using the integration of wall-to-wall Landsat-based mapping with a higher spatial resolution sample-based assessment. The total national tree canopy cover area was estimated as 3165 500 ± 186 600 ha in the year 2000, with trees outside forests making up 54% of total canopy cover. Total tree canopy cover increased by 135 700 (± 116 600) ha (4.3%) during the 2000-2014 time interval. Bangladesh exhibits a national tree cover dynamic where net change is rather small, but gross dynamics significant and variable by forest type. Despite the overall gain in tree cover, results revealed the ongoing clearing of natural forests, especially within the Chittagong hill tracts. While forests decreased their tree cover area by 83 600 ha, the trees outside forests (including tree plantations, village woodlots, and agroforestry) increased their canopy area by 219 300 ha. Our results demonstrated method capability to quantify tree canopy cover dynamics within a fine-scale agricultural landscape. Our approach for comprehensive monitoring of tree canopy cover may be recommended for operational implementation in Bangladesh and other countries with significant tree cover outside of forests.

  3. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Jensen, Frank; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    The Faustmann forest rotation model is a celebrated contribution in economics. The model provides a forest value expression and allows a solution to the optimal rotation problem valid for perpetual rotations of even-aged forest stands. However, continuous forest cover forest management systems......, but rigorous mathematical model of the continuous cover forest, which strictly focuses on the area use dynamics that such an uneven-aged forest must have in equilibrium. This implies explicitly accounting for area reallocation and for weighting the productivity of each age class by the area occupied. The model...... allows for a simple expression for forest value and the derivation of conditions for the optimal rotation age. The model also makes straightforward comparisons with the well-known Faustmann model possible. We present results for unrestricted as well as area-restricted versions of the models. We find...

  4. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Dong

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6 km(2 (GlobCover to 2.69×10(6 km(2 (MCD12Q1 in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%. The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ implementation, and

  5. Improving snow cover mapping in forests through the use of a canopy reflectance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.G.; Hall, D.K.; Riggs, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    MODIS, the moderate resolution imaging spectro radiometer, will be launched in 1998 as part of the first earth observing system (EOS) platform. Global maps of land surface properties, including snow cover, will be created from MODIS imagery. The MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm that will be used to produce daily maps of global snow cover extent at 500 m resolution is currently under development. With the exception of cloud cover, the largest limitation to producing a global daily snow cover product using MODIS is the presence of a forest canopy. A Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) time-series of the southern Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study area in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, was used to evaluate the performance of the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm in varying forest types. A snow reflectance model was used in conjunction with a canopy reflectance model (GeoSAIL) to model the reflectance of a snow-covered forest stand. Using these coupled models, the effects of varying forest type, canopy density, snow grain size and solar illumination geometry on the performance of the MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. Using both the TM images and the reflectance models, two changes to the current MODIS snow-cover mapping algorithm are proposed that will improve the algorithm's classification accuracy in forested areas. The improvements include using the normalized difference snow index and normalized difference vegetation index in combination to discriminate better between snow-covered and snow-free forests. A minimum albedo threshold of 10% in the visible wavelengths is also proposed. This will prevent dense forests with very low visible albedos from being classified incorrectly as snow. These two changes increase the amount of snow mapped in forests on snow-covered TM scenes, and decrease the area incorrectly identified as snow on non-snow-covered TM scenes. (author)

  6. Mean species cover: a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iciar Alberdi; Sonia Condés; Ronald E. Mcroberts; Susanne Winter

    2018-01-01

    Because shrub cover is related to many forest ecosystem functions, it is one of the most relevant variables for describing these communities. Nevertheless, a harmonized indicator of shrub cover for large-scale reporting is lacking. The aims of the study were threefold: to define a shrub indicator that can be used by European countries for harmonized shrub cover...

  7. National Level Assessment of Mangrove Forest Cover in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, S.; Qamer, F. M.; Hussain, N.; Saleem, R.; Nitin, K. T.

    2011-09-01

    . GIS and Remote Sensing based technologies and methods are in use to map forest cover since the last two decades in Pakistan. The national level forest cover studies based upon satellite images include, Forestry Sector Master Plan (FSMP) and National Forest & Range Resources Assessment Study (NFRRAS). In FSMP, the mangrove forest extent was visually determined from Landsat images of 1988 - 1991, and was estimated to be 155,369 ha; whereas, in NFRRAS, Landsat images of 1997 - 2001 were automated processed and the mangroves areas was estimated to be 158,000 ha. To our knowledge, a comprehensive assessment of current mangroves cover of Pakistan has not been made over the last decade, although the mangroves ecosystems have become the focus of intention in context of recent climate change scenarios. This study was conducted to support the informed decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas of Pakistan by providing up-todate mangroves forest cover assessment of Pakistan. Various types of Earth Observation satellite images and processing methods have been tested in relation to mangroves mapping. Most of the studies have applied classical pixel - based approached, there are a few studies which used object - based methods of image analysis to map the mangroves ecosystems. Object - based methods have the advantage of incorporating spatial neighbourhood properties and hierarchical structures into the classification process to produce more accurate surface patterns recognition compared with classical pixel - based approaches. In this research, we applied multi-scale hierarchical approach of object-based methods of image analysis to ALOS - AVNIR-2 images of the year 2008-09 to map the land cover in the mangroves ecosystems of Pakistan. Considering the tide height and phonological effects of vegetation, particularly the algal mats, these data sets were meticulously chosen. Incorporation of multi-scale hierarchical structures made it easy to effectively discriminate

  8. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study assessed forest cover, stocking parameters and above-ground tree .... deration new emerging ideas on REDD+, this study .... representing areas of change and zero values representing no ..... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York.

  9. Evaluation and prediction of shrub cover in coastal Oregon forests (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    We used data from regional forest inventories and research programs, coupled with mapped climatic and topographic information, to explore relationships and develop multiple linear regression (MLR) and regression tree models for total and deciduous shrub cover in the Oregon coastal province. Results from both types of models indicate that forest structure variables were...

  10. Forest cover of Champaign County, Illinois in 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Louis R. Iverson

    1997-01-01

    The forest cover of Champaign County, in east-central Illinois, was mapped from 1993 aerial photography and entered in a geographical information system database. One hundred and six forest patches cover 3,380 ha. These patches have a mean area of 32 ha, a mean perimeter of 4,851 m, a mean perimeter to area ratio of 237, a fractal dimension of 1.59, and a mean nearest...

  11. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-16

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  12. Economic Development and Forest Cover: Evidence from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Danylo, Olha; Fritz, Steffen; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Walsh, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing deforestation is a pressing, global environmental issue with direct impacts on climate change, carbon emissions, and biodiversity. There is an intuitive link between economic development and overexploitation of natural resources including forests, but this relationship has proven difficult to establish empirically due to both inadequate data and convoluting geo-climactic factors. In this analysis, we use satellite data on forest cover along national borders in order to study the determinants of deforestation differences across countries. Controlling for trans-border geo-climactic differences, we find that income per capita is the most robust determinant of differences in cross-border forest cover. We show that the marginal effect of per capita income growth on forest cover is strongest at the earliest stages of economic development, and weakens in more advanced economies, presenting some of the strongest evidence to date for the existence of at least half of an environmental Kuznets curve for deforestation.

  13. Streamflow variation of forest covered catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribovszki, Z.; Kalicz, P.; Kucsara, M.

    2003-04-01

    Rainfall concentration and runoff, otherwise rainfall-runoff processes, which cause river water discharge fluctuation, is one of the basic questions of hydrology. Several social-economy demands have a strong connection with small or bigger rivers from the point of view both quantity and quality of the water. Gratification or consideration of these demands is complicated substantially that we have still poor knowledge about our stream-flow regime. Water resources mainly stem from upper watersheds. These upper watersheds are the basis of the water concentration process; therefore we have to improve our knowledge about hydrological processes coming up in these territories. In this article we present runoff regime of two small catchments on the basis of one year data. Both catchments have a similar magnitude 0.6 and 0.9 km^2. We have been analyzed in detail some hydrological elements: features of rainfall, discharge, rainfall induced flooding waves and basic discharge in rainless periods. Variances of these parameters have been analyzed in relation to catchments surface, vegetation coverage and forest management. Result data set well enforce our knowledge about small catchments hydrological processes. On the basis of these fundamentals we can plan more established the management of these lands (forest practices, civil engineering works, and usage of natural water resources).

  14. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebi, P.; Seidl, R.; Motta, R.; Fuhr, M.; Firm, D.; Krumm, F.; Conedera, M.; Ginzler, C.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Kulakowski, D.

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as avalanches, snow breakage, insect outbreaks, windthrow or fires shape mountain forests globally. However, in many regions over the past centuries human activities have strongly influenced forest dynamics, especially following natural disturbances, thus limiting our understanding of natural ecological processes, particularly in densely-settled regions. In this contribution we briefly review the current understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests across the European Alps over the past millennia. We also quantify changes in forest cover across the entire Alps based on inventory data over the past century. Finally, using the Swiss Alps as an example, we analyze in-depth changes in forest cover and forest structure and their effect on patterns of fire and wind disturbances, based on digital historic maps from 1880, modern forest cover maps, inventory data on current forest structure, topographical data, and spatially explicit data on disturbances. This multifaceted approach presents a long-term and detailed picture of the dynamics of mountain forest ecosystems in the Alps. During pre-industrial times, natural disturbances were reduced by fire suppression and land-use, which included extraction of large amounts of biomass that decreased total forest cover. More recently, forest cover has increased again across the entire Alps (on average +4% per decade over the past 25–115 years). Live tree volume (+10% per decade) and dead tree volume (mean +59% per decade) have increased over the last 15–40 years in all regions for which data were available. In the Swiss Alps secondary forests that established after 1880 constitute approximately 43% of the forest cover. Compared to forests established previously, post-1880 forests are situated primarily on steep slopes (>30°), have lower biomass, a more aggregated forest structure (primarily stem-exclusion stage), and have been more

  15. Evaluation of MODIS albedo product (MCD43A) over grassland, agriculture and forest surface types during dormant and snow-covered periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuosen Wang; Crystal B. Schaaf; Alan H. Strahler; Mark J. Chopping; Miguel O. Román; Yanmin Shuai; Curtis E. Woodcock; David Y. Hollinger; David R. Fitzjarrald

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/albedo 8 day standard product and products from the daily Direct Broadcast BRDF/albedo algorithm, and shows that these products agree well with ground-based albedo measurements during the more difficult periods of vegetation dormancy and snow cover. Cropland, grassland, deciduous and...

  16. National forest cover monitoring in mainland South and Southeast Asia: method development and capacity building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Potapov, P.; Hansen, M.; Talero, Y.; Turubanova, S.; Pickering, J.; Pickens, A. H.; Quyen, N. H.; Spirovska Kono, M.

    2017-12-01

    ) and in different forest types. Our result shows that while the net tree cover change in Bangladesh is rather small, the gross dynamics are significant and can vary by forest type.

  17. Forests as landscapes of social inequality: tropical forest cover and land distribution among shifting cultivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver T. Coomes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Can social inequality be seen imprinted in a forest landscape? We studied the relationship between land holding, land use, and inequality in a peasant community in the Peruvian Amazon where farmers practice swidden-fallow cultivation. Longitudinal data on land holding, land use, and land cover were gathered through field-level surveys (n = 316 and household interviews (n = 51 in 1994/1995 and 2007. Forest cover change between 1965 and 2007 was documented through interpretation of air photos and satellite imagery. We introduce the concept of "land use inequality" to capture differences across households in the distribution of forest fallowing and orchard raising as key land uses that affect household welfare and the sustainability of swidden-fallow agriculture. We find that land holding, land use, and forest cover distribution are correlated and that the forest today reflects social inequality a decade prior. Although initially land-poor households may catch up in terms of land holdings, their use and land cover remain impoverished. Differential land use investment through time links social inequality and forest cover. Implications are discussed for the study of forests as landscapes of inequality, the relationship between social inequality and forest composition, and the forest-poverty nexus.

  18. Removing forest canopy cover restores a reptile assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Webb, Jonathan K; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Humans are rapidly altering natural systems, leading to changes in the distribution and abundance of species. However, so many changes are occurring simultaneously (e.g., climate change, habitat fragmentation) that it is difficult to determine the cause of population fluctuations from correlational studies. We used a manipulative field experiment to determine whether forest canopy cover directly influences reptile assemblages on rock outcrops in southeastern Australia. Our experimental design consisted of three types of rock outcrops: (1) shady sites in which overgrown vegetation was manually removed (n = 25); (2) overgrown controls (n = 30); and (3) sun-exposed controls (n = 20). Following canopy removal, we monitored reptile responses over 30 months. Canopy removal increased reptile species richness, the proportion of shelter sites used by reptiles, and relative abundances of five species that prefer sun-exposed habitats. Our manipulation also decreased the abundances of two shade-tolerant species. Canopy cover thus directly influences this reptile assemblage, with the effects of canopy removal being dependent on each species' habitat preferences (i.e., selection or avoidance of sun-exposed habitat). Our study suggests that increases in canopy cover can cause declines of open-habitat specialists, as previously suggested by correlative studies from a wide range of taxa. Given that reptile colonization of manipulated outcrops occurred rapidly, artificially opening the canopy in ecologically informed ways could help to conserve imperiled species with patchy distributions and low vagility that are threatened by vegetation overgrowth. One such species is Australia's most endangered snake, the broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).

  19. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  20. Accuracy Assessment of Satellite Derived Forest Cover Products in South and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Xu, X.; Jain, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) region occupies 16 % of worlds land area. It is home to over 50% of the world's population. The SSEA's countries are experiencing significant land-use and land-cover changes (LULCCs), primarily in agriculture, forest, and urban land. For this study, we compiled four existing global forest cover maps for year 2010 by Gong et al.(2015), Hansen et al. (2013), Sexton et al.(2013) and Shimada et al. (2014), which were all medium resolution (≤30 m) products based on Landsat and/or PALSAR satellite images. To evaluate the accuracy of these forest products, we used three types of information: (1) ground measurements, (2) high resolution satellite images and (3) forest cover maps produced at the national scale. The stratified random sampling technique was used to select a set of validation data points from the ground and high-resolution satellite images. Then the confusion matrix method was used to assess and rank the accuracy of the forest cover products for the entire SSEA region. We analyzed the spatial consistency of different forest cover maps, and further evaluated the consistency with terrain characteristics. Our study suggests that global forest cover mapping algorithms are trained and tested using limited ground measurement data. We found significant uncertainties in mountainous areas due to the topographical shadow effect and the dense tree canopies effects. The findings of this study will facilitate to improve our understanding of the forest cover dynamics and their impacts on the quantities and pathways of terrestrial carbon and nitrogen fluxes. Gong, P., et al. (2012). "Finer resolution observation and monitoring of global land cover: first mapping results with Landsat TM and ETM+ data." International Journal of Remote Sensing 34(7): 2607-2654. Hansen, M. C., et al. (2013). "High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change." Science 342(6160): 850-853. Sexton, J. O., et al. (2013). "Global, 30-m resolution

  1. Detecting Forest Cover and Ecosystem Service Change Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Mpigi, than in Butambala by 5.99%, disturbed forest was 3%, farm land ... climate change impacts on ecosystem services requires more attention and ... While these conceptual models usually assume relatively a causal-effect ... images with relatively low cloud cover or free-cloud imagery during the time period of interest.

  2. Automatic crown cover mapping to improve forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude Vidal; Jean-Guy Boureau; Nicolas Robert; Nicolas Py; Josiane Zerubia; Xavier Descombes; Guillaume Perrin

    2009-01-01

    To automatically analyze near infrared aerial photographs, the French National Institute for Research in Computer Science and Control developed together with the French National Forest Inventory (NFI) a method for automatic crown cover mapping. This method uses a Reverse Jump Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm to locate the crowns and describe those using ellipses or...

  3. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land use/cover map for 2010 was reconstructed by analyzing 2001 image, validated and/or reconstructed by ground truthing, use of secondary data and key ... The severe loss of woodlot outside the protected area not only poses a potential threat to the protected forest but also calls for intervention measures if efforts to ...

  4. Anthropogenic Influences in Land Use/Land Cover Changes in Mediterranean Forest Landscapes in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato S. La Mela Veca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and quantifies the land use/land cover changes of the main forest and semi-natural landscape types in Sicily between 1955 and 2012. We analyzed seven representative forest and shrubland landscapes in Sicily. These study areas were chosen for their importance in the Sicilian forest panorama. We carried out a diachronic survey on historical and current aerial photos; all the aerial images used to survey the land use/land cover changes were digitalized and georeferenced in the UTM WGS84 system. In order to classify land use, the Regional Forest Inventory 2010 legend was adopted for the more recent images, and the CORINE Land Cover III level used for the older, lower resolution images. This study quantifies forest landscape dynamics; our results show for almost all study areas an increase of forest cover and expansion, whereas a regressive dynamic is found in rural areas due to intensive agricultural and pasturage uses. Understanding the dynamics of forest landscapes could enhance the role of forestry policy as a tool for landscape management and regional planning.

  5. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  6. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Lapteva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  7. Comparison of Data Fusion Methods Using Crowdsourced Data in Creating a Hybrid Forest Cover Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myroslava Lesiv

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Data fusion represents a powerful way of integrating individual sources of information to produce a better output than could be achieved by any of the individual sources on their own. This paper focuses on the data fusion of different land cover products derived from remote sensing. In the past, many different methods have been applied, without regard to their relative merit. In this study, we compared some of the most commonly-used methods to develop a hybrid forest cover map by combining available land cover/forest products and crowdsourced data on forest cover obtained through the Geo-Wiki project. The methods include: nearest neighbour, naive Bayes, logistic regression and geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR, as well as classification and regression trees (CART. We ran the comparison experiments using two data types: presence/absence of forest in a grid cell; percentage of forest cover in a grid cell. In general, there was little difference between the methods. However, GWR was found to perform better than the other tested methods in areas with high disagreement between the inputs.

  8. Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Forest Cover Change in Teknaf, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehedy Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Following a targeted campaign of violence by Myanmar military, police, and local militias, more than half a million Rohingya refugees have fled to neighboring Bangladesh since August 2017, joining thousands of others living in overcrowded settlement camps in Teknaf. To accommodate this mass influx of refugees, forestland is razed to build spontaneous settlements, resulting in an enormous threat to wildlife habitats, biodiversity, and entire ecosystems in the region. Although reports indicate that this rapid and vast expansion of refugee camps in Teknaf is causing large scale environmental destruction and degradation of forestlands, no study to date has quantified the camp expansion extent or forest cover loss. Using remotely sensed Sentinel-2A and -2B imagery and a random forest (RF machine learning algorithm with ground observation data, we quantified the territorial expansion of refugee settlements and resulting degradation of the ecological resources surrounding the three largest concentrations of refugee camps—Kutupalong–Balukhali, Nayapara–Leda and Unchiprang—that developed between pre- and post-August of 2017. Employing RF as an image classification approach for this study with a cross-validation technique, we obtained a high overall classification accuracy of 94.53% and 95.14% for 2016 and 2017 land cover maps, respectively, with overall Kappa statistics of 0.93 and 0.94. The producer and user accuracy for forest cover ranged between 92.98–98.21% and 96.49–92.98%, respectively. Results derived from the thematic maps indicate a substantial expansion of refugee settlements in the three refugee camp study sites, with an increase of 175 to 1530 hectares between 2016 and 2017, and a net growth rate of 774%. The greatest camp expansion is observed in the Kutupalong–Balukhali site, growing from 146 ha to 1365 ha with a net increase of 1219 ha (total growth rate of 835% in the same time period. While the refugee camps’ occupancy

  9. A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D'Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Land cover is affected by many factors including economic development, climate and natural disturbances such as wildfires. The ability to evaluate how fire regimes may alter future vegetation, and how future vegetation may alter fire regimes, would assist forest managers in planning management actions to be carried out in the face of anticipated socio-economic and climatic change. In this paper, we present a method for calibrating a cellular automata wildfire regime simulation model with actual data on land cover and wildfire size-frequency. The method is based on the observation that many forest fire regimes, in different forest types and regions, exhibit power law frequency-area distributions. The standard Drossel-Schwabl cellular automata Forest Fire Model (DS-FFM produces simulations which reproduce this observed pattern. However, the standard model is simplistic in that it considers land cover to be binary – each cell either contains a tree or it is empty – and the model overestimates the frequency of large fires relative to actual landscapes. Our new model, the Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM, addresses this limitation by incorporating information on actual land use and differentiating among various types of flammable vegetation. The MFFM simulation model was tested on forest types with Mediterranean and sub-tropical fire regimes. The results showed that the MFFM was able to reproduce structural fire regime parameters for these two regions. Further, the model was used to forecast future land cover. Future research will extend this model to refine the forecasts of future land cover and fire regime scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economic change.

  10. Forest Policy Scenario Analysis: Sensitivity of Songbird Community to Changes in Forest Cover Amount and Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Rempel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration can be of significant consequence to wildlife populations. The response of wildlife to forest patterns is of concern to forest managers because it lies at the heart of such competing approaches to forest planning as aggregated vs. dispersed harvest block layouts. In this study, we developed a species assessment framework to evaluate the outcomes of forest management scenarios on biodiversity conservation objectives. Scenarios were assessed in the context of a broad range of forest structures and patterns that would be expected to occur under natural disturbance and succession processes. Spatial habitat models were used to predict the effects of varying degrees of mature forest cover amount, composition, and configuration on habitat occupancy for a set of 13 focal songbird species. We used a spatially explicit harvest scheduling program to model forest management options and simulate future forest conditions resulting from alternative forest management scenarios, and used a process-based fire-simulation model to simulate future forest conditions resulting from natural wildfire disturbance. Spatial pattern signatures were derived for both habitat occupancy and forest conditions, and these were placed in the context of the simulated range of natural variation. Strategic policy analyses were set in the context of current Ontario forest management policies. This included use of sequential time-restricted harvest blocks (created for Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus conservation and delayed harvest areas (created for American marten (Martes americana atrata conservation. This approach increased the realism of the analysis, but reduced the generality of interpretations. We found that forest management options that create linear strips of old forest deviate the most from simulated natural patterns, and had the greatest negative effects on habitat occupancy, whereas policy options

  11. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  12. Forest cover, socioeconomics, and reported flood frequency in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana; Ghimire, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we analyze the determinants of the number of large floods reported since 1990. Using the same sample of countries as Bradshaw et al. (2007), and, like them, omitting socioeconomic characteristics from the analysis, we found that a reduction in natural forest cover is associated with an increase in the reported count of large floods. This result does not hold in any of three new analyses we perform. First, we expand the sample to include all the developing countries and all countries for which data were available but were omitted in their study. Second, and more importantly, since forest management is just one possible channel through which humans can influence reported flood frequency, we account for other important human-flood interactions. People are typically responsible for deforestation, but they are also responsible for other land use changes (e.g., urbanization), for floodplain and flood emergency management, and for reporting the floods. Thus, in our analysis we account for population, urban population growth, income, and corruption. Third, we exploit the panel nature of the data to control for unobserved country and time heterogeneity. We conclude that not only is the link between forest cover and reported flood frequency at the country level not robust, it also seems to be driven by sample selection and omitted variable bias. The human impact on the reported frequency of large floods at the country level is not through deforestation.

  13. Forest Cover Change, Key Drivers and Community Perception in Wujig Mahgo Waren Forest of Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negasi Solomon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed forest cover change from 1985 to 2016, analyzed community perception on forest cover change and its drivers, and suggested possible solutions in northern Ethiopia. Landsat images of 1985, 2000 and 2016, household interviews and focus group discussions were used. While dense forests and open forests increased by 8.2% and 32.3% respectively between 1985 and 2000, they decreased by 10.4% and 9.8% respectively from 2000 to 2016. Grasslands and cultivated land decreased in the first period by 37.3% and 5.5% but increased in the second period by 89.5% and 28.5% respectively. Fuel wood collection, cultivated land expansion, population growth; free grazing, logging for income generation and drought were the major drivers of the change reported by local communities. Soil erosion, reduction in honey bee production, flooding and drought were the most perceived impacts of the changes. Most of the farmers have a holistic understanding of forest cover change. Strengthening of forest protection, improving soil and water conservation, enrichment planting, awareness creation, payment for ecosystem services and zero grazing campaigns were mentioned as possible solutions to the current state of deforestation. In addition, concerted efforts of conservation will ensure that the forests’ ecosystems contribute to increased ecosystem services.

  14. Quantifying Structural and Compositional Changes in Forest Cover in NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2012-12-01

    NW Yunnan, China is a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity, endemism and genetically distinct refugial plant populations. It is also a focal area for China's national reforestation efforts like the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), intended to control erosion in the Upper Yangtze watershed. As part of a larger project to investigate the role of reforestation programs in facilitating the emergence of increasingly species-rich forest communities on a previously degraded and depauperate land mosaic in montane SW China, this study uses a series of Landsat TM images to quantify the spatial pattern and rate of structural and compositional change in forests recovering from medium to large-scale disturbances in the area over the past 25 years. Beyond the fundamental need to assess the outcomes of one of the world's largest reforestation programs, this research offers approaches to confronting two critical methodological issues: (1) techniques for characterizing subtle changes in the nature of vegetation cover, and (2) reducing change detection uncertainty due to persistent cloud cover and shadow. To address difficulties in accurately assessing the structure and composition of vegetative regrowth, a biophysical model was parameterized with over 300 ground-truthed canopy cover assessment points to determine pattern and rate of long-term vegetation changes. To combat pervasive shadow and cloud cover, an interactive generalized additive model (GAM) model based on topographic and spatial predictors was used to overcome some of the constraints of satellite image analysis in Himalayan regions characterized by extreme topography and extensive cloud cover during the summer monsoon. The change detection is assessed for accuracy using ground-truthed observations in a variety of forest cover types and topographic positions. Results indicate effectiveness in reducing the areal extent of unclassified regions and increasing total change detection accuracy. In addition

  15. Land-use poverty traps identified in shifting cultivation systems shape long-term tropical forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Takasaki, Yoshito; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how fine-grained longitudinal analyses of land holding and land use among forest peasant households in an Amazonian village can enrich our understanding of the poverty/land cover nexus. We examine the dynamic links in shifting cultivation systems among asset poverty, land use, and land cover in a community where poverty is persistent and primary forests have been replaced over time—with community enclosure—by secondary forests (i.e., fallows), orchards, and crop land. Land cover change is assessed using aerial photographs/satellite imagery from 1965 to 2007. Household and plot level data are used to track land holding, portfolios, and use as well as land cover over the past 30 y, with particular attention to forest status (type and age). Our analyses find evidence for two important types of “land-use” poverty traps—a “subsistence crop” trap and a “short fallow” trap—and indicate that the initial conditions of land holding by forest peasants have long-term effects on future forest cover and household welfare. These findings suggest a new mechanism driving poverty traps: insufficient initial land holdings induce land use patterns that trap households in low agricultural productivity. Path dependency in the evolution of household land portfolios and land use strategies strongly influences not only the wellbeing of forest people but also the dynamics of tropical deforestation and secondary forest regrowth. PMID:21873179

  16. Plant-cover influence on the spatial distribution of radiocaesium deposits in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillitte, Olivier; Andolina, Jean; Koziol, Michel; Debauche, Antoine

    1990-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, a major campaign of radioactive deposit measurements has been carried out on forest soils in Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. Three types of forest ecosystems have systematically been taken into account in each region: coniferous forests (mainly spruce stands), deciduous forests (mainly beech stands) and in clearings. Sampling and field measurements have been carried out in different places with regard to the plant cover: near the trunks, under the foliage, in a small gap, on soil with or without herbaceous or moss stratum. The samples have been collected and measured according to the different recognizable soil layers in order to evaluate the vertical deposit distribution. From overall measurements, one may observe a high spatial soil deposit variation which is mainly explained by the nature, structure and age of the forest stands and by the thickness and the nature of holorganic horizons. A particular interest of this study is the identification of the influence of stem flow and impluvium on forest-cover gaps and edges. (author)

  17. Mapping of forest types confined to the lay of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles for the formation of forest typological classification and outlines promising areas for development, allowing to solve problems of not only inventory and forest management, but also mapping forest types are discussed in the paper. The analysis is performed by interpreting the concept of «natural regularity» proposed by D. L. Armand (1975. It is shown when the left side of the pattern is a set of indicators of site condition, structure of forest typological constructions will take into account not only the static indicators of the stands, but also their location, the origin and direction of the succession. For relatively similar climatic conditions, the indicators of the lay of land mainly limit the environment of formation of vegetation cover. The method of mapping forest types provides for consideration of site condition and indicators of stands of forest types. Testing is conducted on a test axis West-Sayan forest district, located in the mountains of southern Siberia. Conjugation types of forests, indicators of the topography revealed through the analysis of literary sources and characteristics of forest types accompanying diagnostic table (Smagin et al., 1980. The work is done in a GIS environment using DEM SRTM and Landsat space images. For indexing locations, the inputs are accepted: altitude (gradation 100 m, flat location, slope up to 20° and 20° slopes with northern and southern exposure. Classification of pixels of satellite images is conducted by the method of unsupervised classification separately for each scene, the high-altitude zone and location, which allows increase of the quality of interpretation, because the types of forests are confined to the topography. However completely avoiding mistakes is not possible. The main reasons are an inaccuracy of the DEM and the hit in one class of spectral brightness of different objects of interpretation. The map legend includes characteristics of the terrain, description

  18. Interpreting forest biome productivity and cover utilizing nested scales of image resolution and biogeographical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Louis R.; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Robin L.; Olson, Jerry S.; Frank, Thomas D.; Ying, KE

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to relate spectral imagery of varying resolution with ground-based data on forest productivity and cover, and to create models to predict regional estimates of forest productivity and cover with a quantifiable degree of accuracy. A three stage approach was outlined. In the first stage, a model was developed relating forest cover or productivity to TM surface reflectance values (TM/FOREST models). The TM/FOREST models were more accurate when biogeographic information regarding the landscape was either used to stratigy the landscape into more homogeneous units or incorporated directly into the TM/FOREST model. In the second stage, AVHRR/FOREST models that predicted forest cover and productivity on the basis of AVHRR band values were developed. The AVHRR/FOREST models had statistical properties similar to or better than those of the TM/FOREST models. In the third stage, the regional predictions were compared with the independent U.S. Forest Service (USFS) data. To do this regional forest cover and forest productivity maps were created using AVHRR scenes and the AVHRR/FOREST models. From the maps the county values of forest productivity and cover were calculated. It is apparent that the landscape has a strong influence on the success of the approach. An approach of using nested scales of imagery in conjunction with ground-based data can be successful in generating regional estimates of variables that are functionally related to some variable a sensor can detect.

  19. Forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification despite decline in sulphate emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Robert W.; Donoghue, Daniel N.M.; Burt, Tim P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from a multi-date regional-scale analysis of both high-flow and annual-average water quality data from Galloway, south-west Scotland, demonstrates that forest land cover continues to exacerbate freshwater acidification. This is in spite of significant reductions in airborne pollutants. The relationship between freshwater sulphate and forest cover has decreased from 1996 to 2006 indicating a decrease in pollutant scavenging. The relationship between forest cover and freshwater acidity (pH) is, however, still present over the same period, and does not show conclusive signs of having declined. Furthermore, evidence for forest cover contributing to a chlorine bias in marine ion capture suggests that forest scavenging of sea-salts may mean that the forest acidification effect may continue in the absence of anthropogenic pollutant inputs, particularly in coastal areas. - Highlights: ► Forest cover and water chemistry remain linked despite decreased sulphate emissions. ► Forest cover has significant relationships SO 4 2− , Cl − , Na + , pH, ANC and Na:Cl ratio. ► Forest cover: pH relationships shows some evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Forest cover: freshwater sulphate relationships show evidence of decline 1996–2006. ► Natural forest-mechanisms may exacerbate acidification, particularly sea-salt scavenging. - Relationships between forest land cover and freshwater pH continue to be evident despite declines in anthropogenic pollutant sulphate deposition; sea-salt scavenging may play a role.

  20. Application of a niche-based model for forest cover classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a surge of interest in biodiversity conservation have led to the development of new approaches to facilitate ecologically-based conservation policies and management plans. In particular, image classification and predictive distribution modeling applied to forest habitats, constitute a crucial issue as forests constitute the most widespread vegetation type and play a key role for ecosystem functioning. Then, the general purpose of this study is to develop a framework that in the absence of large amounts of field data for large areas may allow to select the most appropriate classification. In some cases, a hard division of classes is required, especially as support to environmental policies; despite this it is necessary to take into account problems which derive from a crisp view of ecological entities being mapped, since habitats are expected to be structurally complex and continuously vary within a landscape. In this paper, a niche model (MaxEnt, generally used to estimate species/habitat distribution, has been applied to classify forest cover in a complex Mediterranean area and to estimate the probability distribution of four forest types, producing continuous maps of forest cover. The use of the obtained models as validation of model for crisp classifications, highlighted that crisp classification, which is being continuously used in landscape research and planning, is not free from drawbacks as it is showing a high degree of inner variability. The modeling approach followed by this study, taking into account the uncertainty proper of the natural ecosystems and the use of environmental variables in land cover classification, may represent an useful approach to making more efficient and effective field inventories and to developing effective forest conservation policies.

  1. Forest cover change and fragmentation using Landsat data in Maçka State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Günay; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Keleş, Sedat

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring forest cover change and understanding the dynamic of forest cover is increasingly important in sustainable development and management of forest ecosystems. This paper uses remote sensing (RS) techniques to monitor forest cover change in Maçka State Forest Enterprise (MSFE) located in NE of Turkey through 1975 to 2000 and then analyses spatial and temporal changes in forest cover by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and FRAGSTATStrade mark. Forest cover changes were detected from a time series of satellite images of Landsat MSS in 1975, Landsat TM in 1987, and Landsat ETM+ in 2000 using RS and GIS. The results showed that total forest area, productive forest area and degraded forest area increased while broadleaf forest area and non forest area decreased. Mixed forest and degraded forest increased during the first (1975-1987) period, but decreased during the second (1987-2000) period. During the whole study period, the annual forestation rate was 152 ha year(-1), equivalent to 0.27% year(-1) using the compound-interest-rate formula. The total number of patches increased from 36,204 to 48,092 (33%), and mean size of forest patch (MPS) decreased from 2.8 ha to 2.1 ha during a 25 year period. Number of smaller patches (patches in 0-100 ha size class) increased, indicating more fragmented landscape over time that might create a risk for the maintenance of biodiversity of the area. While total population increased from 1975 to 2000 (3.7%), rural population constantly decreased. The increase of forest areas may well be explained by the fact that demographic movement of rural areas concentrated into Maçka City Center. These figures also indicated that decrease in the rural population might likely lead to the release of human pressure to forest areas, probably resulting in a positive development of forest areas.

  2. Drivers of forest cover dynamics in smallholder farming systems: the case of northwestern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Isaline; Vanacker, Veerle; Hoang, Huong Thi Thu

    2013-04-01

    The national-scale forest recovery of Vietnam started in the early 1990s and is associated with a shift from net deforestation to net reforestation. Large disparities in forest cover dynamics are, however, observed at the local scale. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms driving forest cover change for a mountainous region located in northwest Vietnam. Statistical analyses were used to explore the association between forest cover change and household characteristics. In Sa Pa district, deforestation rates are decreasing, but forest degradation continues at similar rates. Deforestation is not necessarily associated with impoverished ethnic communities or high levels of subsistence farming, and the largest forest cover dynamics are found in villages with the best socio-economic conditions. Our empirical study does not provide strong evidence of a dominant role of agriculture in forest cover dynamics. It shows that empirical studies on local-scale forest dynamics remain important to unravel the complexity of human-environment interactions.

  3. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    to explain variation in forest loss between countries, nor does trade and price liberalization policy. None of our covariates explain forest regrowth on non-forested land over the period. We conclude that history and land privatization drove important cross-country variation in forest dynamics in the region......The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role...... of these in driving forest cover change after the collapse of socialism. Using a combination of cross-section and panel regression methods, we find that privatization of forest lands increased forest cover loss due to logging, as did increases in agricultural land between 1850 and 1900. Land quality has no power...

  4. Regional forest cover estimation via remote sensing: the calibration center concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Elizabeth A. Cook; Robin L. Graham; Robin L. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A method for combining Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery, and other biogeographic data to estimate forest cover over large regions is applied and evaluated at two locations. In this method, TM data are used to classify a small area (calibration center) into forest/nonforest; the resulting forest cover map is then...

  5. Characterizing Tropical Forest Cover Loss Using Dense Sentinel-1 Data and Active Fire Alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiche, Johannes; Verhoeven, Rob; Verbesselt, Jan; Hamunyela, Eliakim; Wielaard, Niels; Herold, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Fire use for land management is widespread in natural tropical and plantation forests, causing major environmental and economic damage. Recent studies combining active fire alerts with annual forest-cover loss information identified fire-related forest-cover loss areas well, but do not provide

  6. Public policies and communication affecting forest cover in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami Savaget, E.; Batistella, M.; Aguiar, A. P. D.

    2014-12-01

    The research program Amazalert was based on information delivered by the IPCC through its 2007 report, which indicates forest degradation processes in the Amazonian region as a consequence of anthropogenic actions. Such processes affecting the structural and functional characteristics of ecosystems would harm environmental services that guarantee, for example, the regulation of climate and the provision of fresh water. A survey was organized, through a multidisciplinary perspective, on the main policies and programs that can affect forest cover in the Amazon. These rules and norms seek to regulate societal actions by defining a developmental model for the region. Although deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, some locations maintain high levels of deforestation. In 2013, for example, the municipalities of Monte Alegre, Óbidos, Alenquer, Oriximiná, Curuá and Almeirin, in the northern region of the state of Para, showed the highest rates of deforestation in the Amazon. Managers and stakeholders within these areas are being interviewed to provide insights on how policies are interpreted and applied locally. There is an understanding delay between discourses normalized by federal governmental institutions and claims of local societies. The possible lack of clarity in official discourses added to the absence of a local communicative dynamics cause the phenomenon of incomplete information. Conflicts often occur in local institutional arenas resulting in violence and complex social and historical dissonances, enhanced by other public policies idealized in different temporal and spatial conditions.

  7. Monitoring forest cover loss using multiple data streams, a case study of a tropical dry forest in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, Loïc Paul; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Automatically detecting forest disturbances as they occur can be extremely challenging for certain types of environments, particularly those presenting strong natural variations. Here, we use a generic structural break detection framework (BFAST) to improve the monitoring of forest cover loss by combining multiple data streams. Forest change monitoring is performed using Landsat data in combination with MODIS or rainfall data to further improve the modelling and monitoring. We tested the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with varying spatial aggregation window sizes as well as a rainfall derived index as external regressors. The method was evaluated on a dry tropical forest area in lowland Bolivia where forest cover loss is known to occur, and we validated the results against a set of ground truth samples manually interpreted using the TimeSync environment. We found that the addition of an external regressor allows to take advantage of the difference in spatial extent between human induced and naturally induced variations and only detect the processes of interest. Of all configurations, we found the 13 by 13 km MODIS NDVI window to be the most successful, with an overall accuracy of 87%. Compared with a single pixel approach, the proposed method produced better time-series model fits resulting in increases of overall accuracy (from 82% to 87%), and decrease in omission and commission errors (from 33% to 24% and from 3% to 0% respectively). The presented approach seems particularly relevant for areas with high inter-annual natural variability, such as forests regularly experiencing exceptional drought events.

  8. Do Relocated Villages Experience More Forest Cover Change? Resettlements, Shifting Cultivation and Forests in the Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boillat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationships between forest cover change and the village resettlement and land planning policies implemented in Laos, which have led to the relocation of remote and dispersed populations into clustered villages with easier access to state services and market facilities. We used the Global Forest Cover Change (2000–2012 and the most recent Lao Agricultural Census (2011 datasets to assess forest cover change in resettled and non-resettled villages throughout the country. We also reviewed a set of six case studies and performed an original case study in two villages of Luang Prabang province with 55 households, inquiring about relocation, land losses and intensification options. Our results show that resettled villages have greater baseline forest cover and total forest loss than most villages in Laos but not significant forest loss relative to that baseline. Resettled villages are consistently associated with forested areas, minority groups, and intermediate accessibility. The case studies highlight that resettlement coupled with land use planning does not necessarily lead to the abandonment of shifting cultivation or affect forest loss but lead to a re-spatialization of land use. This includes clustering of forest clearings, which might lead to fallow shortening and land degradation while limited intensification options exist in the resettled villages. This study provides a contribution to studying relationships between migration, forest cover change, livelihood strategies, land governance and agricultural practices in tropical forest environments.

  9. Spatiotemporal Change Detection in Forest Cover Dynamics Along Landslide Susceptible Region of Karakoram Highway, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barira; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-04-01

    Forest Cover dynamics and its understanding is essential for a country's social, environmental, and political engagements. This research provides a methodical approach for the assessment of forest cover along Karakoram Highway. It has great ecological and economic significance because it's a part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI imagery for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016 respectively were subjected to supervised classification in ArcMap 10.5 to identify forest change. The study area was categorized into five major land use land cover classes i.e., Forest, vegetation, urban, open land and snow cover. Results from post classification forest cover change maps illustrated notable decrease of almost 26 % forest cover over the time period of 26 years. The accuracy assessment revealed the kappa coefficients 083, 0.78, 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. Major reason for this change is an observed replacement of native forest cover with urban areas (12.5 %) and vegetation (18.6 %) However, there is no significant change in the reserved forests along the study area that contributes only 2.97 % of the total forest cover. The extensive forest degradation and risk prone topography of the region has increased the environmental risk of landslides. Hence, effective policies and forest management is needed to protect not only the environmental and aesthetic benefits of the forest cover but also to manage the disaster risks. Apart from the forest assessment, this research gives an insight of land cover dynamics, along with causes and consequences, thereby showing the forest degradation hotspots.

  10. Incidence of plant cover over the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria population in a fragment of Andean forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Xiomara; Gonzalez, L; Varela, A; Ahumada, J A

    1999-01-01

    It was determined the incidence of plant cover (forest vs. pasture), on the autotrophy nitrifying bacteria, through the effect of biotic factors (radical exudate) and abiotic factors (temperature, ph and humidity), in a high mountain cloud forest fragment. The site of study was located near La Mesa (Cundinamarca) municipality. The temperature of soil was measured in situ, and soil samples were collected and carried to the laboratory for pH and humidity percentage measurements. Serial soil dilution method was used for plating samples on a selective culture medium with ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source, in order to estimate the autotrophic nitrifying bacteria population levels. Grown colonies were examined macro and microscopically. The quantity of nitrates produced by bacteria cultured in vitro was determined spectra-photometrical. In relation to the abiotic factors, there was no significant differences of pH between both plant covers, but there were significant for soil humidity and temperature (p<0.05). There were highly significant differences with respect to the bacteria population levels (p<0.0001) and with respect to nitrate production. This suggests a higher bacterial activity in the under forest cover. The radical exudate from both types of plant cover reduced the viability of bacteria in vitro, from 1:1 to 1:30 exudate bacteria proportions. In the soils physical and chemical analysis, it was found a higher P and Al concentrations, and a higher CIC and organic matter content under the forest cover. It is suggested the importance of this functional group in this ecosystem

  11. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Wild and Natural Areas 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The wild and natural areas layer was derived from the state forest boundary coverage which is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and...

  12. Evaluation of three classifiers in mapping forest stand types using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    applied for classification of the image. Supervised classification technique using maximum likelihood algorithm is the most commonly and widely used method for land cover classification (Jia and Richards, 2006). In Australia, the maximum likelihood classifier was effectively used to map different forest stand types with high.

