WorldWideScience

Sample records for forest brazil os

  1. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  2. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  3. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Flow in Atlantic Forest Covered Watersheds on the Oceanic and Continental Slopes at Serra dos Órgãos mountain, Southeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M. M.; De Souza, P.; De Mello, W. Z.; Damaceno, I.; Bourseau, L.; Rodrigues, R. D. A.; Mattos, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration of nutrients above natural levels are found even at remote or protected environments due to atmospheric transportation from biomass burning emissions, urban and industrial areas. This study evaluate N and P atmospheric deposition at the oceanic and continental slopes of Serra dos Órgãos mountain, which are influenced by the pollutants emission from the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. Flux of dissolved forms of N and P were measured in three watersheds in headwaters of Piabanha basin, southeastern Brazil, to understand the dynamics of the biogeochemical processes of these elements, related to anthropic influences of atmospheric inputs and export via stream flow. Samples of bulk precipitation (weekly; n=47) and stream water (monthly; n=13) were collected along one year (Sept 2014 - Sept 2015). During that period the annual rainfall in the oceanic slope (2163 mm) was the double of the continental one. It is important to stress that the rainfall in the oceanic slope was 13 % and 28% in 2014/15, respectively, lower than the long term average. Atmospheric deposition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) on the oceanic and continental slopes were, respectively, 15 and 8.6 kg N ha-1 year-1. The TDN outputs by stream water were 5-7 times lower in oceanic slope and 28 times lower on the continental one. The relative contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON; 65%-70%) was higher than the one of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN; 30-35%) to TDN deposition. Atmospheric deposition of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) in oceanic and continental slopes were 1.4 and 0.95 kg P ha-1 year-1. Dissolved Organic Phosphorus (DOP; 89-96%) was higher than the inorganic one (PO43-; 5-11%). TDP outputs were 2-4 times lower, regarding to atmospheric contribution. The contribution of DOP (73-77 %) was higher than DIP (23-27 %). Results show variations in quantities and forms of N and P species due to natural and anthropogenic processes which contribute to the cycling of

  4. Brazil, Preservation of Forest and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Paunić, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Increased number of extinct, endangered species in South America, especially plants in Brazil and Equator, impose question of importance of Amazon forest. Its declining trend requires constant attention not just from population in Brazil, but as well as in region and world which have their interest in direct/ indirect monetary and non-monetary values. GDP decline can further deteriorate forest areas so it is of importance to diversify and strengthen energy inputs and work on different rene...

  5. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  6. Structure and phytogeographic relationships of swamp forests of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Coutinho Kurtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Swamp forests are associated with soils that are saturated or inundated because of a high water table. In Brazil, little is known about the plant ecology of such forests. In this paper, we aimed to describe the phytosociological structure of the tree layer of swamp forests in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, in the northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, and to evaluate the floristic similarities between these forests and some other possibly related types of vegetation formations in Brazil. The sampling included 84 species, within 62 genera and 34 families. The Shannon diversity index was 3.42, and the Shannon evenness index was 0.77. The forests studied showed an oligarchic structure; Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Protium icicariba were the most important species. Oligarchy, or monodominance, and relatively low species richness are the norm in the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil and result from the strong selective character of the saturated/inundated soils. In comparison with local areas of restinga (coastal woodland, Atlantic Forest sensu stricto, other swamp forests and flooded riparian forests, the similarity was low (Jaccard similarity coefficient < 0.25. In addition to the similar ecological conditions, geographic proximity was a key factor determining the patterns of similarity found. Our results indicate that the swamp forests of southeastern Brazil do not represent a distinguishable floristic unit, due to sources of local variation, notably migration and the establishment of adaptive species from neighboring vegetation formations (some 70% of the species surveyed.

  7. Epiphytic angiosperms in a mountain forest in southern Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leitman, Paula; Amorim, André; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela C.

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest in southern Bahia State, Brazil, has high levels of diversity and vascular plant endemism. There have been few floristic surveys of the mountain forests there, however, especially those focusing on herbs and canopy plants, with studies of Atlantic Forest epiphytes having been limited to the southern and southeastern region of that country. The present study therefore surveyed the epiphytic angiosperms in the Serra das Lontras National Park (SLNP), the distribution of their...

  8. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. N. Rodal

    Full Text Available The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid inland region (Serra Negra, 8° 35’ - 8° 38’ S and 38° 02’ - 38° 04’ W between the municipalities of Floresta and Inajá, state of Pernambuco have the same floristic composition and structure as that seen in other regional forests. In fifty 10 x 20 m plots all live and standing dead trees with trunk measuring > 5 cm diameter at breast height were measured. Floristic similarities between the forest studied and other regional forests were assessed using multivariate analysis. The results demonstrate that the dry forest studied can be classified into two groups that represent two major vegetational transitions: (1 a humid forest/dry forest transition; and (2 a deciduous thorn-woodland/ dry forest transition.

  9. The arboreal component of a dry forest in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, M J N; Nascimento, L M

    2006-05-01

    The dry forests of northeastern Brazil are found near the coastal zone and on low, isolated mountains inland amid semi-arid vegetation. The floristic composition of these dry montane forests, as well as their relationship to humid forests (Atlantic forest sensu stricto) and to the deciduous thorn woodlands (Caatinga sensu stricto) of the Brazilian northeast are not yet well known. This paper sought to determine if the arboreal plants in a dry forest growing on a low mountain in the semi-arid inland region (Serra Negra, 8 degrees 35 - 8 degrees 38 S and 38 degrees 02 - 38 degrees 04 W) between the municipalities of Floresta and Inajá, state of Pernambuco have the same floristic composition and structure as that seen in other regional forests. In fifty 10 x 20 m plots all live and standing dead trees with trunk measuring > 5 cm diameter at breast height were measured. Floristic similarities between the forest studied and other regional forests were assessed using multivariate analysis. The results demonstrate that the dry forest studied can be classified into two groups that represent two major vegetational transitions: (1) a humid forest/dry forest transition; and (2) a deciduous thorn-woodland/ dry forest transition.

  10. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  11. Deforestation trends of tropical dry forests in central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Carlos A.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical dry forests are the most threatened forest type in the world yet a paucity of research about them stymies development of appropriate conservation actions. The Paranã River Basin has the most significant dry forest formations in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil and is threatened by intense land conversion to pastures and agriculture. We examined changes in Paranã River Basin deforestation rates and fragmentation across three time intervals that covered 31 yr using Landsat imagery. Our results indicated a 66.3 percent decrease in forest extent between 1977 and 2008, with an annual rate of forest cover change of 3.5 percent. Landscape metrics further indicated severe forest loss and fragmentation, resulting in an increase in the number of fragments and reduction in patch sizes. Forest fragments in flatlands have virtually disappeared and the only significant forest remnants are mostly found over limestone outcrops in the eastern part of the basin. If current patterns persist, we project that these forests will likely disappear within 25 yr. These patterns may be reversed with creation of protected areas and involvement of local people to preserve small fragments that can be managed for restoration.

  12. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  13. Pteridófitas de Santa Catarina: um olhar sobre os dados do Inventário Florístico Florestal de Santa Catarina, Brasil Ferns and Fern allies from Santa Catarina State: a "look at the data" from Santa Catarina Floristic Forest Inventory, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís de Gasper

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das unidades federativas com melhor conhecimento de sua flora, Santa Catarina é o primeiro estado a concluir o Inventário Florístico Florestal na atualidade. Coberto por Floresta Ombrófila Densa, Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Floresta Estacional Decidual e formações associadas, possui grande riqueza de espécies. Este trabalho visa apresentar as espécies de pteridófitas coletadas nas 563 unidades amostrais visitadas. Ao todo 324 espécies foram registradas, das quais 300 são samambaias e 24, licófitas. Estas pertencem a 29 famílias e 94 gêneros, sendo as famílias com maior riqueza específica Polypodiaceae (48 espécies, Pteridaceae (42 e Dryopteridaceae (38. Os gêneros com maior diversidade de espécies foram Asplenium e Thelypteris, com 27 espécies, seguido por Blechnum com 15. Destacam-se ainda 75 espécies consideradas endêmicas para o bioma. 18 registros novos para a flora de Santa Catarina foram feitos. A distribuição por região fitoecológica é a que segue: 288 espécies para a Floresta Ombrófila Densa (128 exclusivas desta região fitoecológica, 177 para a Floresta Ombrófila Mista (30 exclusivas e 57 para a Floresta Estacional Decidual (três exclusivas. Foram registradas ainda 17 espécies para a restinga. Destaca-se a importância do registro de Asplenium lacinulatum, espécie coletada em área de intensa exploração imobiliária e novo registro para Santa Catarina e Alansmia senilis primeiro registro para o Sul do Brasil.Santa Catarina is the first Brazilian state to complete its Forest and Floristic Inventory, and is considered one of the states with a well-known flora. This region is covered by evergreen tropical rain forest, Araucaria forest, seasonal deciduous forest and associated ecosystems, and shows high species richness. This paper presents a list of ferns collected in 563 sampling units. Altogether, 324 species were recorded (300 ferns and 24 lycophytes, which belong to 29 families and 94 genera. The

  14. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  15. Mixed rain forest in southeastern Brazil: tree species regeneration and floristic relationships in a remaining stretch of forest near the city of Itaberá, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Maciel; Ivanauskas, Natália Macedo; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Polisel, Rodrigo Trassi; Santos, Rochelle Lima Ramos dos; Miranda Neto, Aurino

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition, richness, and diversity of the upper and lower strata of a stretch of mixed rain forest near the city of Itaberá, in southeastern Brazil. We also investigated the differences between this conservation area and other stretches of mixed rain forest in southern and southeastern Brazil, as well as other nearby forest formations, in terms of their floristic relationships. For our survey of the upper stratum (diameter at breast height ...

  16. LBA-ECO CD-04 Dendrometry, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A dendrometry study was conducted at the logged forest tower site, km 83 site, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil over a period of 4 years following the...

  17. LBA-ECO CD-04 Dendrometry, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A dendrometry study was conducted at the logged forest tower site, km 83 site, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil over a period of 4 years following the...

  18. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the eddy flux...

  20. Status of the globally threatened forest birds of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil hosts a unique biota which is among the most threatened in the Neotropics. Near-total conversion of forest habitat to sugar cane monocultures has left the region's endemic forest-dependent avifauna marooned in a few highly-fragmented and degraded forest remnants. Here we summarise the current status of 16 globally threatened species based on surveys conducted over the last 11 years. We found a bleak situation for most of these species and consider that three endemics: Glaucidium mooreorum (Pernambuco Pygmy-owl, Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti (Cryptic Treehunter and Philydor novaesi (Alagoas Foliage-gleaner are most likely globally extinct. Some positive news can, however, be reported for both Leptodon forbesi (White-collared Kite and Synallaxis infuscata (Pinto's Spinetail which may warrant re-evaluation of their respective red list statuses. We outline a road map to prioritise conservation interventions in the region directed at preventing the extinction of this suite of threatened bird species and their companion biota.

  1. Os isotope systematics in the cretaceous potassic rocks from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.L.N; Gaspar, J.C; Carlson, R.W; Sichel, S.E; Costa, V; Teixeira, N.A

    2001-01-01

    Mafic potassic rocks of the Alto Paranaiba, Juina, Paranatinga, and Pimenta Bueno Provinces were studied by isotope geochemistry in order to understand the characteristics of the magma sources. These Cretaceous provinces belong to a large (approximately 2500 km) lineament of alkaline rocks (mafic and more evolved lithotypes) that crosses from the western to southeastern part of Brazil, and has been associated with a mantle plume activity (Gibson et al. 1995, Bizzi et al. 1994). The Alto Paranaiba Province intruded the Neoproterozic Brasilia Mobile Belt bounded by the Parana Basin and the Sao Francisco Craton. The lithotypes of the province correspond to kamafugites, kimberlites, and carbonatites (Gibson et al. 1995; Araujo 2000). The majority of radiometric ages for the Alto Paranaiba cluster between 80-90 Ma (Sonoki and Garda 1988; Gibson et al. 1995). The Paranatinga Province is located near the southern border of the Amazonic Craton, and is underlain by the Neoproterozoic Paraguay Mobile belt and the Mesoproterozoic Rio-Negro Mobile Belt (Teixeira et al. 1998; Costa 1997). At shallow levels, the kimberlites intrude into sedimentary rocks and sediments related to the cratonic cover (Heaman et al. 1998). U/Pb zircon ages of 123-126 Ma were obtained for the intrusions (Heaman et al. 1998; Crough et al. 1980). The kimberlites of the Juina Province, at the northern border of the Paleozoic Parecis Basin, like the Paranatinga Province, intruded the Mesoproterozoic Rio-Negro Juruena Belt (Teixeira et al. 1998). U/Pb zircon ages of 92-95 Ma were obtained for the intrusions by Heaman et al. 1998. The Pimenta Bueno Province, which is located in eastern Rondonia State, is poorly known. The province intruded through the Mesoproterozoic Rio- Negro Juruena Belt. The kimberlitic mineral assemblage in the area was previously reported by Svisero et al. (1983) (au)

  2. Functional groups in a semideciduous seasonal forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Santiago Vale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p45   This study was carried out in a semideciduous forest in Southeastern Brazil. Five ecological attributes were used to define the functional groups: dominant stratum of the species, light demand of the plant, seed dispersal, likely pollinator, and deciduousness. The groups were formed through a species matrix and its attributes, and they were delimited according to the Jaccard similarity coefficient and a dendrogram generated by the group average (UPGMA. The analysis used was satisfactory, indicating the formation of four coherent groups with distinct functions both with regard to the community and the ecosystem. The results indicate a tree community in a late successional stage, with relations between flora and fauna species.