  13. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Hydrometeorological variability in three neighbouring catchments with different forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz H.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-09-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are found in a narrow elevation range and are characterized by persistent fog. Their water balance depends on local and upwind temperatures and moisture, therefore, changes in these parameters will alter TMCF hydrology. Until recently the hydrological functioning of TMCFs was mainly studied in coastal regions, while continental TMCFs were largely ignored. This study contributes to fill this gap by focusing on a TMCF which is located on the northern eastern Andes at an elevation of 1550-2300 m asl, in the Orinoco river basin highlands. In this study, we describe the spatial and seasonal meteorological variability, analyse the corresponding catchment hydrological response to different land cover, and perform a sensitivity analysis on uncertainties related to rainfall interpolation, catchment area estimation and streamflow measurements. Hydro-meteorological measurements, including hourly solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, precipitation, soil moisture and streamflow, were collected from June 2013 to May 2014 at three gauged neighbouring catchments with contrasting TMCF/grassland cover and less than 250 m elevation difference. We found wetter and less seasonally contrasting conditions at higher elevations, indicating a positive relation between elevation and fog or rainfall persistence. This pattern is similar to that of other eastern Andean TMCFs, however, the study site had higher wet season rainfall and lower dry season rainfall suggesting that upwind contrasts in land cover and moisture can influence the meteorological conditions at eastern Andean TMCFs. Contrasting streamflow dynamics between the studied catchments reflect the overall system response

  14. An Assessment of Forest Cover Trends in South and North Korea, From 1980 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Robin; Teplyakov, Victor; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments—based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea—suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.

  15. Predictive modelling of the spatial pattern of past and future forest cover changes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Singh, Sonali; Dadhwal, V. K.; Jha, C. S.; Rao, N. Rama; Diwakar, P. G.

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to simulate the forest cover changes in India using Land Change Modeler. Classified multi-temporal long-term forest cover data was used to generate the forest covers of 1880 and 2025. The spatial data were overlaid with variables such as the proximity to roads, settlements, water bodies, elevation and slope to determine the relationship between forest cover change and explanatory variables. The predicted forest cover in 1880 indicates an area of 10,42,008 km2, which represents 31.7% of the geographical area of India. About 40% of the forest cover in India was lost during the time interval of 1880-2013. Ownership of majority of forest lands by non-governmental agencies and large scale shifting cultivation are responsible for higher deforestation rates in the Northeastern states. The six states of the Northeast (Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura) and one union territory (Andaman & Nicobar Islands) had shown an annual gross rate of deforestation of >0.3 from 2005 to 2013 and has been considered in the present study for the prediction of future forest cover in 2025. The modelling results predicted widespread deforestation in Northeast India and in Andaman & Nicobar Islands and hence is likely to affect the remaining forests significantly before 2025. The multi-layer perceptron neural network has predicted the forest cover for the period of 1880 and 2025 with a Kappa statistic of >0.70. The model predicted a further decrease of 2305 km2 of forest area in the Northeast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands by 2025. The majority of the protected areas are successful in the protection of the forest cover in the Northeast due to management practices, with the exception of Manas, Sonai-Rupai, Nameri and Marat Longri. The predicted forest cover scenario for the year 2025 would provide useful inputs for effective resource management and help in biodiversity conservation and for mitigating climate change.

  16. Evaluation of the behavior of water in soil under eucalipto and native forest covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geberson Ricardo de Paula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Areas occupied by grasslands have been replaced by eucalyptus plantations, which modifies the landscape, the regional economy, and water dynamics in soils. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the behavior of water in Oxisol in two vegetation land covers, a six years old eucalyptus plantation, and a native forest in regeneration process for twenty years. The study was developed in the Una River Basin from June 2009 to April 2011. Ninety six moisture sensors were installed (Watermark™ at depths of 20, 60, and 120 cm. It was observed that, upon the occurrence of rainfall, the superficial and intermediate layers had increased humidity, which did not occur in the deepest layer. It was found that there were differences in soil moisture measured in the areas of eucalyptus and native forest and throughout the study period humidity was maintained between field capacity and permanent wilting point, with no water restriction. Canopy temperature of the eucalyptus plantation remained lower, indicating that its evapotranspiration was higher than in the forest area. The differences in moisture can be explained by the difference between the physical properties of soils in the study areas, because although they have the same slope, receive the same insolation and are close to each other, soil covered by eucalyptus presented a water storage capacity 63% above the area with native forest. It was also observed that all rainfall reaching the soil surface infiltrated and there was no runoff in the two areas studied. It was concluded that the results of this research provide important insights about differences in the behavior of water in the soil when covered by eucalyptus or native forest. For this reason, we suggest further studies with greater geographic reach in paired areas with different slopes, aspects and soil types.

  17. Spatial Simulation Modelling of Future Forest Cover Change Scenarios in Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamma Homsysavath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking Luangprabang province in Lao Peoples’s Democratic Republic (PDR as an example, we simulated future forest cover changes under the business-as-usual (BAU, pessimistic and optimistic scenarios based on the Markov-cellular automata (MCA model. We computed transition probabilities from satellite-derived forest cover maps (1993 and 2000 using the Markov chains, while the “weights of evidence” technique was used to generate transition potential maps. The initial forest cover map (1993, the transition potential maps and the 1993–2000 transition probabilities were used to calibrate the model. Forest cover simulations were then performed from 1993 to 2007 at an annual time-step. The simulated forest cover map for 2007 was compared to the observed (actual forest cover map for 2007 in order to test the accuracy of the model. Following the successful calibration and validation, future forest cover changes were simulated up to 2014 under different scenarios. The MCA simulations under the BAU and pessimistic scenarios projected that current forest areas would decrease, whereas unstocked forest areas would increase in the future. Conversely, the optimistic scenario projected that current forest areas would increase in the future if strict forestry laws enforcing conservation in protected forest areas are implemented. The three simulation scenarios provide a very good case study for simulating future forest cover changes at the subnational level (Luangprabang province. Thus, the future simulated forest cover changes can possibly be used as a guideline to set reference scenarios as well as undertake REDD/REDD+ preparedness activities within the study area.

  18. Dynamics of forest cover conversion in and around Bwindi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    together determine the rates of deforestation in any particular place (Luoga et al., 2005). The conversions have not spared the forests in and around Bwindi impenetrable forest in Southern western Uganda. The protected forest has a unique eco-system with diverse gene reserves with worldwide interest. It is most popular for ...

  19. Determination of Land Use/ Land Cover Changes in Igneada Alluvial (Longos) Forest Ecosystem, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas Balcik, F.

    2012-12-01

    Alluvial (Longos) forests are one of the most fragile and threatened ecosystems in the world. Typically, these types of ecosystems have high biological diversity, high productivity, and high habitat dynamism. In this study, Igneada, Kirklareli was selected as study area. The region, lies between latitudes 41° 46' N and 41° 59' N and stretches between longitudes 27° 50' E and 28° 02' E and it covers approximately 24000 (ha). Igneada Longos ecosystems include mixed forests, streams, flooded (alluvial) forests, marshes, wetlands, lakes and coastal sand dunes with different types of flora and fauna. Igneada was classified by Conservation International as one of the world's top 122 Important Plant Areas, and 185 Important Bird Areas. These types of wild forest in other parts of Turkey and in Europe have been damaged due to anthropogenic effects. Remote sensing is very effective tool to monitor these types of sensitive regions for sustainable management. In this study, 1984 and 2011 dated Landsat 5 TM data were used to determine land cover/land use change detection of the selected region by using six vegetation indices such as Tasseled Cap index of greenness (TCG), brightness (TCB), and wetness (TCW), ratios of near-infrared to red image (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Geometric and radiometric corrections were applied in image pre-processing step. Selective Principle Component Analysis (PCA) change detection method was applied to the selected vegetation index imagery to generate change imagery for extracting the changed features between the year of 1984 and 2011. Accuracy assessment was applied based on error matrix by calculating overall accuracy and Kappa statistics.

  20. Mapping forest functional type in a forest-shrubland ecotone using SPOT imagery and predictive habitat distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The availability of land cover data at local scales is an important component in forest management and monitoring efforts. Regional land cover data seldom provide detailed information needed to support local management needs. Here we present a transferable framework to model forest cover by major plant functional type using aerial photos, multi-date Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) imagery, and topographic variables. We developed probability of occurrence models for deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved evergreen forest using logistic regression in the southern portion of the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion. The model outputs were combined into a synthesis map depicting deciduous and coniferous forest cover type. We evaluated the models and synthesis map using a field-validated, independent data source. Results showed strong relationships between forest cover and model variables, and the synthesis map was accurate with an overall correct classification rate of 0.87 and Cohen’s kappa value of 0.81. The results suggest our method adequately captures the functional type, size, and distribution pattern of forest cover in a spatially heterogeneous landscape.

  1. A comparative analysis of forest cover and catchment water yield relationships in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai Wang; Bo-Jie Fu; Chan-Sheng He; Ge Sun; Guang-Yao Gao

    2011-01-01

    During the past few decades, China has implemented several large-scale forestation programs that have increased forest cover from 16.0% in the 1980s to 20.4% in 2009. In northern China, water is the most sensitive and limiting ecological factor. Understanding the dynamic interactions between forest ecosystems and water in different regions is essential for maximizing...

  2. Differences in breeding bird assemblages related to reed canary grass cover cover and forest structure on the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Gray, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain forest of the Upper Mississippi River provides habitat for an abundant and diverse breeding bird community. However, reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea invasion is a serious threat to the future condition of this forest. Reed canary grass is a well-known aggressive invader of wetland systems in the northern tier states of the conterminous United States. Aided by altered flow regimes and nutrient inputs from agriculture, reed canary grass has formed dense stands in canopy gaps and forest edges, retarding tree regeneration. We sampled vegetation and breeding birds in Upper Mississippi River floodplain forest edge and interior areas to 1) measure reed canary grass cover and 2) evaluate whether the breeding bird assemblage responded to differences in reed canary grass cover. Reed canary grass was found far into forest interiors, and its cover was similar between interior and edge sites. Bird assemblages differed between areas with more or less reed canary grass cover (.53% cover breakpoint). Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas, black-capped chickadee Parus atricapillus, and rose-breasted grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus were more common and American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, great crested flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus, and Baltimore oriole Icterus galbula were less common in sites with more reed canary grass cover. Bird diversity and abundance were similar between sites with different reed canary grass cover. A stronger divergence in bird assemblages was associated with ground cover ,15%, resulting from prolonged spring flooding. These sites hosted more prothonotary warbler Protonotaria citrea, but they had reduced bird abundance and diversity compared to other sites. Our results indicate that frequently flooded sites may be important for prothonotary warblers and that bird assemblages shift in response to reed canary grass invasion.

  3. Spatial scaling of core and dominant forest cover in the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Different organisms respond to spatial structure in different terms and across different spatial scales. As a consequence, efforts to reverse habitat loss and fragmentation through strategic habitat restoration ought to account for the different habitat density and scale requirements of various taxonomic groups. Here, we estimated the local density of floodplain forest surrounding each of ~20 million 10-m forested pixels of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois River floodplains by using moving windows of multiple sizes (1–100 ha). We further identified forest pixels that met two local density thresholds: 'core' forest pixels were nested in a 100% (unfragmented) forested window and 'dominant' forest pixels were those nested in a >60% forested window. Finally, we fit two scaling functions to declines in the proportion of forest cover meeting these criteria with increasing window length for 107 management-relevant focal areas: a power function (i.e. self-similar, fractal-like scaling) and an exponential decay function (fractal dimension depends on scale). The exponential decay function consistently explained more variation in changes to the proportion of forest meeting both the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria with increasing window length than did the power function, suggesting that elevation, soil type, hydrology, and human land use constrain these forest types to a limited range of scales. To examine these scales, we transformed the decay constants to measures of the distance at which the probability of forest meeting the 'core' and 'dominant' criteria was cut in half (S 1/2, m). S 1/2 for core forest was typically between ~55 and ~95 m depending on location along the river, indicating that core forest cover is restricted to extremely fine scales. In contrast, half of all dominant forest cover was lost at scales that were typically between ~525 and 750 m, but S 1/2 was as long as 1,800 m. S 1/2 is a simple measure that (1) condenses information derived from multi

  4. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Tigers need cover: multi-scale occupancy study of the big cat in Sumatran forest and plantation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Sunarto

    Full Text Available The critically endangered Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae Pocock, 1929 is generally known as a forest-dependent animal. With large-scale conversion of forests into plantations, however, it is crucial for restoration efforts to understand to what extent tigers use modified habitats. We investigated tiger-habitat relationships at 2 spatial scales: occupancy across the landscape and habitat use within the home range. Across major landcover types in central Sumatra, we conducted systematic detection, non-detection sign surveys in 47, 17×17 km grid cells. Within each cell, we surveyed 40, 1-km transects and recorded tiger detections and habitat variables in 100 m segments totaling 1,857 km surveyed. We found that tigers strongly preferred forest and used plantations of acacia and oilpalm, far less than their availability. Tiger probability of occupancy covaried positively and strongly with altitude, positively with forest area, and negatively with distance-to-forest centroids. At the fine scale, probability of habitat use by tigers across landcover types covaried positively and strongly with understory cover and altitude, and negatively and strongly with human settlement. Within forest areas, tigers strongly preferred sites that are farther from water bodies, higher in altitude, farther from edge, and closer to centroid of large forest block; and strongly preferred sites with thicker understory cover, lower level of disturbance, higher altitude, and steeper slope. These results indicate that to thrive, tigers depend on the existence of large contiguous forest blocks, and that with adjustments in plantation management, tigers could use mosaics of plantations (as additional roaming zones, riparian forests (as corridors and smaller forest patches (as stepping stones, potentially maintaining a metapopulation structure in fragmented landscapes. This study highlights the importance of a multi-spatial scale analysis and provides crucial

  6. Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  7. Forest cover of North America in the 1970s mapped using Landsat MSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M.; Sexton, J. O.; Channan, S.; Townshend, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution and changes in Earth's forests impact hydrological, biogeochemical, and energy fluxes, as well as ecosystems' capacity to support biodiversity and human economies. Long-term records of forest cover are needed across a broad range of investigation, including climate and carbon-cycle modeling, hydrological studies, habitat analyzes, biological conservation, and land-use planning. Satellite-based observations enable mapping and monitoring of forests at ecologically and economically relevant resolutions and continental or even global extents. Following early forest-mapping efforts using coarser resolution remote sensing data such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), forests have been mapped regionally at developed by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) as reference, we developed an automated approach to detect forests using MSS data by leveraging the multispectral and phenological characteristics of forests observed in MSS time-series. The forest-cover map is produced with layers representing the year of observation, detection of forest-cover change relative to 1990, and the uncertainty of forest-cover and -change layers. The approach has been implemented with open-source libraries to facilitate processing large volumes of Landsat MSS images on high-performance computing machines. As the first result of our global mapping effort, we present the forest cover for North America. More than 25,000 Landsat MSS scenes were processed to provide a 120-meter resolution forest cover for North America, which will be made publicly available on the GLCF website (http://www.landcover.org).

  8. Potential of airborne radar to support the assessment of land cover in a tropical rain forest environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of airborne radar systems as tools for collecting information in support of the assessment of tropical primary forests and derived cover types was examined. SAR systems operating with high spatial resolutions and different wavelengths (i.e., X-, C-, L- and P-band) acquired data in

  9. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  10. Mapping Distinct Forest Types Improves Overall Forest Identification Based on Multi-Spectral Landsat Imagery for Myanmar’s Tanintharyi Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Connette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of multi-spectral Landsat OLI imagery for delineating mangrove, lowland evergreen, upland evergreen and mixed deciduous forest types in Myanmar’s Tanintharyi Region and estimated the extent of degraded forest for each unique forest type. We mapped a total of 16 natural and human land use classes using both a Random Forest algorithm and a multivariate Gaussian model while considering scenarios with all natural forest classes grouped into a single intact or degraded category. Overall, classification accuracy increased for the multivariate Gaussian model with the partitioning of intact and degraded forest into separate forest cover classes but slightly decreased based on the Random Forest classifier. Natural forest cover was estimated to be 80.7% of total area in Tanintharyi. The most prevalent forest types are upland evergreen forest (42.3% of area and lowland evergreen forest (21.6%. However, while just 27.1% of upland evergreen forest was classified as degraded (on the basis of canopy cover <80%, 66.0% of mangrove forest and 47.5% of the region’s biologically-rich lowland evergreen forest were classified as degraded. This information on the current status of Tanintharyi’s unique forest ecosystems and patterns of human land use is critical to effective conservation strategies and land-use planning.

  11. Forest cover changes due to hydrocarbon extraction disturbance in central Pennsylvania (2004–2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Silva, Coral; Slonecker, Terry; Milheim, Lesley; Ballew, Jesse R.; Winters, S. Gail

    2016-01-01

    The state of Pennsylvania has a long history of oil and gas extraction. In recent years with advances in technology such as hydraulic fracturing, hydrocarbon sources that were not profitable in the past are now being exploited. Here, we present an assessment of the cumulative impact of oil and gas extraction activities on the forests of 35 counties in Pennsylvania and their intersecting sub-watersheds between 2004 and 2010. The assessment categorizes counties and sub-watersheds based on the estimated amount of change to forest cover in the area. From the data collected we recognize that although forest cover has not been greatly impacted (with an average loss of percent forest coverage of 0.16% at the county level), landscape structure is affected. Increase in edge forest and decrease in interior forest is evident in many of the counties and sub-watersheds examined. These changes can have a detrimental effect on forest biodiversity and dynamics.

  12. Detailed forest formation mapping in the land cover map series for the Caribbean islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E. H.; Schill, S.; Pedreros, D. H.; Tieszen, L. L.; Kennaway, T.; Cushing, M.; Ruzycki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Forest formation and land cover maps for several Caribbean islands were developed from Landsat ETM+ imagery as part of a multi-organizational project. The spatially explicit data on forest formation types will permit more refined estimates of some forest attributes. The woody vegetation classification scheme relates closely to that of Areces-Malea et al. (1), who classify Caribbean vegetation according to standards of the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC, 1997), with modifications similar to those in Helmer et al. (2). For several of the islands, we developed image mosaics that filled cloudy parts of scenes with data from other scene dates after using regression tree normalization (3). The regression tree procedure permitted us to develop mosaics for wet and drought seasons for a few of the islands. The resulting multiseason imagery facilitated separation between classes such as seasonal evergreen forest, semi-deciduous forest (including semi-evergreen forest), and drought deciduous forest or woodland formations. We used decision tree classification methods to classify the Landsat image mosaics to detailed forest formations and land cover for Puerto Rico (4), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada. The decision trees classified a stack of raster layers for each mapping area that included the Landsat image bands and various ancillary raster data layers. For Puerto Rico, for example, the ancillary data included climate parameters (5). For some islands, the ancillary data included topographic derivatives such as aspect, slope and slope position, SRTM (6) or other topographic data. Mapping forest formations with decision tree classifiers, ancillary geospatial data, and cloud-free image mosaics, accurately distinguished spectrally similar forest formations, without the aid of ecological zone maps, on the islands where the approach was used. The approach resulted in maps of forest formations with comparable or better detail

  13. Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin S. McKelvey; Curtis H. Flather; Kevin McGarigal

    2008-01-01

    Forest communities, defined by the size and configuration of cover types and stand ages, have commonly been used as proxies for the abundance or viability of wildlife populations. However, for community types to succeed as proxies for species abundance, several assumptions must be met. We tested these assumptions for birds in an Oregon forest environment. Measured...

  14. Multi-temporal Assessment of Forest Cover, Stocking parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    conventional forest inventory and remote sensing and GIS techniques. Results show that .... sensing does not measure biomass directly, but rather it measures other ... with good drainage and vegetation is mostly dry Miombo (Lovett and Pócs ...

  15. Aspen Forest Cover by Stratum/Plot (SNF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Average percent coverage and standard deviation of each canopy stratum from subplots at each aspen site during the SNF study in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota

  16. Assessing double counting of carbon emissions between forest land cover change and forest wildfires: a case study in the United States, 1992-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; Brad. Quayle

    2013-01-01

    The relative contributions of double counting of carbon emissions between forest-to-nonforest cover change (FNCC) and forest wildfires are an unknown in estimating net forest carbon exchanges at large scales. This study employed land-cover change maps and forest fire data in the four representative states (Arkansas, California, Minnesota, and Washington) of the US for...

  17. DEPENDENCE OF GRASS COVER TAXONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL STRUCTURE ON THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT IN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Miroshnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pine forests Chigirinsky Bor grow on fresh sod-podzolic soils formed on ancient alluvial deposits. Pine forests are characterized by stringent moisture regimes and constantly suffer from lack of productive moisture in soil.  Industrial development of Cherkasy in 60th years of ХХ century leaded air pollution and emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, and dust. This contributed to significant negative influence on the surrounding forest ecosystems from enterprises of  Cherkassy industrial agglomeration. The grass cover in pine stands of Chigirinsky Bor transforms into xerophytic grasses and ruderal communities under the impact of negative biotic and abiotic factors. They are namely the anthropogenic violation of forest conditions, stands decline, recreational and industrial tree crowns understocking, xerophytic and heliophytic transformations of forest conditions. All the above mentioned caused strong ruderal and adventive transformation of grass cover. We registered the changes in nitrophilous plant spread regards the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration approaching which emits toxic with nitrogen-containing gases. Adventive and other non-forest species displace ferns and mosses, the ratio of ecomorfs is also changes due to increase of the quantity and development activation of annuals, xerophytic, ruderal, and nitrofil plants. The Asteraceae/Brassicaceae 3:1 ratio indicates significant anthropogenic violations in the region. We fixed the xerophytic, ruderal, and adventive transformation of grass cover in forest ecosystems. It is also founded the tendency of expanding the fraction of mesophilic plant species due to alterations in water regime (creation of Kremenchug reservoir and draining of floodplain Tyasmyn. When approaching the Cherkasy industrial agglomeration the grass cover degradation is clearly observed on the environmental profile. All this causes the forest ecosystem degradation and gradual loss of forest vegetation typical characteristics. We

  18. Variation of Annual ET Determined from Water Budgets Across Rural Southeastern Basins Differing in Forest Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, S. E.; Jackson, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    In the Southeastern United States, evapotranspiration (ET) typically accounts for 60-70% of precipitation. Watershed and plot scale experiments show that evergreen forests have higher ET rates than hardwood forests and pastures. However, some plot experiments indicate that certain hardwood species have higher ET than paired evergreens. The complexity of factors influencing ET in mixed land cover watersheds makes identifying the relative influences difficult. Previous watershed scale studies have relied on regression to understand the influences or low flow analysis to indicate growing season differences among watersheds. Existing studies in the southeast investigating ET rates for watersheds with multiple forest cover types have failed to identify a significant forest type effect, but these studies acknowledge small sample sizes. Trends of decreasing streamflow have been recognized in the region and are generally attributed to five key factors, 1.) influences from multiple droughts, 2.) changes in distribution of precipitation, 3.) reforestation of agricultural land, 4.) increasing consumptive uses, or 5.) a combination of these and other factors. This study attempts to address the influence of forest type on long term average annual streamflow and on stream low flows. Long term annual ET rates were calculated as ET = P-Q for 46 USGS gaged basins with daily data for the 1982 - 2014 water years, >40% forest cover, and no large reservoirs. Land cover data was regressed against ET to describe the relationship between each of the forest types in the National Land Cover Database. Regression analysis indicates evergreen land cover has a positive relationship with ET while deciduous and total forest have a negative relationship with ET. Low flow analysis indicates low flows tend to be lower in watersheds with more evergreen cover, and that low flows increase with increasing deciduous cover, although these relationships are noisy. This work suggests considering forest

  19. A model of forest floor carbon mass for United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2002-01-01

    Includes a large set of published values of forest floor mass and develop large-scale estimates of carbon mass according to region and forest type. Estimates of average forest floor carbon mass per hectare of forest applied to a 1997 summary forest inventory, sum to 4.5 Gt carbon stored in forests of the 48 contiguous United States.

  20. Forest Cover Change Analysis in Inner Mongolia Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Forest is the lung of the earth, and it has important effect on maintaining the ecological balance of the whole earth. This study was conducted in Inner Mongolia during the year 1990-2015. Land use and land cover data were used to obtain forest cover change of Inner Mongolia. In addition, protected area data, road data, ASTER GDEM data were combined with forest cover change data to analyze the relationship between them. Moreover, patch density and landscape shape index were calculated to analyze forest change in perspective of landscape aspect. The results indicated that forest area increased overall during the study period. However, a few cities still had a phenomenon of reduced forest area. Results also demonstrated that the construction of protected area had positive effect on protecting forest while roads may disturbed forest due to human activities. In addition, forest patches in most of cities of Inner Mongolia tended to be larger and less fragmented. This paper reflected forest change in Inner Mongolia objectively, which is helpful for policy making by government.

  1. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Jared R.; Lilieholm, Robert J.; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities—one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain—compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  2. Linking Attitudes, Policy, and Forest Cover Change in Buffer Zone Communities of Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Jared R; Lilieholm, Robert J; Leahy, Jessica; Upadhaya, Suraj

    2016-06-01

    Deforestation in Nepal threatens the functioning of complex social-ecological systems, including rural populations that depend on forests for subsistence, as well as Nepal's biodiversity and other ecosystem services. Nepal's forests are particularly important to the nation's poorest inhabitants, as many depend upon them for daily survival. Two-thirds of Nepal's population relies on forests for sustenance, and these pressures are likely to increase in the future. This, coupled with high population densities and growth rates, highlights the importance of studying the relationship between human communities, forest cover trends through time, and forest management institutions. Here, we used surveys to explore how household attitudes associated with conservation-related behaviors in two rural communities-one that has experienced significant forest loss, and the other forest gain-compare with forest cover trends as indicated by satellite-derived forest-loss and -regeneration estimates between 2005 and 2013. Results found a significant difference in attitudes in the two areas, perhaps contributing to and reacting from current forest conditions. In both study sites, participation in community forestry strengthened support for conservation, forest conservation-related attitudes aligned with forest cover trends, and a negative relationship was found between economic status and having supportive forest conservation-related attitudes. In addition, on average, respondents were not satisfied with their district forest officers and did not feel that the current political climate in Nepal supported sustainable forestry. These findings are important as Nepal's Master Plan for the Forestry Sector has expired and the country is in the process of structuring a new Forestry Sector Strategy.

  3. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat ETM+ Forest Cover Classification, Uruara, Para, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a 1999 Landsat ETM+ mosaic image land of cover classification showing forested and deforestation areas in Uruara, Para, Brazil. This image may...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat ETM+ Forest Cover Classification, Uruara, Para, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a 1999 Landsat ETM+ mosaic image land of cover classification showing forested and deforestation areas in Uruara, Para, Brazil. This...

  5. impacts of rainfall and forest cover change on runoff in small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the relationship between rainfall and runoff in the two catchments has changed. Furthermore .... The monthly rainfall data for Namadzi catchment that was used in this .... land cover change with a big jump of forest planted after the 1990s. Fig.

  6. Ground cover in old-growth forests of the central hardwood region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; George R. Parker; Felix, Jr. Ponder

    1997-01-01

    Differences in ground cover (percent cover of litter, percent cover of vegetation and litter weight) in old-growth forests across this region are not well understood. We initiated a long-term study in a three-state region to enhance knowledge in this area. We present baseline results for ground cover and compare these data across productivity regions. Thirty 0.25-ac (0...

  7. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed geographic record of recent vegetation regrowth and disturbance patterns in forests of the Sierra Nevada remains a gap that can be filled with remote sensing data. Landsat (TM) imagery was analyzed to detect 10 years of recent changes (between 2000 and 2009) in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires between years of 1995 to 1999 in the region. Results confirmed the prevalence of regrowing forest vegetation during the period 2000 and 2009 over 17% of the combined burned areas.

  8. European Forest Cover During the Past 12,000 Years: A Palynological Reconstruction Based on Modern Analogs and Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Marco; Davis, Basil A S; Marquer, Laurent; Brewer, Simon; Kaplan, Jed O

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of land cover change in the past is fundamental to understand the evolution and present state of the Earth system, the amount of carbon and nutrient stocks in terrestrial ecosystems, and the role played by land-atmosphere interactions in influencing climate. The estimation of land cover changes using palynology is a mature field, as thousands of sites in Europe have been investigated over the last century. Nonetheless, a quantitative land cover reconstruction at a continental scale has been largely missing. Here, we present a series of maps detailing the evolution of European forest cover during last 12,000 years. Our reconstructions are based on the Modern Analog Technique (MAT): a calibration dataset is built by coupling modern pollen samples with the corresponding satellite-based forest-cover data. Fossil reconstructions are then performed by assigning to every fossil sample the average forest cover of its closest modern analogs. The occurrence of fossil pollen assemblages with no counterparts in modern vegetation represents a known limit of analog-based methods. To lessen the influence of no-analog situations, pollen taxa were converted into plant functional types prior to running the MAT algorithm. We then interpolate site-specific reconstructions for each timeslice using a four-dimensional gridding procedure to create continuous gridded maps at a continental scale. The performance of the MAT is compared against methodologically independent forest-cover reconstructions produced using the REVEALS method. MAT and REVEALS estimates are most of the time in good agreement at a trend level, yet MAT regularly underestimates the occurrence of densely forested situations, requiring the application of a bias correction procedure. The calibrated MAT-based maps draw a coherent picture of the establishment of forests in Europe in the Early Holocene with the greatest forest-cover fractions reconstructed between ∼8,500 and 6,000 calibrated years BP. This

  9. Detecting forest cover and ecosystem service change using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural forests in Uganda have experienced both spatial and temporal modifications from different drivers which need to be monitored to assess the impacts of such changes on ecosystems and prevent related risks of reduction in ecosystem service benefits. Ground investigations may be complex because of dual ...

  10. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.Keywords: geometric data, forest cover, water yield, return period

  11. Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of

  12. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  13. Potential change in forest types and stand heights in central Siberia in a warming climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I; Korets, M A; Conard, S G

    2016-01-01

    Previous regional studies in Siberia have demonstrated climate warming and associated changes in distribution of vegetation and forest types, starting at the end of the 20th century. In this study we used two regional bioclimatic envelope models to simulate potential changes in forest types distribution and developed new regression models to simulate changes in stand height in tablelands and southern mountains of central Siberia under warming 21st century climate. Stand height models were based on forest inventory data (2850 plots). The forest type and stand height maps were superimposed to identify how heights would change in different forest types in future climates. Climate projections from the general circulation model Hadley HadCM3 for emission scenarios B1 and A2 for 2080s were paired with the regional bioclimatic models. Under the harsh A2 scenario, simulated changes included: a 80%–90% decrease in forest-tundra and tundra, a 30% decrease in forest area, a ∼400% increase in forest-steppe, and a 2200% increase in steppe, forest-steppe and steppe would cover 55% of central Siberia. Under sufficiently moist conditions, the southern and middle taiga were simulated to benefit from 21st century climate warming. Habitats suitable for highly-productive forests (≥30–40 m stand height) were simulated to increase at the expense of less productive forests (10–20 m). In response to the more extreme A2 climate the area of these highly-productive forests would increase 10%–25%. Stand height increases of 10 m were simulated over 35%–50% of the current forest area in central Siberia. In the extremely warm A2 climate scenario, the tall trees (25–30 m) would occur over 8%–12% of area in all forest types except forest-tundra by the end of the century. In forest-steppe, trees of 30–40 m may cover some 15% of the area under sufficient moisture. (letter)

  14. An analysis of forest land use, forest land cover, and change at policy-relevant scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Greg Reams; Dave N. Wear; C. Kenneth Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the amount of forest and change in the amount of forest are key to ensure that appropriate management practices and policies are in place to maintain the array of ecosystem services provided by forests. There are a range of analytical techniques and data available to estimate these forest parameters, however, not all ‘forest’ is the same and various...

  15. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDICATORS OBTAINED BY CORINELAND COVER METHODOLOGY FOR SUSTAINABLE USE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviša Popović

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serbian Environmental Protection Agency followed international and national indicators to do monitoring of forested landscape area for the period 1990-2000. Based on the data obtained by Corine Land Cover methodology following the indicators like Forest area, Forested landscape, Forest land and Forest and semi natural area, analysis was done. The forested landscape indicators analysis helped trends monitoring during the period from 1990 - 2000 year. Dynamic of forested area changes could have direct impact on the practical implementation of indicators. Indicator Forest area can be used in planning sustainable use of forests. Recorded growth rates value in 2000year, compared to the 1990th is 0.296%. Indicator Forested landscape increase for 0.186% till 2000 year, while the indicator Forested Land recorded value growth rate of 0.193%. Changes in rates of those indicators can be used in the future for “emission trading”. The smallest increment of rate change of 0.1% was recorded in indicator Forests and semi natural area. Information given by this indicator can be used for monitoring habitats in high mountain areas.

  17. Nitrogen fertilization interacts with light to increase Rubus spp. cover in a temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Walter; Devon T. Raiff; Mark B. Burnham; Frank S. Gilliam; Mary Beth Adams; William T. Peterjohn

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen additions have caused species composition changes in many ecosystems by facilitating the growth of nitrophilic species. After 24 years of nitrogen fertilization in a 40 year-old stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) in Central Appalachia, USA, the cover of Rubus spp. has increased from 1 to 19 % of total herbaceous-layer cover....

  18. Processes Underlying 50 Years of Local Forest-Cover Change in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Frayer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the importance of forests for local livelihoods, biodiversity and the climate system has spurred a growing interest in understanding the factors that drive forest-cover change. Forest transitions, the change from net deforestation to net reforestation, may follow different pathways depending on a complex interplay of driving forces. However, most studies on forest transitions focus on the national level rather than the local level. Here, case studies from 10 villages in Yunnan, China, are used to clarify the complex interactions among various pathways of forest transitions, derive insights on the underlying drivers that shaped the forest transitions, and determine the importance of changes in drivers over time. The results demonstrate that China’s recent forest transition was caused by a range of interrelated pathways that were mediated by local circumstances. The degradation of forest ecosystem services caused by rampant deforestation and forest degradation created a scarcity of forest products and triggered state-initiated afforestation efforts, particularly in the 1990s, which continue to be important. More recently, economic development concomitant with smallholder intensification spurred reforestation, while the importance of state forest policy declined. The complexity of local land-use changes demonstrates the difficulty of identifying distinct transition pathways and calls for a more diverse approach that recognizes the interdependence of local processes.

  19. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to assess the present and future land use/land cover scenario of Gangtok, the subHimalayan capital of ... data is minimal. Finally, a combination of Markov modelling and SAVI was used to predict the probable land-use scenario in Gangtok in 2020 AD, which indicted that more ... to develop resource allocation strategies.

  20. Effects of plot size on forest-type algorithm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program utilizes an algorithm to consistently determine the forest type for forested conditions on sample plots. Forest type is determined from tree size and species information. Thus, the accuracy of results is often dependent on the number of trees present, which is highly correlated with plot area. This research examines the...

  1. ORGANIC MATTER AND AGGREGATION OF A PLANOSOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kishida Bochner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The litter quality can alter soil aggregation, modifying the transformation dynamics and allocation of soil carbon (Cin different compartments. This study evaluated the aggregate stability and its relation with litter chemical characteristics, organiccarbon and free light fraction (FLL from the organic matter under three different types of vegetation covering: secondary forest (FSand plantings of Mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia (PM and Carapa guianenses (PA with subsequently natural regeneration. Litter sampleswere characterized using polyfenols, lignin, suberine, tannin and holocelulose content and C/N relationship. Soil samples werecollected in two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm and soil aggregation were estimate using mean weight diameter (DMP, mean geometricdiameter (DMG and index of aggregate stability (IEA analysis . Soil samples in the same depths were also characterized using C andFLL content. The highest suberine and polyfenols content of the litter found in the areas FS and PM reduced the speed of residuesdecomposition in the soil causing larger FLL content in both coverings. Those compositions contributed to the stabilization of C in themineral phase, because the highest C content was found in those areas. This fact is confirmed by the values of DMP, DMG and IEAamong the areas. They are higher in the coverings, PM and FS. It can be concluded that the polyfenols and suberine content weredecisive in the subdivision of C and in the aggregation of the soil in the areas of FS and PM.

  2. Evaluation of forest cover estimates for Haiti using supervised classification of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churches, Christopher E.; Wampler, Peter J.; Sun, Wanxiao; Smith, Andrew J.

    2014-08-01

    This study uses 2010-2011 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery to estimate total forested area in Haiti. The thematic map was generated using radiometric normalization of digital numbers by a modified normalization method utilizing pseudo-invariant polygons (PIPs), followed by supervised classification of the mosaicked image using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations Land Cover Classification System. Classification results were compared to other sources of land-cover data produced for similar years, with an emphasis on the statistics presented by the FAO. Three global land cover datasets (GLC2000, Globcover, 2009, and MODIS MCD12Q1), and a national-scale dataset (a land cover analysis by Haitian National Centre for Geospatial Information (CNIGS)) were reclassified and compared. According to our classification, approximately 32.3% of Haiti's total land area was tree covered in 2010-2011. This result was confirmed using an error-adjusted area estimator, which predicted a tree covered area of 32.4%. Standardization to the FAO's forest cover class definition reduces the amount of tree cover of our supervised classification to 29.4%. This result was greater than the reported FAO value of 4% and the value for the recoded GLC2000 dataset of 7.0%, but is comparable to values for three other recoded datasets: MCD12Q1 (21.1%), Globcover (2009) (26.9%), and CNIGS (19.5%). We propose that at coarse resolutions, the segmented and patchy nature of Haiti's forests resulted in a systematic underestimation of the extent of forest cover. It appears the best explanation for the significant difference between our results, FAO statistics, and compared datasets is the accuracy of the data sources and the resolution of the imagery used for land cover analyses. Analysis of recoded global datasets and results from this study suggest a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.996 for tree cover) between spatial resolution and land cover estimates.

  3. Effects of Forest Cover Change on Flood Characteristics in the Upper Citarum Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Dwi Dasanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the effect of forest cover changes on streamflow (river discharge in large-scale catchment is important to be studied. The rate of forest cover change in the Upper Citarum Watershed as a large-scale catchment is high enough to drive streamflow change, such as increase of discharge level, or flood volume. Within the research area, flood would occur when the volume of streamflow exceeded the canal capacity and inundated areas that were normally dry. Therefore, this research focused on identifying the effects of forest cover change on flood events and its distribution. The research consisted of 2 main stages; firstly, building geometric data of river and performing frequency analysis of historical and scenario discharges using an approach of probability distribution; and, secondly, flood inundation mapping using HEC-RAS model. The results showed that forest reduction have affected water yield in the downstream of Upper Citarum Watershed. In each return period, this reduction have increased river discharge level and affected the spread of flooded areas. In 2-year return period, the extent of flood as an impact of forest reduction was estimated to decrease slowly. However, in the return period of more than 2 years, the spread of flooded areas increased sharply. These proved that forest cover reduction would always increase the discharge value, but it did not always expand the inundated area.

  4. A Comparison of Novel Optical Remote Sensing-Based Technologies for Forest-Cover/Change Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian V. Lui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing is gaining considerable traction in forest monitoring efforts, with the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System lite (CLASlite software package and the Global Forest Change dataset (GFCD being two of the most recently developed optical remote sensing-based tools for analysing forest cover and change. Due to the relatively nascent state of these technologies, their abilities to classify land cover and monitor forest dynamics have yet to be evaluated against more established approaches. Here, we compared maps of forest cover and change produced by the more traditional supervised classification approach with those produced by CLASlite and the GFCD, working with imagery collected over Sierra Leone, West Africa. CLASlite maps of forest change from 2001–2007 and 2007–2014 exhibited the highest overall accuracies (79.1% and 89.6%, respectively and, importantly, the greatest capacity to discriminate natural from planted mature forest growth. CLASlite’s comparative advantage likely derived from its more robust sub-pixel classification logic and numerous user-defined parameters, which resulted in classified products with greater site relevance than those of the two other classification approaches. In light of today’s continuously growing body of analytical toolsets for remotely sensed data, our study importantly elucidates the ways in which methodological processes and limitations inherent in certain classification tools can impact the maps they are capable of producing, and demonstrates the need to understand and weigh such factors before any one tool is selected for a given application.

  5. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests.

  6. Impacts of Mastication: Soil Seed Bank Responses to a Forest Thinning Treatment in Three Colorado (USA Conifer Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha M. Faist

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mastication is a forest fuel thinning treatment that involves chipping or shredding small trees and shrubs and depositing the material across the forest floor. By decreasing forest density mastication has been shown to lessen crown fire hazard, yet other impacts have only recently started to be studied. Our study evaluates how mastication treatments alter the density and composition of soil seed banks in three Colorado conifer forest types. The three forest types were (1 lodgepole pine, (2 ponderosa pine and (3 pinyon pine-juniper. Results showed that masticated sites contained higher seed bank densities than untreated sites: a pattern primarily driven by treatment effects in ponderosa pine forests. The seed bank was dominated by forbs regardless of forest type or treatment. This pattern of forb dominance was not observed in the aboveground vegetation cover as it demonstrated more even proportions of the functional groups. Graminoids showed a higher seed density in treated sites than untreated and, similarly, the identified non-native species only occurred in the treated ponderosa pine sites suggesting a potential belowground invasion for this forest type. These results suggest that presence of masticated material might not be creating a physical barrier hindering the transfer of seeds as predicted.

  7. Tropical forest cover change in the 1990s and options for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayaux, Philippe; Holmgren, Peter; Achard, Frédéric; Eva, Hugh; Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Branthomme, Anne

    2005-02-28

    Despite the importance of the world's humid tropical forests, our knowledge concerning their rates of change remains limited. Two recent programmes (FAO 2000 Forest Resources Assessment and TREES II), exploiting the global imaging capabilities of Earth observing satellites, have recently been completed to provide information on the dynamics of tropical forest cover. The results from these independent studies show a high degree of conformity and provide a good understanding of trends at the pan-tropical level. In 1990 there were some 1150 million ha of tropical rain forest with the area of the humid tropics deforested annually estimated at 5.8 million ha (approximately twice the size of Belgium). A further 2.3 million ha of humid forest is apparently degraded annually through fragmentation, logging and/or fires. In the sub-humid and dry tropics, annual deforestation of tropical moist deciduous and tropical dry forests comes to 2.2 and 0.7 million ha, respectively. Southeast Asia is the region where forests are under the highest pressure with an annual change rate of -0.8 to -0.9%. The annual area deforested in Latin America is large, but the relative rate (-0.4 to -0.5%) is lower, owing to the vast area covered by the remaining Amazonian forests. The humid forests of Africa are being converted at a similar rate to those of Latin America (-0.4 to -0.5% per year). During this period, secondary forests have also been established, through re-growth on abandoned land and forest plantations, but with different ecological, biophysical and economic characteristics compared with primary forests. These trends are significant in all regions, but the extent of new forest cover has proven difficult to establish. These results, as well as the lack of more detailed knowledge, clearly demonstrate the need to improve sound scientific evidence to support policy. The two projects provide useful guidance for future monitoring efforts in the context of multilateral environmental

  8. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  9. Optimal use of land surface temperature data to detect changes in tropical forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, T. T.; Frank, A. J.; Jin, Y.; Smyth, P.; Goulden, M.; van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of global forest cover change is needed to focus conservation efforts and to better understand how deforestation is contributing to the build up of atmospheric CO2. Here we examined different ways to use remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) to detect changes in tropical forest cover. In our analysis we used monthly 0.05×0.05 degree Terra MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of LST and PRODES (Program for the Estimation of Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon) estimates of forest cover change. We also compared MODIS LST observations with an independent estimate of forest cover loss derived from MODIS and Landsat observations. Our study domain of approximately 10×10 degree included most of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. For optimal use of LST data to detect changes in tropical forest cover in our study area, we found that using data sampled during the end of the dry season (~1-2 months after minimum monthly precipitation) had the greatest predictive skill. During this part of the year, precipitation was low, surface humidity was at a minimum, and the difference between day and night LST was the largest. We used this information to develop a simple temporal sampling algorithm appropriate for use in pan-tropical deforestation classifiers. Combined with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a logistic regression model using day-night LST did moderately well at predicting forest cover change. Annual changes in day-night LST difference decreased during 2006-2009 relative to 2001-2005 in many regions within the Amazon, providing independent confirmation of lower deforestation levels during the latter part of this decade as reported by PRODES. The use of day-night LST differences may be particularly valuable for use with satellites that do not have spectral bands that allow for the estimation of NDVI or other vegetation indices.