  3. Domesticated Landscapes in Araucaria Forests, Southern Brazil: A Multispecies Local Conservation-by-Use System

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício S. Reis; Tiago Montagna; Andréa G. Mattos; Samantha Filippon; Ana H. Ladio; Anésio da Cunha Marques; Alex A. Zechini; Nivaldo Peroni; Adelar Mantovani

    2018-01-01

    Araucaria forest is a sub-tropical component of the Atlantic Forest Biome, occurring between 18 and 30° S latitude, and 500–1,800 m altitude in Southern and Southwestern Brazil and Northwestern Argentina. In recent history (Twentieth century), this forest has undergone non-sustainable exploitation and reduction in area dedicated to agricultural and forestry use. However, smallholders continue using several resources from this forest, even adapting management systems. The main system is geared...

  4. Understory species richness in an urban forest fragment, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramos de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the floristic composition of the understory of Parque Estadual de Dois Irmãos, (08°01’15.1”S and 34°56’3.2”W, an area of about 370ha characterized as a lowland ombrophilous dense forest. The study included individuals with heights of up to 4.0m, such as treelets, shrubs, sub-bushes and terricolous herb plants, in fertile conditions. The collections were made every two weeks along a period of 24 months. A total of 108 species, belonging to 86 genera and 49 families, were recorded. The families with the highest number of species were Rubiaceae (14, Fabaceae (9 Melastomataceae (8, Asteraceae (8, Myrtaceae (6, and Poaceae (4. The Fabaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae and Rubiaceae presented the highest number of understory species in this fragment. Generally, among the studies made in the Atlantic forest areas in Pernambuco, the presence of a set of tree species common to these forests is evidenced.

  5. Plant diversity hotspots in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Smith, Charlotte; Brummitt, Neil A; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Bachman, Steven; Moat, Justin; Lughadha, Eimear M Nic; Lucas, Eve J

    2009-02-01

    Plant-diversity hotspots on a global scale are well established, but smaller local hotspots within these must be identified for effective conservation of plants at the global and local scales. We used the distributions of endemic and endemic-threatened species of Myrtaceae to indicate areas of plant diversity and conservation importance within the Atlantic coastal forests (Mata Atlântica) of Brazil. We applied 3 simple, inexpensive geographic information system (GIS) techniques to a herbarium specimen database: predictive species-distribution modeling (Maxent); complementarity analysis (DIVA-GIS); and mapping of herbarium specimen collection locations. We also considered collecting intensity, which is an inherent limitation of use of natural history records for biodiversity studies. Two separate areas of endemism were evident: the Serra do Mar mountain range from Paraná to Rio de Janeiro and the coastal forests of northern Espírito Santo and southern Bahia. We identified 12 areas of approximately 35 km(2) each as priority areas for conservation. These areas had the highest species richness and were highly threatened by urban and agricultural expansion. Observed species occurrences, species occurrences predicted from the model, and results of our complementarity analysis were congruent in identifying those areas with the most endemic species. These areas were then prioritized for conservation importance by comparing ecological data for each.

  6. LBA-ECO LC-21 Foliar Nutrients, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measurements for foliar nutrients from logging blocks in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil. Data are...

  7. LBA-ECO LC-21 Foliar Nutrients, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for foliar nutrients from logging blocks in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western Santarem, Brazil. Data are included for...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat ETM+ Forest Cover Classification, Uruara, Para, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a 1999 Landsat ETM+ mosaic image land of cover classification showing forested and deforestation areas in Uruara, Para, Brazil. This image may...

  9. LiDAR and DTM Data from Tapajos National Forest in Para, Brazil, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides LiDAR point clouds and digital terrain models (DTM) from surveys over the Tapajos National Forest in Belterra municipality, Para, Brazil...

  10. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat ETM+ Forest Cover Classification, Uruara, Para, Brazil: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a 1999 Landsat ETM+ mosaic image land of cover classification showing forested and deforestation areas in Uruara, Para, Brazil. This...

  11. LBA-ECO CD-04 Soil Respiration, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports on the flux of carbon dioxide from logged forest soils near the eddy flux tower at the km 83 site, Para, Brazil. The automated soil respiration...

  12. LBA-ECO CD-04 Soil Respiration, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports on the flux of carbon dioxide from logged forest soils near the eddy flux tower at the km 83 site, Para, Brazil. The automated soil...

  13. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a hand-held laser...

  14. LBA-ECO TG-07 Tree Geometry in an Undisturbed Forest in Cauaxi, Para, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy measurements in an undisturbed eastern Amazon forest (Cauxi, Para, Brazil. See Figure 1) were derived from a one-time event in 2000 using a...

  15. Land Flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida) in Remnants of Deciduous Forest in the Northeast Region Of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral,Silvana Vargas do; Hack,Ilana Rossi; Iturralde,Giuly Gouvêa; Leal-Zanchet,Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Land flatworms show high endemism due to their restricted mobility. In southern Brazil, land flatworm communities have been found mainly in areas of ombrophilous forests. Thus, this study documents land planarian species composition in remnants of deciduous seasonal forest in the northeast region of southern Brazil. Direct, diurnal samplings reveal the occurrence of 26 species of land flatworms, of which one belongs to the subfamily Rhynchodeminae and the others to the subfamily Geoplaninae. ...

  16. Throughfall patterns of a Subtropical Atlantic Forest in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo Sá, João Henrique; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Yuimi de Oliveira, Debora; Nery Giglio, Joana; Kobiyama, Masato

    2017-04-01

    The interception process is responsible for the spatial and temporal redistribution of the precipitation that reaches the ground. This process is important especially in forested areas since it influences recycling of moisture from the air and also the amount of water that effectively reaches the ground. The contact of the precipitation with the canopy influences on the water quality, increasing the concentration of various nutrients in the throughfall (Tf) and stemflow (Sf). Brazil, only about 8% of the original Atlantic Forest cover remains. That is an important biome and little is known about the characteristics of rainfall interception of this forest. The total interception loss in forested areas is usually formulated as the gross precipitation (P) minus the sum of the throughfall (Tf) and the stemflow (Sf). The stems characteristics influence on Sf, meanwhile, the value of Tf strongly depends on the canopy and leaf structures. Because of the complex structure of the canopy, these characteristics are usually expressed by the simpler Leaf Area Index (LAI) or the Canopy Cover Fraction (CCF). The Araponga river experimental catchment (ARA) with 5.3 ha is on the northern plateau of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. It is an area completely covered by secondary subtropical Atlantic Forest, the regional climate is the Köppen Cfb type, i.e., temperate climate without dry season and with warm summer (the mean temperature of the hottest month is always under 22°C). The objectives of the present study were (i) to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation of canopy cover; (ii) to influence of the interception process on the precipitation quality; and (iii) to explore the relation between canopy cover and throughfall. Inside the catchment, 9 Tf gauges were installed 40 cm above the soil surface in order to include the interception by shrub. 28 hand-made gauges were installed on a circular area of 3 m radius to analyze the spatial variability of throughfall. During

  17. The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Edivaldo O DE

    2016-01-01

    Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species through qualitative and quantitative methods. Forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests presented the highest richness and abundance of birds, while arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands had intermediate and low values, respectively. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, while other vegetation types present more dissimilar bird communities. Our results show differences in composition, richness and bird abundance among the vegetation types present at Maciço do Urucum, and highlight an important function of vegetation gradients for the conservation of bird communities in mountains. Additionally, this is the first study of the bird communities in the Brazilian Chiquitano Dry Forests, an important domain in the west of Brazil which has been poorly studied.

  18. The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO N. GODOI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species through qualitative and quantitative methods. Forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests presented the highest richness and abundance of birds, while arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands had intermediate and low values, respectively. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, while other vegetation types present more dissimilar bird communities. Our results show differences in composition, richness and bird abundance among the vegetation types present at Maciço do Urucum, and highlight an important function of vegetation gradients for the conservation of bird communities in mountains. Additionally, this is the first study of the bird communities in the Brazilian Chiquitano Dry Forests, an important domain in the west of Brazil which has been poorly studied.

  19. Plant succession in a forest on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, and Holocene palaeoenvironments, Southern Brazil Sucessão vegetal em uma floresta da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul, e os paleoambientes do Holoceno, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Grala Leal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant succession provides information on vegetation dynamics of a region and, therefore, improves our understanding of the natural trends of present ecosystems. With this objective, plant succession based on palynology of a sediment profile in a swamp forest was studied on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. Samples were treated with HCl, HF, KOH and acetolysis; slides were mounted in glycerol-jelly. For each sample a minimum of 500 grains of pollen + pteridophyte and bryophyte spores was counted and other palynomorphs were counted in parallel. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used to construct percentage and concentration diagrams, with three 14C datings. The results show a local water reservoir in the beginning of the Holocene (± 9800 yrs. BP, creating a herbaceous plant marsh by hydrosere. The initial colonization of the marsh by trees occurred about 8800 yrs. BP, with tropical species from the Coastal Plain migrating in an east-west direction. Afterwards, there was a dry phase between 7000-5000 yrs. BP. The second appearance of regional tree species began at about 5000 yrs. BP, resulting in the present forest and in the west-east migration of tropical species from interior lowlands, like this one, to re-colonize the coast after the last marine regression.O estudo de sucessão vegetal permite obter informações sobre a dinâmica da vegetação de uma região e, portanto, compreender melhor os ecossistemas da atualidade e suas tendências naturais. Com este objetivo foi feito um estudo de sucessão vegetal, com base em Palinologia, em um perfil sedimentar do interior de uma floresta paludosa, porção baixa da Encosta Inferior do Nordeste da Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. As amostras foram tratadas com HCl, HF, KOH e acetólise e as lâminas montadas em gelatina-glicerinada. Para cada amostra foi contado um número mínimo de 500 grãos de pólen + esporos de pteridófitos e briófitos, com uma

  20. Carbon emissions associated with forest fires in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Moutinho, P. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Forest fires or 'understory fires' that burn beneath forest canopies are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon causing large emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The occurrence and the damage intensity of these fire events are related to the synergetic influence of selective logging, forest fragmentation and severe droughts especially such as that associated with El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. In addition, forest fires occurrence also depends on landscape variables and forest structure. In this chapter we review the feedbacks that increase the susceptibility of the forest to understory fires, evaluate the impact of the fire events on forest biomass, analyze the spatial relationship of these forest fires with landscape characteristics for different regions along the arc of deforestation and estimate the area affected by forest fires in El Nino and non El Nino years. The results indicate that the area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (approximately 43.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation. Our estimate of aboveground forest carbon that will eventually be released to the atmosphere through decomposition of dead trees due to understory fires in the Amazon arc of deforestation ranged from 0.024 to 0.165 Pg during the ENSO and from 0.001 to 0.011 Pg during the non ENSO years.

  1. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; Almeida-Cortez, J S; Fernandes, G W

    2011-02-01

    We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  2. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  3. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  4. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hilário

    Full Text Available Abstract Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  5. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodal,MJN.; Barbosa,MRV.; Thomas,WW.

    2008-01-01

    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic C...

  6. Edaphic characterization of a forest savanna ecotone in southeastern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Marcelo H. Ongaro; Arantes, Sayonara A. do Couto Moreno; Jimenez-Rueda, Jairo R.; Monteiro, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    This study was motivated by the scarcity of studies involving descriptions of edaphic horizons in the transition from savanna to forest. It aims at comparing the chemical features and the texture of savanna and forest soils in one ecotone, and at considering possible edaphic infl uences on vegetation. In areas pertaining to the Botanical Garden of Bauru, State of São Paulo, two-meter deep pits were opened in different parts of a seasonal semi-deciduous forest and of a forested savanna to dire...

  7. NPP Tropical Forest: Manaus, Brazil, 1963-1990 , R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes six ASCII files (.txt format). Five files contain productivity values for several types of tropical Amazon rainforest near Manaus, Brazil...

  8. Natural forest regeneration in abandoned sugarcane fields in northeastern Brazil: floristic changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento,Ladivania Medeiros do; Sampaio,Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Rodal,Maria Jesus Nogueira; Silva,Suzene Izídio da; Lins e Silva,Ana Carolina Borges

    2012-01-01

    Surveys were undertaken to examine the floristic changes during secondary succession in three areas of 12 and three of 20-year-old secondary forests in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Two hundred and six species were identified, with 136 being found in the 12-year-old secondary forest and 161 species in the 20-year-old forest. Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the most important families, increasing in species numbers with regeneration age. Of the 216 species, 115 were trees, 48 shrubs, 16 herbaceous pla...

  9. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Rosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil.

  10. Agaricales Fungi from atlantic rain forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Capelari, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in Minas Gerais state were studied to access their Agaricales fungal richness. A total of 187 specimens were collected and 109 species, 39 genera, and eight families were identified. Thirty-three species were cited for the first time in Brazil. PMID:24031432

  11. Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Southwest Amazonia: Impact of Brazil's Revised Forest Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Pedro Augusto Costa; Yanai, Aurora Miho; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-09-01

    In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses. The models were parameterized from satellite imagery and simulated using Dinamica-EGO software. Deforestation actors and processes in the municipality were observed in loco in 2012. Carbon emissions and loss of forest by 2025 were computed in the three simulation scenarios. There was a 10% difference in the loss of carbon stock and of forest between the scenarios with the two versions of the Forest Code. The baseline scenario showed the highest loss of carbon stocks and the highest increase in annual emissions. The greatest damage was caused by not protecting wetlands and riparian zones.

  12. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  13. Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Southwest Amazonia: Impact of Brazil's Revised Forest Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Pedro Augusto Costa; Yanai, Aurora Miho; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-09-01

    In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses. The models were parameterized from satellite imagery and simulated using Dinamica-EGO software. Deforestation actors and processes in the municipality were observed in loco in 2012. Carbon emissions and loss of forest by 2025 were computed in the three simulation scenarios. There was a 10% difference in the loss of carbon stock and of forest between the scenarios with the two versions of the Forest Code. The baseline scenario showed the highest loss of carbon stocks and the highest increase in annual emissions. The greatest damage was caused by not protecting wetlands and riparian zones.

  14. Forest biomass variation in Southernmost Brazil: the impact of Araucaria trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Milena Fermina; Souza, Alexandre F

    2014-03-01

    A variety of environmental and biotic factors determine vegetation growth and affect plant biomass accumulation. From temperature to species composition, aboveground biomass storage in forest ecosystems is influenced by a number of variables and usually presents a high spatial variability. With this focus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the variables affecting live aboveground forest biomass (AGB) in Subtropical Moist Forests of Southern Brazil, and to analyze the spatial distribution of biomass estimates. Data from a forest inventory performed in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, was used in the present study. Thirty-eight 1-ha plots were sampled and all trees with DBH > or = 9.5cm were included for biomass estimation. Values for aboveground biomass were obtained using published allometric equations. Environmental and biotic variables (elevation, rainfall, temperature, soils, stem density and species diversity) were obtained from the literature or calculated from the dataset. For the total dataset, mean AGB was 195.2 Mg/ha. Estimates differed between Broadleaf and Mixed Coniferous-Broadleaf forests: mean AGB was lower in Broadleaf Forests (AGB(BF)=118.9 Mg/ha) when compared to Mixed Forests (AGB(MF)=250.3 Mg/ha). There was a high spatial and local variability in our dataset, even within forest types. This condition is normal in tropical forests and is usually attributed to the presence of large trees. The explanatory multiple regressions were influenced mainly by elevation and explained 50.7% of the variation in AGB. Stem density, diversity and organic matter also influenced biomass variation. The results from our study showed a positive relationship between aboveground biomass and elevation. Therefore, higher values of AGB are located at higher elevations and subjected to cooler temperatures and wetter climate. There seems to be an important contribution of the coniferous species Araucaria angustifolia in Mixed Forest plots, as it presented

  15. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Ant-diaspore interactions during secondary succession in the Atlantic forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor P Zwiener

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal-plant interactions are important for the recovery of diversity and processes in secondary forests, which increasingly dominate the tropical landscape. We used a combination of observational and experimental approaches to study the interactions of ants with diaspores across a successional gradient of forests in Southern Brazil, from August 2007 to April 2008. In addition to diaspore removal rates, we assessed the species richness, diversity and behaviour of ants interacting with diaspores, in three replicated sites of four successional stages of forests. We recorded 22 ant species interacting with diaspores (an estimated 15% of the total species pool in the region. Species richness and diversity did not differ among successional stages but the behaviour of ants towards diaspores changed with the age of secondary forests. In old successional stages the removal of entire diaspores was more common than in young successional stages of forests. Concordantly, diaspore removal rates were lowest in the youngest successional stage of secondary forests and increased with the age of forests. These results indicate that ant-diaspore interactions in secondary forests are disturbed and lower removal rates in secondary forests are likely to constrain the recruitment of plant populations during secondary succession. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 933-942. Epub 2012 June 01.

  17. Ant-diaspore interactions during secondary succession in the Atlantic forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiener, Victor P; Bihn, Jochen H; Marques, Márcia C M

    2012-06-01

    Animal-plant interactions are important for the recovery of diversity and processes in secondary forests, which increasingly dominate the tropical landscape. We used a combination of observational and experimental approaches to study the interactions of ants with diaspores across a successional gradient of forests in Southern Brazil, from August 2007 to April 2008. In addition to diaspore removal rates, we assessed the species richness, diversity and behaviour of ants interacting with diaspores, in three replicated sites of four successional stages of forests. We recorded 22 ant species interacting with diaspores (an estimated 15% of the total species pool in the region). Species richness and diversity did not differ among successional stages but the behaviour of ants towards diaspores changed with the age of secondary forests. In old successional stages the removal of entire diaspores was more common than in young successional stages of forests. Concordantly, diaspore removal rates were lowest in the youngest successional stage of secondary forests and increased with the age of forests. These results indicate that ant-diaspore interactions in secondary forests are disturbed and lower removal rates in secondary forests are likely to constrain the recruitment of plant populations during secondary succession.

  18. PRESERVATION OF PRIMARY FOREST CHARACTERISTICS DESPITE FRAGMENTATION AND ISOLATION IN A FOREST REMNANT FROM VIÇOSA, MG, BRAZIL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to its owners, the Forest of Seu Nico (FSN from the Viçosa municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil, never has been logged and is therefore considered a primary forest. Nevertheless, the forest patch suffered impacts due to selective wood and non-timber extraction, fragmentation and isolation. Aim of this study was to test if the FSN, despite impacts, preserved characteristics of primary forests, which are elevated percentages of non-pioneer (>90%, animal-dispersed (>80 %, understory (>50% and endemic species (~40%. For that, all trees with diameter at breast height equal or major than 3.2 cm within a plot of 100 x 100 m were identified. With 218 tree species found within this hectare, the FSN's species richness is outstanding for the region. The percentages of non-pioneer (92 %, animal-dispersed (85 %, understory (55 % and endemic species (39.2 % from the FSN fulfill the criteria proposed for primary forest. Therefore, we conclude that the FSN maintained its characteristics as a primary forest which highlights its importance for the conservation of biotic resources in the region, where similar fragments are lacking or not described yet.

  19. Spatiotemporal appraisal of TBT contamination and imposex along a tropical bay (Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artifon, Vanda; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    A spatiotemporal evaluation of butyltin contamination was performed between 2010 and 2012 along Todos os Santos Bay (Northeast Brazil) using surface sediments, bivalve tissues (Anomalocardia brasiliana and Mytella guyanensis), and imposex occurrence (Stramonita rustica). The spatial study detected high tributyltin (TBT) levels (maximum values of 262 ng Sn g (-1) - 21,833 ng Sn g(-1) of total organic carbon - for surface sediments and 421 ng Sn g(-1) for bivalve tissues) in the innermost part of the bay. The TBT levels detected in M. guyanensis tissues might cause human health risk since local population consumes these organisms. These high concentrations observed in the bivalves might result in ingestions higher than the safe limits established by European Food Safety Authority (250 ng TBT kg(-1) day(-1)). Considering the temporal evaluation, no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between TBT concentrations in sediments obtained during the two sampling campaigns (2010/2011 and 2012). However, the increasing predominance of TBT metabolites (butyltin degradation index (BDI) >1) in more recent sediments indicates further degradation of old TBT inputs. In spite of that, recent inputs are still evident at this region. Nevertheless, a reduction of imposex parameters in S. rustica over the last decade suggests an overall decline in the TBT contamination, at least in the outermost and possible less impacted region of the bay. The TBT contamination is probably reducing due to the national and international legislative restrictions on the use of TBT as antifouling biocide. The contamination levels, however, are still relevant especially in the inner part of Todos os Santos Bay since they are above those that are likely to cause toxicity to the biota.

  20. Inorganic As speciation and bioavailability in estuarine sediments of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatje, V.; Macedo, S.M.; Jesus, R.M. de; Cotrim, G.; Garcia, K.S.; Queiroz, A.F. de; Ferreira, S.L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Total concentration of As at several stations along Todos os Santos Bay, was above TEL value. → At Subae and Paraguacu systems, As (V) was the dominant species, which is less toxic and less mobile than As (III). → Arsenic concentrations at Jaguaripe estuary were higher than in other estuaries and As (III) was the dominant species. → Relationship between As, Fe, Mn and sand indicated that As enrichment at Jaguaripe River is natural. → As concentrations in sediments and biota suggest that As is bioavailable and it is accumulating in marine organisms, which may impose human risks. → Slurry sampling showed to be a easy, accurate procedure to be used for As determination in estuarine samples. - Abstract: The spatial distribution of As (total As, As (III) and As (V)) in estuarine sediments from the main tributaries of Todos os Santos Bay, BA, Brazil, was evaluated under high and low flow conditions. The concentrations of As were determined using a slurry sampling procedure with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The highest concentrations were observed at estuary mouths, and exceeded conservative lower threshold value (Threshold Effects Level; TEL). Due to the oxic conditions and abundance of Mn and Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic arsenic in the Subae and Paraguacu estuaries was present as As (V). Nevertheless, the concentration of As (III) at several locations along the Jaguaripe River were also above the TEL value, suggesting that As may be toxic to biota. In the Subae estuary, antropogenic activities are the main source of As. At the Jaguaripe and at Paraguacu estuaries, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns.

  1. Cultural landscapes of the Araucaria Forests in the northern plateau of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Mello, Anna Jacinta; Peroni, Nivaldo

    2015-06-09

    The Araucaria Forest is associated with the Atlantic Forest domain and is a typical ecosystem of southern Brazil. The expansion of Araucaria angustifolia had a human influence in southern Brazil, where historically hunter-gatherer communities used the pinhão, araucaria's seed, as a food source. In the north of the state of Santa Catarina, the Araucaria Forest is a mosaic composed of cultivation and pasture inserted between forest fragments, where pinhão and erva-mate are gathered; some local communities denominate these forest ecotopes as caívas. Therefore, the aim of this study is to understand how human populations transform, manage and conserve landscapes using the case study of caívas from the Araucaria Forests of southern Brazil, as well as to evaluate the local ecological knowledge and how these contribute to conservation of the Araucaria Forest. This study was conducted in the northern plateau of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil in local five communities. To assess ethnoecological perceptions the historical use and management of caívas, semi-structured interviews, checklist interviews and guided tours were conducted with family units. In total 28 family units participated in the study that had caívas on their properties. During the course of the study two main perceptions of the ecotope caíva were found, there is no consensus to the exact definition; perception of caívas is considered a gradient. In general caívas are considered to have the presence of cattle feeding on native pasture, with denser forest area that is managed, and the presence of specific species. Eleven management practices within caívas were found, firewood collection, cattle grazing, trimming of the herbaceous layer, and erva-mate extraction were the most common. Caívas are perceived and defined through the management practices and native plant resources. All participants stated that there have been many changes to the management practices within caívas and to the ca

  2. A reevaluation of the late quaternary sedimentation in todos os Santos Bay (BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME C. LESSA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos os Santos Bay is a large ( 1000 km², structurally controlled tidal bay in northeast Brazil. Three main drainage basins debouch into the bay, providing a mean freshwater discharge of 200 m³/s (prior to 1985, or less than 1% of the spring tidal discharge through the bay mouth. Based on the result of several sedimentological studies performed in the 1970's, five surface sedimentary facies were identified inside the bay, namely i transgressive siliciclastic marine sand facies; ii transgressive bay sand-mud facies; iii a transgressive carbonate marine sand facies; iv regressive bay-mud facies, and v regressive fluvial sand facies. The spatial distribution of these facies would follow, somewhat closely, the hydrodynamic-energy distribution inside the bay. Seismic profiles along the bay bottom indicate the existence of several paleochannels, 5-10 m deep, blanketed at least by three different sedimentary units. The topmost sedimentary unit, 5-20 m thick, appears to be associated with the regressive bay-mud facies, and assuming that it was laid down within the last 5000 years, sedimentation rates for the central and northeastern part of the bay would average at 2,4 mm/y.