  10. Climate Change for Agriculture, Forest Cover and 3d Urban Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, M.; Bassir, D.

    2014-11-01

    This research demonstrates the important role of the remote sensing in finding out the different parameters behind the agricultural crop change, forest cover and urban 3D models. Standalone software is developed to view and analysis the different factors effecting the change in crop productions. Open-source libraries from the Open Source Geospatial Foundation have been used for the development of the shape-file viewer. Software can be used to get the attribute information, scale, zoom in/out and pan the shapefiles. Environmental changes due to pollution and population that are increasing the urbanisation and decreasing the forest cover on the earth. Satellite imagery such as Landsat 5(1984) to Landsat TRIS/8 (2014), Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and NDVI are used to analyse the different parameters that are effecting the agricultural crop production change and forest change. It is advisable for the development of good quality of NDVI and forest cover maps to use data collected from the same processing methods for the complete region. Management practices have been developed from the analysed data for the betterment of the crop and saving the forest cover

  11. Ten Years of Forest Cover Change in the Sierra Nevada Detected Using Landsat Satellite Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) methodology was applied to detected changes in forest vegetation cover for areas burned by wildfires in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California between the periods of 1975- 79 and 1995-1999. Results for areas burned by wildfire between 1995 and 1999 confirmed the importance of regrowing forest vegetation over 17% of the combined burned areas. A notable fraction (12%) of the entire 5-km (unburned) buffer area outside the 1995-199 fires perimeters showed decline in forest cover, and not nearly as many regrowing forest areas, covering only 3% of all the 1995-1999 buffer areas combined. Areas burned by wildfire between 1975 and 1979 confirmed the importance of disturbed (or declining evergreen) vegetation covering 13% of the combined 1975- 1979 burned areas. Based on comparison of these results to ground-based survey data, the LEDAPS methodology should be capable of fulfilling much of the need for consistent, low-cost monitoring of changes due to climate and biological factors in western forest regrowth following stand-replacing disturbances.

  12. Changes in forest cover in the Foresta della Lama (Casentino Forests National Park from Karl Siemon’s and Anton Seeland’s 1837 forest management plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazzano E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest estates with a long history of forest management plans are quite rare in Italy. In such cases, the analysis of historical documents combined with the use of GIS technology, can provide useful information on the evolution of forest cover and silvicultural and management techniques. Based on two unpublished documents by Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland dating back to 1837 and 1850, an archive of historical maps for the Lama Forest (Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park was created using GIS techniques. This archive outlines the evolution of the Lama Forest over the last 170 years. Particular attention was given to silver fir plantations, which have strongly characterized silviculture and local economics in the Foreste Casentinesi area. The results of our analysis show that changes in different historical periods have been caused both by silvicultural interventions prescribed by the management plans and by external causes such as changes in forest property or war periods, which have markedly influenced forest area and stand characteristics. Furthermore, our analysis confirms that the work of Karl Siemon and Anton Seeland, carried out between 1835 and 1837, is the oldest forest management plan for an Italian forest. It is interesting to note that the aim of the plan, i.e., a regulated (or “normal” even-aged forest, and the way the plan was laid out, typical of classic forest management originated in Germany at the end of the XVIIIth century, served as model for the forest management plans drawn out by the Florence Forestry School almost until the end of the XXth century.

  13. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  14. Remotely sensed forest cover loss shows high spatial and temporal variation across Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia 2000-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew; Potapov, Peter; Margono, Belinda Arunarwati; Adusei, Bernard; Stolle, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Indonesian islands of Sumatera and Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo) are a center of significant and rapid forest cover loss in the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity conservation, and local livelihoods. The aim of our research was to analyze and interpret annual trends of forest cover loss for different sub-regions of the study area. We mapped forest cover loss for 2000-2008 using multi-resolution remote sensing data from the Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM +) and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors and analyzed annual trends per island, province, and official land allocation zone. The total forest cover loss for Sumatera and Kalimantan 2000-2008 was 5.39 Mha, which represents 5.3% of the land area and 9.2% of the year 2000 forest cover of these two islands. At least 6.5% of all mapped forest cover loss occurred in land allocation zones prohibiting clearing. An additional 13.6% of forest cover loss occurred where clearing is legally restricted. The overall trend of forest cover loss increased until 2006 and decreased thereafter. The trends for Sumatera and Kalimantan were distinctly different, driven primarily by the trends of Riau and Central Kalimantan provinces, respectively. This analysis shows that annual mapping of forest cover change yields a clearer picture than a one-time overall national estimate. Monitoring forest dynamics is important for national policy makers, especially given the commitment of Indonesia to reducing greenhouse gas emissions as part of the reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries initiative (REDD +). The improved spatio-temporal detail of forest change monitoring products will make it possible to target policies and projects in meeting this commitment. Accurate, annual forest cover loss maps will be integral to many REDD + objectives, including policy formulation, definition of baselines, detection

  15. Large Scale Anthropogenic Reduction of Forest Cover in Last Glacial Maximum Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jed O Kaplan

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires. Similar to hunter-gatherers of the more recent past, Upper Paleolithic humans were masters of the use of fire, and preferred inhabiting semi-open landscapes to facilitate foraging, hunting and travel. Incorporating human agency into a dynamic vegetation-fire model and simulating forest cover shows that even small increases in wildfire frequency over natural background levels resulted in large changes in the forested area of Europe, in part because trees were already stressed by low atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the cold, dry, and highly variable climate. Our results suggest that the impact of humans on the glacial landscape of Europe may be one of the earliest large-scale anthropogenic modifications of the earth system.

  16. Large Scale Anthropogenic Reduction of Forest Cover in Last Glacial Maximum Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jed O; Pfeiffer, Mirjam; Kolen, Jan C A; Davis, Basil A S

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructions of the vegetation of Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are an enigma. Pollen-based analyses have suggested that Europe was largely covered by steppe and tundra, and forests persisted only in small refugia. Climate-vegetation model simulations on the other hand have consistently suggested that broad areas of Europe would have been suitable for forest, even in the depths of the last glaciation. Here we reconcile models with data by demonstrating that the highly mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Europe at the LGM could have substantially reduced forest cover through the ignition of wildfires. Similar to hunter-gatherers of the more recent past, Upper Paleolithic humans were masters of the use of fire, and preferred inhabiting semi-open landscapes to facilitate foraging, hunting and travel. Incorporating human agency into a dynamic vegetation-fire model and simulating forest cover shows that even small increases in wildfire frequency over natural background levels resulted in large changes in the forested area of Europe, in part because trees were already stressed by low atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the cold, dry, and highly variable climate. Our results suggest that the impact of humans on the glacial landscape of Europe may be one of the earliest large-scale anthropogenic modifications of the earth system.

  17. Forest Type and Tree Characteristics Determine the Vertical Distribution of Epiphytic Lichen Biomass in Subtropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytic lichens are an important component in subtropical forests and contribute greatly to forest biodiversity and biomass. However, information on epiphytic lichens still remains scarce in forest conservation owing to the difficulty of accessing all canopy layers for direct observation. Here, epiphytic lichens were quantified on 73 whole trees in five forest types in Southwest China to clarify the vertical stratification of their biomass in subtropical forests. Lichen biomass was significantly influenced by forest type and host attributes, varying from 187.11 to 8.55 g∙tree−1 among forest types and from 289.81 to <0.01 g∙tree−1 among tree species. The vertical stratification of lichen biomass was also determined by forest type, which peaked at the top in primary Lithocarpus forest and middle-aged oak secondary forest and in the middle upper heights in other forests. Overall, the proportion of lichen biomass accounted for 73.17–100.00% of total lichen biomass on branches and 0.00–26.83% on trunks in five forests, and 64.53–100.00% and 0.00–35.47% on eight host species. Seven functional groups showed marked and various responses to tree height between and among forest types. This information improves our understanding of the distribution of epiphytic lichens in forest ecosystems and the promotion of forest management in subtropical China.

  18. A Sample-Based Forest Monitoring Strategy Using Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS Data to Estimate Gross Forest Cover Loss in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asia is a hotspot of humid tropical forest cover loss. A sample-based monitoring approach quantifying forest cover loss from Landsat imagery was implemented to estimate gross forest cover loss for two eras, 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. For each time interval, a probability sample of 18.5 km × 18.5 km blocks was selected, and pairs of Landsat images acquired per sample block were interpreted to quantify forest cover area and gross forest cover loss. Stratified random sampling was implemented for 2000–2005 with MODIS-derived forest cover loss used to define the strata. A probability proportional to x (πpx design was implemented for 1990–2000 with AVHRR-derived forest cover loss used as the x variable to increase the likelihood of including forest loss area in the sample. The estimated annual gross forest cover loss for Malaysia was 0.43 Mha/yr (SE = 0.04 during 1990–2000 and 0.64 Mha/yr (SE = 0.055 during 2000–2005. Our use of the πpx sampling design represents a first practical trial of this design for sampling satellite imagery. Although the design performed adequately in this study, a thorough comparative investigation of the πpx design relative to other sampling strategies is needed before general design recommendations can be put forth.

  19. The spatiotemporal forest cover changes in Köprülü Canyon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... cover. Mixed forests increased about 151.7% (1570.7 ha) like agricultural and urban areas 39.8% (777.5 ... carbon sequestration, tourism and recreation and non- ..... affected by human-induced activities and population.

  20. Long term changes in forest cover and land use of Similipal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R L Saranya and C Sudhakar Reddy. ∗. Forestry & Ecology Group, National Remote Sensing Centre, ISRO, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037, India. ∗. Corresponding author. e-mail: drsudhakarreddy@gmail.com. The spatial changes in forest cover of Similipal biosphere reserve, Odisha, India over eight decades (1930–.

  1. Historical satellite data used to map Pan-Amazon forest cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Desch, Arthur; Curry, Troy; Altstatt, Alice; Devers, Didier; Townshend, John; Tucker, Compton

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is well documented and the contributions of Brazilian deforestation to global change have been extensively discussed in both scientific and popular literature [e.g., Skole and Tucker, 1993]. However, deforestation within the non-Brazilian tropics of South America has received much less attention. The Pan-Amazon region covering Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia comprises ˜2 million km2 of tropical forest that is under increasing pressure from logging and development. Wall-to-wall high-resolution forest cover maps are needed to properly document the complex distribution patterns of deforestation in the Pan-Amazon [Tucker and Townshend, 2000]. The Deforestation Mapping Group at the University of Marylands Global Land Cover Facility is using Landsat data to generate tropical forest cover maps in this region (Figure l). The study shows that while rates of forest loss are generally lower than those in Brazil, there are hot spots where deforestation rates run as high as 2,200 km2 yr1.

  2. Diatom Responses to Watershed Development and Potential Moderating Effects of Near-Stream Forest and Wetland Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed development alters hydrology and delivers anthropogenic stressors to streams via pathways affected by impervious cover. We characterized relationships of diatom communities and metrics with upstream watershed % impervious cover (IC) and with riparian % forest and wetlan...

  3. Digital Bedrock Compilation: A Geodatabase Covering Forest Service Lands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, D.; de La Fuente, J. A.; Reichert, M.

    2010-12-01

    This digital database contains bedrock geologic mapping for Forest Service lands within California. This compilation began in 2004 and the first version was completed in 2005. Second publication of this geodatabase was completed in 2010 and filled major gaps in the southern Sierra Nevada and Modoc/Medicine Lake/Warner Mountains areas. This digital map database was compiled from previously published and unpublished geologic mapping, with source mapping and review from California Geological Survey, the U.S. Geological Survey and others. Much of the source data was itself compilation mapping. This geodatabase is huge, containing ~107,000 polygons and ~ 280,000 arcs. Mapping was compiled from more than one thousand individual sources and covers over 41,000,000 acres (~166,000 km2). It was compiled from source maps at various scales - from ~ 1:4,000 to 1:250,000 and represents the best available geologic mapping at largest scale possible. An estimated 70-80% of the source information was digitized from geologic mapping at 1:62,500 scale or better. Forest Service ACT2 Enterprise Team compiled the bedrock mapping and developed a geodatabase to store this information. This geodatabase supports feature classes for polygons (e.g, map units), lines (e.g., contacts, boundaries, faults and structural lines) and points (e.g., orientation data, structural symbology). Lookup tables provide detailed information for feature class items. Lookup/type tables contain legal values and hierarchical groupings for geologic ages and lithologies. Type tables link coded values with descriptions for line and point attributes, such as line type, line location and point type. This digital mapping is at the core of many quantitative analyses and derivative map products. Queries of the database are used to produce maps and to quantify rock types of interest. These include the following: (1) ultramafic rocks - where hazards from naturally occurring asbestos are high, (2) granitic rocks - increased

  4. Remote Sensing of Forest Cover in Boreal Zones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedykh, V. N.

    2011-12-01

    Ecological tension resulting from human activities generates a need for joint efforts of countries in the boreal zone aimed at sustainable forest development, including: conservation of forests binding carbon and ensuring stability of the atmosphere gas composition; preservation of purity and water content of forest areas as conditions ensuring sustainability of the historically formed structure of forest landscapes; and preservation of all flora and fauna species composition diversity as a condition for sustainable existence and functioning of forest ecosystems. We have to address these problems urgently due to climate warming which can interact with the forest cover. In particular, in the forest zone of Siberia, the climate aridization will inevitably result in periodic drying of shallow bogs and upland forests with thick forest litter. This will bring fires of unprecedented intensity which will lead to catastrophic atmospheric pollution. In this connection, the above problems can be solved only by the united efforts of boreal-zone countries, through establishing a uniform system for remote sensing of forests aimed at obtaining and periodic update of comprehensive information for rational decision-making in prevention of adverse human effect on the forest. A need to join efforts in this field of natural resource management is determined by disparate data which were created expressly for economic accounting units used mainly for the solution of economic timber resource problems. However, ecological tasks outlined above can be solved appropriately only by using uniform technologies that are registered within natural territorial complexes (landscapes) established throughout the entire boreal zone. Knowledge of forest state within natural territorial entities having specific physiographic conditions, with account for current and future anthropogenic load, allow one to define evidence-based forest growth potential at these landscapes to ensure development of

  5. Potential of Different Optical and SAR Data in Forest and Land Cover Classification to Support REDD+ MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sirro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR data for land cover classification to support REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation MRV (measuring, reporting and verification services was tested on a tropical to sub-tropical test site. The 100 km by 100 km test site was situated in the State of Chiapas in Mexico. Land cover classifications were computed using RapidEye and Landsat TM optical satellite images and ALOS PALSAR L-band and Envisat ASAR C-band images. Identical sample plot data from Kompsat-2 imagery of one-metre spatial resolution were used for the accuracy assessment. The overall accuracy for forest and non-forest classification varied between 95% for the RapidEye classification and 74% for the Envisat ASAR classification. For more detailed land cover classification, the accuracies varied between 89% and 70%, respectively. A combination of Landsat TM and ALOS PALSAR data sets provided only 1% improvement in the overall accuracy. The biases were small in most classifications, varying from practically zero for the Landsat TM based classification to a 7% overestimation of forest area in the Envisat ASAR classification. Considering the pros and cons of the data types, we recommend optical data of 10 m spatial resolution as the primary data source for REDD MRV purposes. The results with L-band SAR data were nearly as accurate as the optical data but considering the present maturity of the imaging systems and image analysis methods, the L-band SAR is recommended as a secondary data source. The C-band SAR clearly has poorer potential than the L-band but it is applicable in stratification for a statistical sampling when other image types are unavailable.

  6. Predicting Pinus monophylla forest cover in the Baja California Desert by remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Escobar-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Californian single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla var. californiarum, a subspecies of the single-leaf pinyon (the world’s only one-needled pine, inhabits semi-arid zones of the Mojave Desert (southern Nevada and southeastern California, US and also of northern Baja California (Mexico. This tree is distributed as a relict subspecies, at elevations of between 1,010 and 1,631 m in the geographically isolated arid Sierra La Asamblea, an area characterized by mean annual precipitation levels of between 184 and 288 mm. The aim of this research was (i to estimate the distribution of P. monophylla var. californiarum in Sierra La Asamblea by using Sentinel-2 images, and (ii to test and describe the relationship between the distribution of P. monophylla and five topographic and 18 climate variables. We hypothesized that (i Sentinel-2 images can be used to predict the P. monophylla distribution in the study site due to the finer resolution (×3 and greater number of bands (×2 relative to Landsat-8 data, which is publically available free of charge and has been demonstrated to be useful for estimating forest cover, and (ii the topographical variables aspect, ruggedness and slope are particularly important because they represent important microhabitat factors that can determine the sites where conifers can become established and persist. An atmospherically corrected a 12-bit Sentinel-2A MSI image with 10 spectral bands in the visible, near infrared, and short-wave infrared light region was used in combination with the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI. Supervised classification of this image was carried out using a backpropagation-type artificial neural network algorithm. Stepwise multiple linear binominal logistical regression and Random Forest classification including cross validation were used to model the associations between presence/absence of P. monophylla and the five topographical and 18 climate variables. Using supervised

  7. Abundance and distribution of sylvatic dengue virus vectors in three different land cover types in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine I; Mundis, Stephanie; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Tesh, Robert B; Cardosa, Jane; Vasilakis, Nikos; Perera, David; Hanley, Kathryn A

    2017-08-31

    Mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is maintained in a sylvatic, enzootic cycle of transmission between canopy-dwelling non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in Borneo. Sylvatic DENV can spill over into humans living in proximity to forest foci of transmission, in some cases resulting in severe dengue disease. The most likely vectors of such spillover (bridge vectors) in Borneo are Ae. albopictus and Ae. niveus. Borneo is currently experiencing extensive forest clearance. To gauge the effect of this change in forest cover on the likelihood of sylvatic DENV spillover, it is first necessary to characterize the distribution of bridge vectors in different land cover types. In the current study, we hypothesized that Ae. niveus and Ae. albopictus would show significantly different distributions in different land cover types; specifically, we predicted that Ae. niveus would be most abundant in forests whereas Ae. albopictus would have a more even distribution in the landscape. Mosquitoes were collected from a total of 15 sites using gravid traps and a backpack aspirator around Kampong Puruh Karu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, where sylvatic DENV spillover has been documented. A total of 2447 mosquitoes comprising 10 genera and 4 species of Aedes, were collected over the three years, 2013, 2014 and 2016, in the three major land cover types in the area, homestead, agriculture and forest. Mosquitoes were identified morphologically, pooled by species and gender, homogenized, and subject to DNA barcoding of each Aedes species and to arbovirus screening. As predicted, Ae. niveus was found almost exclusively in forests whereas Ae. albopictus was collected in all land cover types. Aedes albopictus was significantly (P = 0.04) more abundant in agricultural fields than forests. Sylvatic DENV was not detected in any Aedes mosquito pools, however genomes of 14 viruses were detected using next generation sequencing. Land cover type affects the abundance and distribution of the most

  8. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  9. Cropland management dynamics as a driver of forest cover change in European Russia (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyukavina, A.; Krylov, A.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.; McCarty, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The European part of Russia spans over 40% of the European subcontinent and comprises most of Europe's temperate and boreal forests. The region has undergone a socio-economic transition during the last two decades that has resulted in radical changes in land management. Large-scale agriculture land abandonment caused massive afforestation in the Central and Northern parts of the region (Alcantara et al. 2012). Afforestation of former croplands is currently not included in the official forestry statistical reports (Potapov et al. 2012), but is likely to have major impacts on regional carbon budgets (Kuemmerle et al. 2009). We employed a complete archive of Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery and automatic data processing algorithm to create regional time-sequential image composites and multi-temporal metrics for 1985-2012. Spectral metrics were used as independent variables to map forest cover and change with help of supervised machine learning algorithms and trend analysis. Forest cover loss was attributed to fires, harvesting, and wind/disease dynamics, while forest cover gain was disaggregated into reforestation and afforestation using pre-1990 TM imagery as baseline data. Special attention was paid to agricultural abandonment. Fire events of the last decade have been further characterized by ignition place, time, and burning intensity using MODIS fire detection data. Change detection products have been validated using field data collected during summer 2012 and 2013 and high resolution imagery. Massive arable land abandonment caused forest area increase within Central agricultural regions. While total logging area decreased after the USSR breakdown, logging and other forms of clearing increased within the Central and Western parts of the region. Gross forest gain and loss were nearly balanced within region; however, the most populated regions of European Russia featured the highest rate of net forest cover loss during the last decade. The annual burned forest area as

  10. Comparison results of forest cover mapping of Peninsular Malaysia using geospatial technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Wan Abdul; Abd Rahman, Shukri B. Wan

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and global warming transpire due to several factors. Among them is deforestation which occur mostly in developing countries including Malaysia where forested areas are converted to other land use for tangible economic returns and to a smaller extent, as subsistence for local communities. As a cause for concern, efforts have been taken by the World Resource Institute (WRI) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to monitor forest loss using geospatial technology - interpreting time-based remote sensing imageries and producing statistics of forested areas lost since 2001. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia(FDPM) has conducted forest cover mapping for the region using the same technology since 2011, producing GIS maps for 2009-2010,2011-2012,2013-2014 and 2015. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the results generated from WRI,WWF and FDPM interpretations between 2010 and 2015, the methodologies used, the similarities and differences, challenges and recommendations for future enhancement of forest cover mapping technique.

  11. Effects of Simulated Forest Cover Change on Projected Climate Change – a Case Study of Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GÁLOS, Borbála

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic effects of forest cover change have been investigated for Hungary applying theregional climate model REMO. For the end of the 21st century (2071–2100 case studies have beenanalyzed assuming maximal afforestation (forests covering all vegetated area and completedeforestation (forests replaced by grasslands of the country. For 2021–2025, the climatic influence ofthe potential afforestation based on a detailed national survey has been assessed. The simulationresults indicate that maximal afforestation may reduce the projected climate change through coolerand moister conditions for the entire summer period. The magnitude of the simulated climate changemitigating effect of the forest cover increase differs among regions. The smallest climatic benefit wascalculated in the southwestern region, in the area with the potentially strongest climate change. Thestrongest effects of maximal afforestation are expected in the northeastern part of the country. Here,half of the projected precipitation decrease could be relieved and the probability of summer droughtscould be reduced. The potential afforestation has a very slight feedback on the regional climatecompared to the maximal afforestation scenario.

  12. Specific 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in living soil cover plants of forest cenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, O.O.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Kazej, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the radionuclide content in 38 species of living soil cover plants were carried out in Pinetum myrtillosum, pleuroziosum; Quercetum pteridiosum; Betuletum myrtillosum; Glutinoso-Alnetum filipendulosum, Glutinoso-Alnetum. Radiological monitoring for the 137 Cs and 90 Sr content in living cover plants of forest cenosis in Belarus allows 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation to be predicted for the plants of lower circles of forest cenosis. a obtained one can notice that the radionuclide accumulation intensity depends on the contamination density of the accumulation soil layer, forest growing conditions, species and first of all on the weather conditions of the year of observation. Unfavourable conditions (drought) lead to an increase in 137 Cs accumulation by a factor of 3-5 depending on the plant species. The maximum values was obtained in ferns which grow under all the controlled forest growing conditions. The species specific character of 137 Cs and 90 Sr accumulation is due to their ecological-physiological peculiarities. The relationship was found between the caesium-137 accumulation and macro element quantity in overground organs of living soil cover plants. (authors)

  13. The managed clearing: An overlooked land-cover type in urbanizing regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Marguerite; Gray, Josh; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2018-01-01

    Urban ecosystem assessments increasingly rely on widely available map products, such as the U.S. Geological Service (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and datasets that use generic classification schemes to detect and model large-scale impacts of land-cover change. However, utilizing existing map products or schemes without identifying relevant urban class types such as semi-natural, yet managed land areas that account for differences in ecological functions due to their pervious surfaces may severely constrain assessments. To address this gap, we introduce the managed clearings land-cover type–semi-natural, vegetated land surfaces with varying degrees of management practices–for urbanizing landscapes. We explore the extent to which managed clearings are common and spatially distributed in three rapidly urbanizing areas of the Charlanta megaregion, USA. We visually interpreted and mapped fine-scale land cover with special attention to managed clearings using 2012 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) images within 150 randomly selected 1-km2 blocks in the cities of Atlanta, Charlotte, and Raleigh, and compared our maps with National Land Cover Database (NLCD) data. We estimated the abundance of managed clearings relative to other land use and land cover types, and the proportion of land-cover types in the NLCD that are similar to managed clearings. Our study reveals that managed clearings are the most common land cover type in these cities, covering 28% of the total sampled land area– 6.2% higher than the total area of impervious surfaces. Managed clearings, when combined with forest cover, constitutes 69% of pervious surfaces in the sampled region. We observed variability in area estimates of managed clearings between the NAIP-derived and NLCD data. This suggests using high-resolution remote sensing imagery (e.g., NAIP) instead of modifying NLCD data for improved representation of spatial heterogeneity and

  14. Using IKONOS and Aerial Videography to Validate Landsat Land Cover Maps of Central African Tropical Rain Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Laporte, N. T.

    2003-12-01

    Compared to the traditional validation methods, aerial videography is a relatively inexpensive and time-efficient approach to collect "field" data for validating satellite-derived land cover map over large areas. In particular, this approach is valuable in remote and inaccessible locations. In the Sangha Tri-National Park region of Central Africa, where road access is limited to industrial logging sites, we are using IKONOS imagery and aerial videography to assess the accuracy of Landsat-derived land cover maps. As part of a NASA Land Cover Land Use Change project (INFORMS) and in collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society in the Republic of Congo, over 1500km of aerial video transects were collected in the Spring of 2001. The use of MediaMapper software combined with a VMS 200 video mapping system enabled the collection of aerial transects to be registered with geographic locations from a Geographic Positioning System. Video frame were extracted, visually interpreted, and compared to land cover types mapped by Landsat. We addressed the limitations of accuracy assessment using aerial-base data and its potential for improving vegetation mapping in tropical rain forests. The results of the videography and IKONOS image analysis demonstrate the utility of very high resolution imagery for map validation and forest resource assessment.

  15. Forest Aboveground Biomass Mapping and Canopy Cover Estimation from Simulated ICESat-2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narine, L.; Popescu, S. C.; Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The assessment of forest aboveground biomass (AGB) can contribute to reducing uncertainties associated with the amount and distribution of terrestrial carbon. With a planned launch date of July 2018, the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) will provide data which will offer the possibility of mapping AGB at global scales. In this study, we develop approaches for utilizing vegetation data that will be delivered in ICESat-2's land-vegetation along track product (ATL08). The specific objectives are to: (1) simulate ICESat-2 photon-counting lidar (PCL) data using airborne lidar data, (2) utilize simulated PCL data to estimate forest canopy cover and AGB and, (3) upscale AGB predictions to create a wall-to-wall AGB map at 30-m spatial resolution. Using existing airborne lidar data for Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) located in southeastern Texas and known ICESat-2 beam locations, PCL data are simulated from discrete return lidar points. We use multiple linear regression models to relate simulated PCL metrics for 100 m segments along the ICESat-2 ground tracks to AGB from a biomass map developed using airborne lidar data and canopy cover calculated from the same. Random Forest is then used to create an AGB map from predicted estimates and explanatory data consisting of spectral metrics derived from Landsat TM imagery and land cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Findings from this study will demonstrate how data that will be acquired by ICESat-2 can be used to estimate forest structure and characterize the spatial distribution of AGB.

  16. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Efremova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  17. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  18. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  19. Evaluation of SLAR and simulated thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.; Dean, M. E.; Knowlton, D. J.; Latty, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Kershaw County, South Carolina was selected as the study site for analyzing simulated thematic mapper MSS data and dual-polarized X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The impact of the improved spatial and spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT D thematic mapper data on computer aided analysis for forest cover type mapping was examined as well as the value of synthetic aperture radar data for differentiating forest and other cover types. The utility of pattern recognition techniques for analyzing SAR data was assessed. Topics covered include: (1) collection and of TMS and reference data; (2) reformatting, geometric and radiometric rectification, and spatial resolution degradation of TMS data; (3) development of training statistics and test data sets; (4) evaluation of different numbers and combinations of wavelength bands on classification performance; (5) comparison among three classification algorithms; and (6) the effectiveness of the principal component transformation in data analysis. The collection, digitization, reformatting, and geometric adjustment of SAR data are also discussed. Image interpretation results and classification results are presented.

  20. Analysis of correlation between full-waveform metrics, scan geometry and land-cover: an application over forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pirotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a correct use of metrics derived from processing of the full-waveform return signal from airborne laser scanner sensors any correlation which is not related to properties of the reflecting target must be known and, if possible, removed. In the following article we report on an analysis of correlation between several metrics extracted from the full-waveform return signal and scan characteristics (mainly range and type of land-cover (urban, grasslands, forests. The metrics taken in consideration are the amplitude, normalized amplitude, width (full width at half maximum, asymmetry indicators, left and right energy content, and the cross-section calculated from width and normalized amplitude considering the range effect. The results show that scan geometry in this case does not have a significant impact scans over forest cover, except for range affecting amplitude and width distribution. Over complex targets such as vegetation canopy, other factors such as incidence angle have little meaning, therefore corrections of range effect are the most meaningful. A strong correlation with the type of land-cover is also shown by the distribution of the values of the metrics in the different areas taken in consideration.

  1. Multi-temporal and Dual-polarization Interferometric SAR for Land Cover Type Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xinshuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study SAR land cover classification method, this paper uses the multi-dimensional combination of temporal,polarization and InSAR data. The area covered by space borne data of ALOS PALSAR in Xunke County,Heilongjiang Province was chosen as test site. A land cover classification technique of SVM based on multi-temporal, multi-polarization and InSAR data had been proposed, using the sensitivity to land cover type of multi-temporal, multi-polarization SAR data and InSAR measurements, and combing time series characteristic of backscatter coefficient and correlation coefficient to identify ground objects. The results showed the problem of confusion between forest land and urban construction land can be nicely solved, using the correlation coefficient between HH and HV, and also combing the selected temporal, polarization and InSAR characteristics. The land cover classification result with higher accuracy is gotten using the classification algorithm proposed in this paper.

  2. The effect of land cover change to the biomass value in the forest region of West Java province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, M. I.; Waryono, T.; Rokhmatullah; Shidiq, I. P. A.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the issue of climate change as a public concern, information of carbon stock availability play an important role to describe the condition of forest ecosystems in the context of sustainable forest management. This study has the objective to identify land cover change during 2 decades (1996 – 2016) in the forest region and estimate the value of forest carbon stocks in west Java Province using remote sensing imagery. The land cover change information was obtained by visually interpreting the Landsat image, while the estimation of the carbon stock value was performed using the transformation of the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) which extracted from Landsat image. Biomass value is calculated by existing allometric equations. The results of this study shows that the forest area in the forest region of West Java Province have decreased from year to year, and the estimation value of forest carbon stock in the forest region of West Java Province also decreased from year to year.

  3. A temporal comparison of forest cover using digital earth science data and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Increased demands on forest resources and the recognition of old-growth forests as critical habitats and purifiers of the atmosphere have stimulated attention to forest harvest practices in the United States and worldwide. Visualization technology provides a means by which a history of forestry activities may be documented and presented to the public and decisionmakers. In this project, landsat multispectral scanner and thematic mapper images, acquired July 7, 1981, and July 8, 1991, respectively, were georeferenced, resampled, enhanced, and draped over U.S. Geological Survey 30-meter digital elevation models. These data then were used to create perspective views of portions of Mt. Hood Forest, Oregon. The "fly-by" animation (produced by rapidly displaying a sequence of these perspective views) conveys the forest cover change resulting from forest harvest activities over the 10-year period. This project shows the value of combining satellite data with base cartographic data and earth science information for use in public education and decision-making processes.

  4. Vegetation Analysis and Land Use Land Cover Classification of Forest in Uttara Kannada District India Using Remote Sensign and GIS Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppad, A. G.; Janagoudar, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    The study was conducted in Uttara Kannada districts during the year 2012-2014. The study area lies between 13.92° N to 15.52° N latitude and 74.08° E to 75.09° E longitude with an area of 10,215 km2. The Indian satellite IRS P6 LISS-III imageries were used to classify the land use land cover classes with ground truth data collected with GPS through supervised classification in ERDAS software. The land use and land cover classes identified were dense forest, horticulture plantation, sparse forest, forest plantation, open land and agriculture land. The dense forest covered an area of 63.32 % (6468.70 sq km) followed by agriculture 12.88 % (1315.31 sq. km), sparse forest 10.59 % (1081.37 sq. km), open land 6.09 % (622.37 sq. km), horticulture plantation and least was forest plantation (1.07 %). Settlement, stony land and water body together cover about 4.26 percent of the area. The study indicated that the aspect and altitude influenced the forest types and vegetation pattern. The NDVI map was prepared which indicated that healthy vegetation is represented by high NDVI values between 0.1 and 1. The non- vegetated features such as water bodies, settlement, and stony land indicated less than 0.1 values. The decrease in forest area in some places was due to anthropogenic activities. The thematic map of land use land cover classes was prepared using Arc GIS Software.

  5. VEGETATION ANALYSIS AND LAND USE LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST IN UTTARA KANNADA DISTRICT INDIA USING REMOTE SENSIGN AND GIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Koppad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Uttara Kannada districts during the year 2012–2014. The study area lies between 13.92° N to 15.52° N latitude and 74.08° E to 75.09° E longitude with an area of 10,215 km2. The Indian satellite IRS P6 LISS-III imageries were used to classify the land use land cover classes with ground truth data collected with GPS through supervised classification in ERDAS software. The land use and land cover classes identified were dense forest, horticulture plantation, sparse forest, forest plantation, open land and agriculture land. The dense forest covered an area of 63.32 % (6468.70 sq km followed by agriculture 12.88 % (1315.31 sq. km, sparse forest 10.59 % (1081.37 sq. km, open land 6.09 % (622.37 sq. km, horticulture plantation and least was forest plantation (1.07 %. Settlement, stony land and water body together cover about 4.26 percent of the area. The study indicated that the aspect and altitude influenced the forest types and vegetation pattern. The NDVI map was prepared which indicated that healthy vegetation is represented by high NDVI values between 0.1 and 1. The non- vegetated features such as water bodies, settlement, and stony land indicated less than 0.1 values. The decrease in forest area in some places was due to anthropogenic activities. The thematic map of land use land cover classes was prepared using Arc GIS Software.

  6. Land related grievances shape tropical forest-cover in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Buritica, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Armed-conflicts often occur in tropical areas considered to be of high ‘conservation-value’, termed as such for their biodiversity or carbon-storage functions. Despite this important overlap, few studies have assessed how forest-biomass is affected by armed-conflicts. Thus, in this paper we develop...... a multinomial logit model to examine how outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage, armed-conflict and deforestation rates are linked to social, institutional and economic factors. We use Colombia as a case study because of its protracted armed-conflict, high forest-cover, sustained deforestation......-ownership disputes, the Colombian government might uphold their international climate change commitments via reducing deforestation and hence forest based carbon emissions, while pursuing their national security objective via undermining opportunities for guerrilla groups to operate....

  7. Evaluating Anthropogenic Risk of Grassland and Forest Habitat Degradation using Land-Cover Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple spatial scales. A landscape mosaic model classifies a given location according to the amounts of intensive agriculture and intensive development in its surrounding landscape, providing measures of anthropogenic risks attributable to habitat isolation and edge effects at that location. The model is implemented using a land-cover map (0.09 ha/pixel of the conterminous United States and six landscape sizes (4.4, 15.2, 65.6, 591, 5300, and 47800 ha to evaluate the spatial scales of anthropogenic risk. Statistics for grassland and forest habitat are extracted by geographic overlays of the maps of land-cover and landscape mosaics. Depending on landscape size, 81 to 94 percent of all grassland and forest habitat occurs in landscapes that are dominated by natural land-cover including habitat itself. Within those natural-dominated landscapes, 50 percent of grassland and 59 percent of forest is within 590 m of intensive agriculture and/or intensive developed land which is typically a minor component of total landscape area. The conclusion is that anthropogenic risk attributable to habitat patch isolation affects a small proportion of the total grassland or forest habitat area, while the majority of habitat area is exposed to edge effects.

  8. Response of Boreal forest tree canopy cover to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    A section of the Canadian Boreal forest was irradiated chronically by a point source of 137 Cs from 1973 to 1986. Tree canopy cover was measured at permanently marked locations during the pre-irradiation, irradiation and post-irradiation phases, spanning a period of two decades. The tree canopy was severely affected at dose rates greater than 10 mGy/h delivered chronically. The canopy of sensitive coniferous tree species, such as Abies balsamea and Picea Mariana, decreased at dose rates greater than 2 mGy/h, but in some cases the tree canopy was replaced by more resistant species, such as Populus tremuloides and Salix bebbiana. Effects on canopy cover could not be detected at dose rates less than 0.1 mGy/h. Even at dose rates of 5 mGy/h, the forest canopy is recovering six years after irradiation stopped. (author)

  9. An airborne gamma ray snow survey of a forest covered area with a deep snowpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, J.E.; Carroll, T.R.; Holman, P.B.; Grasty, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Problems arising from the airborne gamma ray measurement of snow water equivalent over a forest covered deep snowpack are examined. The principal sources of error are believed to be due to the radioactivity in the biomass and to variability in the snow cover. A theoretical model is developed to correct the airborne measurements for these sources of error. The application of the theory to data collected over the St. John River Basin, located in the eastern part of Canada and the United States, is found to significantly improve the airborne results

  10. Changes to the N cycle following bark beetle outbreaks in two contrasting conifer forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacob M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Dendroctonus beetles are causing extensive mortality in conifer forests throughout North America. However, nitrogen (N) cycling impacts among forest types are not well known. We quantified beetle-induced changes in forest structure, soil temperature, and N cycling in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of Greater Yellowstone (WY, USA), and compared them to published lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) data. Five undisturbed stands were compared to five beetle-killed stands (4-5 years post-outbreak). We hypothesized greater N cycling responses in Douglas-fir due to higher overall N stocks. Undisturbed Douglas-fir stands had greater litter N pools, soil N, and net N mineralization than lodgepole pine. Several responses to disturbance were similar between forest types, including a pulse of N-enriched litter, doubling of soil N availability, 30-50 % increase in understory cover, and 20 % increase in foliar N concentration of unattacked trees. However, the response of some ecosystem properties notably varied by host forest type. Soil temperature was unaffected in Douglas-fir, but lowered in lodgepole pine. Fresh foliar %N was uncorrelated with net N mineralization in Douglas-fir, but positively correlated in lodgepole pine. Though soil ammonium and nitrate, net N mineralization, and net nitrification all doubled, they remained low in both forest types (mineralization; litter and soil N cycling similarly in each forest type, despite substantial differences in pre-disturbance biogeochemistry. In contrast, soil temperature and soil N-foliar N linkages differed between host forest types. This result suggests that disturbance type may be a better predictor of litter and soil N responses than forest type due to similar disturbance mechanisms and disturbance legacies across both host-beetle systems.

  11. Inoculum production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to soils under different forest covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Soares dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low natural fertility of Brazilian soils requires the use of inoculants that facilitate the absorption of nutrients by plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as obligatory biotrophics of active roots perform this function, but access to this resource is limited by the difficulty in producing inoculants. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of AMF inoculants native of soils under different forest covers in Vitória da Conquista, BA, by means of spore quantification, colonization rate and species identification. For this purpose, soils were collected from sites under Mata Nativa (native forest and plantations of Madeira Nova (Pterogyne nitens and Eucalyptus, placed into separate 500 mL disposable cups with seeds of Brachiaria sp. and cultivated for five months. Spores were quantified and the AMF species identified in the control soil (without brachiaria and in the cups cultivated with brachiaria at each month. From the first month, the colonization rate of brachiaria roots was evaluated. The inoculants produced showed differences in the number of spores and species, in the AMF species identified, and in the root colonization rate as a function of the forest cover. Thus, considering the increase in the number of spores, species and colonization over time, the inoculant produced from the soil under native forest was more promising for utilization.

  12. Land cover and forest formation distributions for St. Kitts, Nevis, St. Eustatius, Grenada and Barbados from decision tree classification of cloud-cleared satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, E.H.; Kennaway, T.A.; Pedreros, D.H.; Clark, M.L.; Marcano-Vega, H.; Tieszen, L.L.; Ruzycki, T.R.; Schill, S.R.; Carrington, C.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite image-based mapping of tropical forests is vital to conservation planning. Standard methods for automated image classification, however, limit classification detail in complex tropical landscapes. In this study, we test an approach to Landsat image interpretation on four islands of the Lesser Antilles, including Grenada and St. Kitts, Nevis and St. Eustatius, testing a more detailed classification than earlier work in the latter three islands. Secondly, we estimate the extents of land cover and protected forest by formation for five islands and ask how land cover has changed over the second half of the 20th century. The image interpretation approach combines image mosaics and ancillary geographic data, classifying the resulting set of raster data with decision tree software. Cloud-free image mosaics for one or two seasons were created by applying regression tree normalization to scene dates that could fill cloudy areas in a base scene. Such mosaics are also known as cloud-filled, cloud-minimized or cloud-cleared imagery, mosaics, or composites. The approach accurately distinguished several classes that more standard methods would confuse; the seamless mosaics aided reference data collection; and the multiseason imagery allowed us to separate drought deciduous forests and woodlands from semi-deciduous ones. Cultivated land areas declined 60 to 100 percent from about 1945 to 2000 on several islands. Meanwhile, forest cover has increased 50 to 950%. This trend will likely continue where sugar cane cultivation has dominated. Like the island of Puerto Rico, most higher-elevation forest formations are protected in formal or informal reserves. Also similarly, lowland forests, which are drier forest types on these islands, are not well represented in reserves. Former cultivated lands in lowland areas could provide lands for new reserves of drier forest types. The land-use history of these islands may provide insight for planners in countries currently considering

  13. Regional Quantitative Cover Mapping of Tundra Plant Functional Types in Arctic Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Macander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem maps are foundational tools that support multi-disciplinary study design and applications including wildlife habitat assessment, monitoring and Earth-system modeling. Here, we present continuous-field cover maps for tundra plant functional types (PFTs across ~125,000 km2 of Alaska’s North Slope at 30-m resolution. To develop maps, we collected a field-based training dataset using a point-intercept sampling method at 225 plots spanning bioclimatic and geomorphic gradients. We stratified vegetation by nine PFTs (e.g., low deciduous shrub, dwarf evergreen shrub, sedge, lichen and summarized measurements of the PFTs, open water, bare ground and litter using the cover metrics total cover (areal cover including the understory and top cover (uppermost canopy or ground cover. We then developed 73 spectral predictors derived from Landsat satellite observations (surface reflectance composites for ~15-day periods from May–August and five gridded environmental predictors (e.g., summer temperature, climatological snow-free date to model cover of PFTs using the random forest data-mining algorithm. Model performance tended to be best for canopy-forming PFTs, particularly deciduous shrubs. Our assessment of predictor importance indicated that models for low-statured PFTs were improved through the use of seasonal composites from early and late in the growing season, particularly when similar PFTs were aggregated together (e.g., total deciduous shrub, herbaceous. Continuous-field maps have many advantages over traditional thematic maps, and the methods described here are well-suited to support periodic map updates in tandem with future field and Landsat observations.