  3. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in tropical estuary of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celino, Joil Jose; Oliveira, Olivia Maria Cordeiro de; Queiroz, Antonio Fernando de Souza [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Trigueis, Jorge Alberto [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Karina Santos [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    As part of the environmental assessment within Todos os Santos Bay, State of Bahia - Brazil, in summer of 2005, superficial water and sediments samples of the mangrove were collected at five locations to determine the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants in the Dom Joao estuary at the Sao Francisco do Conde Region. Sandy sediments with low organic matter content dominate the studied area. Trace metal levels indicated that sediments were moderately polluted with Cu (overall mean: 21.48 +/- 4.76 {mu}g.g-1 dry sediment), but not with Pb (15 +/- 8), Zn (38 +/- 10), Cr (15 +/- 7), Ni (13 +/- 6) and Cd (0.4 +/- 0.2). Depending on location, total petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 1.6 to 10.6 {mu}g.g-1. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. Principal components analysis confirmed two regions according to their environmental quality. The results pointed out that almost all the area presented some substances that can cause adverse biological effects, especially in the outermost region where some metals are above TEL level. (author)

  4. Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Shizen Pacheco Toma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gall-inducing insects of an Araucaria Forest in southern Brazil. Diversity of galling insects is reported for the first time in an Araucaria Forest site. We address gall characteristics, host plant identification and the inducer identification and provide additional information about sites of gall occurrence in a mosaic of continuous forest and natural forest patches. After 40h of sampling we found 57 species of five insect orders, the majority of them Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, galling 43 host plant species, which in turn belonged to 18 host plant families. Stem and buds together, compared to leaves, harbored more galls, which were mostly glabrous, isolated, fusiform and green. Myrtaceae, Asteraceae and Melastomataceae were the most representative host families. Similarities in gall characteristics to what has been reported in the literature probably result from spatial correlation in a larger scale driven by ecological and evolutionary processes.

  5. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJN. Rodal

    Full Text Available Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence - absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  6. Do the seasonal forests in northeastern Brazil represent a single floristic unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, M J N; Barbosa, M R V; Thomas, W W

    2008-08-01

    Floristic analyses (Principal Component Analysis and Analysis of Group Indicators) at the genus level were employed to characterize and compare seasonal forest formations in northeastern Brazil. The presence--absence of 248 genera of woody plants occurring in 24 floristic surveys was correlated with geomorphology and climatic variables. The analyses were consistent and point to the existence of two floristic groups of seasonal forests in the region, one more closely related to the Atlantic Coastal Forest (mata atlântica) and the other to the xerophytic formations (caatinga) of the region. The driest seasonal forest group experiences more than 8 dry months per year and/or a total annual rainfall of <1000 mm, and is found on the ancient eroded peaks in the semi-arid core and on the western slopes of the Borborema Plateau.

  7. Stress protein accumulation as an indicator of impact by the petroleum industry in Todos OS Santos Bay, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Leite, M. B. N.; Sansone, Giovanni; Pereira, S. A.; Smith, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    p. 101-108 The relative concentrations of stress proteins in juvenile mangrove oysters (Crussostreu rhizophorue), from six study sites in Todos OS Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, were used to evaluate the possibility of chronic environmental impact induced by 40 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry. Replicated tissue samples from oysters at four sites associated with the extraction, transport and refinement of petroleum, and from two control sites, were used for stress protein (...

  8. Genetic diversity of bats coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest hotspot biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góes, Luiz Gustavo Bentim; Campos, Angélica Cristine de Almeida; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Ambar, Guilherme; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo Pereira; Munir, Muhammad; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2016-10-01

    Bats are notorious reservoirs of genetically-diverse and high-profile pathogens, and are playing crucial roles in the emergence and re-emergence of viruses, both in human and in animals. In this report, we identified and characterized previously unknown and diverse genetic clusters of bat coronaviruses in the Atlantic Forest Biome, Brazil. These results highlight the virus richness of bats and their possible roles in the public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,HM; Hernandes,FA; Pichorim,M

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fiftee...

  10. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Le?o-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorph...

  11. A new species of Atractus (Reptilia: Ophidia: Colubridae: Dipsadinae) from the Amazon forest region in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Prudente, A.L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Three specimens of Atractus natans were found during fieldwork in the “Reserva Mamirauá”, Amazonas and a fourth one in the “Estação Científica Ferreira Penna”, Floresta de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil. The specimens from Mamirauá were all collected in floating logs in várzea forest during the period of

  12. Effects of Natural Atlantic Forest Regeneration on Soil Fauna, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Camara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The stage of natural forest regeneration may influence soil fauna. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that there are differences in the structure and composition of the soil fauna communities between areas undergoing less advanced (LAS and more advanced (MAS stages of natural regeneration of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest at Pinheiral, RJ. Soil fauna was sampled using pitfall traps, during dry and rainy seasons. Total abundance, abundance of the saprophagous/predator group, mainly Formicidae, and the relative participation of Orthoptera were higher in MAS, while the relative participation of Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Diptera and the herbivorous group were higher in LAS, during both climatic seasons. Some taxonomic groups were restricted to one of the areas. Richness, evenness and diversity tended to present higher values in LAS (dry season. The higher complexity of the soil fauna community was correlated to the higher leaf litter standing stock in LAS.

  13. Anurans in a forest remnant in the transition zone between cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest domains in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Renata M; Nascimento, Luciana B; Feio, Renato N

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the species richness, temporal distribution and reproductive activity of anurans from the Uaimií State Forest (Floresta Estadual do Uaimií - FLOE Uaimií), situated in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, municipality of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Field activities were performed monthly from September 2009 to August 2010. We recorded 36 anurans species, distributed in 10 families. The greatest richness of the sampled sites corresponds to a permanent rivulet in a secondary forest. The majority of anuran species presented seasonal vocalization activity pattern, mainly in the rainy season. The anuran species composition of FLOE Uaimií is similar to others studied areas from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region.

  14. Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

  15. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90% of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha, an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA and members of the local "Quilombo" community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli. Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records; while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records. Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest

  16. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L C; Loretto, D; Viana, L R; Silva, J S; Fernandes, W G

    2009-11-01

    Brazil is the richest country in the world in terms of primate species and the Amazonian rain forest is one of the richest biomes containing 15 (ca. 90%) of the Neotropical primate genera. Although considered key elements in conservation strategies, there is only anecdotal information on primates for several protected areas within the region. Here we present new data on the community composition of the primates in the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest (429,600 ha), an actively mined, bauxite rich area, in Pará, Brazil. We used information from the literature, technical reports, museum data, and interviews conducted with agents from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis - IBAMA) and members of the local 'Quilombo' community. In addition, from July 2003 to June 2007, we carried out 19 field trips ranging from 10 to15 days each, amounting to a total effort of 1,230 hours and 1,420 km of censuses, resulting in 1,034 records of eight primate species (Saguinus martinsi, Saguinus midas, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella, Pithecia pithecia, Chiropotes sagulatus, Ateles paniscus, and Alouatta macconelli). Two other species (Cebus olivaceus and Aotus trivirgatus) were recorded only indirectly, through interviews and literature data. In all, Alouatta macconelli was the most frequently recorded species (43% of all records); while Saguinus midas and P. pithecia were the least (ca. 0.4 and 0.6% of all records). Based on our results, we discuss group sizes as well as taxonomic problems concerning the genera Pithecia and Chiropotes, for which we registered individuals displaying phenotypic geographical variation and two different forms, respectively. Despite the deforestation inherent in bauxite mining, the Saracá-Taqüera National Forest still has a remarkable richness of primate species. Our study results place this National Forest amongst the richest reserves, in terms

  17. Capture fishery in northern Todos os Santos Bay, tropical southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on marine and estuarine capture fishery activity in northern Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil, based on daily data collected between September 2003 and June 2005 is presented. Small-scale artisanal fishery in this area includes the use of traditional vessels both nonmotorized and motorized for locomotion, being carried out mainly by canoe or on foot, and involves many different kinds of gear, including gillnet, hook and line, seine nets, and traps. A total of 113 taxa were grouped into 77 resources, including 88 fish, 10 crustaceans, and 15 mollusks. Data on nominal catches of fish, crustaceans and mollusks are presented by month and location. A total of 345.2 tonnes of fishery resources were produced (285.4 tonnes of fish, 39.2 tonnes of fresh invertebrates, and 20.6 tonnes of processed invertebrates. Temporal variation in the fish catch was associated with the life cycle of the species or with the hydrographic conditions. The first-sale value of this catch amounted to around US$ 615,000.00, fishes representing 71.3% of it. A table of the average price of each fishery resource is presented. The results produced in this study may be considered a reference for future monitoring programs of fishery resources in the area.Informações sobre a atividade pesqueira extrativa da região norte da Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, nordeste do Brasil são apresentadas, baseadas em coleta diária de dados, realizada entre setembro de 2003 e junho de 2005. Trata-se de uma atividade extrativa artesanal, na qual são utilizadas embarcações tradicionais para o deslocamento ao local da extração. Em cada pescaria foram utilizadas várias artes, tais como rede de espera, linha e anzol, rede de cerco, armadilhas. Foram identificadas 113 categorias taxonômicas de peixes (88, crustáceos (10 e moluscos (15, arranjadas em 77 tipos de pescados comercializados. A produção total no período foi de 345,2 t (285.4 t de peixes, 39,2 t de

  18. TREE DIAMETER GROWTH FOLLOWING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS IN A SEMI-DECIDUOUS SECONDARY FOREST IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Venturoli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Cerrado biome of Brazil, savannas and dry forests are intimately linked and form mosaics. These forests are composed of species of high commercial value, well accepted in the timber market, which causes intensive deforestation on the remaining vegetation. Thus, the management of these forests is an important alternative to reduce deforestation in the remaining vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the response of tree species in relation to silvicultural treatments of competition and liana cutting in a semi-deciduous forest in Central Brazil. The results showed that community basal area increased 24% over 4.8 years and the median periodic annual increment in diameter was about 20% higher in plots with silvicultural treatments: 2.9 mm.yr-1 in the control compared to 3.2 mm.yr-1 to 3.6 mm.yr-1 between treatments. This study demonstrated that it is possible to increase the rates of radial growth through silvicultural techniques.

  19. Diversity of myxomycetes in an environmentally protected area of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Aurelice Aurélio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on three trails, each presenting a different degree of disturbance, within the Pau-Ferro Forest Environmentally Protected Area, a 600 ha area of highland forest located in the municipality of Areia (06°58'12"S; 35°42'15"W; elevation, 400-600 m, in the state of Paraíba, Brazil. In 2005, we analyzed the species richness, abundance, constancy and phenology of myxomycetes over seven consecutive months (rainy and dry seasons in five types of microhabitats: dead tree trunks, the bark of living trees, basidiomata, ground litter and aerial litter. A total of 753 specimens of 48 species were obtained from the trails known as Flores (4 km, Boa Vista (3 km and Cumbe (700 m. The Sørensen similarity coefficient revealed that the three trails are similar. The most constant and abundant species were Hemitrichia calyculata, H. serpula, Arcyria cinerea, A. denudata and Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa. Although myxomycetes sporulate throughout the year, some species have well-defined sporulation seasons. In terms of the constancy and abundance of species, Trichiaceae is the most important family in the rain forest studied, which is representative of the highland forests of northeastern Brazil.

  20. Reproductive success of Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae in Atlantic forest fragments, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the Atlantic forest remnants have high biological diversity and a high level of endemism, but very little is known about the reproductive success of native species. Cabralea canjerana is a common tree in the Montane Atlantic forest, and its reproduction is highly dependent on pollinators. In order to contribute with the particular knowledge on this species, we collected data in three fragmented and three continuous forest sites, where the effects of fragmentation on both mutualistic (pollination and antagonistic (seed predation interactions were analysed. We determined fruit production and weight of 25 trees per site. The number of seeds and the percentage of predated and aborted seeds were also accessed for seven fruits of 10 trees per site. Pollinator visitation frequencies to flowers were recorded in two forest fragments and in two sites of the continuous forest. Our data showed that plants of C. canjerana produced more fruits (z-value=-8.24; p<0.0001 and seeds per fruit (z-value=-6.58; p=0.002 in the continuous than in the fragmented sites. This was likely due to differences in pollination, because the number of pollinator visits was higher in the continuous forest than in the fragments. Seed abortion (z-value=4.08, p<0.001 and predation (z-value=3.72, p=0.0002, on the other hand, were higher in the fragmented than in the continuous sites. Then, mutualistic and antagonistic interactions were affected by fragmentation, decreasing the reproductive success of the study tree. This study was the first to show a decrease in the reproductive output in forest fragments in an Atlantic forest tree species. This decrease may threaten the population structure and viability of C. canjerana in forest fragments. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2: 515-524. Epub 2015 June 01.

  1. Agaricomycetes in low land and montane Atlantic Rain Forest in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Gibertoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain Forest represents a group of extra-amazonic forests, among which the coastal and montane (“brejos de altitude” are the most common in Northeast Brazil. Between 2011 and 2013, 110 field trips were performed in nine reserves in the domain of the Atlantic Rain Forest. Two thousand two hundred sixty three Agaricomycetes were collected and represented 271 species, among which several new species to science, new occurrences to the continent, country, region, biome and States were found. Besides recently collected material, 309 exsiccates of Agaricomycetes deposited in the Herbarium URM were revised and represented 38 species, among which several new occurrences to the region and States. The results indicate the importance of the constant inventories and also of revisions of material deposited in herbaria as tools to improve the knowledge about the Brazilian micota.

  2. Tropical Rain Forest and Climate Dynamics of the Atlantic Lowland, Southern Brazil, during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.

    2001-11-01

    Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.

  3. Avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil | Advances in food safety in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cesar Tondo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, um expressivo avanço na regulação e utilização de sistemas de gestão da segurança de alimentos (SGSA tem ocorrido no Brasil. Ainda que seja difícil afirmar que o número de Doenças Transmissíveis por Alimentos (DTA tenha diminuído, sistemas como as Boas Práticas de Fabricação ou Boas Práticas (BPF/BP, Procedimentos Operacionais Padronizados (POP e Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC estão cada vez mais presentes nos serviços de alimentação e indústrias de alimentos brasileiras. Além disso, ultimamente o Brasil vem utilizando os conceitos de Análise de Riscos (AR na elaboração de suas legislações e no estudo de problemas relacionados à segurança de alimentos. Como resultado desses avanços, as vigilâncias estão cada vez mais preparadas e atuantes, as legislações têm contemplado as especificidades brasileiras e, ao mesmo tempo, estão alinhadas com algumas das mais modernas do mundo e os órgãos que fomentam as implementações dos SGSA têm trabalhado incessantemente. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de abordar alguns dos recentes avanços da segurança de alimentos no Brasil, enfocando principalmente legislações sobre os SGSA e dados de implementação desses sistemas. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- In recent years, developments related to food safety regulation and implementation of food safety management systems (FSMS have occurred in Brazil. Although it is difficult to affirm if the number of foodborne diseases has decreased, implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP, Standard Operation Procedures (SOP, and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP have increased in Brazilian food services and food industries. Furthermore, at present, Brazil uses the risk analysis concept for the elaboration of food regulation and to carry out food safety studies. As a result of this development, sanitary

  4. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-02 Forest Canopy Structure, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil: 1999-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports on Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA) measurements collected from forest and pasture sites in or near the Tapajos National...

  6. Strategic pathways for energy in Brazil; Os caminhos da eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Alan Douglas; Hollanda, Jayme Buarque de; Tolmasquim, Mauricio Tiomno

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest steps and policies to increase the introduction of cost-effective energy in conservation measures in Brazil. This report first addresses the motivations for a policy of energy efficiency and summarizes experiences in Brazil. It then considers the roles and perspectives of the diverse agents and review the instruments of policy. It concludes with an overview of strategic needs and lines of action.

  7. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  8. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  9. Phytosociology of a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, Municipality of Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Schuch Lemos Venzke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Floristic composition and structure of the tree component were analyzed in a coastal peat forest of the Toto Beach, located in the southern region of Lagoa dos Patos (31º43’39”S e 52º12’04”W. The phytosociological sampling was conducted on a sample area of 0.1 ha. All trees with DBH ≥ 4.8 cm were included. The species richness found was equivalent to 23 species distributed in 20 genera and 15 families. Two endangered species were sampled. The total tree density estimated for one hectare was equivalent to 3,480 trees. The most important species in the forest structure were Ocotea sp., Myrcia multiflora, Psidium cattleyanum, Ocotea pulchella, Myrsine lorentziana, Citharexyllum myrianthum, Ilex dumosa, Syagrus romanzoffiana, Guapira opposita and Sebastiania brasiliensis. The species diversity estimated by the Shannon index was 2,174 nats.ind.-1 and evenness (J was 0.684. The forest structure, number of taxa and diversity are similar to other surveys carried out in swamp forests of southern and southeastern Brazil. These parameters must be considered in the environmental licensing and ecological restoration projects of this forest type.

  10. Species richness and structure of an anuran community in an Atlantic Forest site in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriele Karlokoski Cunha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The species richness and spatial distribution of an anuran community were studied over 12 months in an Atlantic Forest area in São José dos Pinhais Municipality, Paraná State, southern Brazil. During field surveys, we registered 32 species from ten families: Brachycephalidae (2, Bufonidae (2, Centrolenidae (1, Cycloramphidae (1, Hemiphractidae (1, Hylidae (18, Hylodidae (1, Leiuperidae (2, Leptodactylidae (3, and Microhylidae (1. Sixteen species were registered in open areas, while seventeen species were found on forest borders and twenty species in forest areas. In relation to the microhabitat utilization, species were registered according to stratum of vocalization: 1 on the ground (eight; 2 in the water (two; 3 in the lower stratum (eleven; 4 in the intermediate stratum (five; 5 in the upper stratum (four. Five species were abundant (15.6%, while twelve were common (37.5%, and fifteen were considered rare (46.9%. The biological aspects of the majority of the species described in this work as related to forest areas are not well known. This fact reinforces the importance of Atlantic Forest conservation.

  11. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  12. Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme do Carmo Silveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging to 13 species and four Euglossini genera were collected. Of the total sample, 506 (12 species males were captured at site A and 353 (10 species were collected at site B.In both sites, Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 was the most abundant species (45.79%, followed by Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (20.79%. The results of this study supply new information about the diversity of orchid bee fauna in Atlantic Forest remnants as well as show that more than one site is needed to sample these bees in a fragmented landascape.

  13. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Daniel Tavares Cassilhas; Vrcibradic, Davor; Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo), and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]). We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]). The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered. PMID:25632263

  14. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  15. Seasonal rhythms of seed rain and seedling emergence in two tropical rain forests in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M C M; Oliveira, P E A M

    2008-09-01

    Seasonal tropical forests show rhythms in reproductive activities due to water stress during dry seasons. If both seed dispersal and seed germination occur in the best environmental conditions, mortality will be minimised and forest regeneration will occur. To evaluate whether non-seasonal forests also show rhythms, for 2 years we studied the seed rain and seedling emergence in two sandy coastal forests (flooded and unflooded) in southern Brazil. In each forest, one 100 x 30-m grid was marked and inside it 30 stations comprising two seed traps (0.5 x 0.5 m each) and one plot (2 x 2 m) were established for monthly monitoring of seed rain and a seedling emergence study, respectively. Despite differences in soil moisture and incident light on the understorey, flooded and unflooded forests had similar dispersal and germination patterns. Seed rain was seasonal and bimodal (peaks at the end of the wetter season and in the less wet season) and seedling emergence was seasonal and unimodal (peaking in the wetter season). Approximately 57% of the total species number had seedling emergence 4 or more months after dispersal. Therefore, both seed dormancy and the timing of seed dispersal drive the rhythm of seedling emergence in these forests. The peak in germination occurs in the wetter season, when soil fertility is higher and other phenological events also occur. The strong seasonality in these plant communities, even in this weakly seasonal climate, suggests that factors such as daylength, plant sensitivity to small changes in the environment (e.g. water and nutrient availability) or phylogenetic constraints cause seasonal rhythms in the plants.

  16. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

    2014-04-01

    A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. ©2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. A new species of Lelegeis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Diaperini from the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aloquio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lelegeis Champion, 1886 occurs only in the Neotropical region and comprises four species: L. aeneipennis Champion, 1886 from Mexico; L. apicalis Laporte & Brullé, 1831 from Cuba; L. hispaniolae Triplehorn, 1962 from Haiti and the Dominican Republic; and L. nigrifrons (Chevrolat, 1878 occurring in Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. Here, Lelegeis pytanga sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, and the first detailed description of the sclerites of the male and female terminalia of Lelegeis is produced. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other Lelegeis by its dull reddish brown to reddish orange elytral coloration, while the remaining body surface is dull black. The morphology of Lelegeis and its generic boundaries within Diaperinae are discussed.

  18. Extreme weather impacts on tropical mangrove forests in the Eastern Brazil Marine Ecoregion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Gomes, Luiz Eduardo de Oliveira; Bernardino, Angelo Fraga

    2018-07-01

    Extreme weather events are likely to become more frequent in the 21st century bringing significant impacts to coastal ecosystems. However, the capacity to detect and measure those impacts are still limited, with effects largely unstudied. In June 2016, a hailstorm with wind gusts of over 100 km·h -1 caused an unprecedented mangrove dieback on Eastern Brazil. To quantify the scale of impact and short-term recovery of mangroves (15-mo), we used satellite imagery and field sampling to evaluate changes in forest structure in control and impacted areas after the hailstorm. Satellite imagery revealed mangrove dieback in over 500 ha, corresponding to 29.3% of the total forest area suddenly impacted after the hailstorm. Fifteen months after the hailstorm, some impacted areas show an initial recovery, while others continued to degrade. The El Niño years of 2014-2016 created mild drought conditions in Eastern Brazil. As observed in wetlands of semi-arid regions during the same period, mangrove recovery may have been impaired by continued physiological stress and climate change effects. Economic losses in the study site from typical mangrove ecosystem services including food provision, climate regulation, raw materials and nurseries are estimated to at least US$ 792,624 yr -1 . This is the first evidence of an extreme weather impact on mangroves in Brazil that typically provide unique ecological and economic subsistence to coastal populations. Our results reveal that there is a pressing need for long-term monitoring and climate change adaptation actions for coastal wetlands in Brazil, and to provide broad estimates of ecosystem values associated with these ecosystems given many areas are already experiencing chronic stress from local impacts, drought and high temperatures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Sérgio de Faria; Schiavini, Ivan; Oliveira, Ana Paula; Vale, Vagner Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m) ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species) and Myrtaceae (20 species) were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occ...

  20. Study of the inorganic constituents in different species of Casearia medicinal plant collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP State, Brazil; Estudo sobre os constituintes inorganicos presentes em diferentes especies da planta medicinal do genero Casearia coletadas em regioes distintas da Mata Atlantica, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Celina Izumi

    2006-07-01

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has increased significantly in the last years, as has research concerning chemical characterization of these plants. In this study, inorganic constituents were determined in leaves and in extracts from three medicinal plant species of the Casearia genus (C. sylvestris, C. decandra and C. obliqua) collected in distinct regions of the Atlantic Forest, SP. The elemental compositions of the soils in which these plants were grown were also determined. Traditionally, these plants are used due to their antiinflammatory, antiacid, antiseptic and cicatrizing properties. The antiulcer and the antitumor activities of the Casearia genus and its capacity to neutralize snake and bee venoms, have also been scientifically confirmed. The analytical methodology used was neutron activation analysis. Long and short irradiation periods of the samples and the standards were carried out at IPEN's IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. In the leaf K was found at the percentage levels, Ca, Cl, Mg and Na at mg g{sup -1} levels and the elements Br, Fe, Mn, Rb and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. As, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc and Se at the ng g{sup -1} levels. Results obtained in the extracts indicated that the same elements present in the leaves are also found in their extracts. The comparison between the inorganic composition of Casearia sylvestris leaves collected from three different regions of the Atlantic Forest showed that the elemental concentrations in the plants leaves varied depending on the place where they were grown. Different Casearia species cultivated in a same region presented similar elemental compositions. Based on these findings it can be concluded that the studies about the pharmacological effect of Casearia genus plants grown in different types of soil are of great importance. The quality of the obtained results was assured by the analyses of the certified reference materials NIST 1573a Tomato Leaves, NIST 1515 Apple

  1. Productivity assessment of timber harvesting techniques for supporting sustainable forest management of secondary Atlantic Forests in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Caldas Britto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil has been subject to overexploitation in the past prompting the formulation of a rigorous conservation orientated policy by the government including a strict ban of timber harvesting. In the region, the forestland is owned by farmers. The economic value of the forest is rather limited for those farmers, because of the prohibition of commercial timber harvesting as a source of income. Sustainable forest management systems can offer great potential as new income opportunities for land holders, and further actively support the process of ecosystem rehabilitation and protection for these ecosystems. Yet, successful implementation of such sustainable management systems requires feasible and adapted timber harvesting systems. In order to develop such harvesting systems, a regional comparative case study was conducted at a typical smallholder forestry venture with the objective to analyze and evaluate harvesting methods supporting sustainable management of the Atlantic Forest. This study assessed production rates and associated costs of a common conventional timber harvesting method (CM and a proposed alternative method (AM. CM was performed by a selected, typical forest landowner who had only basic training in chainsaw operations, but 20 years of experience at the wood yard of his small sawmill. In contrast, the AM employed a professional chainsaw operator from the Amazon forest, trained and experienced in reduced impact logging techniques using state of the art equipment, supplemented by a snatch block and a skidding cone for improved extraction. Time study based models identified tree volume, winching distance and skidding distance to the landing as the most significant independent variables affecting productivity. Total net productivity ranged from 4.9 m³ PMH0-1 for CM to 3.1 m³ PMH0-1 for AM. Corresponding gross-productivity ranged from 3.0 m³ SMH-1 to 1.9 m³ SMH-1 with an overall mean utilization rate of

  2. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Behling

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa. The calculated average influx of pollen rain from the native Atlantic rain forest was 12465 pollen grains per cm² and year. The influx from the ± 50 years old and from the 7 years old secondary forest was relatively low (4112 and 3667 grains per cm² and year, respectively compared to the undisturbed rain forest. The occurrence of pollen grains of herbs and fern spores were significantly higher in the secondary forests than in the undisturbed rain forest.Estudou-se a relação entre a Floresta Tropical Atlântica sul brasileira e a chuva polínica atual através de coletores de pólen. O estudo foi realizado em uma parcela de um hectare de floresta não perturbada localizada na Reserva Volta Velha (26º 04' S, 48º 38' W, 9 m s.n.m. e duas outras parcelas de floresta secundária (± 50 e 7 anos de idade. Cerca de 248 espécies arbóreas, arbustivas e herbáceas (excluindo epifitas, englobadas em 50 familias estavam representadas por 126 diferentes tipos de pólen e esporos (incluindo taxa não locais. Na área não perturbada, a média do fluxo de entrada da chuva polínica foi de 12465 grãos de pólen por cm²/ano. Nas áreas de ± 50 anos e 7 anos correspondentes a estádios florestais secundários o fluxo de entrada foi relativamente baixo (4112 e 3667 grãos por cm²/ano, respectivamente comparativamente à área não perturbada. A ocorrência de grãos de pólen de herbáceas e esporos de pteridófitas foi significativamente maior nas áreas secundárias do que na área não perturbada.