  14. Climate change impacts detection in dry forested ecosystem as indicated by vegetation cover change in -Laikipia, of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'mboroki, Kiambi Gilbert; Wandiga, Shem; Oriaso, Silas Odongo

    2018-03-29

    The objective of the study was to detect and identify land cover changes in Laikipia County of Kenya that have occurred during the last three decades. The land use types of study area are six, of which three are the main and the other three are the minor. The main three, forest, shrub or bush land and grassland, changed during the period, of which grasslands reduced by 5864 ha (40%), forest by 3071 ha (24%) and shrub and bush land increased by 8912 ha (43%). The other three minor land use types were bare land which had reduced by 238 ha (45%), river bed vegetation increased by 209 ha (72%) and agriculture increased by 52 ha (600%) over the period decades. Differences in spatiotemporal variations of vegetation could be largely attributed to the effects of climate factors, anthropogenic activities and their interactions. Precipitation and temperature have been demonstrated to be the key climate factors for plant growth and vegetation development where rainfall decreased by 200 mm and temperatures increased by 1.5 °C over the period. Also, the opinion of the community on the change of land use and management was attributed to climate change and also adaptation strategies applied by the community over time. For example unlike the common understanding that forest resources utilisation increases with increasing human population, Mukogodo dry forested ecosystem case is different in that the majority of the respondents (78.9%) reported that the forest resource use was more in that period than now and also a similar majority (74.2%) had the same opinion that forest resource utilisation was low compared to last 30 years. In Yaaku community, change impacts were evidenced and thus mitigation measures suggested to address the impacts which included the following: controlled bush management and indigenous grass reseeding programme were advocated to restore original grasslands, and agricultural (crop farming) activities are carried out in designated areas outside the

  15. Assessment of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Forest Fragmentation in the Garhwal Himalayan Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Batar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Garhwal Himalaya has experienced extensive deforestation and forest fragmentation, but data and documentation detailing this transformation of the Himalaya are limited. The aim of this study is to analyse the observed changes in land cover and forest fragmentation that occurred between 1976 and 2014 in the Garhwal Himalayan region in India. Three images from Landsat 2 Multispectral Scanner System (MSS, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM, and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI were used to extract the land cover maps. A cross-tabulation detection method in the geographic information system (GIS module was used to detect land cover changes during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The landscape fragmentation tool LFT v2.0 was used to construct a forest fragmentation map and analyse the forest fragmentation pattern and change during the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014. The overall annual rate of change in the forest cover was observed to be 0.22% and 0.27% in the 1st period (1976–1998 and 2nd period (1998–2014, respectively. The forest fragmentation analysis shows that a large core forest has decreased throughout the study period. The total area of forest patches also increased from 1976 to 2014, which are completely degraded forests. The results indicate that anthropogenic activities are the main causes of the loss of forest cover and forest fragmentation, but that natural factors also contributed. An increase in the area of scrub and barren land also contributed to the accumulation of wasteland or non-forest land in this region. Determining the trend and the rate of land cover conversion is necessary for development planners to establish a rational land use policy.

  16. Forest Cover Associated with Improved Child Health and Nutrition: Evidence from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kiersten B.; Jacob, Anila; Brown, Molly Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Healthy forests provide human communities with a host of important ecosystem services, including the provision of food, clean water, fuel, and natural medicines. Yet globally, about 13 million hectares of forests are lost every year, with the biggest losses in Africa and South America. As biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation due to deforestation continue at unprecedented rates, with concomitant loss of ecosystem services, impacts on human health remain poorly understood. Here, we use data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, linked with satellite remote sensing data on forest cover, to explore and better understand this relationship. Our analysis finds that forest cover is associated with improved health and nutrition outcomes among children in Malawi. Children living in areas with net forest cover loss between 2000 and 2010 were 19% less likely to have a diverse diet and 29% less likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods than children living in areas with no net change in forest cover. Conversely, children living in communities with higher percentages of forest cover were more likely to consume vitamin A-rich foods and less likely to experience diarrhea. Net gain in forest cover over the 10-year period was associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of children experiencing diarrhea (P5.002). Given that our analysis relied on observational data and that there were potential unknown factors for which we could not account, these preliminary findings demonstrate only associations, not causal relationships, between forest cover and child health and nutrition outcomes. However, the findings raise concerns about the potential short- and long-term impacts of ongoing deforestation and ecosystem degradation on community health in Malawi, and they suggest that preventing forest loss and maintaining the ecosystems services of forests are important factors in improving human health and nutrition outcomes.

  17. Natural vegetation cover in the landscape and edge effects: differential responses of insect orders in a fragmented forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2017-10-01

    Human activities have led to global simplification of ecosystems, among which Neotropical dry forests are some of the most threatened. Habitat loss as well as edge effects may affect insect communities. Here, we analyzed insects sampled with pan traps in 9 landscapes (at 5 scales, in 100-500 m diameter circles) comprising cultivated fields and Chaco Serrano forests, at overall community and taxonomic order level. In total 7043 specimens and 456 species of hexapods were captured, with abundance and richness being directly related to forest cover at 500 m and higher at edges in comparison with forest interior. Community composition also varied with forest cover and edge/interior location. Different responses were detected among the 8 dominant orders. Collembola, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera richness and/or abundance were positively related to forest cover at the larger scale, while Thysanoptera abundance increased with forest cover only at the edge. Hymenoptera abundance and richness were negatively related to forest cover at 100 m. Coleoptera, Diptera, and Hymenoptera were more diverse and abundant at the forest edge. The generally negative influence of forest loss on insect communities could have functional consequences for both natural and cultivated systems, and highlights the relevance of forest conservation. Higher diversity at the edges could result from the simultaneous presence of forest and matrix species, although "resource mapping" might be involved for orders that were richer and more abundant at edges. Adjacent crops could benefit from forest proximity since natural enemies and pollinators are well represented in the orders showing positive edge effects. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Large-scale indicators for monitoring forest diversity of the main forest types in Calabria (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infusino M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Society’s perception of forest resources has gone through significant changes. Forest ecosystems play a multifunctional role and host an important portion of the whole biodiversity, particularly in the Mediterranean area. Remote sensing technologies provide a unique way to obtain spatially extensive information on forest ecosystems, but relatively few studies used such information to evaluate forest habitat and biotic diversity. In this paper we evaluate the effectiveness of remote sensing to predict forest diversity by linking remotely sensed information with diversity metrics obtained from ground measurements of butterfly diversity. The field work was carried out in Calabria in four different forest types (beech, chestnut, black pine and silver fir forests. The sampling of Lepidoptera was carried out by LED light traps. We positioned 9 traps per forest type, for a total of 36 sites chosen to sample the different stages of forest succession in each forest type. Samples were carried out once a month from May to November 2015. Data from in situ butterfly measurements were compared with above ground forest biomass estimated from airborne LiDAR with NDVI estimated from Landsat 8. Results indicated that the Geometridae/Noctuideae ratio of lepidopteran communities was significantly correlated with the tree biomass, its distribution among tree size classes and the NDVI. The Geometridae/Noctuidae ratio, therefore, represents an index easy to calculate, which can be employed to integrate data acquired from remote sensing in order to obtain continuous spatial estimates of forest naturalness.

  19. A non-parametric, supervised classification of vegetation types on the Kaibab National Forest using decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne M. Joy; R. M. Reich; Richard T. Reynolds

    2003-01-01

    Traditional land classification techniques for large areas that use Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are typically limited to the fixed spatial resolution of the sensors (30m). However, the study of some ecological processes requires land cover classifications at finer spatial resolutions. We model forest vegetation types on the Kaibab National Forest (KNF) in...

  20. From forest to farmland and moraine to meadow: Integrated modeling of Holocene land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era? While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene, both spatially and temporally. In order to address this problem, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive these integrated models with paleoclimate from GCM scenarios, a new synthesis of global demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a global database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years. We simulate land cover and land use change, fire, soil erosion, and emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4) from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850. We evaluate our simulations in part with a new set of continental-scale reconstructions of land cover based on records from the Global Pollen Database. Our model results show that climate and tectonic change controlled global land cover in the early Holocene, e.g., shifts in forest biomes in northern continents show an expansion of temperate tree types far to the north of their present day limits, but that by the early Iron Age (1000 BC), humans in Europe, east Asia, and Mesoamerica had a larger influence than natural processes on the landscape. 3000 years before present, anthropogenic deforestation was widespread with most areas of temperate Europe and southwest Asia, east-central China, northern India, and Mesoamerica occupied by a matrix of natural vegetation, cropland and pastures. Burned area and emissions of CO2 and CH4 from wildfires declined slowly over the entire Holocene, as landscape fragmentation and changing agricultural

  1. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  2. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.

    2012-08-01

    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  3. Mapping Annual Forest Cover in Sub-Humid and Semi-Arid Regions through Analysis of Landsat and PALSAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Qin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping the spatial distribution of forests in sub-humid to semi-arid regions over time is important for forest management but a challenging task. Relatively large uncertainties still exist in the spatial distribution of forests and forest changes in the sub-humid and semi-arid regions. Numerous publications have used either optical or synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing imagery, but the resultant forest cover maps often have large errors. In this study, we propose a pixel- and rule-based algorithm to identify and map annual forests from 2007 to 2010 in Oklahoma, USA, a transitional region with various climates and landscapes, using the integration of the L-band Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS PALSAR Fine Beam Dual Polarization (FBD mosaic dataset and Landsat images. The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient of the PALSAR/Landsat forest map were about 88.2% and 0.75 in 2010, with the user and producer accuracy about 93.4% and 75.7%, based on the 3270 random ground plots collected in 2012 and 2013. Compared with the forest products from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, National Land Cover Database (NLCD, Oklahoma Ecological Systems Map (OKESM and Oklahoma Forest Resource Assessment (OKFRA, the PALSAR/Landsat forest map showed great improvement. The area of the PALSAR/Landsat forest was about 40,149 km2 in 2010, which was close to the area from OKFRA (40,468 km2, but much larger than those from JAXA (32,403 km2 and NLCD (37,628 km2. We analyzed annual forest cover dynamics, and the results show extensive forest cover loss (2761 km2, 6.9% of the total forest area in 2010 and gain (3630 km2, 9.0% in southeast and central Oklahoma, and the total area of forests increased by 684 km2 from 2007 to 2010. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of data fusion between PALSAR and Landsat images for mapping annual forest cover dynamics in sub-humid to semi-arid regions, and the resultant forest maps would be

  4. Contrasting Convective Flux Gradients in the U.S. Corn Belt as a Result of Vegetation Land Cover Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, M.

    2017-12-01

    Phenological differences between extensive croplands and remnant forests in the U.S. Corn Belt have been suggested as enhancing spatial gradients of latent and sensible heat fluxes that contribute to the distribution and amounts of convective rainfall on mesoscales. However, the exact magnitude of the intra-seasonal variability in convective fluxes between these two land-cover types has yet to be quantified. Previous work suggesting that non-classical mesoscale circulations operate within the Corn Belt has not involved direct flux observations obtained using the eddy flux covariance technique. This study compares five day running means of daily heat fluxes between two Ameriflux towers (US-Bo1 in Illinois and US-MMS in Indiana) representing rain-fed cropland and remnant forest, respectively for the growing seasons of 1999-2008. Latent heat values normalized to the net radiation show higher rates of evapotranspiration at the forested site than over the cropland during the start of the growing season. However, toward the end of the growing season, latent heat fluxes from the forest decrease and the cropland becomes the dominate source of evapotranspiration. Conversely, croplands dominate sensible heat fluxes at the start of the growing season whereas the remnant forests are associated with strong sensible heat fluxes in late summer. These intra-seasonal spatial differences of latent and sensible heat fluxes across the Corn Belt imply differences in moisture pooling that are suggested as enhancing atmospheric convection during favorable synoptic conditions, especially near the boundaries of these two land cover types. Understanding the physical mechanisms by which the spatial distribution of vegetated land cover can generate contrasting latent and sensible heat fluxes will lay the groundwork for improving mesoscale precipitation forecasts in the Corn Belt, and determining the possible impacts of ongoing land-cover and climate changes there.

  5. Stability, Bistability, and Critical Thresholds in Fire-prone Forested Landscapes: How Frequency and Intensity of Disturbance Interact and Influence Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many aspects of disturbance processes can have large impacts on the composition of plant communities, and associated changes in land cover type in turn have biogeochemical feedbacks to climate. In particular, changes to disturbance regimes can potentially change the number and stability of equilibrial states, and plant community states can differ dramatically in their carbon (C) dynamics, energy balance, and hydrology. Using the Klamath region of northern California as a model system, we present a theoretical analysis of how changes to climate and associated fire dynamics can disrupt high-carbon, long-lived conifer forests and replace them with shrub-chaparral communities that have much lower biomass and are more pyrogenic. Specifically, we develop a tractable model of plant community dynamics, structured by size class, life-history traits, lottery-type competition, and species-specific responses to disturbance. We assess the stability of different states in terms of disturbance frequency and intensity, and quantitatively partition long-term low-density population growth rates into mechanisms that influence critical transitions from stable to bistable behavior. Our findings show how different aspects of disturbance act and interact to control competitive outcomes and stable states, hence ecosystem-atmosphere C exchange. Forests tend to dominate in low frequency and intensity regimes, while shrubs dominate at high fire frequency and intensity. In other regimes, the system is bistable, and the fate of the system depends both on initial conditions and random chance. Importantly, the system can cross a critical threshold where hysteresis prevents easy return to the prior forested state. We conclude that changes in disturbance-recovery dynamics driven by projected climate change can shift this system away from forest dominated in the direction of shrub-dominated landscape. This will result in a large net C release from the landscape, and alter biophysical ecosystem

  6. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    cover type); (iii) being compartment for deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (iv) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. For studying of ESC matching with others ecosystem compartments classifications the comparative analysis of corresponding classification schemas was done. It may be concluded that forest and natural grasslands site types as well the plant associations of forests and grasslands correlate (match) well with ESC and therefore these compartments may be adequately expressed on soil cover matrixes. Special interest merits humus cover (in many countries known as humus form), which is by the issue natural body between plant and soil or plant cover and soil cover. The humus cover, which lied on superficial part of soil cover, has been formed by functional interrelationships of plants and soils, reflects very well the local pedo-ecological conditions (both productivity and decomposition cycles) and, therefore, the humus cover types are good indicators for characterizing of local pedo-ecological conditions. The classification of humus covers (humus forms) should be bound with soil classifications. It is important to develop a pedocentric approach in treating of fabric and functioning of natural and agro-ecosystems. Such, based on soil properties, ecosystem approach to management and protection natural resources is highly recommended at least in temperate climatic regions. The sound matching of soil and plant cover is of decisive importance for sustainable functioning of ecosystem and in attaining a good environmental status of the area.

  7. Forest types of the "Argentino River Valley" Natural Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnato S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest classification is a fundamental target for understanding forest stand dynamics and for sustainable management strategy applications. In this paper the methodological approach of forest types, already used in other Italians region, was applied for the classification of the RNO "Argentino River Valley" (southern Apennine, Italy. This study has been organized in 4 steps: 1 bibliographic analysis and collection of the acquired knowledge; 2 preliminary verification of forest types in the field; 3 description of the different units; 4 final validation of typological units. Using this approach we have characterized 9 categories and 12 forest types units. The description of each units has been filed as cards, where information of different nature is summarized and related to the organization of the typological units, to its location, to the description of the qualitative indicators (disturbances, cohort, mortality, natural dynamic tendencies, SDT, CWD etc. and quantitative indicators (dbh, average height, current annual increment, etc., to the functioning and the current management. For a better understanding of types functioning, "sylvology models" based on the "Spatial Pattern of Relative Collective Interaction" (PSICR and on the principal characteristics influencing and characterizing forest stand dynamics (availability of resources, type and frequency of disturbances, stand development, etc. have been singled out and proposed. The "forest types map" and other maps useful for the management of forest resources have been obtained. Moreover, data collected did allow to formulate several hypotheses on sustainable management.

  8. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project - A case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungkul, S.; Suraswasdi, C.; Phonekeo, V.

    2014-02-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion.

  9. Net aboveground biomass declines of four major forest types with forest ageing and climate change in western Canada's boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han Y H; Luo, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Biomass change of the world's forests is critical to the global carbon cycle. Despite storing nearly half of global forest carbon, the boreal biome of diverse forest types and ages is a poorly understood component of the carbon cycle. Using data from 871 permanent plots in the western boreal forest of Canada, we examined net annual aboveground biomass change (ΔAGB) of four major forest types between 1958 and 2011. We found that ΔAGB was higher for deciduous broadleaf (DEC) (1.44 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) , 95% Bayesian confidence interval (CI), 1.22-1.68) and early-successional coniferous forests (ESC) (1.42, CI, 1.30-1.56) than mixed forests (MIX) (0.80, CI, 0.50-1.11) and late-successional coniferous (LSC) forests (0.62, CI, 0.39-0.88). ΔAGB declined with forest age as well as calendar year. After accounting for the effects of forest age, ΔAGB declined by 0.035, 0.021, 0.032 and 0.069 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) per calendar year in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. The ΔAGB declines resulted from increased tree mortality and reduced growth in all forest types except DEC, in which a large biomass loss from mortality was accompanied with a small increase in growth. With every degree of annual temperature increase, ΔAGB decreased by 1.00, 0.20, 0.55 and 1.07 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in DEC, ESC, MIX and LSC forests, respectively. With every cm decrease of annual climatic moisture availability, ΔAGB decreased 0.030, 0.045 and 0.17 Mg ha(-1)  year(-1) in ESC, MIX and LSC forests, but changed little in DEC forests. Our results suggest that persistent warming and decreasing water availability have profound negative effects on forest biomass in the boreal forests of western Canada. Furthermore, our results indicate that forest responses to climate change are strongly dependent on forest composition with late-successional coniferous forests being most vulnerable to climate changes in terms of aboveground biomass. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  11. Alterations to throughfall water and solute flux by Tillandsias usneoides L. (Spanish moss) cover in a maritime live oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, T. E.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Reichard, J. S.; Moore, L. D.; Lewis, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Alterations to forest canopy structures can have a direct effect on hydrological and biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. Epiphytes act as additional canopy biomass intercepting water, effecting pathways under different micrometeorological conditions and alternating nutrient uptake/releases. Most studies on epiphyte cover have focused on non-vascular epiphytes (e.g., lichen and bryophyte mosses), leaving vascular epiphytes like Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) relatively understudied. To fill this gap, we characterized alterations to throughfall water and dissolved ion enrichment/flux to soils by T. usneoides in a Quercus Virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) stand on St. Catherine's Island. Specifically, we compare throughfall generated from heavy T. usneoides coverage, bare canopy, and a continuum of T. usneoides cover percentages (~400 water & 210 chemistry observations over ~40 storms for each canopy cover category). Findings show T.usneoides acts as a significant water storage agent, significantly reducing throughfall. However, under certain meteorological conditions T. usneoides can become saturated and act as a funneling "hotspot." Tillandsia usneoides coverage enriched throughfall with primarily dry deposited ions (Na+,Cl-, SO42-, Li+), leached greater Mg2+, Ca2+, reduced NO3- and increased NH4+ concentrations. Dry deposited ion enrichment is likely a result of the moss' greater surface roughness. It has been shown that epiphytes prefer to leach Mg2+ and Ca2+. Increased NH4+ suggests that the saturated T. usneoides mat likely hosts microbial decomposition of leaf, branch, and bark biomass ensnared in the plant itself. K-means cluster analysis on the storms revealed 4 storm types of the differing meteorological conditions (windy/calm, dry/wet [high/low VPD], high/low intensity, intermittent/consistent), and these throughfall dynamics varied between these storm types. Discussion of future research questions regarding how these throughfall

  12. Gross and net land cover changes in the main plant functional types derived from the annual ESA CCI land cover maps (1992-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; MacBean, Natasha; Ciais, Philippe; Defourny, Pierre; Lamarche, Céline; Bontemps, Sophie; Houghton, Richard A.; Peng, Shushi

    2018-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) impacts local energy and water balance and contributes on global scale to a net carbon emission to the atmosphere. The newly released annual ESA CCI (climate change initiative) land cover maps provide continuous land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, and can be used in land surface models (LSMs) to simulate LULCC effects on carbon stocks and on surface energy budgets. Here we investigate the absolute areas and gross and net changes in different plant functional types (PFTs) derived from ESA CCI products. The results are compared with other datasets. Global areas of forest, cropland and grassland PFTs from ESA are 30.4, 19.3 and 35.7 million km2 in the year 2000. The global forest area is lower than that from LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), Hansen et al. (2013) or Houghton and Nassikas (2017) while cropland area is higher than LUH2v2h (Hurtt et al., 2011), in which cropland area is from HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016). Gross forest loss and gain during 1992-2015 are 1.5 and 0.9 million km2 respectively, resulting in a net forest loss of 0.6 million km2, mainly occurring in South and Central America. The magnitudes of gross changes in forest, cropland and grassland PFTs in the ESA CCI are smaller than those in other datasets. The magnitude of global net cropland gain for the whole period is consistent with HYDE 3.2 (Klein Goldewijk et al., 2016), but most of the increases happened before 2004 in ESA and after 2007 in HYDE 3.2. Brazil, Bolivia and Indonesia are the countries with the largest net forest loss from 1992 to 2015, and the decreased areas are generally consistent with those from Hansen et al. (2013) based on Landsat 30 m resolution images. Despite discrepancies compared to other datasets, and uncertainties in converting into PFTs, the new ESA CCI products provide the first detailed long-term time series of land-cover change and can be implemented in LSMs to characterize recent carbon dynamics

  13. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  14. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  15. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  16. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briber, Brittain M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Reinmann, Andrew B; Raciti, Steve M; Dearborn, Victoria K; Holden, Christopher E; Dunn, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1). As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2) yr(-1). Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  17. Tree Productivity Enhanced with Conversion from Forest to Urban Land Covers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittain M Briber

    Full Text Available Urban areas are expanding, changing the structure and productivity of landscapes. While some urban areas have been shown to hold substantial biomass, the productivity of these systems is largely unknown. We assessed how conversion from forest to urban land uses affected both biomass structure and productivity across eastern Massachusetts. We found that urban land uses held less than half the biomass of adjacent forest expanses with a plot level mean biomass density of 33.5 ± 8.0 Mg C ha(-1. As the intensity of urban development increased, the canopy cover, stem density, and biomass decreased. Analysis of Quercus rubra tree cores showed that tree-level basal area increment nearly doubled following development, increasing from 17.1 ± 3.0 to 35.8 ± 4.7 cm(2 yr(-1. Scaling the observed stem densities and growth rates within developed areas suggests an aboveground biomass growth rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 Mg C ha(-1 yr(-1, a growth rate comparable to nearby, intact forests. The contrasting high growth rates and lower biomass pools within urban areas suggest a highly dynamic ecosystem with rapid turnover. As global urban extent continues to grow, cities consider climate mitigation options, and as the verification of net greenhouse gas emissions emerges as critical for policy, quantifying the role of urban vegetation in regional-to-global carbon budgets will become ever more important.

  18. Spatial patterns of land cover in the United States: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Land cover patterns inventoried from a national land cover map provide information about the landscape context and fragmentation of the Nation’s forests, grasslands, and shrublands. This inventory is required to quantify, map, and evaluate the capacities of landscapes to provide ecological goods and services sustainably. This report documents the procedures to...

  19. Optimizing continuous cover management of boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross- and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross- and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14% higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  20. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  1. VT Ecological Land Types - Green Mountain National Forest - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The EcologicOther_ELT (Ecological Land Type) data layer was developed by the Green Mountain National Forest in the early 1980's from aerial...

  2. Minimum forest cover required for sustainable water flow regulation of a watershed: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarigan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many tropical regions, the rapid expansion of monoculture plantations has led to a sharp decline in forest cover, potentially degrading the ability of watersheds to regulate water flow. Therefore, regional planners need to determine the minimum proportion of forest cover that is required to support adequate ecosystem services in these watersheds. However, to date, there has been little research on this issue, particularly in tropical areas where monoculture plantations are expanding at an alarming rate. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the influence of forest cover and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations on the partitioning of rainfall into direct runoff and subsurface flow in a humid, tropical watershed in Jambi Province, Indonesia. To do this, we simulated streamflow with a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and observed several watersheds to derive the direct runoff coefficient (C and baseflow index (BFI. The model had a strong performance, with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.80–0.88 (calibration and 0.80–0.85 (validation and percent bias values of −2.9–1.2 (calibration and 7.0–11.9 (validation. We found that the percentage of forest cover in a watershed was significantly negatively correlated with C and significantly positively correlated with BFI, whereas the rubber and oil palm plantation cover showed the opposite pattern. Our findings also suggested that at least 30 % of the forest cover was required in the study area for sustainable ecosystem services. This study provides new adjusted crop parameter values for monoculture plantations, particularly those that control surface runoff and baseflow processes, and it also describes the quantitative association between forest cover and flow indicators in a watershed, which will help regional planners in determining the minimum proportion of forest and the maximum proportion of plantation to ensure that a

  3. Minimum forest cover required for sustainable water flow regulation of a watershed: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Suria; Wiegand, Kerstin; Sunarti; Slamet, Bejo

    2018-01-01

    In many tropical regions, the rapid expansion of monoculture plantations has led to a sharp decline in forest cover, potentially degrading the ability of watersheds to regulate water flow. Therefore, regional planners need to determine the minimum proportion of forest cover that is required to support adequate ecosystem services in these watersheds. However, to date, there has been little research on this issue, particularly in tropical areas where monoculture plantations are expanding at an alarming rate. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the influence of forest cover and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations on the partitioning of rainfall into direct runoff and subsurface flow in a humid, tropical watershed in Jambi Province, Indonesia. To do this, we simulated streamflow with a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and observed several watersheds to derive the direct runoff coefficient (C) and baseflow index (BFI). The model had a strong performance, with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.80-0.88 (calibration) and 0.80-0.85 (validation) and percent bias values of -2.9-1.2 (calibration) and 7.0-11.9 (validation). We found that the percentage of forest cover in a watershed was significantly negatively correlated with C and significantly positively correlated with BFI, whereas the rubber and oil palm plantation cover showed the opposite pattern. Our findings also suggested that at least 30 % of the forest cover was required in the study area for sustainable ecosystem services. This study provides new adjusted crop parameter values for monoculture plantations, particularly those that control surface runoff and baseflow processes, and it also describes the quantitative association between forest cover and flow indicators in a watershed, which will help regional planners in determining the minimum proportion of forest and the maximum proportion of plantation to ensure that a watershed can provide

  4. 28 CFR 55.10 - Types of elections covered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of election, whether it is a primary, general or special election. Section 14(c)(1). This includes... and referendums. Federal, State and local elections are covered as are elections of special districts, such as school districts and water districts. (b) Elections for statewide office. If an election...

  5. Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlyustov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Information system of forest growth and productivity by site quality type and elements of forest V.K. Khlustov Head of the Forestry Department of Russian State Agrarian University named after K.A.Timiryazev doctor of agricultural sciences, professor The efficiency of forest management can be improved substantially by development and introduction of principally new models of forest growth and productivity dynamics based on regionalized site specific parameters. Therefore an innovative information system was developed. It describes the current state and gives a forecast for forest stand parameters: growth, structure, commercial and biological productivity depend on type of site quality. In contrast to existing yield tables, the new system has environmental basis: site quality type. The information system contains set of multivariate statistical models and can work at the level of individual trees or at the stand level. The system provides a graphical visualization, as well as export of the emulation results. The System is able to calculate detailed description of any forest stand based on five initial indicators: site quality type, site index, stocking, composition, and tree age by elements of the forest. The results of the model run are following parameters: average diameter and height, top height, number of trees, basal area, growing stock (total, commercial with distribution by size, firewood and residuals), live biomass (stem, bark, branches, foliage). The system also provides the distribution of mentioned above forest stand parameters by tree diameter classes. To predict the future forest stand dynamics the system require in addition the time slot only. Full set of forest parameters mention above will be provided by the System. The most conservative initial parameters (site quality type and site index) can be kept in the form of geo referenced polygons. In this case the system would need only 3 dynamic initial parameters (stocking, composition and age) to

  6. Combining global land cover datasets to quantify agricultural expansion into forests in Latin America: Limitations and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, U. Martin

    2017-01-01

    While we know that deforestation in the tropics is increasingly driven by commercial agriculture, most tropical countries still lack recent and spatially-explicit assessments of the relative importance of pasture and cropland expansion in causing forest loss. Here we present a spatially explicit quantification of the extent to which cultivated land and grassland expanded at the expense of forests across Latin America in 2001–2011, by combining two “state-of-the-art” global datasets (Global Forest Change forest loss and GlobeLand30-2010 land cover). We further evaluate some of the limitations and challenges in doing this. We find that this approach does capture some of the major patterns of land cover following deforestation, with GlobeLand30-2010’s Grassland class (which we interpret as pasture) being the most common land cover replacing forests across Latin America. However, our analysis also reveals some major limitations to combining these land cover datasets for quantifying pasture and cropland expansion into forest. First, a simple one-to-one translation between GlobeLand30-2010’s Cultivated land and Grassland classes into cropland and pasture respectively, should not be made without caution, as GlobeLand30-2010 defines its Cultivated land to include some pastures. Comparisons with the TerraClass dataset over the Brazilian Amazon and with previous literature indicates that Cultivated land in GlobeLand30-2010 includes notable amounts of pasture and other vegetation (e.g. in Paraguay and the Brazilian Amazon). This further suggests that the approach taken here generally leads to an underestimation (of up to ~60%) of the role of pasture in replacing forest. Second, a large share (~33%) of the Global Forest Change forest loss is found to still be forest according to GlobeLand30-2010 and our analysis suggests that the accuracy of the combined datasets, especially for areas with heterogeneous land cover and/or small-scale forest loss, is still too poor for

  7. Combining global land cover datasets to quantify agricultural expansion into forests in Latin America: Limitations and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Pendrill

    Full Text Available While we know that deforestation in the tropics is increasingly driven by commercial agriculture, most tropical countries still lack recent and spatially-explicit assessments of the relative importance of pasture and cropland expansion in causing forest loss. Here we present a spatially explicit quantification of the extent to which cultivated land and grassland expanded at the expense of forests across Latin America in 2001-2011, by combining two "state-of-the-art" global datasets (Global Forest Change forest loss and GlobeLand30-2010 land cover. We further evaluate some of the limitations and challenges in doing this. We find that this approach does capture some of the major patterns of land cover following deforestation, with GlobeLand30-2010's Grassland class (which we interpret as pasture being the most common land cover replacing forests across Latin America. However, our analysis also reveals some major limitations to combining these land cover datasets for quantifying pasture and cropland expansion into forest. First, a simple one-to-one translation between GlobeLand30-2010's Cultivated land and Grassland classes into cropland and pasture respectively, should not be made without caution, as GlobeLand30-2010 defines its Cultivated land to include some pastures. Comparisons with the TerraClass dataset over the Brazilian Amazon and with previous literature indicates that Cultivated land in GlobeLand30-2010 includes notable amounts of pasture and other vegetation (e.g. in Paraguay and the Brazilian Amazon. This further suggests that the approach taken here generally leads to an underestimation (of up to ~60% of the role of pasture in replacing forest. Second, a large share (~33% of the Global Forest Change forest loss is found to still be forest according to GlobeLand30-2010 and our analysis suggests that the accuracy of the combined datasets, especially for areas with heterogeneous land cover and/or small-scale forest loss, is still too

  8. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  9. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno; Dennis G. Simmerman; Robert E. Keane

    1985-01-01

    Presents classifications of successional community types on four major forest habitat types in western Montana. Classifications show the sequences of seral community types developing after stand-replacing wildfire and clearcutting with broadcast burning, mechanical scarification, or no followup treatment. Information is provided for associating vegetational response to...

  10. Kalman filter for statistical monitoring of forest cover across sub-continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1991-01-01

    The Kalman filter is a multivariate generalization of the composite estimator which recursively combines a current direct estimate with a past estimate that is updated for expected change over time with a prediction model. The Kalman filter can estimate proportions of different cover types for sub-continental regions each year. A random sample of high-resolution...

  11. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    An accurate characterization of tree, understory, deadwood, floor litter, and soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in temperate forest ecosystems is important to estimate their contribution to global carbon (C) stocks. However, this information on temperate forests of the Himalayas is lacking and fragmented. In this study, we measured C stocks of tree (aboveground and belowground biomass), understory (shrubs and herbaceous), deadwood (standing and fallen trees and stumps), floor litter, and soil from 111 plots of 50 m × 50 m each, in seven forest types: Populus deltoides (PD), Juglans regia (JR), Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), Abies pindrow (AP), and Betula utilis (BU) in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India. The main objective of the present study is to quantify the ecosystem C pool in these seven forest types. The results showed that the tree biomass ranged from 100.8 Mg ha(-1) in BU forest to 294.8 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest. The understory biomass ranged from 0.16 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 2.36 Mg ha(-1) in PW forest. Deadwood biomass ranged from 1.5 Mg ha(-1) in PD forest to 14.9 Mg ha(-1) for the AP forest, whereas forest floor litter ranged from 2.5 Mg ha(-1) in BU and JR forests to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) in MC forest. The total ecosystem carbon stocks varied from 112.5 to 205.7 Mg C ha(-1) across all the forest types. The C stocks of tree, understory, deadwood, litter, and soil ranged from 45.4 to 135.6, 0.08 to 1.18, 0.7 to 6.8, 1.1 to 1.4, and 39.1-91.4 Mg ha(-1), respectively, which accounted for 61.3, 0.2, 1.4, 0.8, and 36.3 % of the total carbon stock. BU forest accounted 65 % from soil C and 35 % from biomass, whereas PD forest contributed only 26 % from soil C and 74 % from biomass. Of the total C stock in the 0-30-cm soil, about 55 % was stored in the upper 0-10 cm. Soil C stocks in BU forest were significantly higher than those in other forests. The variability of C pools of different ecosystem components is

  12. A multi-scale assessment of human and environmental constraints on forest land cover change on the Oregon (USA) coast range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Janet L. Ohmann

    2004-01-01

    Human modification of forest habitats is a major component of global environmental change. Even areas that remain predominantly forested may be changed considerably by human alteration of historical disturbance regimes. To better understand human influences on the abundance and pattern of forest habitats, we studied forest land cover change from 1936 to 1996 in a 25...

  13. Land Use and Land Cover Change in Forest Frontiers: The Role of Household Life Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Tropical deforestation remains a critical issue given its present rate and a widespread consensus regarding its implications for the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. Nowhere is the problem more pronounced than in the Amazon basin, home to the world's largest intact, tropical forest. This article addresses land cover change processes at household level in the Amazon basin, and to this end adapts a concept of domestic life cycle to the current institutional environment of tropical frontiers. In particular, it poses a risk minimization model that integrates demography with market-based factors such as transportation costs and accessibility. In essence, the article merges the theory of Chayanov with the household economy framework, in which markets exist for inputs (including labor), outputs, and capital. The risk model is specified and estimated, using survey data for 261 small producers along the Transamazon Highway in the eastern sector of the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a...

  15. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  18. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  20. Effect of land-use practice on soil moisture variability for soils covered with dense forest vegetation of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Senwo, Z.; Shaffer, D.; Zou, X.

    1998-01-01

    Little is known about the landuse management effect on soil moisture and soil pH distribution on a landscape covered with dense tropical forest vegetation. This study was conducted at three locations where the history of the landuse management is different. Soil moisture was measured using a 6-cm three-rod Time Domain Reflectometery (TDR) probe. Disturbed soil samples were taken from the top 5-cm at the up, mid, and foothill landscape position from the same spots where soil moisture was measured. The results showed that soil moisture varies with landscape position and depth at all three locations. Soil pH and moisture variability were found to be affected by the change in landuse management and landscape position. Soil moisture distribution usually expected to be relatively higher in the foothill (P3) area of these forests than the uphill (P1) position. However, our results indicated that in the Luquillo and Guanica site the surface soil moisture was significantly higher for P1 than P3 position. These suggest that the surface and subsurface drainage in these two sites may have been poor due to the nature of soil formation and type.

  1. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    the wet conifer mosaic. Major differences in the 1-km AVHRR and 30-m Landsat TM-derived land cover classes are most likely due to differences in the spatial resolution of the data sets. In general, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes are vegetation mosaics consisting of mixed combinations of the Landsat classes. Detailed mapping of the global boreal forest with this approach will benefit from algorithms for cloud screening and to atmospherically correct reflectance data for both aerosol and water vapor effects. We believe that this 1 km AVHRR land cover analysis provides new and useful information for regional water, energy, carbon, and trace gases studies in BOREAS, especially given the significant spatial variability in land cover type and associated biophysical land cover parameters (e.g., albedo, leaf area index, FPAR, and surface roughness). Multiresolution land cover comparisons (30 m, 1 km, and 100 km grid cells) also illustrated how heterogeneous landscape patterns are represented in land cover maps with differing spatial scales and provided insights on the requirements and challenges for parameterizing landscape heterogeneity as part of land surface process research.

  2. Climate Change Impact on Various Land Cover Types Water Balance in South Western Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Péter; Béla Brolly, Gábor; Czimber, Kornél; Kalicz, Péter; Kisfaludy, Balázs; Gribovszki, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Water balance of Zala county (South Western Hungary) was analyzed using remote-sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) 1-km spatial resolution maps for Hungary by Szilagyi and Kovacs over the 1999-2008 period [Szilagyi J., Kovacs A., 2011: A calibration-free evapotranspiration mapping technique for spatially-distributed regional-scale hydrologic modeling. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 59, 2011, 2, 118-130.]. Mean (1999-2008 period) annual evapotranspiration and runoff (as the difference of precipitation and evapotranspiration: R = P - ET) were analyzed in the context of land cover types (artificial surfaces, agricultural areas, forest and semi natural areas, wetlands, water bodies). The average ET of Zala county was 581 mm/year, it was more than 89 percent of the mean annual precipitation (650 mm/year). The highest mean annual ET values (1999-2008) determined for water bodies and wetlands. Forest and semi natural areas had higher mean annual value than agricultural areas, the lowest rate belonged to artificial surfaces. The maximum ET value was very high in case of water bodies (845 mm) as well as forest and semi natural areas (828 mm). Runoff was the largest on artificial surfaces (89 mm/year), and it was especially low for wetlands. Spatially-distributed calibration parameter of Budyko-model (alfa) was calculated by using temperature, precipitation and ET values. Another parameter, beta (which gives the relationship between pan-evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration) was calculated for those pixels, where the ET value was higher than the precipitation value, because the Budyko-type model for such type of pixels is not valid. The two parameter maps (alfa and beta) aggregate all of the factors affecting ET, dominantly the surface cover. They can be used for evaluating future ET and runoff in spatially-distributed mode. ET and runoff predictions have been done for three periods (2011-2040, 2041-2070, 2071-2100) using the parameter maps (alfa and beta) and future

  3. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  4. Using cluster analysis and a classification and regression tree model to developed cover types in the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose M. Iniguez; Joseph L. Ganey; Peter J. Daugherty; John D. Bailey

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rule based cover type classification system for the forest and woodland vegetation in the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona. In order to develop such system we qualitatively and quantitatively compared a hierarchical (Ward’s) and a non-hierarchical (k-means) clustering method. Ecologically, unique groups and plots...

  5. National forest cover change in Congo Basin: deforestation, reforestation, degradation and regeneration for the years 1990, 2000 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céline, Ernst; Philippe, Mayaux; Astrid, Verhegghen; Catherine, Bodart; Musampa, Christophe; Pierre, Defourny

    2013-04-01

    This research refers to an object-based automatic method combined with a national expert validation to produce regional and national forest cover change statistics over Congo Basin. A total of 547 sampling sites systematically distributed over the whole humid forest domain are required to cover the six Central African countries containing tropical moist forest. High resolution imagery is used to accurately estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and regeneration. The overall method consists of four steps: (i) image automatic preprocessing and preinterpretation, (ii) interpretation by national expert, (iii) statistic computation and (iv) accuracy assessment. The annual rate of net deforestation in Congo Basin is estimated to 0.09% between 1990 and 2000 and of net degradation to 0.05%. Between 2000 and 2005, this unique exercise estimates annual net deforestation to 0.17% and annual net degradation to 0.09%. An accuracy assessment reveals that 92.7% of tree cover (TC) classes agree with independent expert interpretation. In the discussion, we underline the direct causes and the drivers of deforestation. Population density, small-scale agriculture, fuelwood collection and forest's accessibility are closely linked to deforestation, whereas timber extraction has no major impact on the reduction in the canopy cover. The analysis also shows the efficiency of protected areas to reduce deforestation. These results are expected to contribute to the discussion on the reduction in CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and serve as reference for the period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath; Kenneth E. Skog; Richard A. Birdsey

    2006-01-01

    This study presents techniques for calculating average net annual additions to carbon in forests and in forest products. Forest ecosystem carbon yield tables, representing stand-level merchantable volume and carbon pools as a function of stand age, were developed for 51 forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for...

  7. Forest management type influences diversity and community composition of soil fungi across temperate forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezia eGoldmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive towards shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L., with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L. or spruce (Picea abies Karst. which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure.We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal OTU richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera.This study extends our knowledge

  8. Forest Management Type Influences Diversity and Community Composition of Soil Fungi across Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Buscot, François; Wubet, Tesfaye

    2015-01-01

    Fungal communities have been shown to be highly sensitive toward shifts in plant diversity and species composition in forest ecosystems. However, little is known about the impact of forest management on fungal diversity and community composition of geographically separated sites. This study examined the effects of four different forest management types on soil fungal communities. These forest management types include age class forests of young managed beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), with beech stands age of approximately 30 years, age class beech stands with an age of approximately 70 years, unmanaged beech stands, and coniferous stands dominated by either pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) or spruce (Picea abies Karst.) which are located in three study sites across Germany. Soil were sampled from 48 study plots and we employed fungal ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing to assess the soil fungal diversity and community structure. We found that forest management type significantly affects the Shannon diversity of soil fungi and a significant interaction effect of study site and forest management on the fungal operational taxonomic units richness. Consequently distinct fungal communities were detected in the three study sites and within the four forest management types, which were mainly related to the main tree species. Further analysis of the contribution of soil properties revealed that C/N ratio being the most important factor in all the three study sites whereas soil pH was significantly related to the fungal community in two study sites. Functional assignment of the fungal communities indicated that 38% of the observed communities were Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) and their distribution is significantly influenced by the forest management. Soil pH and C/N ratio were found to be the main drivers of the ECM fungal community composition. Additional fungal community similarity analysis revealed the presence of study site and management type specific ECM genera. This study extends our

  9. ESTIMATION OF STAND HEIGHT AND FOREST VOLUME USING HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO PHOTOGRAPHY AND FOREST TYPE MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha using normalized digital surface model (nDSM from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching. Then, digital terrain model (DTM was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.. Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (% and stand height (m. First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri’s ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service’s FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s–present will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  10. Responses of Two Litter-Based Invertebrate Communities to Changes in Canopy Cover in a Forest Subject to Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Richardson; Michael Richardson; Grizelle González

    2018-01-01

    Tropical forests are subject to seasonal hurricanes resulting in cycles of canopy opening and deposition of litter, followed by periods of recovery and canopy closure. Herein, we review two studies of litter-based communities in Puerto Rico; (i) a survey of bromeliad invertebrates in three montane forest types along an elevational gradient in 1993–1997, during a period...