  3. Phytosociology analysis of a fragment of Seasonal Deciduous Forest: Parque Estadual do Turvo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaelo Balbinot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem formed by the Seasonal Deciduous Forest (SDF predominates in the region of Alto Uruguay in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to analyze descriptively the floristic composition and the phytosociology of trees from a fragment of SDF present in Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET located in the Municipality of Derrubadas, Rio Grande do Sul State (Yucumã forest. We used the method of fixed area, based on 18 sample units with 1,000 m2 installed randomly oriented by the main road of the park. All wood species with diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (DBH greater than 10 cm were measured and identified. It was observed the presence of 842 individuals belonging to 32 families, 67 genera and 83 species (12% were not identified. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapindaceae. Shannon index estimated was 3.72.

  4. Spider (Arachnida, Araneae) diversity in secondary and old-growth southern Atlantic forests of Paraná state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, Florian; Höfer, Hubert; Scheuermann, Ludger

    2017-07-01

    The data presented here have been collected in the southern part of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) in the state of Paraná, Brazil within a bilateral scientific project (SOLOBIOMA). The project aimed to assess the quality of secondary forests of different regeneration stages in comparison with old-growth forests with regard to diversity of soil animals and related functions. The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot of biological diversity with an exceptionally high degree of endemic species, extending over a range of 3,500 km along the coast of Brazil. The anthropogenic pressure in the region is very high with three of the biggest cities of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Curitiba) lying in its extension. An evaluation of the value of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation is becoming more and more important due to the complete disappearance of primary forests. In 2005, we sampled spiders in 12 sites of three successional stages (5-8, 10-15, 35-50 yr old, three replicates of each forest stage) and old-growth forests (> 100 yr untouched, also three replicates). All sites were inside a private nature reserve (Rio Cachoeira Nature Reserve). We repeated the sampling design and procedure in 2007 in a second private reserve (Itaqui Nature Reserve). The two nature reserves are within about 25 km of each other within a well preserved region of the Mata Atlântica, where the matrix of the landscape mosaic is still forest. A widely accepted standard protocol was used in a replicated sampling design to apply statistical analyses to the resulting data set and allow for comparison with other studies in Brazil. Spiders were sorted to family level and counted; the adult spiders further identified to species if possible or classified as morphospecies with the help of several spider specialists. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae) in fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A I A; Fadini, M A M; Pikart, T G; Zanuncio, J C; Serrão, J E

    2012-08-01

    New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae) in Brazil. Larval erythraeid mites are common ectoparasites of harvestmen (Opiliones). Studies describing insects as potential hosts have received little attention. Specimens of an undescribed species of the genus Leptus were collected in association with predatory and phytophagous Heteroptera bugs in a secondary forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. New mite-host records and information on seasonality of this mite are presented.

  6. New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae) in fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,AIA.; Fadini,MAM.; Pikart,TG.; Zanuncio,JC.; Serrão,JE.

    2012-01-01

    New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae) in Brazil. Larval erythraeid mites are common ectoparasites of harvestmen (Opiliones). Studies describing insects as potential hosts have received little attention. Specimens of an undescribed species of the genus Leptus were collected in association with predatory and phytophagous Heteroptera bugs in a secondary forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. New mite-host records and information on seasonality of this mi...

  7. New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae in fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIA. Pereira

    Full Text Available New hosts and parasitism notes for the mite Leptus (Acari: Erythraeidae in Brazil. Larval erythraeid mites are common ectoparasites of harvestmen (Opiliones. Studies describing insects as potential hosts have received little attention. Specimens of an undescribed species of the genus Leptus were collected in association with predatory and phytophagous Heteroptera bugs in a secondary forest in Viçosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. New mite-host records and information on seasonality of this mite are presented.

  8. Post-fire regeneration in seasonally dry tropical forest fragments in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYKE B. COSTA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seasonally dry tropical forest is one of the highly threatened biome. However, studies on the effect of fire on these tree communities are still scarce. In this context, a floristic and structural survey in three forest areas in the southeast of Brazil that were affected by fire between 14 and 25 years ago was performed with the objective of evaluating post-fire regeneration. In each site, five systematically placed plots (25 m x 25 m each were established. The more recently burnt site had significantly lower values of richness and diversity than the other two sites. However, the sites did not differ in density and basal area. Annona dolabripetala, Astronium concinnum, Joannesia princeps and Polyandrococos caudescens were within the 10 most important species for the three sites. Comparing these data with adjacent mature forests, the results indicated differences both in structural and floristic aspects, suggesting that the time after fire was not sufficient for recuperation of these areas. The recovery process indicate at least 190 years for areas return to basal area values close to those observed in mature forests nearby.

  9. Phylogeography of four frog species in forest fragments of northeastern Brazil--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina O Q

    2002-11-01

    I contrast mitochondrial DNA genealogies based on 612 bp of the cytochrome b gene across four co-distributed species of frogs in Northeastern Brazil. They are Hyla albomarginata, Hyla branneri, Proceratophrys boiei, and Scinax nebulosus. Samples were collected from the core or edge of six rainforest remnants in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas. Three fragments are located within the humid Atlantic Forest morphoclimatic domain (municipalities of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Ibateguara, and Jaqueira), two are located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest domain and the semi-arid Caatinga (Caruaru and Timbaúba), and one is found within the Caatinga (Brejo da Madre de Deus). Results show that local patterns and levels of genetic diversity are influenced by taxon-specific habitat requirements. Populations of the montane, closed-canopy species P. boiei show strong geographical structure, reflecting barriers to gene flow that predate human-driven habitat destruction. Species occurring along forest edges, such as H. albomarginata and S. nebulosus, show genetic patterns similar to those of P. boiei, but lower levels of genetic divergence. The more generalist Hyla branneri shows no geographic pattern. The data are in agreement with distribution and fossil data gathered for other groups of organisms, suggesting that mesic forests occupied the currently arid Caatinga in the recent past.

  10. Limits of Brazil's Forest Code as a means to end illegal deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Andrea A; Rajão, Raoni; Costa, Marcelo A; Stabile, Marcelo C C; Macedo, Marcia N; Dos Reis, Tiago N P; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Pacheco, Rayane

    2017-07-18

    The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time. Our results indicate rapid adoption of CAR, with registered properties covering a total of 57 Mha by 2013. This suggests that the financial incentives to join CAR currently exceed the costs. Registered properties initially showed lower deforestation rates than unregistered ones, but these differences varied by property size and diminished over time. Moreover, only 6% of registered producers reported taking steps to restore illegally cleared areas on their properties. Our results suggest that, from the landowner's perspective, full compliance with the Forest Code offers few economic benefits. Achieving zero illegal deforestation in this context would require the private sector to include full compliance as a market criterion, while state and federal governments develop SICAR as a de facto enforcement mechanism. These results are relevant to other tropical countries and underscore the importance of developing a policy mix that creates lasting incentives for sustainable land-use practices.

  11. Diversity and distribution of coccidia of wild birds in an Atlantic forest fragment area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Patrícia Silva de; Ferreira, Matheus Alexandre; Silva, Lidiane Maria da; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that are frequently observed in fecal samples from wild birds, and they are extremely important for biodiversity, host specificity and conservation. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the coccidian species from wild birds caught in a fragmented area of Atlantic Forest in the municipality of Guapimirim in the state of Rio de Janeiro, which is located around the Serra dos Órgãos National Park. A total of 101 birds were caught and identified. The highest prevalence and density were observed in the family Columbidae (Columbiformes). Among the families of Passeriformes, the highest prevalences and densities were of birds in the families Thraupidae and Turdidae. The majority of the positive samples and those with higher densities were collected in the afternoons. Eleven coccidian species of Isospora and Eimeria were identified. Seven of these species that were morphologically identified are undescribed in the scientific literature and are believed to be new species. The present study highlights the wide distribution and dispersion of coccidia of wild birds in southeastern Brazil, and records the municipality of Guapimirim, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, as a new locality for parasitism, along with the new hosts recorded.

  12. Diversity and distribution of coccidia of wild birds in an Atlantic forest fragment area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coccidia are protozoan parasites that are frequently observed in fecal samples from wild birds, and they are extremely important for biodiversity, host specificity and conservation. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the coccidian species from wild birds caught in a fragmented area of Atlantic Forest in the municipality of Guapimirim in the state of Rio de Janeiro, which is located around the Serra dos Órgãos National Park. A total of 101 birds were caught and identified. The highest prevalence and density were observed in the family Columbidae (Columbiformes. Among the families of Passeriformes, the highest prevalences and densities were of birds in the families Thraupidae and Turdidae. The majority of the positive samples and those with higher densities were collected in the afternoons. Eleven coccidian species of Isospora and Eimeria were identified. Seven of these species that were morphologically identified are undescribed in the scientific literature and are believed to be new species. The present study highlights the wide distribution and dispersion of coccidia of wild birds in southeastern Brazil, and records the municipality of Guapimirim, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, as a new locality for parasitism, along with the new hosts recorded.

  13. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) in south-western Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres, Nilton C.; Hannibal, Wellington; Freitas, Dirceu R.; Silva, Edson L.; Roman, Cassiano; Casella, Janaina

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado) of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites) and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80) within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23) were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled ...

  14. Toxicity of sediments from a mangrove forest patch in an urban area in Pernambuco (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D D; Souza-Santos, L P; Silva, H K P; Macedo, S J

    2014-06-01

    Industrial and urban residues are discharged every day to the rivers and may arrive at the mangrove forest and prejudice the quality of the environment and the organisms present there. The mangrove forest patch studied is encircled by an urban area of the city of Recife (Brazil) that has approximate 1.5 million inhabitants and is one of the most industrialized centers in Northeast Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the sediments of this mangrove patch in terms of metal contamination and ecotoxicology. Samples of surface sediment were collected in six stations for toxicological tests and trace metal determination (Cr, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Co and Ni), in July and August, 2006 (rainy season); and in January and February 2007 (dry season). Toxicity tests with solid-phase sediments were carried out with the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in order to observe lethal and sub-lethal endpoints and correlate them with chemical data. In June, there were no observed lethal effect, but two stations presented sub-lethal effects. In January, lethal effect occurred in three stations and sub-lethal in one station. The levels for Zn and Cr were at higher levels than international proposed guidelines (NOAA). There was a negative significant correlation between the copepods׳ fecundity, and Zn and Cr concentrations. Therefore, the studied sediments can be considered to have potential toxic to benthos due to the high content of Zn and Cr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecology of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Kleber S; Pinto, Israel De S; Leite, Gustavo R; Das Virgens, Thieres M; Dos Santos, Claudiney B; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the fauna composition of anopheline mosquitoes, their ecological aspects and behavior, and influence of climatic variables on their population dynamics can help in understanding the transmission of Plasmodium parasites and thus develop more efficient strategies for the control of malaria. In the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, southeastern Brazil, foci of introduced malaria have been reported among people returning from the Amazon region, north Brazil. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the anopheline fauna from a preserved environment and an adjacent peridomiciliary modified environment at the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor. We collected anopheline mosquitoes on a monthly basis from June 2004 to May 2006 from both these environments to understand the ecological aspects and their association with the occurrence of malaria. We captured 5,491 anopheline mosquitoes belonging to two subgenera and 11 species and studied the correlations between anopheline mosquito species and climatic variables. We considered Anopheles darlingi (Root) as the principal malaria vector and Anopheles albitarsis s. l. (Arribalzaga) as the secondary vector.