  11. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M C; Potapov, P V; Moore, R; Hancher, M; Turubanova, S A; Tyukavina, A; Thau, D; Stehman, S V; Goetz, S J; Loveland, T R; Kommareddy, A; Egorov, A; Chini, L; Justice, C O; Townshend, J R G

    2013-11-15

    Quantification of global forest change has been lacking despite the recognized importance of forest ecosystem services. In this study, Earth observation satellite data were used to map global forest loss (2.3 million square kilometers) and gain (0.8 million square kilometers) from 2000 to 2012 at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. The tropics were the only climate domain to exhibit a trend, with forest loss increasing by 2101 square kilometers per year. Brazil's well-documented reduction in deforestation was offset by increasing forest loss in Indonesia, Malaysia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Zambia, Angola, and elsewhere. Intensive forestry practiced within subtropical forests resulted in the highest rates of forest change globally. Boreal forest loss due largely to fire and forestry was second to that in the tropics in absolute and proportional terms. These results depict a globally consistent and locally relevant record of forest change.

  12. Can cover data be used as a surrogate for seedling counts in regeneration stocking evaluations in northern hardwood forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd E. Ristau; Susan L. Stout

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of regeneration can be time-consuming and costly. Often, foresters look for ways to minimize the cost of doing inventories. One potential method to reduce time required on a plot is use of percent cover data rather than seedling count data to determine stocking. Robust linear regression analysis was used in this report to predict seedling count data from...

  13. L-Band SAR Backscatter Related to Forest Cover, Height and Aboveground Biomass at Multiple Spatial Scales across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha P.; Mitchard, Edward T A; Schumacher, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    may be confounded by variations in biophysical forest structure (density, height or cover fraction) and differences in the resolution of satellite and ground data. Here, we attempt to quantify the effect of these factors by relating L-band ALOS PALSAR HV backscatter and unique country-wide Li...

  14. Change detection by the IR-MAD and kernel MAF methods in Landsat TM data covering a Swedish forest region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Olsson, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Change over time between two 512 by 512 (25 m by 25 m pixels) multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper images dated 6 June 1986 and 27 June 1988 respectively covering a forested region in northern Sweden, is here detected by means of the iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-M...

  15. Comparison of pixel -based and artificial neural networks classification methods for detecting forest cover changes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deilmai, B R; Rasib, A W; Ariffin, A; Kanniah, K D

    2014-01-01

    According to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), Malaysia lost 8.6% of its forest cover between 1990 and 2005. In forest cover change detection, remote sensing plays an important role. A lot of change detection methods have been developed, and most of them are semi-automated. These methods are time consuming and difficult to apply. One of the new and robust methods for change detection is artificial neural network (ANN). In this study, (ANN) classification scheme is used to detect the forest cover changes in the Johor state in Malaysia. Landsat Thematic Mapper images covering a period of 9 years (2000 and 2009) are used. Results obtained with ANN technique was compared with Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) to investigate whether ANN can perform better in the tropical environment. Overall accuracy of the ANN and MLC techniques are 75%, 68% (2000) and 80%, 75% (2009) respectively. Using the ANN method, it was found that forest area in Johor decreased as much as 1298 km2 between 2000 and 2009. The results also showed the potential and advantages of neural network in classification and change detection analysis

  16. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  17. Long term changes in forest cover and land use of Similipal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study highlights the impact and effectiveness of conservation practices in minimizing the rate of deforestation and .... was obtained from the Ministry of Environment and Forest ..... reducing dependency of local people on forest prod-.

  18. Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2013-01-01

    Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

  19. Mixed Effectiveness of Africa's Tropical Protected Areas for Maintaining Forest Cover: Insights from a Global Forest Change Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A.; Bowker, J.; Ament, J.; Cumming, G.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We used Hansen et al.'s (2013) global forest change dataset to analyse park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples. We found that, although significant geographical variation exists between parks, the majority of African parks experienced significantly lower deforestation within their boundaries. Accessibility was a significant driver of deforestation, with less accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in ineffective parks and more accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in effective parks. Smaller parks were less effective at preventing forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks, and older parks were less effective than younger parks. Our analysis, which is the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrates the complexity of factors influencing the ability of a park to curb deforestation within its boundaries and highlights the potential of web-based remote sensing technology in monitoring protected area effectiveness.

  20. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  1. Survival of male Tengmalm’s owls increases with cover of old forest in the territory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkarainen, H.; Korpimäki, E.; Laaksonen, T.; Nikula, A.; Suorsa, P.

    2008-01-01

    The loss and fragmentation of forest habitats have been considered to pose a worldwide threat to the viability of forest-dwelling animals, especially to species that occupy old forests. We investigated whether the annual survival of sedentary male Tengmalm’s owls Aegolius funereus was associated

  2. Effect of forest fragmentation on the epiphytic lichen cover of pine trunks on the example taiga town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigysh Irina Sergeevna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of epiphytic lichen cover on pine trunks depending on the area of natural pine forest in Kostomuksha (north Karelia were analysed. The town of Kostomuksha was built so that to provide the conservation of forest sites. 56 fragments with the area of 0.04 - 6.13 ha were studied. The average area of fragment is 0.62 ha, with 49 fragments (88% having the area less than 1 ha. Biodiversity and lichen cover were studied in the each fragment with using framework 10x20 cm. 1792 sample plots were made on 448 trees. The total lichens cover varies from 0 to 85%,averaging 10%. 25 species of lichens were found. The number of species in the sample plots varies from 0 to 9. Dominant species found are Hypogymnia physodes, Parmeliopsis ambigua, P. hyperopta, Imshaugia aleurites, Cladonia. Species Alectoria sarmentosa, Cladonia macilenta, Pseudevernia fufruraceae, Bryoria fremontii were less common. It was shown that the main parameters of lichen cover are closely related to the size of the area left in the city forest fragments. The maximum values of species diversity and cover of lichens were found in the fragments of more 1-2 hectares.

  3. Land cover of oases and forest in XinJiang, China retrieved from ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhe, Aosier; Tsuchiya, K.; Kaneko, M.; Ohtaishi, N.; Halik, Mahmut

    ASTER aboard NASA’s satellite Terra is a high-resolution multispectral radiometer of 14 bands. The spatial resolution is 15 m in VNIR, 30 m in SWIR and 90 m in TIR spectra, respectively. With the data observed with ASTER, the land cover classification is produced for the Tarim Diversifolious Poplar Protection Area along the Tarim River in the northern Tarim Basin (Taklamakan Desert) in XinJiang, China. The classification of the vegetation (plants) in the arid and semiarid regions using remote-sensing technology is very difficult. Because the cause has low vegetable cover density and the influence of reflection from background soil is large. ASTER data are effective in studying the spectrum characteristics of land cover in arid and semiarid regions. The sensor has several bands in the shortwave infrared wavelength region that is designed for exploration of earth resources and study of the arid and semiarid region natural environment. However, we are not clear combination of which band is the most effective in research of the arid region like the Taklamakan desert in the data of 14 bands of ASTER. The optimum index factor (OIF), based on total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, is a statistical approach to rank all possible three-band combinations. In the process of analyzing the data, the pixel sizes of all the data are converted (layer stacking and re-sampling) into consistent same size of 15 m. The three-band composite with the largest OIF value will have most information (as measured by variance) with the least amount of duplication (as measured by correlation). We used the OIF technique to rank all three-band combinations of ASTER original 14-band data over Tarim River Poplar Protection Area. Our study indicates that RGB color overlay using atmospheric corrected ASTER original bands 2, 3 (VNIR), and 6 (SWIR) has the highest OIF. When NDVI is considered as one ASTER band, highest OIF will have by carrying out bands 3 (VNIR), 4

  4. Habitat typing versus advanced vegetation classification in western forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Kusbach; John Shaw; James Long; Helga Van Miegroet

    2012-01-01

    Major habitat and community types in northern Utah were compared with plant alliances and associations that were derived from fidelity- and diagnostic-species classification concepts. Each of these classification approaches was associated with important environmental factors. Within a 20,000-ha watershed, 103 forest ecosystems were described by physiographic features,...

  5. FOREST AND WOODLAND COVER AND CHANGE IN COASTAL TANZANIA AND KENYA, 1990 TO 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Karyn; Burgess, Neil David; Mbilinyi, Boniface P.

    2010-01-01

    , and local knowledge. Analyses showed that around 6820 km2 of coastal forest habitat remained in ~2000 (2260 km2 in Kenya and 4560 km2 in Tanzania). In terms of change, a total of 424 km2 (6%) of forest was cleared between ~1990 and ~2000; 53 km2 in Kenya and 371 km2 in Tanzania. Rates of forest loss were 8...... times higher in unprotected areas than in protected sites such as Forest Reserves and National Parks. Key Biodiversity Areas had forest loss rates 2.5 times faster than protected areas while Alliance for Zero Extinction sites had the slowest rates of forest loss for the region. These baseline forest...

  6. Land and Forest Management by Land Use/ Land Cover Analysis and Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS are the most effective tools in spatial data analysis. Natural resources like land, forest and water, these techniques have proved a valuable source of information generation as well as in the management and planning purposes. This study aims to suggest possible land and forest management strategies in Chakia tahsil based on land use and land cover analysis and the changing pattern observed during the last ten years. The population of Chakia tahsil is mainly rural in nature. The study has revealed that the northern part of the region, which offers for the settlement and all the agricultural practices constitutes nearly 23.48% and is a dead level plain, whereas the southern part, which constitute nearly 76.6% of the region is characterized by plateau and is covered with forest. The southern plateau rises abruptly from the northern alluvial plain with a number of escarpments. The contour line of 100 m mainly demarcates the boundary between plateau and plain. The plateau zone is deeply dissected and highly rugged terrain. The resultant topography comprises of a number of mesas and isolated hillocks showing elevation differences from 150 m to 385 m above mean sea level. Being rugged terrain in the southern part, nowadays human encroachment are taking place for more land for the cultivation. The changes were well observed in the land use and land cover in the study region. A large part of fallow land and open forest were converted into cultivated land.

  7. Hydrologic response to and recovery from differing silvicultural systems in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttle, J. M.; Beall, F. D.; Webster, K. L.; Hazlett, P. W.; Creed, I. F.; Semkin, R. G.; Jeffries, D. S.

    2018-02-01

    Hydrological consequences of alternative harvesting strategies in deciduous forest landscapes with seasonal snow cover have received relatively little attention. Most forest harvesting experiments in landscapes with seasonal snow cover have focused on clearcutting in coniferous forests. Few have examined alternative strategies such as selection or shelterwood cutting in deciduous stands whose hydrologic responses to harvesting may differ from those of conifers. This study presents results from a 31-year examination of hydrological response to and recovery from alternative harvesting strategies in a deciduous forest landscape with seasonal snow cover in central Ontario, Canada. A quantitative means of assessing hydrologic recovery to harvesting is also developed. Clearcutting resulted in increased water year (WY) runoff. This was accompanied by increased runoff in all seasons, with greatest relative increases in Summer. Direct runoff and baseflow from treatment catchments generally increased following harvesting, although annual peak streamflow did not. Largest increases in WY runoff and seasonal runoff as well as direct runoff and baseflow generally occurred in the selection harvest catchment, likely as a result of interception of hillslope runoff by a forest access road and redirection to the stream channel. Hydrologic recovery appeared to begin towards the end of the experimental period for several streamflow metrics but was incomplete for all harvesting strategies 15 years after harvesting. Geochemical tracing indicated that harvesting enhanced the relative importance of surface and near-surface water pathways on catchment slopes for all treatments, with the clearcut catchment showing the most pronounced and prolonged response. Such insights into water partitioning between flow pathways may assist assessments of the ecological and biogeochemical consequences of forest disturbance.

  8. Normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi) analysis for land cover types using landsat 8 oli in besitang watershed, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitunah, A.; Samsuri; Ahmad, A. G.; Safitri, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    Watershed is an ecosystem area confined by topography and has function as a catcher, storage, and supplier of water, sediments, pollutants and nutrients in the river system and exit through a single outlet. Various activities around watershed areas of Besitang have changed the land cover and vegetation index (NDVI) that exist in the region. In order to detect changes in land cover and NDVI quickly and accurately, we used remote sensing technology and geographic information systems (GIS). The study aimed to assess changes in land cover and vegetation density (NDVI) between 2005 and 2015, as well as obtaining the density of vegetation (NDVI) on each of the land cover of 2005 and 2015. The research showed the extensive of forest area of 949.65 Ha and a decline of mangrove forest area covering an area of 2,884.06 Ha. The highest vegetation density reduced 39,714.58 Ha, and rather dense increased 24,410.72 Ha between 2005 and 2015. The land cover that have the highest NDVI value range with very dense vegetation density class is the primary dry forest (0.804 to 0.876), followed by secondary dry forest (0.737 to 0.804) for 2015. In 2015 the land cover has NDVI value range the primary dry forest (0.513 to 0.57), then secondary dry forest (0.456 to 0.513) with dense vegetation density class

  9. Using indigenous knowledge to link hyper-temporal land cover mapping with land use in the Venezuelan Amazon: "The Forest Pulse".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Jesús; Ferri, Francisco; Acevedo, Pelayo; Lobo, Jorge M; Fa, John E; Farfán, Miguel Á; Romero, David; Real, Raimundo

    2016-12-01

    Remote sensing and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) can be combined to advance conservation of remote tropical regions, e.g. Amazonia, where intensive in situ surveys are often not possible. Integrating TEK into monitoring and management of these areas allows for community participation, as well as for offering novel insights into sustainable resource use. In this study, we developed a 250 m resolution land-cover map of the Western Guyana Shield (Venezuela) based on remote sensing, and used TEK to validate its relevance for indigenous livelihoods and land uses. We first employed a hyper-temporal remotely sensed vegetation index to derive a land classification system. During a 1 300 km, eight day fluvial expedition in roadless areas in the Amazonas State (Venezuela), we visited six indigenous communities who provided geo-referenced data on hunting, fishing and farming activities. We overlaid these TEK data onto the land classification map, to link land classes with indigenous use. We characterized land classes using patterns of greenness temporal change and topo-hydrological information, and proposed 12 land-cover types, grouped into five main landscapes: 1) water bodies; 2) open lands/forest edges; 3) evergreen forests; 4) submontane semideciduous forests, and 5) cloud forests. Each land cover class was identified with a pulsating profile describing temporal changes in greenness, hence we labelled our map as "The Forest Pulse". These greenness profiles showed a slightly increasing trend, for the period 2000 to 2009, in the land classes representing grassland and scrubland, and a slightly decreasing trend in the classes representing forests. This finding is consistent with a gain in carbon in grassland as a consequence of climate warming, and also with some loss of vegetation in the forests. Thus, our classification shows potential to assess future effects of climate change on landscape. Several classes were significantly connected with agriculture, fishing

  10. Revisiting Pearson's climate and forest type studies on the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Crouse; Margaret M. Moore; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Five weather station sites were established in 1916 by Fort Valley personnel along an elevational gradient from the Experimental Station to near the top of the San Francisco Peaks to investigate the factors that controlled and limited forest types. The stations were located in the ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, limber pine, Engelmann spruce, and Engelmann spruce/...

  11. Characteristics and drivers of forest cover change in the post-socialist era in Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanovi, Marin; Blackburn, George Alan; Rudbeck Jepsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of deforestation and reforestation in private- and state-owned forests during the post-socialist period and the causal drivers of change. The selected region of Northern Croatia is characterised by a high percentage of privately owned forests with minimal national monitoring and control. We used a mixed...... show that the deforestation in private forests is weakening overall, mostly due to the continuation of the de-agrarisation and de-ruralisation processes which began during socialism....

  12. Snow-covered Landsat time series stacks improve automated disturbance mapping accuracy in forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy B. Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Accurate landscape-scale maps of forests and associated disturbances are critical to augment studies on biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the carbon cycle, especially in terms of understanding how the spatial and temporal complexities of damage sustained from disturbances influence forest structure and function. Vegetation change tracker (VCT) is a highly automated...

  13. Using a remote sensing-based, percent tree cover map to enhance forest inventory estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes; Grant M. Domke

    2014-01-01

    For most national forest inventories, the variables of primary interest to users are forest area and growing stock volume. The precision of estimates of parameters related to these variables can be increased using remotely sensed auxiliary variables, often in combination with stratified estimators. However, acquisition and processing of large amounts of remotely sensed...

  14. Demographic disequilibrium caused by canopy gap expansion and recruitment failure triggers forest cover loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Barrette; Louis Bélanger; Louis De Grandpré; Alejandro A. Royo

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of large-scale stand replacing disturbances, boreal forests can remain in the old-growth stage over time because of a dynamic equilibrium between small-scale mortality and regeneration processes. Although this gap paradigm has been a cornerstone of forest dynamics theory and practice for decades, evidence suggests that it could be disrupted, threatening...

  15. Analysis And Assessment Of Forest Cover Change For The State Of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. H.; Nelson, M. D.; Stueve, K.; Gormanson, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service is charged with documenting the status and trends of forest resources of the United States. Since the 1930s, FIA has implemented an intensive field campaign that collects measurements on plots distributed across all ownerships, historically completing analyses which include estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Originally a periodic inventory, FIA has been measuring plots on an annual basis since the passage of the Agriculture Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998 (Farm Bill). The resulting change in sampling design and intensity presents challenges to establishing baseline and measuring changes in forest area and biomass. A project jointly sponsored by the Forest Service and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) titled “Integrating Landscape-scale Forest Measurements with Remote Sensing and Ecosystem Models to Improve Carbon Management Decisions” seeks to improve estimates of landscape- and continental-scale carbon dynamics and causes of change for North American forest land, and to use this information to support land management decisions. Specifically, we are developing and applying methods to scale up intensive biomass and carbon measurements from the field campaign to larger land management areas while simultaneously estimating change in the above-ground forest carbon stocks; the State of Wisconsin is being used as the testbed for this large-scale integration remote sensing with field measurements. Once defined, the temporal and spatial patterns of forest resources by watershed for Lake Superior and Lake Michigan outputs are being integrated into water quality assessments for the Great Lakes.

  16. Determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover, based on the use of geotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in watersheds is directly associated to the probability of effective success of restoration processes. However, considering the complexity of the analysis and the large amount of spatial data necessary to accomplish that purpose, state of the art technological tools capable of processing multi-criteria analysis to support decision making are necessary. Thus, the current work developed for an area of 476 km² corresponding to the Una river watershed in the municipal district of Taubaté, SP, used a multi-criteria analysis based on the continuous classification and on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP paired comparisons techniques, available in the complete GIS package named SPRING (Georeferenced Information Processing System for generating a map of priority areas for the re-establishment of forest cover in that watershed. Results revealed a large area (26.6% of the entire watershed falling in the “Extreme Priority” class for forest cover re-establishment, what indicates the urgent need of environmental recovery of this basin considering that it is used for Taubaté city water supply. Results from this research support the decision making for resource optimization applied to priority areas in an operational way.

  17. MODIS snow cover mapping accuracy in a small mountain catchment – comparison between open and forest sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blöschl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous global and regional validation studies have examined MODIS snow mapping accuracy by using measurements at climate stations, which are mainly at open sites. MODIS accuracy in alpine and forested regions is, however, still not well understood. The main objective of this study is to evaluate MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow cover products in a small experimental catchment by using extensive snow course measurements at open and forest sites. The MODIS accuracy is tested in the Jalovecky creek catchment (northern Slovakia in the period 2000–2011. The results show that the combined Terra and Aqua images enable snow mapping at an overall accuracy of 91.5%. The accuracies at forested, open and mixed land uses at the Červenec sites are 92.7%, 98.3% and 81.8%, respectively. The use of a 2-day temporal filter enables a significant reduction in the number of days with cloud coverage and an increase in overall snow mapping accuracy. In total, the 2-day temporal filter decreases the number of cloudy days from 61% to 26% and increases the snow mapping accuracy to 94%. The results indicate three possible factors leading to misclassification of snow as land: patchy snow cover, limited MODIS geolocation accuracy and mapping algorithm errors. Out of a total of 27 misclassification cases, patchy snow cover, geolocation issues and mapping errors occur in 12, 12 and 3 cases, respectively.

  18. Mobbing call experiment suggests the enhancement of forest bird movement by tree cover in urban landscapes across seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Shimazaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Local scale movement behavior is an important basis to predict large-scale bird movements in heterogeneous landscapes. Here we conducted playback experiments using mobbing calls to estimate the probability that forest birds would cross a 50-m urban area during three seasons (breeding, dispersal, and wintering seasons with varying amounts of tree cover, building area, and electric wire density. We examined the responses of four forest resident species: Marsh Tit (Poecile palustris, Varied Tit (Sittiparus varius, Japanese Tit (P. minor, and Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea in central Hokkaido, northern Japan. We carried out and analyzed 250 playback experiments that attracted 618 individuals. Our results showed that tree cover increased the crossing probability of three species other than Varied Tit. Building area and electric wire density had no detectable effect on crossing probability for four species. Seasonal difference in the crossing probability was found only for Varied Tit, and the probability was the highest in the breeding season. These results suggest that the positive effect of tree cover on the crossing probability would be consistent across seasons. We therefore conclude that planting trees would be an effective way to promote forest bird movement within an urban landscape.

  19. Types of planned agrarian colonization in Brazilian forests: Historical examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Kohlhepp

    2015-01-01

    About 200 years ago state or privately controlled agrarian colonization in South Brazil began with immigrants from Central and Southern Europe. As the Brazilian campos had been occupied by extensive cattle ranching of large landholders, forests were systematically cleared by peasants, the new rural social middle class. Three examples of the most different types of agrarian colonization are presented, colonization of European small farmers in South Brazil in the 19th century; colonization of a...

  20. Forest cover dynamics of shifting cultivation in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a remote sensing-based assessment for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.; Hansen, M. C.; Potapov, P. V.

    2015-09-01

    Shifting cultivation has traditionally been practiced in the Democratic Republic of Congo by carving agricultural fields out of primary and secondary forest, resulting in the rural complex: a characteristic land cover mosaic of roads, villages, active and fallow fields and secondary forest. Forest clearing has varying impacts depending on where it occurs relative to this area: whether inside it, along its primary forest interface, or in more isolated primary forest areas. The spatial contextualization of forest cover loss is therefore necessary to understand its impacts and plan its management. We characterized forest clearing using spatial models in a Geographical Information System, applying morphological image processing to the Forets d’Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection product. This process allowed us to create forest fragmentation maps for 2000, 2005 and 2010, classifying previously homogenous primary forest into separate patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes. Subsequently we used spatial rules to map the established rural complex separately from isolated forest perforations, tracking the growth of these areas in time. Results confirm that the expansion of the rural complex and forest perforations has high variance throughout the country, with consequent differences in local impacts on forest ecology and habitat fragmentation. Between 2000 and 2010 the rural complex grew by 10.2% (46 182 ha), increasing from 11.9% to 13.1% of the total land area (1.2% change) while perforated forest grew by 74.4% (23 856 ha), from 0.8% to 1.5%. Core forest decreased by 3.8% (54 852 ha), from 38% to 36.6% of the 2010 land area. Of particular concern is the nearly doubling of perforated forest, a land dynamic that represents greater spatial intrusion of forest clearing within core forest areas and a move away from the established rural complex.

  1. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein Maung Wint

    1993-01-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  2. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wint, Sein Maung

    1993-10-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  3. Application of a COSMO Mesoscale Model to Assess the Influence of Forest Cover Changes on Regional Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Rozinkina, I.; Kuzmina, E.; Nikitin, M.; Rivin, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    Modern changes in land use and forest cover have a significant influence on local, regional, and global weather and climate conditions. In this study, the mesoscale model COSMO is used to estimate the possible influence of forest cover change in the central part of the East European Plain on regional weather conditions. The "model region" of the study is surrounded by geographical coordinates 55° and 59°N and 28° and 37°E and situated in the central part of a large modeling domain (50° - 70° N and 15° 55° E), covering almost the entire East European Plain in Northern Eurasia. The forests cover about 50% of the area of the "model region". The modeling study includes 3 main numerical experiments. The first assumes total deforestation of the "model region" and replacement of forests by grasslands. The second is represented by afforestation of the "model region." In the third, weather conditions are simulated with present land use and vegetation structures of the "model region." Output of numerical experiments is at 13.2 km grid resolution, and the ERA-Interim global atmospheric reanalysis (with 6-h resolution in time and 0.75°×0.75° in space) is used to quantify initial and boundary conditions. Numerical experiments for the warm period of 2010 taken as an example show that deforestation and afforestation processes in the selected region can lead to significant changes in weather conditions. Deforestation processes in summer conditions can result in increased air temperature and wind speed, reduction of precipitation, lower clouds, and relative humidity. The afforestation process can result in opposite effects (decreased air temperature, increased precipitation, higher air humidity and fog frequency, and strengthened storm winds). Maximum meteorological changes under forest cover changes are projected for the summer months (July and August). It was also shown that changes of some meteorological characteristics (e.g., air temperature) is observed in the

  4. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  9. The role of forest type in the variability of DOC in atmospheric deposition at forest plots in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisci, S; Rogora, M; Marchetto, A; Dichiaro, F

    2012-06-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was studied in atmospheric deposition samples collected on a weekly basis in 2005-2009 at 10 forest plots in Italy. The plots covered a wide range of geographical attributes and were representative of the main forest types in Italy. Both spatial and temporal variations in DOC concentrations and fluxes are discussed, with the aim of identifying the main factors affecting DOC variability. DOC concentration increased from bulk to throughfall and stemflow water samples at all sites, as an effect of leaching from leaves and branches, going from 0.7-1.7 mg C L(-1) in bulk samples to 1.8-15.8 mg C L(-1) in throughfall and 4.2-10.7 mg C L(-1) in stemflow, with striking differences among the various plots. Low concentrations were found in runoff (0.5-2.0 mg C L(-1)), showing that the export of DOC via running waters was limited. The seasonality of DOC in throughfall samples was evident, with the highest concentration in summer when biological activity is at a maximum, and minima in winter due to limited DOC production and leaching. Statistical analysis revealed that DOC had a close relationship with organic and total nitrogen, and with nutrient ions, and a negative correlation with precipitation amount. Forest type proved to be a major factor affecting DOC variability: concentration and, to a lesser extent, fluxes were lower in stands dominated by deciduous species. The character of evergreens, and the size and shape of their leaves and needles, which regulate the interception mechanism of dry deposition, are mainly responsible for this.

  10. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fox, J. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M. [Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand)

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  11. Integrating the effects of forest cover on slope stability in a deterministic landslide susceptibility model (TRIGRS 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, T.; Rutzinger, M.; Bremer, M.; Meissl, G.; Geitner, C.

    2014-12-01

    The potentially stabilizing effects of forest cover in respect of slope stability have been the subject of many studies in the recent past. Hence, the effects of trees are also considered in many deterministic landslide susceptibility models. TRIGRS 2.0 (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability; USGS) is a dynamic, physically-based model designed to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility in space and time. In the original version the effects of forest cover are not considered. As for further studies in Vorarlberg (Austria) TRIGRS 2.0 is intended to be applied in selected catchments that are densely forested, the effects of trees on slope stability were implemented in the model. Besides hydrological impacts such as interception or transpiration by tree canopies and stems, root cohesion directly influences the stability of slopes especially in case of shallow landslides while the additional weight superimposed by trees is of minor relevance. Detailed data on tree positions and further attributes such as tree height and diameter at breast height were derived throughout the study area (52 km²) from high-resolution airborne laser scanning data. Different scenarios were computed for spruce (Picea abies) in the study area. Root cohesion was estimated area-wide based on published correlations between root reinforcement and distance to tree stems depending on the stem diameter at breast height. In order to account for decreasing root cohesion with depth an exponential distribution was assumed and implemented in the model. Preliminary modelling results show that forest cover can have positive effects on slope stability yet strongly depending on tree age and stand structure. This work has been conducted within C3S-ISLS, which is funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund, 5th ACRP Program.

  12. Simulating soil organic carbon stock as affected by land cover change and climate change, Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Azam; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Massah Bavani, Ali Reza; Jafari, Mostafa; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future. The following land covers were considered: Quercus castaneifolia (QC), Acer velutinum (AV), Alnus subcordata (AS), Cupressus sempervirens (CS) plantations and a natural forest (NF). For assessment of future climate change projections the Fifth Assessment IPCC report was used. These projections were generated with nine Global Climate Models (GCMs), for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) leading to very low and high greenhouse gases concentration levels (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively), and for four 20year-periods up to 2099 (2030s, 2050s, 2070s and 2090s). Simulated values of SOC correlated well with measured data (R 2 =0.64 to 0.91) indicating a good efficiency of the RothC model. Our results showed an overall decrease in SOC stocks by 2099 under all land covers and climate change scenarios, but the extent of the decrease varied with the climate models, the emissions scenarios, time periods and land covers. Acer velutinum plantation was the most sensitive land cover to future climate change (range of decrease 8.34-21.83tCha -1 ). Results suggest that modeling techniques can be effectively applied for evaluating SOC stocks, allowing the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The research and application of new screw-type well cover for injection well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yuan; Wang Haifeng; Gan Nan; Xu Ying

    2014-01-01

    Basing on the hydrogeological conditions and the working environment, a new screw-type of well cover for injection well had been designed which is suitable for high injection pressure. The well cover adopted stainless steel pipe and PVC pipe which can prevent the leakage of solution for long time because of sulfuric corrosion. The well cover was operated stably under l.5 MPa injection pressure during two-years trial. It was in low cost and had the advantages of good sealing and high reliability. The problem of lixiviant injection under high artesian water pressure was solved successfully. (authors)

  14. Use of information technologies when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golova, T. A.; Magerramova, I. A.; Ivanov, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    Calculation of multilayered plates and covers does not consider anisotropic properties of a construction. Calculation comes down to uniform isotropic covers and definition of one of intense and deformation conditions of constructions. The existing techniques consider work of multilayered designs by means of various coefficients. The article describes the optimized algorithm of operations when designing multilayered plates and covers with filler of various types on the basis of the conducted researches. It is dealt with a development engineering algorithm of calculation of multi-layer constructions of walls. Software is created which allows one to carry out assessment of intense and deformation conditions of constructions of walls.

  15. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  16. Advancing the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss with multi-resolution optical remote sensing data: Sampling & wall-to-wall mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broich, Mark

    Humid tropical forest cover loss is threatening the sustainability of ecosystem goods and services as vast forest areas are rapidly cleared for industrial scale agriculture and tree plantations. Despite the importance of humid tropical forest in the provision of ecosystem services and economic development opportunities, the spatial and temporal distribution of forest cover loss across large areas is not well quantified. Here I improve the quantification of humid tropical forest cover loss using two remote sensing-based methods: sampling and wall-to-wall mapping. In all of the presented studies, the integration of coarse spatial, high temporal resolution data with moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data enable advances in quantifying forest cover loss in the humid tropics. Imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are used as the source of coarse spatial resolution, high temporal resolution data and imagery from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor are used as the source of moderate spatial, low temporal resolution data. In a first study, I compare the precision of different sampling designs for the Brazilian Amazon using the annual deforestation maps derived by the Brazilian Space Agency for reference. I show that sampling designs can provide reliable deforestation estimates; furthermore, sampling designs guided by MODIS data can provide more efficient estimates than the systematic design used for the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization Forest Resource Assessment 2010. Sampling approaches, such as the one demonstrated, are viable in regions where data limitations, such as cloud contamination, limit exhaustive mapping methods. Cloud-contaminated regions experiencing high rates of change include Insular Southeast Asia, specifically Indonesia and Malaysia. Due to persistent cloud cover, forest cover loss in Indonesia has only been mapped at a 5-10 year interval using photo interpretation of single

  17. Climate and Pest-Driven Geographic Shifts in Global Coffee Production: Implications for Forest Cover, Biodiversity and Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is highly sensitive to temperature and rainfall, making its cultivation vulnerable to geographic shifts in response to a changing climate. This could lead to the establishment of coffee plantations in new areas and potential conflicts with other land covers including natural forest, with consequent implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services. We project areas suitable for future coffee cultivation based on several climate scenarios and expected responses of the coffee berry borer, a principle pest of coffee crops. We show that the global climatically-suitable area will suffer marked shifts from some current major centres of cultivation. Most areas will be suited to Robusta coffee, demand for which could be met without incurring forest encroachment. The cultivation of Arabica, which represents 70% of consumed coffee, can also be accommodated in the future, but only by incurring some natural forest loss. This has corresponding implications for carbon storage, and is likely to affect areas currently designated as priority areas for biodiversity. Where Arabica coffee does encroach on natural forests, we project average local losses of 35% of threatened vertebrate species. The interaction of climate and coffee berry borer greatly influences projected outcomes. PMID:26177201

  18. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  19. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  20. Forest Canopy Cover and Height from MISR in Topographically Complex Southwestern US Landscape Assessed with High Quality Reference Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopping, Mark; North, Malcolm; Chen, Jiquan; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Blair, J. Bryan; Martonchik, John V.; Bull, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the retrieval of spatially contiguous canopy cover and height estimates in southwestern USforests via inversion of a geometric-optical (GO) model against surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) estimates from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). Model inversion can provide such maps if good estimates of the background bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) are available. The study area is in the Sierra National Forest in the Sierra Nevada of California. Tree number density, mean crown radius, and fractional cover reference estimates were obtained via analysis of QuickBird 0.6 m spatial resolution panchromatic imagery usingthe CANopy Analysis with Panchromatic Imagery (CANAPI) algorithm, while RH50, RH75 and RH100 (50, 75, and 100 energy return) height data were obtained from the NASA Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS), a full waveform light detection and ranging (lidar) instrument. These canopy parameters were used to drive a modified version of the simple GO model (SGM), accurately reproducing patterns ofMISR 672 nm band surface reflectance (mean RMSE 0.011, mean R2 0.82, N 1048). Cover and height maps were obtained through model inversion against MISR 672 nm reflectance estimates on a 250 m grid.The free parameters were tree number density and mean crown radius. RMSE values with respect to reference data for the cover and height retrievals were 0.05 and 6.65 m, respectively, with of 0.54 and 0.49. MISR can thus provide maps of forest cover and height in areas of topographic variation although refinements are required to improve retrieval precision.

  1. Implementation of forest cover and carbon mapping in the Greater Mekong subregion and Malaysia project – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pungkul, S; Suraswasdi, C; Phonekeo, V

    2014-01-01

    The Great Mekong Subregion (GMS) contains one of the world's largest tropical forests and plays a vital role in sustainable development and provides a range of economic, social and environmental benefits, including essential ecosystem services such as climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, the forest in this Subregion is experiencing deforestation rates at high level due to human activities. The reduction of the forest area has negative influence to the environmental and natural resources issues, particularly, more severe disasters have occurred due to global warming and the release of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, in order to conduct forest management in the Subregion efficiently, the Forest Cover and Carbon Mapping in Greater Mekong Subregion and Malaysia project was initialized by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation (APFNet) with the collaboration of various research institutions including Institute of Forest Resource Information Technique (IFRIT), Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) and the countries in Sub region and Malaysia comprises of Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (Yunnan province and Guangxi province), Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. The main target of the project is to apply the intensive use of recent satellite remote sensing technology, establishing regional forest cover maps, documenting forest change processes and estimating carbon storage in the GMS and Malaysia. In this paper, the authors present the implementation of the project in Thailand and demonstrate the result of forest cover mapping in the whole country in 2005 and 2010. The result of the project will contribute towards developing efficient tools to support decision makers to clearly understand the dynamic change of the forest cover which could benefit sustainable forest resource management in Thailand and the whole Subregion

  2. Stratifying FIA Ground Plots Using A 3-Year Old MRLC Forest Cover Map and Current TM Derived Variables Selected By "Decision Tree" Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Hoppus; Stan Arner; Andrew Lister

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in variance for estimates of forest area and volume in the state of Connecticut was accomplished by stratifying FIA ground plots using raw, transformed and classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. A US Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization (MRLC) vegetation cover map for Connecticut was used to produce a forest/non-...

  3. Variation in wood anatomy of species with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outer, den R.W.; Veenendaal, van W.L.H.

    1976-01-01

    The variation in wood anatomy within 30 hardwood species, each with a distribution covering both rain forest and savanna areas of the Ivory Coast, Africa, has been studied. Compared to specimens from the rain forest, material from the savanna tends to have more wood ray tissue (rays are higher,

  4. Evaluating anthropogenic risk of grassland and forest habitat degradation using land-cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; James Wickham; Timothy Wade

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate a landscape-level approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining habitat context as defined by intensive anthropogenic land uses at multiple...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  7. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  8. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  10. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  11. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  12. Spatial and temporal analysis of forest cover changes in the Bartin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed the changes in the forest areas in Bartin province of Turkey and the surrounding areas using remote sensing data and GIS techniques. Three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of the study region, recorded in 1987, 1992, and 2000, were utilized. The main land-use characteristics were derived ...

  13. Divergence in Forest-Type Response to Climate and Weather: Evidence for Regional Links Between Forest-Type Evenness and Net Primary Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is altering long-term climatic conditions and increasing the magnitude of weather fluctuations. Assessing the consequences of these changes for terrestrial ecosystems requires understanding how different vegetation types respond to climate and weather. This study examined 20 years of regional-scale remotely sensed net primary productivity (NPP) in forests of the northern Lake States to identify how the relationship between NPP and climate or weather differ among forest types, and if NPP patterns are influenced by landscape-scale evenness of forest-type abundance. These results underscore the positive relationship between temperature and NPP. Importantly, these results indicate significant differences among broadly defined forest types in response to both climate and weather. Essentially all weather variables that were strongly related to annual NPP displayed significant differences among forest types, suggesting complementarity in response to environmental fluctuations. In addition, this study found that forest-type evenness (within 8 ?? 8 km2 areas) is positively related to long-term NPP mean and negatively related to NPP variability, suggesting that NPP in pixels with greater forest-type evenness is both higher and more stable through time. This is landscape- to subcontinental-scale evidence of a relationship between primary productivity and one measure of biological diversity. These results imply that anthropogenic or natural processes that influence the proportional abundance of forest types within landscapes may influence long-term productivity patterns. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  14. Changes in land cover and carbon emissions to 2050 from African tropical forests using policy scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Galford, G. L.; Soares Filho, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Africa has the second largest block of rainforest in the world, next to the Amazon basin, with the majority of the carbon being stored in the dense humid forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Historically, political instability in the DRC kept development and deforestation low, with primary forest uses being extensive logging and small scale agriculture. In the last decade, political stability has opened the country to foreign investment in forested areas, largely for industrial-scale oil palm plantations and more recently to rice production. The DRC ranks worst on the IFPRI global hunger index, scoring "extremely serious" based on the proportion of undernourished population, prevalence of underweight in children under 5 and the mortality rates of children under 5. In fact, DRC saw its hunger score increase (worsen) from 1990 to 2010, with a 66% gain compared to the other 8 worsening countries increasing only 21% or less. This is a critical time for policy in the DRC, where business-as-usual (relatively low deforestation rates) is unlikely to continue given today's relative political stability and economic stabilization compared to the 1990s. The country must examine options for forest conservation in balance with foreign investment for use of forest resources, national development of rural livelihoods and domestic production of food. Here we present deforestation trajectories simulated through the year 2050 under a set of scenarios. The scenarios consider the relative carbon emissions from business-as-usual (no new policy), conservation (policy favoring protection and enforcement for forest areas), and a food security scenario (favoring clearing for industrial agriculture, extractive timber resources and development of new agricultural areas). Carbon emissions for each scenario are estimated with a coupled bookkeeping model. These scenarios are not predictive of the future, rather, they are meant to provide an understanding of the outcomes of

  15. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

  16. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetland, and Urban Land Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for the discrimination of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers is conducted using a scene of data collected over Arkansas and Tennessee. A classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is compared with a classification of TM data for the same area. Results from this comparative analysis show that the multitemporal MSS classification produced an overall accuracy of 80.91% while the TM classification yields an overall classification accuracy of 97.06% correct.

  17. 20 CFR 1002.163 - What types of health plans are covered by USERRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of health plans are covered by USERRA? 1002.163 Section 1002.163 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS... by USERRA? (a) USERRA defines a health plan to include an insurance policy or contract, medical or...

  18. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN: Generalized Presettlement Vegetation Types of Indiana, Circa 1820 (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile showing generalized presettlement vegetation types of Indiana, circa 1820. The work was based on original...

  19. Detailed maps of tropical forest types are within reach: forest tree communities for Trinidad and Tobago mapped with multiseason Landsat and multiseason fine-resolution imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eileen H. Helmer; Thomas S. Ruzycki; Jay Benner; Shannon M. Voggesser; Barbara P. Scobie; Courtenay Park; David W. Fanning; Seepersad. Ramnarine

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest managers need detailed maps of forest types for REDD+, but spectral similarity among forest types; cloud and scan-line gaps; and scarce vegetation ground plots make producing such maps with satellite imagery difficult. How can managers map tropical forest tree communities with satellite imagery given these challenges? Here we describe a case study of...

  20. Forest offence types, trends and lapses : case study of the Nkawie Forest District of Ghana from 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The documented analysis of the forest offences revealed eight forest offence types with prevalent cases being chainsaw milling, illegal logging and illegal farming. Between 2005 and 2010, the district recorded 121 offences with more offences occurring in the on-reserve areas than in the off-reserve

  1. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines tree buffer for this community as only trees and forest. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. Reconstructing Historical Land Cover Type and Complexity by Synergistic Use of Landsat Multispectral Scanner and CORONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Shahtahmassebi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Survey data describing land cover information such as type and diversity over several decades are scarce. Therefore, our capacity to reconstruct historical land cover using field data and archived remotely sensed data over large areas and long periods of time is somewhat limited. This study explores the relationship between CORONA texture—a surrogate for actual land cover type and complexity—with spectral vegetation indices and texture variables derived from Landsat MSS under the Spectral Variation Hypothesis (SVH such as to reconstruct historical continuous land cover type and complexity. Image texture of CORONA was calculated using a mean occurrence measure while image textures of Landsat MSS were calculated by occurrence and co-occurrence measures. The relationship between these variables was evaluated using correlation and regression techniques. The reconstruction procedure was undertaken through regression kriging. The results showed that, as expected, texture based on the visible bands and corresponding indices indicated larger correlation with CORONA texture, a surrogate of land cover (correlation >0.65. In terms of prediction, the combination of the first-order mean of band green, second-order measure of tasseled cap brightness, second-order mean of Normalized Visible Index (NVI and second-order entropy of NIR yielded the best model with respect to Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, r-square, and variance inflation factors (VIF. The regression model was then used in regression kriging to map historical continuous land cover. The resultant maps indicated the type and degree of complexity in land cover. Moreover, the proposed methodology minimized the impacts of topographic shadow in the region. The performance of this approach was compared with two conventional classification methods: hard classifiers and continuous classifiers. In contrast to conventional techniques, the technique could clearly quantify land cover complexity and

  3. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  4. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  5. Accuracy Assessment of Lidar-Derived Digital Terrain Model (dtm) with Different Slope and Canopy Cover in Tropical Forest Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, M. R. M.; Ismail, Z.; Rahman, M. Z. A.

    2015-10-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM). High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover) and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN) algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs) used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870) with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924) obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.

  6. ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR-DERIVED DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL (DTM WITH DIFFERENT SLOPE AND CANOPY COVER IN TROPICAL FOREST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. M. Salleh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR technology has been widely used recent years especially in generating high accuracy of Digital Terrain Model (DTM. High density and good quality of airborne LiDAR data promises a high quality of DTM. This study focussing on the analysing the error associated with the density of vegetation cover (canopy cover and terrain slope in a LiDAR derived-DTM value in a tropical forest environment in Bentong, State of Pahang, Malaysia. Airborne LiDAR data were collected can be consider as low density captured by Reigl system mounted on an aircraft. The ground filtering procedure use adaptive triangulation irregular network (ATIN algorithm technique in producing ground points. Next, the ground control points (GCPs used in generating the reference DTM and these DTM was used for slope classification and the point clouds belong to non-ground are then used in determining the relative percentage of canopy cover. The results show that terrain slope has high correlation for both study area (0.993 and 0.870 with the RMSE of the LiDAR-derived DTM. This is similar to canopy cover where high value of correlation (0.989 and 0.924 obtained. This indicates that the accuracy of airborne LiDAR-derived DTM is significantly affected by terrain slope and canopy caver of study area.

  7. Tree canopy types constrain plant distributions in ponderosa pine-Gambel oak forests, northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella

    2009-01-01

    Trees in many forests affect the soils and plants below their canopies. In current high-density southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, managers have opportunities to enhance multiple ecosystem values by manipulating tree density, distribution, and canopy cover through tree thinning. I performed a study in northern Arizona ponderosa...

  8. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

  9. Utilizing LiDAR Datasets From Experimental Watersheds to Advance Ecohydrological Understanding in Seasonally Snow-Covered Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, A. A.; Broxton, P. D.; Guo, Q.; Barlage, M. J.; Gochis, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Western U.S. is strongly reliant on snowmelt from forested areas for ecosystem services and downstream populations. The ability to manage water resources from snow-covered forests faces major challenges from drought, disturbance, and regional changes in climate. An exciting avenue for improving ecohydrological process understanding is Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) because the technology simultaneously observes topography, forest properties, and snow/ice at high-resolution (100 km2). The availability and quality of LiDAR datasets is increasing rapidly, however they remain under-utilized for process-based ecohydrology investigations. This presentation will illustrate how LiDAR datasets from the Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network have been applied to advance ecohydrological understanding through direct empirical analysis, as well as model parameterization and verification. Direct analysis of the datasets has proved fruitful for pre- and post-disturbance snow distribution estimates and interpreting in-situ snow depth measurements across sites. In addition, we illustrate the potential value of LiDAR to parameterize and verify of physical models with two examples. First, we use LiDAR to parameterize a land surface model, Noah multi-parameterization (Noah-MP), to investigate the sensitivity of modeled water and energy fluxes to high-resolution forest information. Second, we present a Snow Physics and Laser Mapping (SnowPALM) model that is parameterized with LiDAR information at its native 1-m scale. Both modeling studies demonstrate the value of LiDAR for representing processes with greater fidelity. More importantly, the increased model fidelity led to different estimates of water and energy fluxes at larger, watershed scales. Creating a network of experimental watersheds with LiDAR datasets offers the potential to test theories and models in previously unexplored ways.

  10. Mapping Clearances in Tropical Dry Forests Using Breakpoints, Trend, and Seasonal Components from MODIS Time Series: Does Forest Type Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grogan, Kenneth; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick; Verbesselt, Jan; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Tropical environments present a unique challenge for optical time series analysis, primarily owing to fragmented data availability, persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Additionally, little is known of whether the performance of time series change detection is affected by diverse forest

  11. A comparison of two sampling approaches for assessing the urban forest canopy cover from aerial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar Zennure; Pete Bettinger; Krista Merry; Jacek Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2016-01-01

    Two different sampling approaches for estimating urban tree canopy cover were applied to two medium-sized cities in the United States, in conjunction with two freely available remotely sensed imagery products. A random point-based sampling approach, which involved 1000 sample points, was compared against a plot/grid sampling (cluster sampling) approach that involved a...

  12. Snow cover variability in a forest ecotone of the Oregon Cascades via MODIS Terra products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tihomir Sabinov Kostadinov; Todd R. Lookingbill

    2015-01-01

    Snowcover pattern and persistence have important implications for planetary energy balance, climate sensitivity to forcings, and vegetation structure, function, and composition. Variability in snow cover within mountainous regions of the Pacific Northwest, USA is attributable to a combination of anthropogenic climate change and climate oscillations. However,...

  13. Impacts of Rainfall and Forest Cover Change on Runoff in Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impacts of climate change on water resources have received much attention globally especially in the last 30 years. Rainfall, the main driver of the hydrological cycle, has been varying in parts of the world in various ways. The picture is more complicated if impacts of land cover changes on water resources are also ...

  14. Hydrological investigations of forest disturbance and land cover impacts in South-East Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, I

    1999-11-29

    Investigations of land management impacts on hydrology are well developed in South-East Asia, having been greatly extended by national organizations in the last two decades. Regional collaborative efforts, such as the ASEAN-US watershed programme, have helped develop skills and long-running monitoring programmes. Work in different countries is significant for particular aspects: the powerful effects of both cyclones and landsliding in Taiwan, the significance of lahars in Java, of small-scale agriculture in Thailand and plantation establishment in Malaysia. Different aid programmes have contributed specialist knowledge such as British work on reservoir sedimentation, Dutch, Swedish and British work on softwood plantations and US work in hill-tribe agriculture. Much has been achieved through individual university research projects, including PhD and MSc theses. The net result is that for most countries there is now good information on changes in the rainfall-run-off relationship due to forest disturbance or conversion, some information on the impacts on sediment delivery and erosion of hillslopes, but relatively little about the dynamics and magnitude of nutrient losses. Improvements have been made in the ability to model the consequences of forest conversion and of selective logging and exciting prospects exist for the development of better predictions of transfer of water from the hillslopes to the stream channels using techniques such as multilevel modelling. Understanding of the processes involved has advanced through the detailed monitoring made possible at permanent field stations such as that at Danum Valley, Sabah.

  15. EnviroAtlas - Portland, Maine - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, Iowa - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  1. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  4. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  5. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. Restraint effect of water infiltration by soil cover types of LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    Since soil cover for LLW disposal vault shows quite different restraint effect of water infiltration depending on its type, four different types of soil cover were studied and simulated using HELP code. Simulation result showed that Profile B1 is the most effective type in restraint of water infiltration to the disposal vault. Profile B1 is totally 6m thick and composed of silt, gravelly sand, pea gravel, sand and clayey soil mixed with bentonite 20%. Profile B1 also includes artificial layers, such as asphalt and geomembrane layers. This profile is designed conceptually by NETEC for the soil cover of the near surface disposal facility of the low-level radioactive waste. For comparison, 3 types of different profile were tested. One profile includes bentonite mixed layer only as water barrier layer, or one as same as profile B1 but without geomembrane layer or one without asphalt layer respectively. The simulation using HELP code showed that the water balance in profile B1 was effectively controlled

  7. Distribution of detritivores in tropical forest streams of peninsular Malaysia: role of temperature, canopy cover and altitude variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Salmah, Md Rawi; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Abu Hassan, Ahmad; Madrus, Madziatul Rosemahanie; Nurul Huda, Abdul

    2014-07-01

    The diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrate shredders were investigated in 52 forested streams (local scale) from nine catchments (regional scale) covering a large area of peninsular Malaysia. A total of 10,642 individuals of aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected, of which 18.22 % were shredders. Biodiversity of shredders was described by alpha (αaverage ), beta (β) and gamma diversity (γ) measures. We found high diversity and abundance of shredders in all catchments, represented by 1,939 individuals (range 6-115 and average per site of 37.29 ± 3.48 SE) from 31 taxa with 2-13 taxa per site (αaverage = 6.98 ± 0.33 SE) and 10-15 taxa per catchment (γ = 13.33 ± 0.55 SE). At the local scale, water temperature, stream width, depth and altitude were correlated significantly with diversity (Adj- R 2 = 0.205). Meanwhile, dissolved oxygen, stream velocity, water temperature, stream width and altitude were correlated to shredder abundance (Adj- R 2 = 0.242). At regional scale, however, water temperature was correlated negatively with β and γ diversity ( r 2 = 0.161 and 0.237, respectively) as well as abundance of shredders ( r 2 = 0.235). Canopy cover was correlated positively with β diversity ( r 2 = 0.378) and abundance ( r 2 = 0.266), meanwhile altitude was correlated positively with β (quadratic: r 2 = 0.175), γ diversity (quadratic: r 2 = 0.848) as well as abundance (quadratic: r 2 = 0.299). The present study is considered as the first report describing the biodiversity and abundance of shredders in forested headwater streams across a large spatial scale in peninsular Malaysia. We concluded that water temperature has a negative effect while altitude showed a positive relationship with diversity and abundance of shredders. However, it was difficult to detect an influence of canopy cover on shredder diversity.

  8. Animal-habitat relationships in the Knysna Forest, South Africa: discrimination between forest types by birds and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, J H; Crowe, T M

    1987-06-01

    Effects of forest plant species composition and physiognomy on bird and invertebrate communities were investigated in three discrete, relatively undisturbed forest types along a dry-wet soil moisture gradient. Using discriminant function analysis, a 100% floristic and a 78% vegetation structural discrimination were obtained between the three forest types. However, the bird communities of these different forest types were very similar in species composition, and had much lower densities than those normally encountered in other, superficially similar forests. Although an 81% discrimination between forest types was attained through analysis of ground surface invertebrates, measures of litter and aerial invertebrate abundance were also of limited use as discriminators. Historical and biogeographic factors, as well as the low nutritional levels in the soil and vegetation may be the causes of low bird and invertebrate density and diversity. It is concluded that floristics and vegetation structure have, at best, a minor influence on bird community structure, and possibly also on invertebrate community structure in the Knysna Forest.

  9. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Global analysis of the protection status of the world's forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Christine B.; Burgess, Neil David; Coad, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a global analysis of forest cover and forest protection. An updated Global Forest Map (using MODIS2005) provided a current assessment of forest cover within 20 natural forest types. This map was overlaid onto WWF realms and ecoregions to gain additional biogeographic information...... on forest distribution. Using the 2008 World Database on Protected Areas, percentage forest cover protection was calculated globally, within forest types, realms and ecoregions, and within selected areas of global conservation importance. At the 10% tree cover threshold, global forest cover was 39 million...... km2. Of this, 7.7% fell within protected areas under IUCN management categories I-IV. With the inclusion of IUCN categories V and VI, the level of global forest protection increased to 13.5%. Percentage forest protection (IUCN I-IV) varied greatly between realms from 5.5% (Palearctic) to 13...

  11. Spatio-temporal forest cover characterisation of mascareignite zones of reunion Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouar, S.

    1998-01-01

    The endo-soils of the reunion island often present a particularity: the presence of a light soil level on surface, of vegetable composition, the mascareignite. In the framework of this study, mascareignite soils have been localized on the wet face of the island and have been compared with those of the dry face. The floristic past of these soils has been reconstituted with the pedo-anthracology tool (charcoal dating and identification). Ages given by the 14 C measures show that the mascareignite genesis is anterior to the human being presence in the island. The study of the actual vegetable cover distribution has been realized by satellite data. (A.L.B.)

  12. Correlation between the morphogenetic types of litter and their properties in bog birch forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, T. T.; Efremov, S. P.; Avrova, A. F.

    2010-08-01

    A formalized arrangement of morphogenetic types of litter according to the physicochemical parameters provided their significant grouping in three genetic associations. The litter group (highly decomposed + moderately decomposed) is confined to the tall-grass group of bog birch forests. The rhizomatous (roughly decomposed) litter is formed in the sedge-reed grass bog birch forests. The litter group (peaty + peatified + peat) is associated with the bog-herbaceous-moss group of forest types. The genetic associations of the litters (a) reliably characterize the edaphic conditions of bog birch forests and (b)correspond to formation of the peat of certain ecological groups. We found highly informative the acid-base parameters, the exchangeable cations (Ca2+ + Mg2+) and the total potential acidity, which differentiated the genetic associations of litter practically with 100% probability. The expediency of studying litters under groups of forest types rather than under separate types of bog birch forests was demonstrated.

  13. Calibration and Validation of Tundra Plant Functional Type Fractional Cover Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macander, M. J.; Nelson, P.; Frost, G. V., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Fractional cover maps are being developed for selected tundra plant functional types (PFTs) across >500,000 sq. km of arctic Alaska and adjacent Canada at 30 m resolution. Training and validation data include a field-based training dataset based on point-intercept sampling method at hundreds of plots spanning bioclimatic and geomorphic gradients. We also compiled 50 blocks of 1-5 cm resolution RGB image mosaics in Alaska (White Mountains, North Slope, and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta) and the Yukon Territory. The mosaics and associated surface and canopy height models were developed using a consumer drone and structure from motion processing. We summarized both the in situ measurements and drone imagery to determine cover of two PFTs: Low and Tall Deciduous Shrub, and Light Fruticose/Foliose Lichen. We applied these data to train 2 m (limited extent) and 30 m (wall to wall) maps of PFT fractional cover for shrubs and lichen. Predictors for 2 m models were commercial satellite imagery such as WorldView-2 and Worldview-3, analyzed on the ABoVE Science Cloud. Predictors for 30 m models were primarily reflectance composites and spectral metrics developed from Landsat imagery, using Google Earth Engine. We compared the performance of models developed from the in situ and drone-derived training data and identify best practices to improve the performance and efficiency of arctic PFT fractional cover mapping.

  14. Assessing the performance of aerial image point cloud and spectral metrics in predicting boreal forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M.; Korhonen, L.; Kukkonen, M.; Packalen, P.

    2017-07-01

    Canopy cover (CC) is a variable used to describe the status of forests and forested habitats, but also the variable used primarily to define what counts as a forest. The estimation of CC has relied heavily on remote sensing with past studies focusing on satellite imagery as well as Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) using light detection and ranging (lidar). Of these, ALS has been proven highly accurate, because the fraction of pulses penetrating the canopy represents a direct measurement of canopy gap percentage. However, the methods of photogrammetry can be applied to produce point clouds fairly similar to airborne lidar data from aerial images. Currently there is little information about how well such point clouds measure canopy density and gaps. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of aerial image point clouds for CC estimation and compare the results with those obtained using spectral data from aerial images and Landsat 5. First, we modeled CC for n = 1149 lidar plots using field-measured CCs and lidar data. Next, this data was split into five subsets in north-south direction (y-coordinate). Finally, four CC models (AerialSpectral, AerialPointcloud, AerialCombi (spectral + pointcloud) and Landsat) were created and they were used to predict new CC values to the lidar plots, subset by subset, using five-fold cross validation. The Landsat and AerialSpectral models performed with RMSEs of 13.8% and 12.4%, respectively. AerialPointcloud model reached an RMSE of 10.3%, which was further improved by the inclusion of spectral data; RMSE of the AerialCombi model was 9.3%. We noticed that the aerial image point clouds managed to describe only the outermost layer of the canopy and missed the details in lower canopy, which was resulted in weak characterization of the total CC variation, especially in the tails of the data.

  15. Does Certification Change the Trajectory of Tree Cover in Working Forests in The Tropics? An Application of the Synthetic Control Method of Impact Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC remains rare among forest management units (FMUs in natural tropical forests, presenting a challenge for impact evaluation. We demonstrate application of the synthetic control method (SCM to evaluate the impact of FSC certification on a single FMU in each of three tropical forest landscapes. Specifically, we estimate causal effects on tree cover change from the year of certification to 2012 using SCM and open-access, pan-tropical datasets. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct synthetic controls, or weighted combinations of non-certified FMUs, that followed the same path of tree cover change as the certified FMUs before certification. By using these synthetic controls to measure counterfactual tree cover change after certification, we find that certification reduced tree cover loss in the most recent year (2012 in all three landscapes. However, placebo tests show that in one case, this effect was not significant, and in another case, it followed several years in which certification had the opposite effect (increasing tree cover loss. We conclude that SCM has promise for identifying temporally varying impacts of small-N interventions on land use and land cover change.

  16. Sealing of Airway Fistulas for Metallic Covered Z-type Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu WANG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Treating airway fistulas, including esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs, bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs, and tracheomediastinal fistulas (TMFs, is difficult. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of metallic covered Z-type stents (CZTS for the treatment of airway fistulas through bronchoscopy or fluroscopy. Methods Thirty-eight patients with fistulas between the esophagus, mediastina, and airways (32 ERFs, 5 BPFs, and 1 TMF were retrospectively reviewed after treatment with covered metallic esophageal and airway stents. The fistulas were caused by esophageal (n=26, bronchogenic (n=11, and thyroid (n=1 carcinomas. Results Forty-six fistulas were found in 38 patients. The fistula size ranged from 0.5 cm to 7.0 cm. Forty airway covered metal stents (24 Y-type, 8 L-type, and 8 I-type and 24 esophageal metal stents were placed. Complete responses to the sealing effects of fistulas were noted in 4.3% of all the fistulas, 60.9% showed complete clinical responses, 23.9% showed partial responses, and 10.9% showed no response. An effectivity rate of 89.1% was observed, and the median survival duration of all patients was 5 months. Conclusion The use of CZTS appears to be safe and feasible for the palliative treatment of ERFs, BPFs, and TMFs. Airway stent placement is recommended for patients with ERF. In the event that airway stents fail, esophageal stents should be given. Airway bifurcation stents were observed to be especially suitable for the sealing of fistulas near the trachea carina.

  17. Recovering more than tree cover: herbivores and herbivory in a restored tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Juan-Baeza

    Full Text Available Intense and chronic disturbance may arrest natural succession, reduce environmental quality and lead to ecological interaction losses. Where natural succession does not occur, ecological restoration aims to accelerate this process. While plant establishment and diversity is promoted by restoration, few studies have evaluated the effect of restoration activities on ecological processes and animal diversity. This study assessed herbivory and lepidopteran diversity associated with two pioneer tree species growing in 4-year-old experimental restoration plots in a tropical dry forest at Sierra de Huautla, in Morelos, Mexico. The study was carried out during the rainy season of 2010 (July-October in eleven 50 x 50 m plots in three different habitats: cattle-excluded, cattle-excluded with restoration plantings, and cattle grazing plots. At the beginning of the rainy season, 10 juveniles of Heliocarpus pallidus (Malvaceae and Ipomoea pauciflora (Convolvulaceae were selected in each plot (N = 110 trees. Herbivory was measured in 10 leaves per plant at the end of the rainy season. To evaluate richness and abundance of lepidopteran larvae, all plants were surveyed monthly. Herbivory was similar among habitats and I. pauciflora showed a higher percentage of herbivory. A total of 868 lepidopteran larvae from 65 morphospecies were recorded. The family with the highest number of morphospecies (9 sp. was Geometridae, while the most abundant family was Saturnidae, with 427 individuals. Lepidopteran richness and abundance were significantly higher in H. pallidus than in I. pauciflora. Lepidopteran richness was significantly higher in the cattle-excluded plots, while abundance was significantly higher in the non-excluded plots. After four years of cattle exclusion and the establishment of plantings, lepidopteran richness increased 20 -fold in the excluded plots compared to the disturbed areas, whereas herbivory levels were equally high in both restored and

  18. Spatially quantifying and attributing 17 years of land cover change to examine post-agricultural forest transition in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M.; Trauernicht, C.; Carlson, K. M.; Miura, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Chen, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The past decades in Hawaii have seen large scale land use change and land cover shifts. However, much these dynamics are only described anecdotally or studied at a single locale, with little information on the extent, rate, or direction of change. This lack of data hinders any effort to assess, plan, and prioritize land management. To improve assessments of statewide vegetation and land cover change, this project developed high resolution, sub-pixel, percent cover maps of forest, grassland and bare earth at annual time steps from 1999 to 2016. Vegetation cover was quantified using archived LANDSAT imagery and a custom remote-sensing algorithm developed in the Google Earth Engine platform. A statistical trend analysis of annual maps of the these three proportional land covers were then used to detect land cover transitions across the archipelago. The aim of this work focused on quantifying the total area of change, annual rates of change and final vegetation cover outcomes statewide. Additionally these findings were attributed to past and current land uses and management history by compiling spatial datasets of development, agriculture, forest restoration sites and burned areas statewide. Results indicated that nearly 10% of the state's land surfaces are suspected to have transitioned between the three cover classes during the study period. Total statewide net change resulted in a gain in forest cover with largest areas of change occurring in unmanaged areas, current and past pastoral land, commercial forestry and abandoned cultivated land. The fastest annual rates of change were forest increases that occurred in restoration areas and commercial forestry. These findings indicate that Hawaii is going through a forest transition, primarily driven by agricultural abandonment with likely feedbacks from invasive species, but also influenced by the establishment of forestry production on former agricultural lands that show potential for native forest restoration. These

  19. Biophysical Forest Type Characterization in the Colombian Amazon by Airborne Polarimetric SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, D.H.; Quiñones, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Fully polarimetric C-, L-, and P-band data were collected by NASA's AirSAR system in May 1993 at the Araracuara test site, a well-surveyed forest reserve in the center of the Colombian Amazon. The area is characterized by a high diversity of forest types, soil types, and flooding conditions. In this

  20. Logging residues in principal forest types of the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An estimated 466 million ft 3 of forest residue material (nonmerchantable, 3 inches diameter and larger) is generated annually in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming). Extensive studies of residues in the major forest types show a considerable portion is suited for various products. The lodgepole pine type has the greatest potential for increased...

  1. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhegghen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT reflectances (1 km. Four zones (north, south and two central were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  2. Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken, W.; Davidson, E.A.; Savage, K.; Sundquist, E.T.; Steudler, P.

    2006-01-01

    Soil moisture strongly controls the uptake of atmospheric methane by limiting the diffusion of methane into the soil, resulting in a negative correlation between soil moisture and methane uptake rates under most non-drought conditions. However, little is known about the effect of water stress on methane uptake in temperate forests during severe droughts. We simulated extreme summer droughts by exclusion of 168 mm (2001) and 344 mm (2002) throughfall using three translucent roofs in a mixed deciduous forest at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. The treatment significantly increased CH4 uptake during the first weeks of throughfall exclusion in 2001 and during most of the 2002 treatment period. Low summertime CH4 uptake rates were found only briefly in both control and exclusion plots during a natural late summer drought, when water contents below 0.15 g cm-3 may have caused water stress of methanotrophs in the A horizon. Because these soils are well drained, the exclusion treatment had little effect on A horizon water content between wetting events, and the effect of water stress was smaller and more brief than was the overall treatment effect on methane diffusion. Methane consumption rates were highest in the A horizon and showed a parabolic relationship between gravimetric water content and CH4 consumption, with maximum rate at 0.23 g H2O g-1 soil. On average, about 74% of atmospheric CH4 was consumed in the top 4-5 cm of the mineral soil. By contrast, little or no CH4 consumption occurred in the O horizon. Snow cover significantly reduced the uptake rate from December to March. Removal of snow enhanced CH4 uptake by about 700-1000%, resulting in uptake rates similar to those measured during the growing season. Soil temperatures had little effect on CH4 uptake as long as the mineral soil was not frozen, indicating strong substrate limitation of methanotrophs throughout the year. Our results suggest that the extension of snow periods may affect the annual rate

  3. Understanding the Effect of Land Cover Classification on Model Estimates of Regional Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John; Kang, Sinkyu

    2003-01-01

    The original objectives of this proposed 3-year project were to: 1) quantify the respective contributions of land cover and disturbance (i.e., wild fire) to uncertainty associated with regional carbon source/sink estimates produced by a variety of boreal ecosystem models; 2) identify the model processes responsible for differences in simulated carbon source/sink patterns for the boreal forest; 3) validate model outputs using tower and field- based estimates of NEP and NPP; and 4) recommend/prioritize improvements to boreal ecosystem carbon models, which will better constrain regional source/sink estimates for atmospheric C02. These original objectives were subsequently distilled to fit within the constraints of a 1 -year study. This revised study involved a regional model intercomparison over the BOREAS study region involving Biome-BGC, and TEM (A.D. McGuire, UAF) ecosystem models. The major focus of these revised activities involved quantifying the sensitivity of regional model predictions associated with land cover classification uncertainties. We also evaluated the individual and combined effects of historical fire activity, historical atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and climate change on carbon and water flux simulations within the BOREAS study region.

  4. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  5. Non-linear Feedbacks Between Forest Mortality and Climate Change: Implications for Snow Cover, Water Resources, and Ecosystem Recovery in Western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Harpold, A. A.; Biederman, J. A.; Gochis, D. J.; Litvak, M. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Broxton, P. D.; Reed, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Unprecedented levels of tree mortality from insect infestation and wildfire are dramatically altering forest structure and composition in Western North America. Warming temperatures and increased drought stress have been implicated as major factors in the increasing spatial extent and frequency of these forest disturbances, but it is unclear how these changes in forest structure will interact with ongoing climate change to affect snowmelt water resources either for society or for ecosystem recovery following mortality. Because surface discharge, groundwater recharge, and ecosystem productivity all depend on seasonal snowmelt, a critical knowledge gap exists not only in predicting discharge, but in quantifying spatial and temporal variability in the partitioning of snowfall into abiotic vapor loss, plant available water, recharge, and streamflow within the complex mosaic of forest disturbance and topography that characterizes western mountain catchments. This presentation will address this knowledge gap by synthesizing recent work on snowpack dynamics and ecosystem productivity from seasonally snow-covered forests along a climate gradient from Arizona to Wyoming; including undisturbed sites, recently burned forests, and areas of extensive insect-induced forest mortality. Both before-after and control-impacted studies of forest disturbance on snow accumulation and ablation suggest that the spatial scale of snow distribution increases following disturbance, but net snow water input in a warming climate will increase only in topographically sheltered areas. While forest disturbance changes spatial scale of snowpack partitioning, the amount and especially the timing of snow cover accumulation and ablation are strongly related to interannual variability in ecosystem productivity with both earlier snowmelt and later snow accumulation associated with decreased carbon uptake. Empirical analyses and modeling are being developed to identify landscapes most sensitive to

  6. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Conservation agriculture is an appropriate strategy for maintaining and improving agricultural resources which increases crop production and stability and also provides environmental protection. This attitude contributes to the conservation of natural resources (soil, water, and air and is one of the most effective ways to overcome the drought crisis, water management and compensation of soil organic matter in arid and semi-arid regions. The practice of zero-tillage decreases the mineralization of organic matter and contributes to the sequestration of organic carbon in the soil. Higher amounts of organic matter in the soil improve soil structure and root growth, water infiltration and retention, and cation exchange capacity. In addition, zero-tillage reduces soil compaction and crop production costs. Cover crops are cultivated to protect the soil from erosion and elements loss by leaching or runoff and also improve the soil moisture and temperature. Given that South Khorasan farmers still use traditional methods of cultivation of wheat, and cover crops have no place in their farming systems, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cover crops types and tillage systems on yield and yield components of wheat in Birjand region. Materials and Methods A split plot field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of the University of Birjand over the growing season of 2014-2015. The main factor was the type of tillage (no-till, reduced tillage and conventional tillage and cover crop type (chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus, rocket salad (Eruca sativa, triticale (X Triticosecale witmack, barley (Hordeum vulgaris and control (no cover crop was considered as sub plots. Cover crops were planted on July 2014. Before planting wheat, cover crops were dried through spraying paraquat herbicide using a backpack sprayer at a rate of 3 L ha-1. Then the three tillage

  7. [Soil meso- and micro-fauna community structures in different urban forest types in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi Ke; Wang, Juan Juan; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Wen Jing; You, Wen Hui

    2016-07-01

    Soil meso- and micro-fauna of four urban forest types in Shanghai were investigated in four months which include April 2014, July 2014, October 2014 and January 2015. A total of 2190 soil fauna individuals which belong to 6 phyla, 15 classes and 22 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Nematoda and Arcari, accounting for 56.0% and 21.8% of the total in terms of individual numbers respectively. The common groups were Enchytraeidae, Rotatoria, Collembola and Hymenoptera and they accounted for 18.7% of the total in terms of individual numbers. There was a significant difference (PMetasequoia glyptostroboides forest, the smallest in Cinnamomum camphora forest. The largest groupe number was found in near-nature forest, the smallest was found in M. glyptostroboides forest. There was obvious seasonal dynamics in each urban forest type and green space which had larger density in autumn and larger groupe number in summer and autumn. In soil profiles, the degree of surface accumulation of soil meso- and micro-fauna in C. camphora forest was higher than in other forests and the vertical distribution of soil meso- and micro-fauna in near-nature forest was relatively homogeneous in four layers. Density-group index was ranked as: near-nature forest (6.953)> C. camphora forest (6.351)> Platanus forest (6.313)>M. glyptostroboides forest (5.910). The community diversity of soil fauna in each vegetation type could be displayed preferably by this index. It could be inferred through redundancy analysis (RDA) that the soil bulk density, organic matter and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors influencing soil meso- and micro-fauna community structure in urban forest. The positive correlations occurred between the individual number of Arcari, Enchytraeidae and soil organic matter and total nitrogen, as well as between the individual number of Diptera larvae, Rotatoria and soil water content.

  8. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  9. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  10. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawan, S; Takeuchi, W; Vetrita, Y; Winarso, G; Wikantika, K; Sari, D K

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% – 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate

  11. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  12. Analysing the Effects of Different Land Cover Types on Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES) Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  13. SRTM-DEM and Landsat ETM+ data for mapping tropical dry forest cover and biodiversity assessment in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Sesnie; S.E. Hagell; S.M. Otterstrom; C.L. Chambers; B.G. Dickson

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry and deciduous forest comprises as much as 42% of the world’s tropical forests, but has received far less attention than forest in wet tropical areas. Land use change threatens to greatly reduce the extent of dry forest that is known to contain high levels of plant and animal diversity. Forest fragmentation may further endanger arboreal mammals that play...

  14. SRTM-DEM AND LANDSAT ETM+ DATA FOR MAPPING TROPICAL DRY FOREST COVER AND BIODIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN NICARAGUA

    OpenAIRE

    Brett G. Dickson; Carol L. Chambers; Sarah M. Otterstrom; Suzanne E. Hagell; Steven E. Sesnie

    2008-01-01

    Tropical dry and deciduous forest comprises as much as 42% of the world’s tropical forests, but hasreceived far less attention than forest in wet tropical areas. Land use change threatens to greatly reducethe extent of dry forest that is known to contain high levels of plant and animal diversity. Forest fragmentationmay further endanger arboreal mammals that play principal role in the dispersal of large seeded fruits, plantcommunity assembly and diversity in these systems. Data on the spatial...

  15. Analysis of historical forest fire regime in Madrid region (1984-2010) and its relation with land-use/land-cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Israel; Martín, María del Pilar; Salas, Francisco Javier; Gallardo, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the interaction between natural and socio-economic factors that determine fire regime is essential to make accurate projections and impact assessments. However, this requires having accurate historical, systematic, homogeneous and spatially explicit information on fire occurrence. Fire databases usually have serious limitations in this regard; therefore other sources of information, such as remote sensing, have emerged as alternatives to generate optimal fire maps on various spatial and temporal scales. Several national and international projects work in order to generate information to study the factors that determine the current fire regime and its future evolution. This work is included in the framework of the project "Forest fires under climate, social and economic Changes in Europe, the Mediterranean and other fire-affected areas of the World" (FUME http://www.fumeproject.eu), which aims to study the changes and factors related to fire regimes through time to determine the potential impacts on vegetation in Mediterranean regions and concrete steps to address future risk scenarios. We analyzed the changes in the fire regime in Madrid region (Spain) in the past three decades (1984-2010) and its relation to land use changes. We identified and mapped fires that have occurred in the region during those years using Landsat satellite images by combining digital techniques and visual analysis. The results show a clear cyclical behaviour of the fire, with years of high incidence (as 1985, 2000 and 2003, highlighted by the number of fires and the area concerned, over 2000 ha) followed by another with a clear occurrence decrease. At the same time, we analyzed the land use changes that have occurred in Madrid region between the early 80s and mid-2000s using as reference the CORINE Land-cover maps (1990, 2000 and 2006) and the Vegetation and Land Use map of the Community of Madrid, 1982. We studied the relationship between fire regimes and observed land

  16. Transpiration characteristics of forests and shrubland under land cover change within the large caldera of Mt. Aso, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Inoue, A.; Maruyama, A.

    2013-12-01

    Grassland within a caldera of Mt. Aso has been maintained for fertilizer production from grasses and cattle feeding. Due to the changes in the agricultural and social structure since 1950's, a large part of the grassland was converted to plantations or abandoned to shrublands. Because vegetations of different plant functional types differ in evapotranspiration; ET, a research project was launched to examine the effects of the ongoing land use change on the ET within the caldera, and consequently affect the surface and groundwater discharge of the region. As the part of the project, transpiration rate; E of the major 3 forest types were investigated using sap flow measurements. Based on the measured data, stomatal conductance; Gs was inversely calculated and its response to the environmental factors was modeled using Jarvis-type equation in order to estimate ET of a given part of the caldera based on the plant functional type and the weather data. The selected forests were conifer plantation, deciduous broadleaved plantation and shrubland, which were installed with sap flow sensors to calculate stand-level transpiration rate. Sap flux; Js did not show clear differences among sites despite the large differences in sapwood area. In early summer solar radiation was limited to low levels due to frequent rainfall events and therefore, Js was the function of solar radiation rather than other environmental factors, such as vapor pressure deficit and soil water content. Gs was well regressed with the vapor pressure deficit and solar radiation. The estimated E based on Gs model and the weather data was 0.3-1.2 mm day-1 for each site and was comparable to the E of grassland in other study sites. Results suggested that transpiration rate in growing was not different between vegetations but its annual value are thought to differ due to the different phenology.

  17. A Covering Type Extrusion Die with Twin Cavities for Semi-Hollow Al-Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Rurong; Huang, Xuemei

    2018-03-01

    A new structure named covering type with twin cavities in a die for the semi-hollow aluminum profiles was present. The determination of structure parameters was introduced in detail. Mainly including the selection of the machine, the arrangement of portholes, the structure design of chamber and the selection of bearing. The method of checking the die strength was introduced. According to the extrusion results, the structure of the traditional solid die, the porthole die with single cavity and the covering type structure with twin cavities were compared. The characteristics of the latter structure were simple and easy to process. The practical application shows that the new die structure can enhance the die life, improve the production efficiency and reduce the cost. The high precision and the surface brightness of the profiles were obtained. The structure is worth promoting. The aim is to provide reliable data and reference for the further research and development of this technology on the extrusion die with multi-cavities in a die.

  18. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  19. Differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types in a temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ye-Ming; Wang, Juan; Sun, Xiao-Lu; Tang, Zuo-Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the controls on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for modeling responses of ecosystem carbon balance to global change, yet few studies provide explicit knowledge on the direct and indirect effects of forest stands on soil carbon via microbial processes. We investigated tree species, soil, and site factors in relation to soil carbon density and mineralization in a temperate forest of central China. We found that soil microbial biomass and community structure, extracellular enzyme activities, and most of the site factors studied varied significantly across contrasting forest types, and that the associations between activities of soil extracellular enzymes and microbial community structure appeared to be weak and inconsistent across forest types, implicating complex mechanisms in the microbial regulation of soil carbon metabolism in relation to tree species. Overall, variations in soil carbon density and mineralization are predominantly accounted for by shared effects of tree species, soil, microclimate, and microbial traits rather than the individual effects of the four categories of factors. Our findings point to differential controls on soil carbon density and mineralization among contrasting forest types and highlight the challenge to incorporate microbial processes for constraining soil carbon dynamics in global carbon cycle models. PMID:26925871

  20. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator); Knowlton, D. J.; Dean, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Supervised and cluster block training statistics were used to analyze the thematic mapper simulation MSS data (both 1979 and 1980 data sets). Cover information classes identified on SAR imagery include: hardwood, pine, mixed pine hardwood, clearcut, pasture, crops, emergent crops, bare soil, urban, and water. Preliminary analysis of the HH and HV polarized SAR data indicate a high variance associated with each information class except for water and bare soil. The large variance for most spectral classes suggests that while the means might be statistically separable, an overlap may exist between the classes which could introduce a significant classification error. The quantitative values of many cover types are much larger on the HV polarization than on the HH, thereby indicating the relative nature of the digitized data values. The mean values of the spectral classes in the areas with larger look angles are greater than the means of the same cover type in other areas having steeper look angles. Difficulty in accurately overlaying the dual polarization of the SAR data was resolved.

  1. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Pinho

    Full Text Available We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%, followed by Landi (9%, Cordilheira (6% and Carvoeiro (3% forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species than in dry (16 species forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5% and dry (70% forests, and were higher in the Landi (85% than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%. Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species

  2. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  3. A Tale of Two Forest Carbon Assessments in the Eastern United States: Forest Use Versus Cover as a Metric of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. W. Woodall; B. F. Walters; M. B. Russell; J. W. Coulston; G. M. Domke; A. W. D' Amato; P. A. Sowers

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of land-use practices (for example, forest versus settlements) is often a major driver of changes in terrestrial carbon (C). As the management and conservation of forest land uses are considered a means of reducing future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the monitoring of forest C stocks and stock change by categories of land-use...

  4. Inclined-wall regular micro-pillar-arrayed surfaces covered entirely with an alumina nanowire forest and their improved superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Dongyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yongsung; Kang, Jae-Wook; Hong, Suck Won

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a multiple-scale hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surface that is composed of inclined-wall regular micro-pillar arrays covered entirely with an alumina nanowire forest (ANF) to improve the surface wettability. The multiple-scaled structures were fabricated stably using a simple batch process based on an anisotropic chemical silicon etching process and a subsequent time-controlled anodic aluminum oxide technique. The surface wetting properties of the mono-roughened surfaces with inclined-wall micro-pillar arrays, which are normally in the Wenzel wetting regime, could be transitioned perfectly to the slippery Cassie mode and enhanced greatly in the Wenzel regime in cases of a high- and low-density of the micro-pillars, respectively, by easily amplifying the intrinsic contact angle through the entire coverage of the ANF on the micro-roughened surfaces. The wettability of the proposed multiple-scaled surfaces could also be predicted using analytic surface models and the experimental results agreed greatly with the wetting trends estimated theoretically due to the geometrical regularity of the base micro-structures

  5. Chapter 6 - Links between land cover and lichen species richness at large scales in forested ecosystems across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Randall S. Morin; Mark J. Ambrose; Kurt Riitters; Sarah Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Lichen community composition is well known for exhibiting response to air pollution, and to macroenvironmental and microenvironmental variables. Lichens are useful indicators of air quality impact, forest health, and forest ecosystem integrity across the United States (McCune 2000, reviews in Nimis and others 2002, USDA Forest Service 2007).

  6. Variation in carbon storage and its distribution by stand age and forest type in boreal and temperate forests in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yawei; Li, Maihe; Chen, Hua; Lewis, Bernard J; Yu, Dapao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wangming; Fang, Xiangmin; Zhao, Wei; Dai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern forest region of China is an important component of total temperate and boreal forests in the northern hemisphere. But how carbon (C) pool size and distribution varies among tree, understory, forest floor and soil components, and across stand ages remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, we selected three major temperate and two major boreal forest types in northeastern (NE) China. Within both forest zones, we focused on four stand age classes (young, mid-aged, mature and over-mature). Results showed that total C storage was greater in temperate than in boreal forests, and greater in older than in younger stands. Tree biomass C was the main C component, and its contribution to the total forest C storage increased with increasing stand age. It ranged from 27.7% in young to 62.8% in over-mature stands in boreal forests and from 26.5% in young to 72.8% in over-mature stands in temperate forests. Results from both forest zones thus confirm the large biomass C storage capacity of old-growth forests. Tree biomass C was influenced by forest zone, stand age, and forest type. Soil C contribution to total forest C storage ranged from 62.5% in young to 30.1% in over-mature stands in boreal and from 70.1% in young to 26.0% in over-mature in temperate forests. Thus soil C storage is a major C pool in forests of NE China. On the other hand, understory and forest floor C jointly contained less than 13% and forests respectively, and thus play a minor role in total forest C storage in NE China.

  7. Stable Forest Cover under Increasing Populations of Swidden Cultivators in Central Laos: the Roles of Intrinsic Culture and Extrinsic Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Robichaud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Swidden agriculture, or shifting cultivation, is variously viewed as a great environmental threat or a sustainable system of land use. In Laos, swidden has long been considered the primary driver of forest loss nationwide, but the assessment is based exclusively on studies from the north of country, where deforestation is most severe. National policies to control swidden have percolated down to management of one of the largest nature reserves in the region, Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA in the Annamite Mountains of central Laos. In NNT NPA, swidden's presumed unsustainability and deleterious impact on forest cover is an untested assumption. We tested it by methods of historical ecology, tracing the patterns of NNT's forest cover and human settlement over the past several decades. Principal sources of data were topographical maps dating to 1943, and Landsat images from 1976, 1989, and 2001. The analysis shows that, although NNT has been inhabited by swidden cultivators for hundreds of years, it retained more than 95% forest cover until the 1960s-early 1970s. Subsequently, a post-Vietnam War release of human population, possibly coupled with government encouragement of agricultural expansion, precipitated a decline in forest of 0.5%/year until the 1980s. Curiously, this was followed by stability or an increase (ca. 0.3%/year in forest cover into the current century, even as NNT's human population continued to grow and as forest declined in Laos overall at 1.7%/year, and in two protected areas near NNT at more than 3%/year. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors probably account for the stability of NNT's forest cover despite recent population growth. First are cultural propensities for sedentariness and livelihoods with relatively low environmental impact among the ethnic groups inhabiting NNT. Since at least the 1940s, there have been remarkably few changes in the number or location of villages in NNT (and despite

  8. Leguminous cover crops differentially affect maize yields in three contrasting soil types of Kakamega, Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Mark Mtei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in smallholder farming systems in Kenya is largely limited by low soil fertility. As mineral fertilizer is expensive, green manuring using leguminous cover crops could be an alternative strategy for farmers to enhance farm productivity. However due to variability in soil type and crop management, the effects of green manure are likely to differ with farms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate Mucuna pruriens and Arachis pintoi on (i biomass and nitrogen fixation (15N natural abundance, (ii soil carbon and nitrogen stocks and (iii their effects on maize yields over two cropping seasons in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Mucuna at 6 weeks accumulated 1–1.3 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 33–56 kg ha^{-1} nitrogen of which 70% was nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (Ndfa. Arachis after 12 months accumulated 2–2.7 Mg ha^{-1} of dry matter and 51–74 kg N ha^{-1} of which 52-63 % was from Ndfa. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks at 0–15 cm depth were enhanced by 2-4 Mg C ha^{-1} and 0.3–1.0 Mg N ha^{-1} under Mucuna and Arachis fallow, irrespective of soil type. Maize yield increased by 0.5-2 Mg ha^{-1} in Mucuna and 0.5–3 Mg ha^{-1} in Arachis and the response was stronger on Nitisol than on Acrisol or Ferralsol. We concluded that leguminous cover crops seem promising in enhancing soil fertility and maize yields in Kenya, provided soil conditions and rainfall are suitable.