  16. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  17. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Silva

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  18. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  19. Modeling Soil Water in the Caatinga Tropical Dry Forest of Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C.; Wilcox, B.; Souza, E.; Lima, J. R. D. S.; West, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Caatinga is a tropical dry forest unique to northeastern Brazil. It has a relatively high degree of endism and supports a population of about 20 million subsistence farmers. However, it is poorly understood, under-researched and often over-looked in regards to other Brazilian ecosystems. It is a highly perturbed system that suffers from deforestation, land use change, and may be threatened by climate change. How these perturbations affect hydrology is unknown, but may have implications for biodiversity and ecosystem services and resiliency. Therefore, understanding key hydrological processes is critical, particularly as related to deforestation. In this study, Hydrus 1D, which is based on van Genuchten parameters to describe the soil water curve and Richard's Equation to describe flow in the vadose zone, was used to model soil moisture in the Caatinga ecosystem. The aim was 1) to compare hydraulic characterization between a forested Caatinga site and a deforested pasture site, 2) to analyze inter-annual variability, and 3) to compare with observed soil moisture data. Hydraulic characterization included hydraulic conductivity, infiltration, water content and pressure head trends. Van Genuchten parameters were derived using the Beerkan method, which is based on soil texture, particle distribution, as well as in-situ small-scale infiltration experiments. Observational data included soil moisture and precipitation logged every half-hour from September 2013 to April 2014 to include the dry season and rainy season. It is expected that the forested Caatinga site will have a higher hydraulic conductivity as well as retain higher soil moisture values. These differences may be amplified during the dry season, as water resources become scarce. Deviations between modeled data and observed data will allow for further hypothesis to be proposed, especially those related to soil water repellency. Hence, these results may indicate difference in soil water dynamics between a

  20. Domesticated Landscapes in Araucaria Forests, Southern Brazil: A Multispecies Local Conservation-by-Use System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício S. Reis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria forest is a sub-tropical component of the Atlantic Forest Biome, occurring between 18 and 30° S latitude, and 500–1,800 m altitude in Southern and Southwestern Brazil and Northwestern Argentina. In recent history (Twentieth century, this forest has undergone non-sustainable exploitation and reduction in area dedicated to agricultural and forestry use. However, smallholders continue using several resources from this forest, even adapting management systems. The main system is geared toward the production of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis under araucaria trees (Araucaria angustifolia, which holds economic, cultural, and social relevance for thousands of farmers. Seeking evidence of domestication and conservation of the resources managed in this system, we compared different landscapes on the Northern Plateau of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. Focusing on three species-yerba mate, araucaria and caraguatá (Bromelia antiacantha—we characterized management practices (interviews and guided tours, demographic structure (permanent plots in farming zones and in a protected area, and genetic diversity in populations from the same places. Demographic structure and genetic diversity from different landscapes were compared to evaluate the system potential for conservation. The results indicated that the three species are intentionally promoted with practices of protection, transplanting and/or selection, in different ways and with different functions (caraguatá hedges, yerba mate harvesting, and collection of pinhões—seed like nuts—of araucaria. Landscapes are managed for yerba mate harvesting and cattle raising, for both economic and cultural reasons, with a consequent reduction in the density of most other plant species. In all cases the genetic diversity of the species was high for most of the sampled properties, and the set of farmers' populations did not differ from the protected area. The set of populations of each species

  1. SRTM-based morphotectonic analysis of the Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohmann, Carlos Henrique; Riccomini, Claudio; Alves, Fernando Machado

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of SRTM 03″ data applicability in geomorphology and morphotectonic analysis is proposed, considering the morphometric parameters slope, aspect, surface roughness and isobase surface. The study area, in southeastern Brazil, comprises the Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif, a 33 km-diameter Late Cretaceous collapsed volcanic caldera. Morphometric indices evaluated showed the correlation of landscape within the massif with NE-SW and NW-SE structures, as well as landforms related with recent tectonic influence. DEM-derived drainage presented satisfactory results when compared to a 1:50,000 topographic map. SRTM 03″ proved to be a good resource for geomorphological analysis, up to the semi-detail scale.

  2. [Effect of fire on understory birds of a gallery forest in central Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, M A; Cavalcanti, R B

    1996-11-01

    Habitat burning may cause significant population and community changes in animals and plants, specially when the humans increase fire frequency. We mist-netted the understory birds of a gallery forest from the cerrado region of central Brazil before and after a fire of unknown cause which burned the Ecological Reserve of the University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, in September 1987. We conducted mist-netting mostly during the morning, using 12 mist-nets distributed on 2.5 ha in the interior and border of the forest. We captured 137 individuals of 37 species, 51 individuals of 21 species during 135.5 net/h before the fire, and 98 individuals of 33 species during 233 net/h after the fire. The bird community as a whole did not change after the fire. The observed changes in the bird community were related to the type of habitat used by some species of birds than to their diet. Species typical to gallery forests are probably less adapted to habitat burning than species that occur in other habitats and may be suffering a decrease or a disturbance in their population structure, revealing an important problem of cerrado bird conservation.

  3. Edge effects on fern community in an Atlantic Forest remnant of Rio Formoso, PE, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A A; Pereira, A F N; Barros, I C L

    2011-05-01

    We have investigated how edge effects influence the fern community of Jaguarão Forest (08º 35' 49" S and 35º 15' 39" W), located in the district of Rio Formoso, Pernambuco, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of the interior and edge of the fragment of forest, regarding the richness, abundance and diversity of ferns in the two areas. Six plots of 10 × 20 m were chosen, three in each area. A total of 381 ferns were recorded, which were distributed among 25 species, 17 genera and 12 families. The two areas (edge and interior) were found to differ, with distinct relative air humidities and temperatures (p = 0.00254 and p = 0.00019, respectively). The interior showed higher diversity (t = 7.251 and p = 0.018) and richness (t = 6.379 and p = 0.023) than the edge area, but the same abundance (t = 1.728; p = 0.226) as the edge. Regarding the composition of the flora, it was clear that the interior is a habitat completely distinct from the edge with regard to the fern community, given that only one species, Adiantum petiolatum Desv., was common to both environments. It was concluded that the edge effect causes a decrease in richness and abundance of the fern species found in Jaguarão Forest, where the more sensitive species are being replaced by species that are tolerant to the disturbance caused by the creation of an edge.

  4. Patterns of water and heat flux across a biome gradient from tropical forest to savanna in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, da H.R.; Manzi, A.O.; Cabral, O.M.; Miller, S.D.; Goulden, M.L.; Saleska, S.R.; Coupe, N.R.; Wofsy, S.C.; Borma, L.S.; Artaxo, P.; Vourlitis, G.; Nogueira, J.S.; Cardoso, F.L.; Nobre, A.D.; Kruijt, B.; Freitas, H.C.; Randow, von C.; Aguiar, R.G.; Maia, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal patterns of water vapor and sensible heat flux along a tropical biome gradient from forest to savanna. We analyzed data from a network of flux towers in Brazil that were operated within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These tower sites

  5. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario.

  6. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  7. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bianchini

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23°27’S and 51°15’W, Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  8. An Ecological Comparison of Floristic Composition in Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Southeast Brazil: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Faria Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species and Myrtaceae (20 species were families with the largest number of species. Only Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea courbaril occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which Siparuna guianensis was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.

  9. BATS IN SETTLEMENTS FROM AN ATLANTIC FOREST AREA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO GRACO ZEPPELINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bats are key components of ecological networks, and studies in degraded areas are especially important to understand the impact of the human settlements on bats communities. Here, we surveyed the bat fauna in Guaribas Biological Reserve, a protected area in the Atlantic Forest in Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, and compared it with the bat fauna that occupies the nearby villages. In the villages, we recorded 650 individuals from 14 species, while 1,127 individuals from 20 species were recorded in the Reserve. Diversity estimation pointed out 19 species for the settlements, and 22 for the Reserve. A Bray-Curtis/Sorensen similarity cluster analysis informed that the Reserve areas and the villages form two distinct groups. Additionally, a Wilcox test pointed out that both areas have significantly distinct abundances and species richnesses. Only a subset of the assemblage, mainly formed by generalist or opportunist species, occupies the villages, exploring resources that are offered by human activities.

  10. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  11. Searching for putative avian malaria vectors in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Francisco C; Rodrigues, Raquel A; Sato, Yukita; Borges, Magno A Z; Braga, Érika M

    2016-11-16

    Haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus can have detrimental effects on individual birds and populations. Despite recent investigations into the distribution and richness of these parasites and their vertebrate hosts, little is known about their dipteran vectors. The Neotropics has the highest diversity of mosquitoes in the world, but few studies have tried to identify vectors in this area, hampering the understanding of the ecology of avian malaria in the highly diverse Neotropical environments. Shannon traps and active collection were used to capture 27,110 mosquitoes in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in southeastern Brazil, a highly endangered ecosystem. We screened 17,619 mosquito abdomens from 12 different species and several unidentified specimens of Culex, grouped into 1,913 pools, for the presence of haemosporidians. Two pools (out of 459) of the mosquito Mansonia titillans and one pool (out of 29) of Mansonia pseudotitillans were positive for Plasmodium parasites, with the detection of a new parasite lineage in the former species. Detected Plasmodium lineages were distributed in three different clades within the phylogenetic tree revealing that Mansonia mosquitoes are potential vectors of genetically distant parasites. Two pools of Culex spp. (out of 43) were positive for Plasmodium gallinaceum and closely related lineages. We found a higher abundance of these putative vectors in pasture areas, but they were also distributed in areas at intermediate and late successional stages. One pool of the mosquito Psorophora discrucians (out of 173) was positive for Haemoproteus. The occurrence of different Plasmodium lineages in Mansonia mosquitoes indicates that this genus encompasses potential vectors of avian malaria parasites in Brazil, even though we did not find positive thoraces among the samples tested. Additional evidence is required to assign the role of Mansonia mosquitoes in avian malaria transmission and further studies

  12. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.La fragmentación del hábitat conduce al aislamiento y la reducción de los hábitats, además provoca una serie de efectos negativos sobre las poblaciones naturales, afectando la riqueza, abundancia y distribución de las especies de animales. Dentro de este contexto, los corredores biológicos sirven

  13. Forests and global warming mitigation in Brazil: opportunities in the Brazilian forest sector for responses to global warming under the 'clean development mechanism''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created global warming response opportunities through the clean development mechanism that allow countries like Brazil to receive investments from companies and governments wishing to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases. Brazil has a special place in strategies for combating global warming because its vast areas of tropical forest represent a potentially large source of emissions if deforested. A number of issues need to be settled to properly assign credit for carbon in the types of options presented by the Brazilian forest sector. These include definition of the units of carbon (permanent sequestration versus carbon-ton-years, the latter being most appropriate for forest options), the means of crediting forest reserve establishment, adoption of discounting or other time-preference weighting for carbon, definition of the accounting method (avoided emissions versus stock maintenance), and mechanism to allow program contributions to be counted, rather than restricting consideration to free-standing projects. Silvicultural plantations offer opportunities for carbon benefits, but have high social impacts in the Brazilian context. Plantations also inherently compete with deforestation reduction options for funds. Forest management has been proposed as a global warming response option, but the assignment of any value to time makes this unattractive in terms of carbon benefits. However, reduced-impact logging can substantially reduce emissions over those from traditional logging practices. Slowing deforestation is the major opportunity offered by Brazil. Slowing deforestation will require understanding its causes and creating functional models capable of generating land-use change scenarios with and without different policy changes and other activities. Brazil already has a number of programs designed to slow deforestation, but the continued rapid loss of forest highlights the vast gulf that exists between the magnitude of the problem and the

  14. Ant-diaspore interactions during secondary succession in the Atlantic forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor P Zwiener

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal-plant interactions are important for the recovery of diversity and processes in secondary forests, which increasingly dominate the tropical landscape. We used a combination of observational and experimental approaches to study the interactions of ants with diaspores across a successional gradient of forests in Southern Brazil, from August 2007 to April 2008. In addition to diaspore removal rates, we assessed the species richness, diversity and behaviour of ants interacting with diaspores, in three replicated sites of four successional stages of forests. We recorded 22 ant species interacting with diaspores (an estimated 15% of the total species pool in the region. Species richness and diversity did not differ among successional stages but the behaviour of ants towards diaspores changed with the age of secondary forests. In old successional stages the removal of entire diaspores was more common than in young successional stages of forests. Concordantly, diaspore removal rates were lowest in the youngest successional stage of secondary forests and increased with the age of forests. These results indicate that ant-diaspore interactions in secondary forests are disturbed and lower removal rates in secondary forests are likely to constrain the recruitment of plant populations during secondary succession. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 933-942. Epub 2012 June 01.Las interacciones entre animales y plantas son importantes para la recuperación de la diversidad y los procesos en los bosques secundarios, los cuales cada vez más tienden a dominar el paisaje tropical. Nosotros utilizamos una combinación de métodos experimentales y observaciones para estudiar las interacciones entre hormigas y diásporas a través de un gradiente de sucesión en los bosques del sur de Brasil, entre agosto 2007 y abril 2008. Además de las tasas de eliminación de diásporas, evaluamos la riqueza de especies, la diversidad y el comportamiento de las hormigas que interact