  9. Public Opinions and Use of Various Types of Recreational Infrastructure in Boreal Forest Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Gundersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated public preferences for use intensity and visual quality of forest recreational infrastructure. Forest infrastructure covers five classes, along a continuum from unmarked paths to paved walkways. Altogether, 39 sites were categorized into the five classes and measured with automatic counters. A sample of 545 respondents living in southeastern and middle Norway were asked to rate 15 forest scenes and 35 preconceptions of recreational settings. The path scenarios were depicted as digitally calibrated photos that systematically displayed physical path feature in boreal, semi-natural settings. Survey participants showed a clearly greater preference for photos and preconceptions of forests settings containing minor elements of forest infrastructure; unmarked paths received the highest score and forest roads/walkways/bikeways the lowest. We identified a clear mismatch between public preferences for forest infrastructure and the intensity of use; the less appreciated infrastructure was the most used. Planning and management has to consider these different needs for recreational infrastructure, and we propose an area zoning system that meets the different segments of forest visitors.

  10. [Carbon storage of forest vegetation and allocation for main forest types in the east of Da-xing'an Mountains based on additive biomass model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Dong, Li Hu; Li, Feng Ri

    2016-12-01

    Based on the biomass investigation data of main forest types in the east of Daxing'an Mountains, the additive biomass models of 3 main tree species were developed and the changes of carbon storage and allocation of forest community of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and litter layer from different forest types were discussed. The results showed that the carbon storage of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and litter layer for Rhododendron dauricum-Larix gmelinii forest was 71.00, 0.34, 0.05 and 11.97 t·hm -2 , respectively. Similarly, the carbon storage of the four layers of Ledum palustre-L. gmelinii forest was 47.82, 0.88, 0, 5.04 t·hm -2 , 56.56, 0.44, 0.04, 8.72 t·hm -2 for R. dauricum-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-Betula platyphylla, 46.21, 0.66, 0.07, 6.16 t·hm -2 for L. palustre-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla, 40.90, 1.37, 0.04, 3.67 t·hm -2 for R. dauricum-B. platyphylla forest, 36.28, 1.12, 0.18, 4.35 t·hm -2 for L. palustre-B. platyphylla forest. The carbon storage of forest community for the understory vegetation of R. dauricum was higher than that of the forest with L. palustre. In the condition of similar circumstances for the understory, the order of carbon storage for forest community was L. gmelinii forest > the mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla > B. platyphylla forest. The carbon storage of different forest types was different with the order of R. dauricum-L. gmelinii forest (83.36 t·hm -2 )> R. dauricum-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla (65.76 t·hm -2 ) > L. palustre-L. gmelinii forest (53.74 t·hm -2 )> L. palustre-mixed forest of L. gmelinii-B. platyphylla (53.10 t·hm -2 )> R. dauricum-B. platyphylla forest (45.98 t·hm -2 ) > L. palustre-B. platyphylla forest (41.93 t·hm -2 ). The order of carbon storage for the vertical distribution in forest communities with diffe-rent forest types was the tree layer (85.2%-89.0%) > litter layer (8.0%-14.4%) > shrub layer (0.4%-2.7%) > herb layer (0-0.4%).

  11. Correlations of Rainfall and Forest Type with Papilionid Assemblages in Assam in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Kusum Barua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No comprehensive community studies have been done on the butterflies of the tropical monsoon forests of the East Himalayan region. We described the Papilionidae at one site within the continuous moist deciduous forest belt of Northeast India and their variation with season and forest type. We surveyed 20 permanent line transects, varying with respect to canopy openness and observed levels of disturbance. A total sample effort of 131 days during the dry and wet seasons of a two-year study resulted in 18,373 individuals identified from 28 Papilionidae species. Constrained canonical correspondence ordination was used to examine the effects of season, forest type, rainfall, year, altitude, and geographical position on the species assemblages. Results showed that rainfall, forest type, and season accounted for most variance in papilionid abundance. Rainfall was strongly correlated with the abundance of some species. Nine species were associated with gaps, 16 species were restricted to closed forest, and three species were encountered in both gaps and closed forest. Six species with narrow geographic range were found only in closed forest. The results confirm the strong seasonality of continental Southeast Asian butterfly assemblages.

  12. Mapping and analysis land-use and land-cover changes during 1996-2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Fitri, A.; Harahap, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove forest plays a significant role for biogeochemical carbon cycle in the context of climate change along the tropical coastal area. The present study analyzed the land-use and land-cover changes from 1996, 2006 and 2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, Langkat, North Sumatra, Indonesia. Mangrove diversity in Lubuk Kertang consists of fifteen species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, A. lanata, A. officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, B. sexangula, Ceriops tagal, Excoecaria agallocha, Lumnitzera racemosa, L. littorea, R. apiculata, R. mucronata, Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea, Sonneratia caseolaris, and Xylocarpus granatum. The land use/land cover consists of seven classes namely, mangrove forest, river, residential, paddy field, oil palm plantation, aquaculture, and open space area. A land use change matrix showed that the decrease of mangrove forest 109.4 ha from 1996-2006 converted to aquaculture 51.5 ha (47.1%). By contrast, mangrove lost 291.2 ha during 2006-2016, with main driver deforestation was oil palm plantation 128.1 ha (44%). During twenty years mangrove forest has been lost more than 400.4 ha, which is equal to 20.02 ha/year. On the other hand, oil palm plantation and aquaculture have been increased 155.3 ha and 114.1 ha during 1996-2016, respectively, suggested that both land-uses are mainly responsible for mangrove deforestation. These data are likely to contribute towards coastal management planning and practice and mitigating actions for emission reduction scenario.

  13. Tree cover in sub-Saharan Africa: rainfall and fire constrain forest and savanna as alternative stable states

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Staver, AC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas are known as ecosystems with tree cover below climate-defined equilibrium values. However, a predictive framework for understanding constraints on tree cover is lacking. The authors present a) a spatially extensive analysis of tree cover...

  14. Predicting temperate forest stand types using only structural profiles from discrete return airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrigo, Melissa; Newnham, Glenn J.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Culvenor, Darius S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2018-02-01

    Light detection and ranging (lidar) data have been increasingly used for forest classification due to its ability to penetrate the forest canopy and provide detail about the structure of the lower strata. In this study we demonstrate forest classification approaches using airborne lidar data as inputs to random forest and linear unmixing classification algorithms. Our results demonstrated that both random forest and linear unmixing models identified a distribution of rainforest and eucalypt stands that was comparable to existing ecological vegetation class (EVC) maps based primarily on manual interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery. Rainforest stands were also identified in the region that have not previously been identified in the EVC maps. The transition between stand types was better characterised by the random forest modelling approach. In contrast, the linear unmixing model placed greater emphasis on field plots selected as endmembers which may not have captured the variability in stand structure within a single stand type. The random forest model had the highest overall accuracy (84%) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.62). However, the classification accuracy was only marginally better than linear unmixing. The random forest model was applied to a region in the Central Highlands of south-eastern Australia to produce maps of stand type probability, including areas of transition (the 'ecotone') between rainforest and eucalypt forest. The resulting map provided a detailed delineation of forest classes, which specifically recognised the coalescing of stand types at the landscape scale. This represents a key step towards mapping the structural and spatial complexity of these ecosystems, which is important for both their management and conservation.

  15. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF FOREST COVER IN THE REPUBLICS OF MORDOVIA AND MARI EL ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE LANDSAT SATELITE IMAGES CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Vdovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thestudy presents the results of an assessment of forest cover of the territories of the republics of Mordovia and Mari El on the color classification results of multispectral Landsat 8 in comparison with the data of the state register of forests. The study highlights the problem of transformation of the structure of land due to natural afforestation of agricultural land. Emphasized the importance of managing the recovery process "wildlife" in the regions of compact residence of the Finno-Ugric peoples using the methods of ecological planning of land for the purpose of solving the reconstruction of the ethnic environment of the Finno-Ugric peoples.

  16. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  17. Skin microbiota in frogs from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Species, forest type, and potential against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Ananda Brito de; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Navas, Carlos Arturo

    2017-01-01

    The cutaneous microbiota of amphibians can be defined as a biological component of protection, since it can be composed of bacteria that produce antimicrobial compounds. Several factors influence skin microbial structure and it is possible that environmental variations are among one of these factors, perhaps through physical-chemical variations in the skin. This community, therefore, is likely modified in habitats in which some ecophysiological parameters are altered, as in fragmented forests. Our research goal was to compare the skin bacterial community of four anuran species of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in landscapes from two different environments: continuous forest and fragmented forest. The guiding hypotheses were: 1) microbial communities of anuran skin vary among sympatric frog species of the Atlantic forest; 2) the degree to which forested areas are intact affects the cutaneous bacterial community of amphibians. If the external environment influences the skin microbiota, and if such influences affect microorganisms capable of inhibiting the colonization of pathogens, we expect consequences for the protection of host individuals. We compared bacterial communities based on richness and density of colony forming units; investigated the antimicrobial potential of isolated strains; and did the taxonomic identification of isolated morphotypes. We collected 188 individual frogs belonging to the species Proceratophrys boiei, Dendropsophus minutus, Aplastodiscus leucopygius and Phyllomedusa distincta, and isolated 221 bacterial morphotypes. Our results demonstrate variation in the skin microbiota of sympatric amphibians, but only one frog species exhibited differences in the bacterial communities between populations from fragmented and continuous forest. Therefore, the variation we observed is probably derived from both intrinsic aspects of the host amphibian species and extrinsic aspects of the environment occupied by the host. Finally, we detected

  18. Spatial pattern of tree diversity and evenness across forest types in Majella National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Redowan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimation of tree diversity at broader scale is important for conservation planning. Tree diversity should be measured and understood in terms of diversity and evenness, two integral components to describe the structure of a biological community. Variation of the tree diversity and evenness with elevation, topographic relief, aspect, terrain shape, slope, soil nutrient, solar radiation etc. are well documented. Methods Present study explores the variation of tree diversity (measured as Shannon diversity and evenness indices of Majella National Park, Italy with five available forest types namely evergreen oak woods, deciduous oak woods, black/aleppo pine stands, hop-hornbeam forest and beech forest, using satellite, environmental and field data. Results Hop-hornbeam forest was found to be most diverse and even while evergreen Oak woods was the lowest diverse and even. Diversity and evenness of forest types were concurrent to each other i.e. forest type which was more diverse was also more even. As a broad pattern, majority portion of the study area belonged to medium diversity and high evenness class. Conclusions Satellite images and other GIS data proved useful tools in monitoring variation of tree diversity and evenness across various forest types. Present study findings may have implications in prioritizing conservation zones of high tree diversity at Majella.

  19. Ligninolytic Activity at 0 °C of Fungi on Oak Leaves Under Snow Cover in a Mixed Forest in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshizumi; Koda, Keiichi; Kawaguchi, Arata; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of litter decomposition under snow cover in boreal forests and tundra, very little is known regarding the characteristics and functions of litter-decomposing fungi adapted to the cold climate. We investigated the decomposition of oak leaves in a heavy snowfall forest region of Japan. The rate of litter weight loss reached 26.5% during the snow cover period for 7 months and accounted for 64.6% of the annual loss (41.1%). Although no statistically significant lignin loss was detected, decolourization portions of oak leaf litter, which was attributable to the activities of ligninolytic fungi, were observed during snow cover period. This suggests that fungi involved in litter decomposition can produce extracellular enzymes to degrade lignin that remain active at 0 °C. Fungi were isolated from oak leaves collected from the forest floor under the snow layer. One hundred and sixty-six strains were isolated and classified into 33 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on culture characteristics and nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences. To test the ability to degrade lignin, the production of extracellular phenoloxidases by isolates was quantified at 0 °C. Ten OTUs (9 Ascomycota and 1 Basidiomycota) of fungi exhibited mycelial growth and ligninolytic activity. These results suggested that some litter-decomposing fungi that had the potential to degrade lignin at 0 °C significantly contribute to litter decomposition under snow cover.

  20. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)], E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@agr.kuleuven.ac.be; Sauras-Yera, Teresa [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Thiry, Yves [SCK.CEN, Radioecology Laboratory, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vallejo, V. Ramon [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Parterna (Spain); Smolders, Erik [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Brechignac, Francois [SERLAB, ISPN, Department for Environmental Protection, CE-Cadarache Batiment 159, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex 13108 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of {sup 137}Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil {sup 137}Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in {sup 137}Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  1. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Thiry, Yves; Vallejo, V. Ramon; Smolders, Erik; Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Brechignac, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of 137 Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil 137 Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of 137 Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution 137 Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The 137 Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in 137 Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in 137 Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  2. Effects of Habitat Structure, Plant Cover, and Successional Stage on the Bat Assemblage of a Tropical Dry Forest at Different Spatial Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. D. Falcão

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bats play a fundamental role in ecosystem functioning since they are responsible for several ecological services such as seed dispersal and pollination. Therefore, assessing the effects of habitat structure at different scales on the bat assemblage is extremely important for supporting conservation strategies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of habitat structure at multiple spatial scales on the bat assemblages and their variation along a gradient of secondary succession in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. Our results suggest that bat abundance is higher in areas close to mature forests, which shows the important role of those habitats as refuges for the regional bat fauna (in a fragmented landscape and for the maintenance of ecosystem services provided by this group in tropical dry forests in a landscape context. In addition, bat abundance was lower in protected areas whose surroundings were better preserved (greater forest extension. This unexpected finding could result from an altered behavior in areas under a strong influence of a fruit crop matrix. Finally, we showed that the effects of the surroundings depend on the successional stage of the area under analysis. Late forests are more susceptible to variations in the forest cover in their surroundings, which show the higher fragility of these environments.

  3. Land Cover as a Framework For Assessing the Risk of Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Robert V. O' Neill; Kenneth H. Reckhow; Timothy G. Wade; K. Bruce Jones

    2000-01-01

    A survey of numerous field studies shows that nitrogen and phosphorous export coefficients are significantly different across forest, agriculture, and urban land-cover types. We used simulations to estimate the land-cover composition at which there was a significant risk of nutrient loads representative of watersheds without forest cover. The results suggest that at...

  4. Geostatistical estimation of forest biomass in interior Alaska combining Landsat-derived tree cover, sampled airborne lidar and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Andersen, Hans-Erik; Pattison, Robert; Cook, Bruce D.; Morton, Douglas C.; Alonzo, Michael; Nelson, Ross; Gregoire, Timothy; Ene, Liviu; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2018-06-01

    The goal of this research was to develop and examine the performance of a geostatistical coregionalization modeling approach for combining field inventory measurements, strip samples of airborne lidar and Landsat-based remote sensing data products to predict aboveground biomass (AGB) in interior Alaska's Tanana Valley. The proposed modeling strategy facilitates pixel-level mapping of AGB density predictions across the entire spatial domain. Additionally, the coregionalization framework allows for statistically sound estimation of total AGB for arbitrary areal units within the study area---a key advance to support diverse management objectives in interior Alaska. This research focuses on appropriate characterization of prediction uncertainty in the form of posterior predictive coverage intervals and standard deviations. Using the framework detailed here, it is possible to quantify estimation uncertainty for any spatial extent, ranging from pixel-level predictions of AGB density to estimates of AGB stocks for the full domain. The lidar-informed coregionalization models consistently outperformed their counterpart lidar-free models in terms of point-level predictive performance and total AGB precision. Additionally, the inclusion of Landsat-derived forest cover as a covariate further improved estimation precision in regions with lower lidar sampling intensity. Our findings also demonstrate that model-based approaches that do not explicitly account for residual spatial dependence can grossly underestimate uncertainty, resulting in falsely precise estimates of AGB. On the other hand, in a geostatistical setting, residual spatial structure can be modeled within a Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain statistically defensible assessments of uncertainty for AGB estimates.

  5. Human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates: An example of landslide activity following forest cover change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guns, Marie; Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions present unique challenges and opportunities to land use change research. Very few, if any, mountain ecosystems remain unaffected by human impact. Based on the exemplary evidence from local case studies, it is not yet possible to have an overall assessment of the extent and impact of human activities on mountain erosion as mountain regions are typically characterized by rapid changes in geomorphic, cryospheric, climatic, hydrologic, ecological and socio-economic conditions over relatively short distances. Here, we present a conceptual model that allows evaluating human-induced shifts in geomorphic process rates. The basic idea behind this model is that the magnitude-frequency distribution of geomorphic processes is dependent on the intensity of human disturbance. The conceptual model is here applied for characterising landslide activity following forest cover change. We selected a tropical Andean catchment with a deforestation rate of 1.4% over the last 45 years. Landslide inventories were established based on historical aerial photographs (1963, 1977, and 1989) and very high-resolution satellite images (2010). Statistical analyses show that the total number of landslides is rising, and that they are increasingly associated with human disturbances (deforestation, road construction). This is particularly the case for shallow landslides that become more frequent after clearcutting. As the human-induced shifts in landslide activity are significant for the low-magnitude events only, the total impact on geomorphic process rates is rather limited in this particular area. This work shows that including information on the magnitude-frequency of geomorphic events before, during and after human disturbances offers new possibilities to quantify the complex response of geomorphic processes to human disturbances.

  6. Border Lakes land-cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Bauer; Brian Loeffelholz; Doug. Shinneman

    2009-01-01

    This document contains metadata and description of land-cover classification of approximately 5.1 million acres of land bordering Minnesota, U.S.A. and Ontario, Canada. The classification focused on the separation and identification of specific forest-cover types. Some separation of the nonforest classes also was performed. The classification was derived from multi-...

  7. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  8. High-resolution LIDAR and ground observations of snow cover in a complex forested terrain in the Sierra Nevada - implications for optical remote sensing of seasonal snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, T. S.; Harpold, A.; Hill, R.; McGwire, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snow cover is a key component of the hydrologic regime in many regions of the world, especially those in temperate latitudes with mountainous terrain and dry summers. Such regions support large human populations which depend on the mountain snowpack for their water supplies. It is thus important to quantify snow cover accurately and continuously in these regions. Optical remote-sensing methods are able to detect snow and leverage space-borne spectroradiometers with global coverage such as MODIS to produce global snow cover maps. However, snow is harder to detect accurately in mountainous forested terrain, where topography influences retrieval algorithms, and importantly - forest canopies complicate radiative transfer and obfuscate the snow. Current satellite snow cover algorithms assume that fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) under the canopy is the same as the fSCA in the visible portion of the pixel. In-situ observations and first principles considerations indicate otherwise, therefore there is a need for improvement of the under-canopy correction of snow cover. Here, we leverage multiple LIDAR overflights and in-situ observations with a distributed fiber-optic temperature sensor (DTS) to quantify snow cover under canopy as opposed to gap areas at the Sagehen Experimental Forest in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Snow-off LIDAR overflights from 2014 are used to create a baseline high-resolution digital elevation model and classify pixels at 1 m resolution as canopy-covered or gap. Low canopy pixels are excluded from the analysis. Snow-on LIDAR overflights conducted by the Airborne Snow Observatory in 2016 are then used to classify all pixels as snow-covered or not and quantify fSCA under canopies vs. in gap areas over the Sagehen watershed. DTS observations are classified as snow-covered or not based on diel temperature fluctuations and used as validation for the LIDAR observations. LIDAR- and DTS-derived fSCA is also compared with

  9. Comparing vegetation cover in the Santee Experimental Forest, South Carolina (USA), before and after hurricane Hugo: 1989-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni R. Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo struck the coast of South Carolina on September 21, 1989 as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Landsat Thematic mapper was utilized to determine the extent of damage experienced at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) (a part of Francis Marion National Forest) in South Carolina. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the...

  10. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  11. Evaluation of SLAR and thematic mapper MSS data for forest cover mapping using computer-aided analysis techniques. [south carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A literature review on radar and spectral band information was conducted and a NC-130 mission was flown carrying the NS001 scanner system which basically corresponds to the channel configuration of the proposed thematic mapper. Aerial photography and other reference data were obtained for the study site, an area approximately 290 sq miles in north central South Carolina. A cover type map was prepared and methods were devised for reformatting and geometrically correcting MSS CRT data. Arrangements were made to obtain LANDSAT data for dates approximating the NC-130 mission. Because of the waveband employed to obtain SEASAT radar data, it was decided to determine if X-band (2.40 cm to 3.75 cm wavelength) imagery is available.

  12. Land cover and land use changes of native forests categories: the case of the Atencio District, Argentina, in the period from 1984 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Sabattini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this work was to assess land use and land cover change in Distrito Atencio, near Feliciano, in the province of Entre Ríos, Argentina, from 1984 to 2013 and to make a projection of possible changes in the native forests of Espinal Phytogeographic Region. Area of study: Espinal Ecorregion, Atencio (Argentina Material and Methods: Ten LANDSAT 5-TM and LANDSAT 8-OLI satellite images were used and two classes were distinguished by vectorization: NF-Native Forests and OL-Other Lands. Besides, four categories were defined by supervised classification: CNF-Closed Native Forest, ONF-Open Native Forest, RF-Riverside Forest with Shrub Jungle, and ONG-Open Native Grassland or Savanna. Main results: It was estimated NF as being 76,619 ha and 59,994 ha for years 1984 and 2013 respectively, which represented a 21.69% reduction over a period of 30 years. In 1984, 32.93% of the district surface was occup∫ied by CNF; the same proportion was covered by ONF; and ONG followed with 16.361 ha (20.66%. In 2013, contrarily, CNF was reduced by 13.67%. Land use change was noted to be directed towards the central eastern region. By 2015, OL are expected to keep 88% of their surface, while ONG areas might suffer a 28.80% and 41.25% reduction for years 2025 and 2050 respectively. Research highlights: District’s areas with higher incidence on changes due to ecosystem fragmentation processes were identified. It is hoped that this study may contribute to settling native forests protection and recovery areas.

  13. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  14. Controls on plant functional surface cover types along a precipitation gradient in the Negev Desert of Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.; Veldkamp, A.; Boeken, B.; Breemen, van N.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the controls on functional surface cover types in four catchments along a semi-arid to arid precipitation gradient in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. First, we selected four functional types, based on their unique water use and redistribution functionality: shrubs, Asphodelus

  15. Estimation of water transit time in soils under Amazon forest cover using variations in delta18O values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Matsui, E.; Salati, E.

    1984-01-01

    The work was carried out at the forest reserve of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, located at km 45 of Manaus, in an area characterized by Amazon vegetation of the 'terra-firme' type. To extract the soil water, four soil-water collecting stations were installed, and in each the porous cups were placed at 15, 25, 50, 80 and 120 cm depth from the soil surface. The rain-water and soil-water samples were collected only weekly for analysis of the 18 O content. In an attempt to estimate the soil-water transit time using the variation in 18 O values, a statistical model was used. This model is based on linear regression analysis applied to the values observed for soil water and rain water. From this analysis, regression coefficients are obtained which vary according to time. The values of the coefficients obtained can be adjusted generally, according to a quadratic regression, with the maximum value of the function representing the time in which the best statistical correlation between the observed delta 18 O values occurs. The time obtained from these correlations represents the mean time necessary for the water to run from one collecting point to the next. (author)

  16. Carbon stocks assessment in subtropical forest types of Kashmir Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, H.; Khan, R.W.A.; Hussain, K.; Ullah, T.S.; Mehmood, A.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem is necessary to mitigate impacts of climate change. Current research project was focused to assess the Carbon contents in standing trees and soil of different subtropical forest sites in Kashmir. Tree biomass was estimated by using allometric equations whereas Soil carbon was calculated by Walkey-Black titration method. Total carbon stock was computed as 186.27 t/ha with highest value of 326 t/ha recorded from Pinus roxburghii forest whereas lowest of 75.86 t/ha at mixed forest. Average biomass carbon was found to be 151.38 t/ha with a maximum value of 294.7 t/ha and minimum of 43.4 t/ha. Pinus roxburghii was the most significant species having biomass value of 191.8 t/ha, followed by Olea cuspidata (68.9 t/ha), Acacia modesta (12.71 t/ha), Dalbergia sissoo (12.01 t/ha), Broussonetia papyrifera (5.93 t/ha), Punica granatum (2.27 t/ha), Mallotus philippensis (2.2 t/ha), Albizia lebbeck (1.8t/ha), Ficus palmata (1.51 t/ha), Acacia arabica (1.4 t/ha), Melia azedarach, (1.14 t/ha) and Ficus carica (1.07 t/ha) respectively. Recorded value of tree density was 492/ha; average DBH was 87.27 cm; tree height was 13.3m; and regeneration value was 83 seedlings/ha. Soil carbon stocks were found to be 34.89 t/ha whereas agricultural soil carbon was calculated as 27.18 t/ha. Intense deforestation was represented by a stump density of 147.4/ha. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed the distinct species clusters on the basis of location, biomass and Carbon stock values. Pinus roxburghii and Olea cuspidata were found to be the major contributors of carbon stock having maximum vector lengths in the PCA Biplot. Forest in the area needs to be managed in a sustainable manner to increase its carbon sequestration potential. (author)

  17. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  18. Separating the effects of forest type and elevation on the diversity of litter invertebrate communities in a humid tropical forest in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBARA A. RICHARDSON; MICHAEL J. RICHARDSON; FELIPE N. SOTO-ADAMES

    2005-01-01

    1. The primary effects of climatic conditions on invertebrate litter communities, and the secondary effects of different forest types, were distinguished by using the sierra palm as a control in a natural experiment along an elevational gradient in the Luquillo Mountains. These mountains have three well-defined forest types along the gradient, with the palm occurring...

  19. Effect of Simulated N Deposition on Soil Exchangeable Cations in Three Forest Types of Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xian-Kai; MO Jiang-Ming; P.GUNDERSERN; ZHU Wei-Xing; ZHOU Guo-Yi; LI De-Jun; ZHANG Xu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil exchangeable cations were studied in three forest types of subtropical China.Four N treatments with three replications were designed for the monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (mature forest):control (0 kg N ha-1 year-1),low N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),medium N (100 kg N ha-1 year-1) and high N (150 kg N ha-1 ycar-1),and only three treatments (i.e.,control,low N,medium N) were established for the pine and mixed forests.Nitrogen had been applied continuously for 26 months before the measurement.The mature forest responded more rapidly and intensively to N additions than the pine and mixed forests,and exhibited some significant negative symptoms,e.g.,soil acidification,Al mobilization and leaching of base cations from soil.The pine and mixed forests responded slowly to N additions and exhibited no significant response of soil cations.Response of soil exchangeable cations to N deposition varied in the forests of subtropical China,depending on soil N status and land-nse history.

  20. Floristic composition and diversity of three forest types at Caparu, Vaupus Biological Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Angela; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2009-01-01

    The Amazon forests are among the most diverse ecosystems in the planet. Although some countries of the Amazon Basin have a fairly complete record of their plants, in Colombia much effort is still needed to have a good idea of the plant diversity patterns and floristic composition. Three one-hectare vegetation-land plots (DBH? 10 cm) were established in Vaupes, Colombia, regarding three types of forest: Colina, Terraza (Terra Firme forests) and Igapo (periodically flooded). Plant diversity was estimated and floristic composition was described classifying the most important families and species. The highest diversity was found in Colina (Fisher's ? = 160.3), followed by Terraza (? = 78.4) and Igapo (? = 44.7). Fabaceae s.l. was the most important family of all plots, but in Terraza forest the importance of Arecaceae was similar to that of Fabaceae. Floristic composition was also remarkably different amongst the three forest types, especially Igapo, which was the most dissimilar. However, both Terra Firme forests showed strong floristic differences, which may be caused by differences in abiotic factors (i.e. soils). High plant diversity reported in this study agrees with the hypothesis that central and western Amazon forests are the most diverse of the Amazon Basin.

  1. Assess and Adapt: Coordinated Ecoregional Forest Vulnerability Assessments Covering the Upper Midwest and Northeast in Support of Climate-informed Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.; Handler, S.; Butler, P.; Brandt, L.; Iverson, L.; Thompson, F.; Ontl, T.; Shannon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem vulnerability assessments are rapidly becoming an integral component of forest management planning, in which there is increasing public expectation that even near-term activities explicitly incorporate information about anticipated climate impacts and risks. There is a clear desire among forest managers for targeted assessments that address critical questions about species and ecosystem vulnerabilities while delivering this information in an accessible format. We developed the Ecosystem Vulnerability Assessment Approach (EVAA), which combines multiple quantitative models, expert elicitation from scientists and land managers, and a templated report structure oriented to natural resource managers. The report structure includes relevant information on the contemporary landscape, past climate, future climate projections, impact model results, and a transparent vulnerability assessment of species and ecosystems. We have used EVAA in seven ecoregional assessments covering 246 million acres of forestland across the upper Midwest and Northeast (www.forestadaptation.org; five published, two in review). We convened a panel of local forest ecology and management experts in each assessment area to examine projected climate effects on system drivers, stressors, and dominant species, as well as the current adaptive capacity of the major ecoregional forest ecosystems. The panels provided a qualitative assessment of the vulnerability of forest ecosystems to climate change over the next century. Over 130 authors from dozens of organizations collaborated on these peer-reviewed assessment publications, which are delivered to thousands of stakeholders through live and recorded webinars, online briefs, and in-person trainings and seminars. The assessments are designed to be used with the Adaptation Workbook (www.adaptationworkbook.org), a planning tool that works at multiple scales and has generated more than 200 real-world forest adaptation demonstration projects.

  2. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  3. Effects of forest cover changes in European Russia on regional weather conditions: results of numerical experiments with the COSMO-CLM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, Alexander; Kuzmina, Ekaterina; Rozinkina, Inna; Nikitin, Mikhail; Rivin, Gdaly S.

    2017-04-01

    The forests have a significant effect on the climatic system. They capture CO2 from the atmosphere, regulate the surface evaporation and runoff, and influence the radiation and thermal conditions of the land surface. It is obvious, that their influence depends on many different factors including regional climate conditions, land use and vegetation structure, surface topography, etc. The main goal of the study is to assess the possible influence of forest cover changes (under deforestation and/or afforestation) on regional weather conditions in the central part of European Russia using the results of modeling experiments provided by the meso-scale COSMO-CLM model. The need of the study lies in a lack of the experimental and modeling data characterizing the influence of the forest and land-use changes on regional weather conditions in European part of Russia. The forest ecosystems in the study region play a very important biosphere role that is significantly increased in the last decades due to considerable strengthening of anthropogenic activity in the area of European Russia. The area selected for the study is located in the central part of European Russia between 55 and 59N and 28 and 37E. It comprises several geographical zones including dark-coniferous forests of the South-European taiga in the north, the mixed forests in the central part and the broad-leaved forests in the south. The forests within the study area are very heterogeneous. The total area covered by forests according to recent remote sensing data is about 50%. The numerical experiments were provided using the COSMO-CLM model with the spatial resolution 13.2 km. As initial and boundary conditions for the numerical experiments the global reanalysis ERA Interim (with the 6-hour resolution in time and 0.75° × 0.75° in space) were used. The weather conditions were simulated in a continuous cycle for several months for the entire area of European Russia using the results of global reanalysis on

  4. An Initial Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data for the Discrimination of Agricultural, Forested Wetlands, and Urban Land Cover. [Poinsett County, Arkansas; and Reelfoot Lake and Union City, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of TM data for discriminating land covers within three particular cultural and ecological realms was assessed. The agricultural investigation in Poinsett County, Arkansas illustrates that TM data can successfully be used to discriminate a variety of crop cover types within the study area. The single-date TM classification produced results that were significantly better than those developed from multitemporal MSS data. For the Reelfoot Lake area of Tennessee TM data, processed using unsupervised signature development techniques, produced a detailed classification of forested wetlands with excellent accuracy. Even in a small city of approximately 15,000 people (Union City, Tennessee). TM data can successfully be used to spectrally distinguish specific urban classes. Furthermore, the principal components analysis evaluation of the data shows that through photointerpretation, it is possible to distinguish individual buildings and roof responses with the TM.

  5. Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra (Department of the Vaupes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Javier

    1999-01-01

    The Floristic and structural characterization of the main forest types in the Taraira Sierra, it was carried out to give to know the forests that exist there, since there were not preliminary studies on this ecosystem, and to enlarge the knowledge on the forests of the Colombian Guayana. For the composition study and it structures of the vegetation, three parcels of study of 0.05 hectares settled down, 10m x 50m each one; two in high Catinga and one in the Arbustiva; likewise they were traveled by different places of the Sierra to collect vegetable material. According to the floristic composition, to the covering analysis, and to the Sorensen index (Cordoba, 1995) they were defined three communities, the first of them in Catinga arbustiva, Clusia spathulaefolia - Retiniphyllum truncatum that is characterized to reach heights until of 10 meters, on sandy soils with inferior slope to 7%. In the high Catinga they were two communities, Micrandra sprucei - amazon Poecilanthe and Micrandra sprucei - Tovomita clarkii, which are characterized to present a superior stratum that reaches the 20 meters high. The Taraira Sierra, makes part of the high-priority of conservation areas due to its wealth of species as much animals as vegetables, to its high endemism that is developed on poor and fragile soils of the Guianese shield and to that this ecosystem is in risk, due to the mining exploitation

  6. Forecasting Forest Type and Age Classes in the Appalachian-Cumberland Subregion of the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes how forest type and age distributions might be expected to change in the Appalachian-Cumberland portions of the Central Hardwood Region over the next 50 years. Forecasting forest conditions requires accounting for a number of biophysical and socioeconomic dynamics within an internally consistent modeling framework. We used the US Forest...

  7. Development of deforestation and land cover database for Bhutan (1930-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Satish, K V; Jha, C S; Diwakar, P G; Murthy, Y V N Krishna; Dadhwal, V K

    2016-12-01

    Bhutan is a mountainous country located in the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot. This study has quantified the total area under land cover types, estimated the rate of forest cover change, analyzed the changes across forest types, and modeled forest cover change hotpots in Bhutan. The topographical maps and satellite remote sensing images were analyzed to get the spatial patterns of forest and associated land cover changes over the past eight decades (1930-1977-1987-1995-2005-2014). Forest is the largest land cover in Bhutan and constitutes 68.3% of the total geographical area in 2014. Subtropical broad leaved hill forest is predominant type occupies 34.1% of forest area in Bhutan, followed by montane dry temperate (20.9%), montane wet temperate (18.9%), Himalayan moist temperate (10%), and tropical moist sal (8.1%) in 2014. The major forest cover loss is observed in subtropical broad leaved hill forest (64.5 km 2 ) and moist sal forest (9.9 km 2 ) from 1977 to 2014. The deforested areas have mainly been converted into agriculture and contributed for 60.9% of forest loss from 1930 to 2014. In spite of major decline of forest cover in time interval of 1930-1977, there is no net rate of deforestation is recorded in Bhutan since 1995. Forest cover change analysis has been carried out to evaluate the conservation effectiveness in "Protected Areas" of Bhutan. Hotspots that have undergone high transformation in forest cover for afforestation and deforestation were highlighted in the study for conservation prioritisation. Forest conservation policies in Bhutan are highly effective in controlling deforestation as compared to neighboring Asian countries and such service would help in mitigating climate change.

  8. Forest cover change prediction using hybrid methodology of geoinformatics and Markov chain model: A case study on sub-Himalayan town Gangtok, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Anirban; Mondal, Arun; Mukherjee, Sandip; Khatua, Dipam; Ghosh, Subhajit; Mitra, Debasish; Ghosh, Tuhin

    2014-08-01

    In the Himalayan states of India, with increasing population and activities, large areas of forested land are being converted into other land-use features. There is a definite cause and effect relationship between changing practice for development and changes in land use. So, an estimation of land use dynamics and a futuristic trend pattern is essential. A combination of geospatial and statistical techniques were applied to assess the present and future land use/land cover scenario of Gangtok, the subHimalayan capital of Sikkim. Multi-temporal satellite imageries of the Landsat series were used to map the changes in land use of Gangtok from 1990 to 2010. Only three major land use classes (built-up area and bare land, step cultivated area, and forest) were considered as the most dynamic land use practices of Gangtok. The conventional supervised classification, and spectral indices-based thresholding using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) were applied along with the accuracy assessments. Markov modelling was applied for prediction of land use/land cover change and was validated. SAVI provides the most accurate estimate, i.e., the difference between predicted and actual data is minimal. Finally, a combination of Markov modelling and SAVI was used to predict the probable land-use scenario in Gangtok in 2020 AD, which indicted that more forest areas will be converted for step cultivation by the year 2020.

  9. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan’an City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study Yan’an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI and land use/land cover (LULC types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990–2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990–2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon’s diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment.

  10. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan’an City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-01-01

    In this study Yan’an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990–2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990–2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon’s diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment. PMID:28933770

  11. Effects of Land Use/Cover Changes and Urban Forest Configuration on Urban Heat Islands in a Loess Hilly Region: Case Study Based on Yan'an City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinping; Wang, Dexiang; Hao, Hongke; Zhang, Fangfang; Hu, Youning

    2017-07-26

    In this study Yan'an City, a typical hilly valley city, was considered as the study area in order to explain the relationships between the surface urban heat island (SUHI) and land use/land cover (LULC) types, the landscape pattern metrics of LULC types and land surface temperature (LST) and remote sensing indexes were retrieved from Landsat data during 1990-2015, and to find factors contributed to the green space cool island intensity (GSCI) through field measurements of 34 green spaces. The results showed that during 1990-2015, because of local anthropogenic activities, SUHI was mainly located in lower vegetation cover areas. There was a significant suburban-urban gradient in the average LST, as well as its heterogeneity and fluctuations. Six landscape metrics comprising the fractal dimension index, percentage of landscape, aggregation index, division index, Shannon's diversity index, and expansion intensity of the classified LST spatiotemporal changes were paralleled to LULC changes, especially for construction land, during the past 25 years. In the urban area, an index-based built-up index was the key positive factor for explaining LST increases, whereas the normalized difference vegetation index and modified normalized difference water index were crucial factors for explaining LST decreases during the study periods. In terms of the heat mitigation performance of green spaces, mixed forest was better than pure forest, and the urban forest configuration had positive effects on GSCI. The results of this study provide insights into the importance of species choice and the spatial design of green spaces for cooling the environment.

  12. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  13. Tree cover and aridity projections to 2060: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Greenfield; David J. Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Future projections of tree cover and climate change are useful to natural resource managers as they illustrate potential changes to our natural resources and the ecosystem services they provide. This report a) details three projections of tree cover change across the conterminous United States based on predicted land-use changes from 2000 to 2060; b) evaluates nine...

  14. [Postfire restoration of organic substance in the ground cover of the larch forests in the permafrost zone of central Evenkia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokushkin, S G; Bogdanov, V V; Prokushkin, A S; Tokareva, I V

    2011-01-01

    The role of ground fires in transformation of organic substances in the ground cover of larch stands in the permafrost zone of Central Siberia was studied, as was the postfire restoration dynamics of organic substances. Ground fires lead to a considerable decrease in concentrations and resources of organic carbon and its individual fractions in the ground cover, and restoration takes many decades.

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of grass cover in two olive grove catchments on contrasting soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Laura; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gimeno, Enrique; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate conditions -characterized by the concentration of the precipitation in the seasons of autumn and spring, the low temperatures in winter and extremely warm and dry summers- determine that ground cover by adventitious (or cover crop) vegetation shows significant seasonal and annual variability. In addition, its spatial variability associates also, partially, to water availability among the landscape. This is especially relevant in olive orchards, an agricultural system under high erosion risk in the region where the establishment of herbaceous cover has proved to improve soil protection reducing erosion risk, as well as the improvement of soil properties (Gómez et al., 2009). All these benefits are based on small scale studies where full ground cover by the cover crop is relatively easy to obtain. However, few information is available about the actual ground cover achieved at farm scale, although preliminary observations suggests that this might be extremely variable (Gómez and Giráldez, 2009). This study presents the preliminary results evaluating the spatial and temporal evolution of ground cover by adventitious vegetation (the preferred option by farmers to achieve a cover crop) in two commercial olive farms during 2 hydrological years (2011-2012). The study was conducted in two farms located in the province of Cordoba, Southern Spain. Both were olive orchards grown under deficit irrigation systems and present a gauge station where rainfall, runoff and sediment loads have been measured from the year 2005. The soil management in "La Conchuela" farm was based in the use of herbicide in the line of olive trees to keep the bare soil all year round, and the application of selective herbicide in the lane between the olive trees to promote the grown of graminaceae grasses . In addition, the grass is mechanically killed in June. In the another farm, "Arroyo Blanco", the grass spontaneous cover is allowed until mid-spring in which is also

  16. The Critical Depth of Freeze-Thaw Soil under Different Types of Snow Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow cover is the most common upper boundary condition influencing the soil freeze-thaw process in the black soil farming area of northern China. Snow is a porous dielectric cover, and its unique physical properties affect the soil moisture diffusion, heat conduction, freezing rate and other variables. To understand the spatial distribution of the soil water-heat and the variable characteristics of the critical depth of the soil water and heat, we used field data to analyze the freezing rate of soil and the extent of variation in soil water-heat in a unit soil layer under bare land (BL, natural snow (NS, compacted snow (CS and thick snow (TS treatments. The critical depth of the soil water and heat activity under different snow covers were determined based on the results of the analysis, and the variation fitting curve of the difference sequences on the soil temperature and water content between different soil layers and the surface 5-cm soil layer were used to verify the critical depth. The results were as follows: snow cover slowed the rate of soil freezing, and the soil freezing rate under the NS, CS and TS treatments decreased by 0.099 cm/day, 0.147 cm/day and 0.307 cm/day, respectively, compared with that under BL. In addition, the soil thawing time was delayed, and the effect was more significant with increased snow cover. During freeze-thaw cycles, the extent of variation in the water and heat time series in the shallow soil was relatively large, while there was less variation in the deep layer. There was a critical stratum in the vertical surface during hydrothermal migration, wherein the critical depth of soil water and heat change gradually increased with increasing snow cover. The variance in differences between the surface layer and both the soil water and heat in the different layers exhibited “steady-rising-steady” behavior, and the inflection point of the curve is the critical depth of soil freezing and thawing. This critical

  17. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  18. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  19. Human well-being and land cover types in the southeastern U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Gyawali; R. Fraser; J. Schelhas; Y. Wang; W. Tadesse; J. Bukenya

    2009-01-01

    The west-central region of Alabama is rich in natural resources.  Yet changes in land use seem unrelated to improvements in human well-being.  Satellite imagery and U.S. census data for 1980 and 2000 were analyzed to test whether changes in land cover were related to changes in a human well-being index-of income, employment and education at the Cenus Block Group (CBG)...

  20. Eleven years of ground–air temperature tracking over different land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Vladimír; Bodri, L.; Krešl, Milan; Dědeček, Petr; Šafanda, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2017), s. 1084-1099 ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/11/0183; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13040 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : long-term temperature monitoring * land-cover materials * underground climate signal * borehole climatology * climate change Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016

  1. Effects of competition and facilitation on species assemblage in two types of tropical cloud forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Long

    Full Text Available Competition and facilitation between tree individuals are two kinds of non-random processes influencing the structure and functioning of forest communities, but how these two plant-plant interactions change along gradient of resources or environments remains very much a matter of debate. We developed a null model to test the size-distance regression, and assessed the effects of competition and facilitation (including interspecific interactions, intraspecific interactions and overall species interactions on each adult tree species assemblage [diameter at breast height (dbh ≥5 cm] across two types of tropical cloud forest with different environmental and resource regimes. The null model test revealed that 17% to 27% tree species had positive dbh-distance correlations while 11% to 19% tree species showed negative dbh-distance correlations within these two forest types, indicating that both competition and facilitation processes existed during the community assembly. The importance of competition for heterospecific species, and the intensity of competition for both heterospecific and overall species increased from high to low resources for all the shared species spanning the two forests. The importance of facilitation for conspecific and overall species, as well as that the intensity of facilitation for both heterospecific and conspecific species increased with increasing low air temperature stress for all the shared species spanning the two forests. Our results show that both competition and facilitation processes simultaneously affect parts of species assemblage in the tropical cloud forests. Moreover, the fact that nearly 50% species assemblage is not detected with our approaches suggest that tree species in these tropical forest systems are assembled with multiple ecological processes, and that there is a need to explore the processes other than the two biotic interactions in further researches.

  2. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; S. He Hong; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial...

  3. Assessing Independent Variables Used in Econometric Modeling Forest Land Use or Land Cover Change: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Jeuck; F. Cubbage; R. Abt; R. Bardon; J. McCarter; J. Coulston; M. Renkow

    2014-01-01

    : We conducted a meta-analysis on 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forestland conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and...

  4. Seismic response of the 'Cut-and Cover' type reactor containment considering nonlinear soil behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahan, H.; Reddy, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some parametric studies of dynamic soil-structure interaction for the 'cut-and-cover' reactor concept. The dynamic loading considered is a horizontal earthquake motion. The high frequency ranges, which must be considered in the study of soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plants, and the nonlinearity of soil behavior during strong earthquakes are adequately taken into account. Soil nonlinearity is accounted for in an approximate manner using a combination of the 'equivalent linear method' and the method of complex response with complex moduli. The structure considered is a reinforced concrete containment for a 1100 - MWe power plant, buried in a dense sand medium. (orig.)

  5. Assessing the ability of MODIS EVI to estimate terrestrial ecosystem gross primary production of multiple land cover types

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shi, H.; Li, L.; Eamus, D.; Huete, A.; Cleverly, J.; Tian, X.; Yu, Q.; Wang, S.; Montagnani, L.; Magliulo, V.; Rotenberg, E.; Pavelka, Marian; Carrara, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, Jan (2017), s. 153-164 ISSN 1470-160X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Enhanced vegetation index * Gross primary production * Land cover types * Leaf area index * MODIS * Remote sensing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  6. Analysing the Effects of Forest Cover and Irrigation Farm Dams on Streamflows of Water-Scarce Catchments in South Australia through the SWAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hanh Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assist water resource managers with future land use planning efforts, the eco-hydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was applied to three catchments in South Australia that experience extreme low flow conditions. Particular land uses and management issues of interest included forest covers, known to affect water yields, and farm dams, known to intercept and change the hydrological dynamics in a catchment. The study achieved a satisfactory daily calibration when irrigation farm dams were incorporated in the model. For the catchment dominated by extreme low flows, a better daily simulation across a range of qualitative and quantitative metrics was gained using the base-flow static threshold optimization technique. Scenario analysis on effects of forest cover indicated an increase of surface flow and a reduction of base-flow when native eucalyptus lands were replaced by pastures and vice versa. A decreasing trend was observed for the overall water yield of catchments with more forest plantation due to the higher evapotranspiration (ET rate and the decline in surface flow. With regards to effects of irrigation farm dams, assessment on a daily time step suggested that a significant volume of water is stored in these systems with the water loss rate highest in June and July. On an annual basis, the model indicated that approximately 13.1% to 22.0% of water has been captured by farm dams for irrigation. However, the scenario analysis revealed that the purposes of use of farm dams rather than their volumetric capacities in the catchment determined the magnitude of effects on streamflows. Water extracted from farm dams for irrigation of orchards and vineyards are more likely to diminish streamflows than other land uses. Outputs from this study suggest that the water use restrictions from farm dams during recent drought periods were an effective tool to minimize impacts on streamflows.

  7. The performance of solar collector CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) type with three pipes covered by glass tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Yogi Sirodz; Yulianto, Muhamad; Juarsa, Mulya; Nurrohman, Marzuki, Edi; Yuliaji, Dwi; Budiono, Kabul

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country that has potential energy of solar radiation worth of 4.5 until 4.8 kWh/m2. However, this potential has not been utilized regularly. This paper will discuss the performance of solar collector compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type with water as the working fluid. This CPC solar collector utilized three pipes covered by glass tubes. This paper has contribution to provide the temperature achievement between three pipes covered by glass tubes with and without glass cover of solar collector CPC type. The research conducted by varying the water flow rate of 1 l/m up to 6 l/m with three pipes arranged in series and parallel. From the results, the used of solar collector CPC type in the current study shows that the decrease of solar radiation, which was caused by climate change, did not influence the heat absorbance by water in the pipe. Therefore, the design of the solar collector in this research has potential to be used in future when solar radiation are used as the energy source.

  8. Soil CO2 efflux among four coniferous forest types of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Ganie, Khursheed Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-11-01

    Soil CO2 efflux was measured in four different coniferous forest types (Cedrus deodara (CD), Pinus wallichiana (PW), mixed coniferous (MC), and Abies pindrow (AP)) for a period of 2 years (April 2012 to December 2013). The monthly soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.8 to 4.1 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2012 and 1.01 to 5.48 μmoles CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in 2013. The soil CO2 efflux rate was highest in PW forest type in both the years, while it was lowest in MC and CD forest types during 2012 and 2013, respectively. Soil temperature (TS) at a depth of 10 cm ranged from 3.8 to 19.4 °C in 2012 and 3.5 to 19.1 °C in 2013 in all the four forest types. Soil moisture (MS) ranged from 19.8 to 58.6% in 2012 and 18.5 to 58.6% in 2013. Soil CO2 efflux rate was found to be significantly higher in summer than the other seasons and least during winter. Soil CO2 efflux showed a significant positive relationship with TS (R2=0.52 to 0.74), SOC% (R2=0.67), pH (R2=0.68), and shrub biomass (R2=0.51), whereas, only a weak positive relationship was found with soil moisture (R2=0.16 to 0.41), tree density (R2=0.25), tree basal area (R2=0.01), tree biomass (R2=0.07), herb biomass (R2=0.01), and forest floor litter (R2=0.02). Thus, the study indicates that soil CO2 efflux in high mountainous areas is greatly influenced by seasons, soil temperature, and other environmental factors.

  9. Detecting the hydrological impacts of forest cover change in tropical mountain areas: need for detrending time series of rainfall and streamflow data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Balthazar, V.

    2012-04-01

    Interactions between human activities and the physical environment have increasingly transformed the hydrological functioning of Andean ecosystems. In these human-modified landscapes, land use/-cover change may have a profound effect on riverine water and sediment fluxes. The hydrological impacts of land use/-cover change are diverse, as changes in vegetation affect the various components of the hydrological cycle including evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff. Quantitative data for tropical mountain regions are scarce, as few long time series on rainfall, water discharge and land use are available. Furthermore, time series of rainfall and streamflow data in tropical mountains are often highly influenced by large inter- and intra-annual variability. In this paper, we analyse the hydrological response to complex forest cover change for a catchment of 280 km2 located in the Ecuadorian Andes. Forest cover change in the Pangor catchment was reconstructed based on airphotos (1963, 1977), LANDSAT TM (1991) and ETM+ data (2001, 2009). From 1963, natural vegetation was converted to agricultural land and pine plantations: forests decreased by a factor 2, and paramo decreased by 20 km2 between 1963 and 2009. For this catchment, there exists an exceptionally long record of rainfall and streamflow data that dates back from the '70s till now, but large variability in hydrometeorological data exists that is partly related to ENSO events. Given the nonstationary and nonlinear character of the ENSO-related changes in rainfall, we used the Hilbert-Huang transformation to detrend the time series of the river flow data from inter- and intra-annual fluctuations in rainfall. After applying adaptive data analysis based on empirical model decomposition techniques, it becomes apparent that the long-term trend in streamflow is different from the long-term trend in rainfall data. While the streamflow data show a long-term decrease in monthly flow, the rainfall data have a

  10. The consequences of changes in forest land cover in the Alpine and Jurassic massifs on the physico-chemical status of deep lake waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Nedjai

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of acidification in lake waters has been the topic of numerous scientific studies in northern Europe and North America. In recent years, interest in the topic has spread to southern Europe and Asia because similar symptoms have been observed (drop in pH and in redox potential, generally accompanied by oxygen depletion. All the scientific work on the issue has concluded that the phenomenon is general and affects, to different degrees, lakes located at low to medium altitudes in mountains (the Vosges mountains and more recently the Jura mountains, in France. The difference in degree is often interpreted as the result of different combinations from three sources, namely acid rain, direct discharges of pollutants and the spread of forests (essentially conifer species. The first two sources have been confirmed, but the third is less perceptible due to slow progression of the phenomenon.Analysis and modelling of changes in land cover in the Hérisson river basin in the Jura mountains (largely carbonated soils confirmed the direct impact of the forest cover on the physico-chemical quality of lake waters, in particular at the deeper levels (hypolimnion over the past 30 years. The impact is reinforced by the considerable presence of peat zones around the lakes which, during high-water periods, contribute large quantities of dissolved, particulate organic matter.The goal of this work is to show the direct impact of the increasing forest cover observed on the Jurassic plateaus, caused by a considerable reduction in farming activity over the past 30 years. This work focuses on an analysis of land cover (vegetation, using four satellite images spanning the period from 1975 to 2006, and calls on hydrogeochemical modelling (WARMF to evaluate changes in the physico-chemical quality, i.e. acidification, of deep lake waters. This first step is followed by a predictive phase prior to measuring the intensity of the physico-chemical changes (pH and redox

  11. Effect of removal of hesperis matronalis (Dame's rocket) on species cover of forest understory vegetation in NW indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Grundel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Exotic invasive plant species differ in their effects on indigenous vegetation as evidenced by research evaluating community response to their removal. We used a removal approach to quantify the response of a mesic woodland to the removal versus retention of an invasive plant, Hesperis matronalis (dame's rocket) from paired treatment plots over 3 y. Cover of H. matronalis did not differ between control and treatment plots prior to removal, declined in the removal plots and remained significantly lower in cover compared to the control plots. Removal did not significantly affect species richness and species diversity (evenness, Shannon and Simpson) at the plot scale, but did result in increased species richness overall in the removal plots in the last sampling year when compared to control plots. Non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis indicated a significant compositional change in the spring plant composition of plots over the 3 y, reflecting an increase in exotic woody species. Exotic woody plants, especially Rosa multiflora and Euonymus alatus, increased in cover in response to H. matronalis removal. In the 3 y, neither native nor exotic forbs, nor native woody plants responded to the removal of H. matronalis in a statistically significant manner. The increasing cover of woody invasive plants in response to the removal of H. matronalis has important management implications for restoration of degraded communities.

  12. Water table depth fluctuations during ENSO phenomenon on different tropical peat swamp forest land covers in Katingan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossita, A.; Witono, A.; Darusman, T.; Lestari, D. P.; Risdiyanto, I.

    2018-03-01

    As it is the main role to maintain hydrological function, peatland has been a limelight since drainage construction for agriculture evolved. Drainage construction will decrease water table depth (WTD) and result in CO2 emission release to the atmosphere. Regardless of human intervention, WTD fluctuations can be affected by seasonal climate and climate variability, foremost El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study aims to determine the correlation between rainfall in Katingan and ENSO index, analyze the pattern of WTD fluctuation of open area and forest area in 2015 (during very strong El Niño) and 2016 (during weak La Niña), calculate the WTD trendline slope during the dry season, and rainfall and WTD correlation. The result showed that open area has a sharper slope of decreasing or increasing WTD when entering the dry, compared to the forest area. Also, it is found that very strong El Niño in 2015 generated a pattern of more extreme decreasing WTD during the dry season than weak La Niña in 2016.

  13. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  14. Climate response of the soil nitrogen cycle in three forest types of a headwater Mediterranean catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupon, Anna; Gerber, Stefan; Sabater, Francesc; Bernal, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Future changes in climate may affect soil nitrogen (N) transformations, and consequently, plant nutrition and N losses from terrestrial to stream ecosystems. We investigated the response of soil N cycling to changes in soil moisture, soil temperature, and precipitation across three Mediterranean forest types (evergreen oak, beech, and riparian) by fusing a simple process-based model (which included climate modifiers for key soil N processes) with measurements of soil organic N content, mineralization, nitrification, and concentration of ammonium and nitrate. The model describes sources (atmospheric deposition and net N mineralization) and sinks (plant uptake and hydrological losses) of inorganic N from and to the 0-10 cm soil pool as well as net nitrification. For the three forest types, the model successfully recreated the magnitude and temporal pattern of soil N processes and N concentrations (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient = 0.49-0.96). Changes in soil water availability drove net N mineralization and net nitrification at the oak and beech forests, while temperature and precipitation were the strongest climatic factors for riparian soil N processes. In most cases, net N mineralization and net nitrification showed a different sensitivity to climatic drivers (temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation). Our model suggests that future climate change may have a minimal effect on the soil N cycle of these forests (warming and negative drying effects on the soil N cycle may counterbalance each other.

  15. Accident rates and types among self-employed private forest owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, Ola; Burström, Lage

    2010-11-01

    Half of all Swedish forests are owned by private individuals, and at least 215,000 people work in these privately owned forest holdings. However, only lethal accidents are systematically monitored among self-employed forest workers. Therefore, data from the registries of the Swedish Work Environment Authority, the Labor Insurance Organization and the regional University Hospital in Umeå were gathered to allow us to perform a more in-depth assessment of the rate and types of accidents that occurred among private forest owners. We found large differences between the registries in the type and number of accidents that were reported. We encountered difficulties in defining "self-employed forest worker" and also in determining whether the accidents that did occur happened during work or leisure time. Consequently, the estimates for the accident rate that we obtained varied from 32 to > or = 4300 injured persons per year in Sweden, depending on the registry that was consulted, the definition of the sample population that was used, and the accident severity definition that was employed. Nevertheless, the different registries gave a consistent picture of the types of accidents that occur while individuals are participating in self-employed forestry work. Severe accidents were relatively common, as self-employed forestry work fatalities constituted 7% of the total number of fatalities in the work authority registry. Falling trees were associated with many of these fatal accidents as well as with accidents that resulted in severe non-fatal injuries. Thus, unsafe work methods appeared more related to the occurrence of an accident than the equipment that was being used at the time of the accident (e.g., a chainsaw). Improvement of the workers' skills should therefore be considered to be an important prevention measure that should be undertaken in this field. The challenges in improving the safety in these smallest of companies, which fall somewhere between the purview of

  16. The Influence of Different Cover Types on American Robin Nest Success in Organic Agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Brandle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many opportunities for biodiversity conservation in organic farm systems. Successful and sustainable conservation efforts in organic systems, however, need to measure appropriate outcomes. In particular, data are needed on the breeding success of associated wildlife species. We measured nesting success of the American Robin (Turdus migratorius in woodlands embedded within eight organic farms in eastern Nebraska. We modeled daily nest survival rate to identify land use and land cover patterns that optimize conservation of birds in organic farm systems. The percentage of a crop in the fields adjacent to linear woodlands best predicted daily survival rate. Daily survival rate was lower in fields adjacent to wheat and greater in woodlands adjacent to soybean fields, though the latter may be a weak effect. There was no evidence that reducing the area allocated to organic crop production would improve daily survival rate but rather an evidence of a patch-matrix interaction. These results suggest that, if suitable nesting sites exist, organic farmers can complement local conservation efforts without losing working farmland.

  17. Laboratory measurements of nitric oxide release from forest soil with a thick organic layer under different understory types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bargsten

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere. NO from soil contributes up to 40% to the global budget of atmospheric NO. Soil NO emissions are primarily caused by biological activity (nitrification and denitrification, that occurs in the uppermost centimeter of the soil, a soil region often characterized by high contents of organic material. Most studies of NO emission potentials to date have investigated mineral soil layers. In our study we sampled soil organic matter under different understories (moss, grass, spruce and blueberries in a humid mountainous Norway spruce forest plantation in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany. We performed laboratory incubation and flushing experiments using a customized chamber technique to determine the response of net potential NO flux to physical and chemical soil conditions (water content and temperature, bulk density, particle density, pH, C/N ratio, organic C, soil ammonium, soil nitrate. Net potential NO fluxes (in terms of mass of N from soil samples taken under different understories ranged from 1.7–9.8 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under grass and moss cover, 55.4–59.3 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under spruce cover, and 43.7–114.6 ng m−2 s−1 (soil sampled under blueberry cover at optimum water content and a soil temperature of 10 °C. The water content for optimum net potential NO flux ranged between 0.76 and 0.8 gravimetric soil moisture for moss covered soils, between 1.0 and 1.1 for grass covered soils, 1.1 and 1.2 for spruce covered soils, and 1.3 and 1.9 for blueberry covered soils. Effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on net potential NO flux were statistically significant (0.01 probability level only for NH4+. Therefore, as an alternative explanation for the differences in soil biogenic NO emission we consider more biological factors like understory

  18. Natural variations in snow cover do not affect the annual soil CO2 efflux from a mid-elevation temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindlbacher, Andreas; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Sabine

    2014-02-01

    Climate change might alter annual snowfall patterns and modify the duration and magnitude of snow cover in temperate regions with resultant impacts on soil microclimate and soil CO2 efflux (Fsoil ). We used a 5-year time series of Fsoil measurements from a mid-elevation forest to assess the effects of naturally changing snow cover. Snow cover varied considerably in duration (105-154 days) and depth (mean snow depth 19-59 cm). Periodically shallow snow cover (soil freezing or increased variation in soil temperature. This was mostly not reflected in Fsoil which tended to decrease gradually throughout winter. Progressively decreasing C substrate availability (identified by substrate induced respiration) likely over-rid the effects of slowly changing soil temperatures and determined the overall course of Fsoil . Cumulative CO2 efflux from beneath snow cover varied between 0.46 and 0.95 t C ha(-1)  yr(-1) and amounted to between 6 and 12% of the annual efflux. When compared over a fixed interval (the longest period of snow cover during the 5 years), the cumulative CO2 efflux ranged between 0.77 and 1.18 t C ha(-1) or between 11 and 15% of the annual soil CO2 efflux. The relative contribution (15%) was highest during the year with the shortest winter. Variations in snow cover were not reflected in the annual CO2 efflux (7.44-8.41 t C ha(-1) ) which did not differ significantly between years and did not correlate with any snow parameter. Regional climate at our site was characterized by relatively high amounts of precipitation. Therefore, snow did not play a role in terms of water supply during the warm season and primarily affected cold season processes. The role of changing snow cover therefore seems rather marginal when compared to potential climate change effects on Fsoil during the warm season. © 2013 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Soil Microbial Biomass, Basal Respiration and Enzyme Activity of Main Forest Types in the Qinling Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  20. [Soil microbial community structure of two types of forests in the mid-subtropics of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-zhong; Gao, Ren; Li, Ai-ping; Ma, Hong-liang; Yin, Yun-feng; Si, You-tao; Chen, Shi-dong; Zheng, Qun-rui

    2015-07-01

    Soil microbial community structures were analyzed by biomarker method of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) for a natural forest dominated by Castanopsis fabri (CF) and an adjacent plantation of Cunninghamia lanceolata (CL) in the mid-subtropics of China. The results showed that the amounts of total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, fungal PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs and gramnegative bacterial PLFAs in the 0-10 cm soil layer were higher than in the 10-20 cm soil layer, and each type of PLFAs in CF were higher than in CL. In either soil layer of the two forest types, the contents of bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher than those of fungal PLFAs. In the two forests, the contents of bacterial PLFAs accounted for 44%-52% of total PLFAs, while the contents of fungal PLFAs just accounted for 6%-8%, indicating the bacteria were dominant in the soils of the two vegetation types. Principal component analysis showed that the influence of vegetation types was greater than soil depth on the microbial community structures. Correlation analysis showed that gram-negative bacterial PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs and bacterial PLFAs were significantly negatively correlated with pH, positively with water content, and the PLFAs of main soil microorganism groups were significantly positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, C/N and ammonium.

  1. Simultaneous comparison and assessment of eight remotely sensed maps of Philippine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estoque, Ronald C.; Pontius, Robert G.; Murayama, Yuji; Hou, Hao; Thapa, Rajesh B.; Lasco, Rodel D.; Villar, Merlito A.

    2018-05-01

    This article compares and assesses eight remotely sensed maps of Philippine forest cover in the year 2010. We examined eight Forest versus Non-Forest maps reclassified from eight land cover products: the Philippine Land Cover, the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land Cover, the Landsat Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF), the MODIS VCF, the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1), the Global Tree Canopy Cover, the ALOS-PALSAR Forest/Non-Forest Map, and the GlobeLand30. The reference data consisted of 9852 randomly distributed sample points interpreted from Google Earth. We created methods to assess the maps and their combinations. Results show that the percentage of the Philippines covered by forest ranges among the maps from a low of 23% for the Philippine Land Cover to a high of 67% for GlobeLand30. Landsat VCF estimates 36% forest cover, which is closest to the 37% estimate based on the reference data. The eight maps plus the reference data agree unanimously on 30% of the sample points, of which 11% are attributable to forest and 19% to non-forest. The overall disagreement between the reference data and Philippine Land Cover is 21%, which is the least among the eight Forest versus Non-Forest maps. About half of the 9852 points have a nested structure such that the forest in a given dataset is a subset of the forest in the datasets that have more forest than the given dataset. The variation among the maps regarding forest quantity and allocation relates to the combined effects of the various definitions of forest and classification errors. Scientists and policy makers must consider these insights when producing future forest cover maps and when establishing benchmarks for forest cover monitoring.

  2. On the occurrence of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types at Mabura Hill, Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Gradstein, Stephan Robbert

    1990-01-01

    A floristic and ecological study of bryophytes and macrolichens in different lowland rain forest types around Mabura Hill, Guyana, South America, yielded 170 species: 52 mosses, 82 liverworts and 36 macrolichens. Lejeuneaceae account for about 30% of the species and are the dominant cryptogamic family of the lowland rain forest. Special attention was paid to the flora of the forest canopy, by using mountaineering techniques. It appeared that 50% of the bryophyte species and 86% of the macroli...

  3. Plant cover and hydrological response in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF = Cobertura vegetal e as respostas hidrológicas em floresta tropical sazonalmente seca (FTSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Maia de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of information on the processes of rainfall-flow limits understanding of the hydrology of dry regions of the world. In order to minimise the problem, this study was developed to investigate the influence of the characteristics of rainfall events and plant cover on the effective precipitation (Pe in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF in the Northeast of Brazil. The study was carried out in two paired watersheds, one with SDTF under regeneration for 35 years (CR35 and the other under thinned SDTF for 5 years (TC. A historical series of five years (2009-2013 was analysed, with a total of 203 rainfall events, where only those rainfall events that generated a Pe > 1.0 mm were considered. CR35 had a greater number of Pe events (47 than TC (35. Rainfall depth and intensity were the factors that best explained the effective precipitation under both types of vegetation cover. The influence of herbaceous vegetation on the reduction of surface runoff was demonstrated by the smaller runoff depth and the greater potential for soil water storage in the watershed under thinned Caatinga. This fact leads to the conclusion that the technique of thinning is suitable management for Caatinga vegetation, and is capable of promoting the retention of soil water. = A escassez de informações sobre os processos chuva-deflúvio é uma limitação no entendimento da hidrologia das regiões secas do globo terrestre. Buscando minimizar esta problemática, desenvolveuse este estudo objetivando investigar as influências das características dos eventos pluviométricos e da cobertura vegetal na precipitação efetiva (Pe em floresta tropical sazonalmente seca (FTSS, no nordeste do Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em duas microbacias emparelhadas, uma com FTSS em regeneração há 35 anos (CR35 e outra com FTSS raleada há 5 anos (CR. Foi analisada uma série histórica de cinco anos (2009-2013, com um total de 203 eventos pluviométricos, sendo considerados

  4. Inventory and change detection of urban land cover in Illinois using Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, E.A.; Iverson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide information about urban forests and other vegetative land cover in Illinois cities, Landsat TM data from June 17, 1988, were classified for the Chicago metropolitan region and five urban areas of central Illinois. Ten land cover classes were identified, including three types of forestland, cropland, two grassland categories, two urban classes, water, and miscellaneous vegetation. The cities inventoried have a significantly higher proportion of forests and forested residential areas than the surrounding rural areas because of preservation measures and accruement of tree cover from landscaping. Short-term change in land cover for the Chicago region was also assessed by postclassification comparison of the 1988 data with similarly derived data from a June 3, 1985, TM scene. The largest single category of change in the six-county area was cropland to urban land use. A majority of cover loss was conversion of forested tracts to residential areas, and forest cover increase was negligible. 16 refs

  5. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  6. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  7. Bushy-tailed woodrat abundance in dry forests of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; Keith D. Kistler; James S. Begley

    2006-01-01

    We studied bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotonza cinerea occidentalis) in the eastern Washington Cascade Range to estimate their density and survival in 3 typical dry forest cover types. We predicted woodrat density to be high, moderate, and low in mature mixed-conifer forests, young mixed-conifer forests, and open ponderosa pine forests, respectively....

  8. Islands in the desert-forest vegetation of Kenya's smaller mountains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camphor forests (Ocotetea usambarensis) cover altitudes from 1,600-2,400 m in the southern Aberdare Range. In the submontane Imenti and Ngaia forests, and the Nyambeni Hills, between 1,200-1,600 m altitude, a variety of forest types related to the Guineo Congolian rainforest were encountered. These forests are ...

  9. Accuracy comparison of remotely sensed evapotranspiration products and their associated water stress footprints under different land cover types in Korean peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Liaqat, Umar Waqas

    2016-09-09

    Robust spatial information of evapotranspiration from multiple land cover types is deemed critical for several applications in agriculture and water balance studies. Energy balance models, used in association with satellite observations, are beneficial to map spatial variability of evapotranspiration which is mainly governed by different vegetation practices and local environmental conditions. This study utilize the Surface Energy Balance System model to estimate actual evapotranspiration and water scarcity footprints under complex landscape of Korean peninsula using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data for a complete hydrological year of 2012. The modeled evapotranspiration was compared with flux tower measurements obtained from a subhumid cropland and temperate forest sites for the accuracy assessment. This accuracy comparison at daily scale had good agreement yielding reasonable coefficient of determination (0.72, 0.51), bias (0.41 mm day−1, 1.01 mm day−1) and root mean squared error (0.92 mm day−1, 1.53 mm day−1) at two observation (cropland, forest) sites, respectively. Furthermore, the monthly aggregated evapotranspiration from Surface Energy Balance System showed promising results than those of obtained from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based readymade global evapotranspiration product, i.e., MOD16, when both products were compared with unclosed and closed flux tower measurements. However, the variations in monthly evapotranspiration obtained from both products were significantly controlled by several climate factors and vegetation characteristics. Water stress mapping at regional and monthly scale also revealed strong contrast between the products of two approaches. Highest mean water stress (0.74) was observed for land use areas associated with evergreen forest and under sparsely vegetation condition by using estimated evapotranspiration from Surface Energy Balance System while an extreme mean water stress

  10. Woodland: dynamics of average diameters of coniferous tree stands of the principal forest types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree, the analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done. The most representative forest types have been selected to be analyzed. There were nine of them including three Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour stands, three Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. stands, one Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. stand, and two dwarf Siberian pine Pinus pumila (Pallas Regel stands. The whole high-altitude range of mountain taiga has been evaluated. Mathematical and statistic indicators have been calculated for every forest type. Stone pine stands are the largest. Dynamics of mean diameters of forest stands have been examined by dominant species for every forest type. Quite a number of interesting facts have been elicited. Generally, all species have maximal values of periodic annual increment that is typical for young stands, but further decrease of increment is going on differently and connects to the different lifetime of wood species. It is curious that annual increment of the dwarf Siberian pine stands almost does not decrease with aging. As for mean annual increment, it is more stable than periodic annual increment. From the fifth age class (age of stand approaching maturity mean annual increment of cedar stands varies from 0.20 to 0.24 cm per year; from 0.12–0.15 to 0.18–0.21 cm per year – in fir stands; from 0.18 to 0.24 cm per year – in spruce stands; and from 0.02–0.03 to 0.05–0.06 cm per year – in draft pine stands. Mean annual increment of dwarf Siberian pine increases with aging and increment of other

  11. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP, Betula alba (BA, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (CL. Air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed varied respectively as CL < PP < BA, PP < CL < BA, and CL < BA < PP. Differences between PP and the other types were greatest during the warmest and driest hours of the day in a sequence of 10 days with high fire danger. Estimates of daytime moisture content of fine dead fuels and fire behavior characteristics for this period, respectively, from Behave and BehavePlus, indicate a CL < BA < PP gradient in fire potential. High stand density in CL and BA ensured lower wind speed and higher fuel moisture content than in PP, limiting the likelihood of an extreme fire environment. However, regression tree analysis revealed that the fire behavior distinction between the three forest types was primarily a function of the surface fuel complex, and more so during extreme fire weather conditions.

  12. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kobal

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM, which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  13. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  14. Influence of matrix type on tree community assemblages along tropical dry forest edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Gallardo-Vásquez, Julio César; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Y; Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel

    2014-05-01

    • Anthropogenic habitat edges have strong negative consequences for the functioning of tropical ecosystems. However, edge effects on tropical dry forest tree communities have been barely documented.• In Chamela, Mexico, we investigated the phylogenetic composition and structure of tree assemblages (≥5 cm dbh) along edges abutting different matrices: (1) disturbed vegetation with cattle, (2) pastures with cattle and, (3) pastures without cattle. Additionally, we sampled preserved forest interiors.• All edge types exhibited similar tree density, basal area and diversity to interior forests, but differed in species composition. A nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination showed that the presence of cattle influenced species composition more strongly than the vegetation structure of the matrix; tree assemblages abutting matrices with cattle had lower scores in the ordination. The phylogenetic composition of tree assemblages followed the same pattern. The principal plant families and genera were associated according to disturbance regimes as follows: pastures and disturbed vegetation (1) with cattle and (2) without cattle, and (3) pastures without cattle and interior forests. All habitats showed random phylogenetic structures, suggesting that tree communities are assembled mainly by stochastic processes. Long-lived species persisting after edge creation could have important implications in the phylogenetic structure of tree assemblages.• Edge creation exerts a stronger influence on TDF vegetation pathways than previously documented, leading to new ecological communities. Phylogenetic analysis may, however, be needed to detect such changes. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  15. Creating high-resolution time series land-cover classifications in rapidly changing forested areas with BULC-U in Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardille, J. A.; Lee, J.

    2017-12-01

    With the opening of the Landsat archive, there is a dramatically increased potential for creating high-quality time series of land use/land-cover (LULC) classifications derived from remote sensing. Although LULC time series are appealing, their creation is typically challenging in two fundamental ways. First, there is a need to create maximally correct LULC maps for consideration at each time step; and second, there is a need to have the elements of the time series be consistent with each other, without pixels that flip improbably between covers due only to unavoidable, stray classification errors. We have developed the Bayesian Updating of Land Cover - Unsupervised (BULC-U) algorithm to address these challenges simultaneously, and introduce and apply it here for two related but distinct purposes. First, with minimal human intervention, we produced an internally consistent, high-accuracy LULC time series in rapidly changing Mato Grosso, Brazil for a time interval (1986-2000) in which cropland area more than doubled. The spatial and temporal resolution of the 59 LULC snapshots allows users to witness the establishment of towns and farms at the expense of forest. The new time series could be used by policy-makers and analysts to unravel important considerations for conservation and management, including the timing and location of past development, the rate and nature of changes in forest connectivity, the connection with road infrastructure, and more. The second application of BULC-U is to sharpen the well-known GlobCover 2009 classification from 300m to 30m, while improving accuracy measures for every class. The greatly improved resolution and accuracy permits a better representation of the true LULC proportions, the use of this map in models, and quantification of the potential impacts of changes. Given that there may easily be thousands and potentially millions of images available to harvest for an LULC time series, it is imperative to build useful algorithms

  16. Cloud cover typing from environmental satellite imagery. Discriminating cloud structure with Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. L.; Huning, J. R.; Glackin, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of two dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) subjected to pattern recognition technology for the identification and classification of low altitude stratus cloud structure from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery was examined. The development of a scene independent pattern recognition methodology, unconstrained by conventional cloud morphological classifications was emphasized. A technique for extracting cloud shape, direction, and size attributes from GOES visual imagery was developed. These attributes were combined with two statistical attributes (cloud mean brightness, cloud standard deviation), and interrogated using unsupervised clustering amd maximum likelihood classification techniques. Results indicate that: (1) the key cloud discrimination attributes are mean brightness, direction, shape, and minimum size; (2) cloud structure can be differentiated at given pixel scales; (3) cloud type may be identifiable at coarser scales; (4) there are positive indications of scene independence which would permit development of a cloud signature bank; (5) edge enhancement of GOES imagery does not appreciably improve cloud classification over the use of raw data; and (6) the GOES imagery must be apodized before generation of FFTs.

  17. Conserving pollinators in North American forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Michael D. Ulyshen; Scott Horn

    2016-01-01

    Bees and butterflies generally favor open forest habitats regardless of forest type, geographic region, or methods used to create these habitats. Dense shrub layers of native or nonnative species beneath forest canopies negatively impact herbaceous plant cover and diversity, and pollinators. The presence of nonnative flowers as a source of nectar, pollen, or larval...

  18. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  19. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C M; Gairola, Sumeet; Baduni, N P; Ghildiyal, S K; Suyal, Sarvesh

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken in seven major forest types of temperate zone (1500 m a.s.l. to 3100 m a.s.l.) of Garhwal Himalaya to understand the effect of slope aspects on carbon (C) density and make recommendations for forest management based on priorities for C conservation/sequestration. We assessed soil organic carbon (SOC) density, tree density, biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) on four aspects, viz. north/east (NE), north/west (NW), south-east (SE) and south-west (SW), in forest stands dominated by Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Cupressus torulosa, Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia and Quercus leucotrichophora. TCD ranged between 77.3 CMg ha⁻¹ on SE aspect (Quercus leucotrichophora forest) and 291.6 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC varied between 40.3 CMg ha⁻¹ on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 177.5 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). Total C density (SOC+TCD) ranged between 118.1 CMg ha⁻¹ on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 469.1 CMg ha⁻¹ on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC and TCD were significantly higher on northern aspects as compared with southern aspects. It is recommended that for C sequestration, the plantation silviculture be exercised on northern aspects, and for C conservation purposes, mature forest stands growing on northern aspects be given priority.

  20. Changes in Area of Timberland in the United States, 1952-2040, By Ownership, Forest Type, Region, and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Allg; William G. Hohenstein; Brian C. Murray; Robert G. Haight

    1990-01-01

    Area change projections for timberland in the United Steats are provided by region, State, ownership, and forest type.Total timberland area is projected to drop by 21 million acres or 4 percent by the year 2040.

  1. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  2. Land Cover Change Monitoring of Typical Functional Communities of Sichuan Province Based on ZY-3 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G. M.; Li, S.; Ying, G. W.; Wu, X. P.

    2018-04-01

    According to the function, land space types are divided into key development areas, restricted development areas and forbidden development areas in Sichuan Province. This paper monitors and analyses the changes of land cover in different typical functional areas from 2010 to 2017, which based on ZY-3 high-score images data and combined with statistical yearbook and thematic data of Sichuan Province. The results show that: The land cover types of typical key development zones are mainly composed of cultivated land, forest land, garden land, and housing construction land, which accounts for the total area of land cover 87 %. The land cover types of typical restricted development zone mainly consists of forest land and grassland, which occupy 97.71 % of the total area of the surface coverage. The land cover types of the typical prohibition development zone mainly consist of forest land, grassland, desert and bared earth, which accounts for the total area of land cover 99.31 %.

  3. 12种林下地被植物水土保持功能研究%Soil and Water Conservation of Twelve Under-forest Cover Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪乔; 袁小环

    2017-01-01

    To study the soil and water conservation function of cover plants on the forest floor,the water absorption of stem and leaves,the soil anti-erodibility and the soil permeability were measured with 12 cover plants using the indoor leaf immersion method,the hydrostatic collapse method,and the bicyclic knife method,respectively.The results showed that Calamagrostis brachytricha and Phalaris arundinacea var.picta had the highest water absorption over 40% of the stem and leaves weight;Phalaris arundinacea var.Picta,Carex lanceolata and Carex leucochlora best increased the soil anti-erodibility;the cover plants decreased the soil bulk density and generally increased the soil permeability,and the permeability of soils planted with Phalaris arundinacea var.picta,Pennisetum alopecuroides,C.brachytricha,C.leucochlora,C.lanceolata and Cosmos sulphureus extremely significantly differed from the control.Therefore,C.leucochlora,C.Lanceolata,P.arundinacea var.picta and C.brachytricha have the higher integrated soil and water conservation function and fit to be planted under the forest.%为了研究林下地被植物的水土保持功能,分别运用室内茎叶浸泡法、静水崩析法、双环刀法对12种地被植物的茎叶截留雨水能力、土壤抗蚀性和渗透性进行了测定.结果表明:茎叶截留雨水最强的为拂子茅(Calamagrostis brach ytricha)和玉带草(Phalaris arundinacea var.picta),超过自身质量的40%;玉带草、披针叶苔草(Carex lanceolata)和青绿苔草(Carex leucochlora)最大地提高了土壤抗蚀性;种植地被植物普遍地降低了土壤容重,提高了土壤的渗透系数,其中玉带草、狼尾草(Pennisetum alopecuroides)、拂子茅、青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、硫华菊效果极显著.青绿苔草、披针叶苔草、玉带草、拂子茅的综合水土保持功能较强,适合林下栽植.

  4. The role of forest type on throughfall during extreme precipitation events - A comparison of methods using data from the Pohorje mountains (NE Slovenia)

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    Vilhar, Urša; Simončič, Primož

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation in the Alpine region is a major environmental factor due to high frequency of such events and consequences such as flooding of populated valley floors, erosion, avalanches, debris flow and landslides endangering exposed settlements. However, the effects of extreme precipitation are buffered by forest cover, therefore forest management practices should aim towards decreased surface runoff and soil erosion in alpine climates. In Central Europe, many pure Norway spruce stands, established on primary beech sites, were converted into mixed stands over the last 60 years. The conversion of forest management from spruce monocultures into mixed deciduous-coniferous forests changed the forest structure dramatically. This changes could influence the hydrological processes on the catchment scale, associated with major river flooding following extreme precipitation events. In this study, the effect of forest management on the partitioning of rainfall into throughfall and stemflow in coniferous and mixed deciduous-coniferous stands on Pohorje mountains in NE Slovenia were investigated. Four spruce Picea abies (L. Karst) stands were compared to four mixed spruce-beech Fagus sylvatica (L.) stands with prevailing forest plant community Cardamine Savensi Fagetum with small areas of Sphagno - Piceetum, Bazzanio - Piceetum and Rhytidiodelpholorei - Piceetum intermixed. The monthly throughfall from rain collectors and half-hourly throughfall from automated rain gauges in growing seasons from 2008 till 2012 were analyzed in order to estimate the throughfall under forest canopies. In the mixed spruce-beech stands the monthly stemflow on beech trees was also measured. For the precipitation in the open an automated weather station and rainfall collectors in an open area located very close to the research plots were used. There were small differences in seasonal throughfall found between the coniferous and mixed deciduous-coniferous stands. The seasonal throughfall was

  5. Effects of change in primary forest cover on armadillo (Cingulata, Mammalia burrow use in the Central Amazon Efectos del cambio en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de las madrigueras por los armadillos (Cingulata, Mammalia en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Arteaga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of primary forest to other vegetation types alters the availability and distribution of resources, and thus affects their use by species that inhabit the forest. Although armadillos are important earthmover mammals in the Amazon forest, and their burrows play an important physical and ecological role in the ecosystem, the impact of loss of primary forest cover on these organisms has been poorly understood. In order to evaluate the effects of change in the primary forest cover on burrow use by armadillos, we performed 2 censuses in 33 plots within 12 sites of different vegetation cover characteristics, and recorded burrow density and current use. A total of 109 armadillo burrows were found; the sites with higher percentages of primary forest cover showed a larger number of active burrows, although burrow density and the probability of establishing new burrows remained unaffected by this variable. Our results show that areas with higher quantities of primary forest habitat show more intense use by armadillos, probably due to the permanence time of individuals. These findings suggest that the viability of armadillo populations, as well as the role that these animals play within the ecosystem, may be affected in disturbed areas.La transformación del bosque primario a otro tipo de vegetación cambia la disponibilidad y distribución de los recursos, afectando su uso por especies que habitan el bosque. Los armadillos son el principal grupo de mamíferos escavadores del Amazonas y sus madrigueras cumplen un papel físico y ecológico en el ecosistema. Sin embargo, no se conoce el impacto de la pérdida del bosque sobre estos organismos. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los cambios en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de sus madrigueras, realizamos 2 censos en 33 parcelas dentro de 12 localidades con diferentes coberturas vegetales y reportamos la densidad y el estado de uso de las madrigueras. Encontramos 109 madrigueras y

  6. Effects of vegetation type on microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in subalpine mountain forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Anita; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2015-08-01

    Microbial biomass plays an important role in nutrient transformation and conservation of forest and grassland ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the microbial biomass among three vegetation types in subalpine mountain forest soils of Taiwan. Tatachia is a typical high-altitude subalpine temperate forest ecosystem in Taiwan with an elevation of 1800-3952 m and consists of three vegetation types: spruce, hemlock, and grassland. Three plots were selected in each vegetation type. Soil samples were collected from the organic layer, topsoil, and subsoil. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was determined by the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, and microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was determined from the total nitrogen (Ntot) released during fumigation-extraction. Bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, cellulolytic microbes, phosphate-solubilizing microbes, and nitrogen-fixing microbes were also counted. The Cmic and Nmic were highest in the surface soil and declined with the soil depth. These were also highest in spruce soils, followed by in hemlock soils, and were lowest in grassland soils. Cmic and Nmic had the highest values in the spring season and the lowest values in the winter season. Cmic and Nmic had significantly positive correlations with total organic carbon (Corg) and Ntot. Contributions of Cmic and Nmic, respectively, to Corg and Ntot indicated that the microbial biomass was immobilized more in spruce and hemlock soils than in grassland soils. Microbial populations of the tested vegetation types decreased with increasing soil depth. Cmic and Nmic were high in the organic layer and decreased with the depth of layers. These values were higher for spruce and hemlock soils than for grassland soils. Positive correlations were observed between Cmic and Nmic and between Corg and Ntot. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

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    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  8. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitters, K.; Wickham, J.; O'Neill, R.; Jones, B.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 ?? 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 ?? 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe - Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types) and Europe - Asia (four types), in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland). The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf. Copyright ?? 2000 by The Resilience Alliance.

  9. Towards spatial assessment of carbon sequestration in peatlands: spectroscopy based estimation of fractional cover of three plant functional types

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    G. Schaepman-Strub

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands accumulated large carbon (C stocks as peat in historical times. Currently however, many peatlands are on the verge of becoming sources with their C sequestration function becoming sensitive to environmental changes such as increases in temperature, decreasing water table and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Long term changes in vegetation composition are both, a consequence and indicator of future changes in C sequestration. Spatial continuous accurate assessment of the vegetation composition is a current challenge in keeping a close watch on peatland vegetation changes. In this study we quantified the fractional cover of three major plant functional types (PFTs; Sphagnum mosses, graminoids, and ericoid shrubs in peatlands, using field spectroscopy reflectance measurements (400–2400 nm on 25 plots differing in PFT cover. The data was validated using point intercept methodology on the same plots. Our results showed that the detection of open Sphagnum versus Sphagnumcovered by vascular plants (shrubs and graminoids is feasible with an R2 of 0.81. On the other hand, the partitioning of the vascular plant fraction into shrubs and graminoids revealed lower correlations of R2 of 0.54 and 0.57, respectively. This study was based on a dataset where the reflectance of all main PFTs and their pure components within the peatland was measured at local spatial scales. Spectrally measured species or plant community abundances can further be used to bridge scaling gaps up to canopy scale, ultimately allowing upscaling of the C balance of peatlands to the ecosystem level.

  10. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    Science.gov