  15. Sensitivity of understorey bird species in two different successional stages of the lowland Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Loures-Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest has a high destruction rate and there is little information available on some aspects of the neotropical bird biology. Changes in environment are important factors that affect the resources available to birds. We compared the species sensitivity level of understorey birds in two areas in distinct successional stages (primary and secondary sections. Two 100 ha plots of lowland Atlantic Forest were analysed between August and December 2006. Among 25 bird species recorded, thirteen had lower abundance in secondary forest, two in primary forest, and ten had not clear tendency. According to the criteria used, the percentages for species with low, and medium and high sensitivity to habitat change were 44% and 56%, respectively. The number of species was not associated with the endemism level or foraging strata. Results show the importance of knowing bird species' sensitivity level with regard to habitat modification, and not only forest fragmentation.A Floresta Atlântica apresenta uma alta taxa de destruição e pouca informação disponível de alguns aspectos da biologia da avifauna neotropical. Alterações do ambiente são fatores importantes que influenciam nos recursos disponíveis para as aves. Nós comparamos o nível de sensibilidade das espécies de aves do sub-bosque de dois trechos em diferentes estágios sucessionais (trechos de floresta primária e secundária. Dois trechos de 100 ha cada de Floresta Atlântica de baixada foram analisados entre agosto e dezembro de 2006. Entre as 25 espécies de aves analisadas, treze tiveram menor abundância no trecho de floresta secundária, duas na floresta primária, e dez não mostraram qualquer tendência. De acordo com os critérios adotados, as porcentagens de espécies que apresentaram sensibilidades baixa, e média e alta às alterações de habitat foram de 44% e 56%, respectivamente. O número de espécies afetadas não esteve associado ao grau de endemismo ou estrato de

  16. Hydrological services in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: An ecosystem-based adaptation using ecohydrological monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Taffarello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA involves using services on which human well-being depends to help people adapt to the impacts of climate change. Aiming at strengthening ecosystem resilience and reducing ecosystem and people’s vulnerability, EbA has been encouraged worldwide as an option for climate change. Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES are incentives offered to farmers and landowners to provide an ecological service and are currently proposed as a method for EbA and water resources sustainability on a global scale. However, organized information on PES in Brazil is limited. This paper provides a concise review of PES initiatives in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where various PES projects on watershed protection (Water-PES have been set up. We found 16 ongoing Water-PES in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The first initiative was launched in 2005 and since then these projects have grown rapidly. In spite of the advances made in many of these initiatives, they seldom have baseline hydrologic data and an implemented strategy for ecohydrological monitoring. Thus, we discuss how PES projects could be more effective by implementing hydrological monitoring based on ecohydrological concepts. Special attention has been given to explaining how the recent Impact-Vulnerability-Adaptation idea could be integrated into Water-PES. As can be seen from the review, these projects contribute as EbA options for climate change, thereby carrying practical implications for environmental policy makers.

  17. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DS França

    Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  18. Pressure Indicators of Wood Resource Use in an Atlantic Forest Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Patrícia Muniz; de Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; da Silva, Taline Cristina; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-03-01

    Wood resources are often used to support the needs of the local population. In order to protect biodiversity and resources, conservation strategies need to consider what types of wood use have the strongest impacts on forested areas. This study aimed to identify the use categories that put higher pressure on an Atlantic forest region located in the municipality of Igarassu in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. To conduct the study, we measured the volume of all wood products in 62 surveyed residences and registered the average replacement time for such products. The fuelwood category was most important locally and accounted for 92% of annual wood consumption. However, the construction category harvests more destructively and concentrates on the consumption of a few wood species. Therefore we recommend the fuelwood category to be the main focus of conservation effforts. In addition, the most important species for construction purposes (e.g., Eschweilera ovata (Cambess.) Miers, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel) J.F. Macbr. and Pogonophora schomburgkiana Miers ex Benth) should also be considered as a priority for conservation.

  19. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF BOWL TRAPPING BEES (HYMENOPTERA, APOIDEA IN A SOUTHERN BRAZIL FOREST FRAGMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bowl traps have gained attention as a useful method for sampling bees and are now commonly used across the world for this purpose. However, specific questions about the method itself have not yet been tested on different regions of the globe. We present the preliminary results of bowl trapping in a Semidecidual Seasonal forest fragment in southern Brazil, including the test of two different color bowls, two different habitats, and the interaction of these variables in bee species number and composition. We used blue and yellow bowls in the border and in the core trails of the forest fragment. In five sampling days between October to December bowl traps captured 745 specimens of 37 morphospecies, with Halictinae bees being the richest and most abundant group. Non parametrical statistical analyses suggested that different colors of bowl traps influenced bee richness and composition and thus, they should be used together for a more complete sampling. Different trails influenced only the composition, while the interaction with different colors did not have a significant effect. These results, as well as the higher taxonomic composition of the inventoried bees, are similar to other studies reported in the literature.

  20. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.

  1. Bird communities in three forest types in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahert W. Lobo-Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pernambuco Center of Endemism (PCE in northeastern Brazil is highly fragmented and degraded. Despite its potential conservation importance the bird fauna in this area is still relatively unknown and there are many remnant fragments that have not been systematically surveyed. Here, we report the results of bird surveys in five forest fragments (one pioneer, two ombrophilous and two seasonal. In total, 162 taxa were recorded, 12 of which are endemic to the PCE. The frequency of endangered species was lower than what has been reported in studies from the same area and most of the taxa considered to be at risk of extinction were sub-species of uncertain taxonomic validity. The comparatively low number of endemic/threatened species may be due to the small size of the fragments in the present study - a consequence of the high levels of habitat loss in this region. Analysis of species richness patterns indicates that ombrophilous forest fragments are acting as refuges for those bird species that are most sensitive to environmental degradation.

  2. A new species of Ereymatermes Constantino (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae from the northeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana M. Cancello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ereymatermes Constantino is a nasute genus endemic to the Neotropical region, which included Ereymatermes rotundiceps Constantino from the forest of the lower Japurá River, AM, Brazil, and E. panamensis Roisin from the Panama Canal area. Herein Ereymatermes piquira, a new species from the northeastern Atlantic Forest, is described and illustrated based on the soldier and worker castes. The meaning of the two types of workers ("worker with broad gap" and "worker with narrow gap" and its relation to feeding habits are discussed.Ereymatermes Constantino é um gênero endêmico da região Neotropical e continha as espécies Ereymatermes rotundiceps Constantino, descrita da floresta do baixo Rio Japurá, AM, e E. panamensis Roisin descrita da área do Canal de Panamá. Aqui, Ereymatermes piquira, uma nova espécie da Mata Atlântica do nordeste é descrita e ilustrada a partir de soldados e operários. O significado dos dois tipos de operários ("operário com intervalo amplo" e "operário com intervalo estreito" e sua relação com hábitos alimentares são discutidos.

  3. Exploitation of Erythrina dominguezii Hassl. (Fabaceaenectar by perching birds in a dry forest in western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAGUSA-NETTO J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the vertebrate pollinated plants, the genus Erythrina includes tree species in which birds are the pollen vectors. Two groups in this genus may be distinguished: a the hummingbird, and b the perching bird pollinated species. Erythrina dominguezii is included in the second group and occurs in deciduous/semi-deciduous forests in the southwestern neotropics. I studied the exploitation of Erythrina dominguezii nectar by perching birds in a dry forest in western Brazil. Six perching bird species from two distinct groups (Psittacidae: Brotogeris chiriri, Nandayus nenday, Aratinga acuticaudata; Icterinae: Psarocolius decumanus, Icterus cayanensis, I. icterus consumed its nectar. The two most important consumers were Brotogeris chiriri (51.5% of the flowers visited by birds and Psarocolius decumanus (20%. While B. chiriri was a flower predator, P. decumanus removed the nectar without damaging the flowers which it opened by inserting its large bill between the standard and the keel. Nandayus nenday, Aratinga acuticaudata, and I. icterus exploited the nectar like P. decumanus, and presumably also contributed to pollen transfer. As the flowering in E. dominguezii was intense and synchronous during the dryest period of the year, and its nectar was highly consumed by birds, the present data suggest that the nectar of this species may be important as an alternative resource to frugivorous/omnivorous birds when other resources are scarce.

  4. Exploitation of Erythrina dominguezii Hassl. (Fabaceaenectar by perching birds in a dry forest in western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. RAGUSA-NETTO

    Full Text Available Among the vertebrate pollinated plants, the genus Erythrina includes tree species in which birds are the pollen vectors. Two groups in this genus may be distinguished: a the hummingbird, and b the perching bird pollinated species. Erythrina dominguezii is included in the second group and occurs in deciduous/semi-deciduous forests in the southwestern neotropics. I studied the exploitation of Erythrina dominguezii nectar by perching birds in a dry forest in western Brazil. Six perching bird species from two distinct groups (Psittacidae: Brotogeris chiriri, Nandayus nenday, Aratinga acuticaudata; Icterinae: Psarocolius decumanus, Icterus cayanensis, I. icterus consumed its nectar. The two most important consumers were Brotogeris chiriri (51.5% of the flowers visited by birds and Psarocolius decumanus (20%. While B. chiriri was a flower predator, P. decumanus removed the nectar without damaging the flowers which it opened by inserting its large bill between the standard and the keel. Nandayus nenday, Aratinga acuticaudata, and I. icterus exploited the nectar like P. decumanus, and presumably also contributed to pollen transfer. As the flowering in E. dominguezii was intense and synchronous during the dryest period of the year, and its nectar was highly consumed by birds, the present data suggest that the nectar of this species may be important as an alternative resource to frugivorous/omnivorous birds when other resources are scarce.

  5. Phytossociology of wood community in Seasonal Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Learth Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pico do Jabre Seasonally Dry Montane Forest in Paraiba state, Brazil, the highest regional elevation, 1197 m, distant 360 km the sea was assessed aiming to survey its phytosociology and woody structure. In 36 systematic sampling plots, 10x50m, individuals, Dbh > 4.8cm, had their diameters and height measured. Botanical samples were collected during five years and vouchers were deposited at the Paraiba Federal University Herbaria (JPB. It was found 2050 trees distributed in 64 species of 51 genera of 31 families, which accounted for 1138 ind.ha-1 and 22.45 m2.ha -1. Diversity and equability were assessed as H' = 3.17 nats.ind-1 and J' = 0.76 similar to some others regional seasonally dry montane forest communities. Malpighiaceae, Myrtaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Vochysiaceae, Celastraceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae e Fabaceae-Faboideae stood out and summed 66.72% of the total VI. Byrsonima nitidifolia, Eugenia ligustrina, Calisthene microphylla, Maytenus distichophylla and Erythroxylum mucronatum species accounted for 120.79 (40.3% of the total VI. B. nitidifolia ecological dominance is firstly reported in the Brazilian northeast region.

  6. Characterization saprobic fungi on leaf litter of two species of trees in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loise Araujo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe investigated the composition and structure of fungal communities associated with leaf litter generated by Clusia nemorosa and Vismia guianensis that belong to phylogenetically-related botanical families and exist together in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in Bahia, Brazil. Samplings were conducted during wet (June 2011 and dry (January 2013 seasons in Serra da Jibóia. The fungi were isolated using particle filtration and the 1,832 isolates represented 92 taxa. The wet season yielded the largest number of isolates (1,141 and taxa (76 compared with the dry season (641 isolates and 37 taxa. The richness and diversity of fungal species associated with C. nemorosa (64 taxa, Simpson=0.95were higher compared with those of V.guianensis (59 taxa, Simpson =0.90. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM revealed significant variations in the composition and community structure of fungi isolated from the two plants as a function of seasons. In contrast, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis show that the seasonality was an important influence on the distribution of fungal species. However, the populations of the saprobic fungal communities were dynamic, and several factors may influence such communities in the Atlantic Forest.

  7. The hummingbird community and their floral resources in an urban forest remnant in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The temporal and spatial resource use among hummingbirds was studied over 13 months in an urban forest remnant (Prosa State Park: PSP in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Hummingbird visitation was recorded at three ornithophilous and eleven non-ornithophilous species. Flower density was roughly constant during the study period, with the density of non-ornithophilous flowers being higher than that of ornithophilous ones. Mean values of nectar volume and concentration were similar between ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous species. Eight hummingbird species were observed at PSP: Amazilia fimbriata, Anthracothorax nigricollis, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura, Hylocharis chrysura, Florisuga fusca, Thalurania furcata and an unidentified species. Hummingbird visit frequencies to ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous flowers were similar. However, some non-ornithophilous species received a higher number of visits, which seems to be related to their large number of open flowers per plant per day. The number of feedings bouts of hummingbirds increased with the total number of flowers observed per focal plant. All recorded species of hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous flowers, predominantly melittophilous and generalised entomophilous flowers. Hummingbird species recorded at PSP may be viewed as generalists, visiting a large number of non-ornithophilous species. Despite being an urban forest, PSP is relatively rich in hummingbird species, suggesting that it provides important shelter and foraging sites for hummingbirds in such an environment.

  8. Butyltin speciation in sediments from Todos os Santos Bay (Bahia, Brazil by GC-PFPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Feitosa Felizzola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyltin compounds were investigated in surface sediments from 17 stations in Todos os Santos Bay. Analytical conditions for organotin determination in marine sediments were optimized for GC with pulsed flame photometric detection. Detection limits were: 5.4 µg kg-1 for TBT; 0.2 µg kg-1 for DBT; and 2.1 µg kg-1 for MBT, using a 610-nm filter. In general, TBT concentrations were low and in the range of

  9. Biology and phenology of three leaf beetle species (Chrysomelidae) in a montane forest in southeast Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinte, Vivian; Hentz, Ethel; Morgado, Barbara Mascarenhas; Lima, Anne Caruliny do Monte; Khattar, Gabriel; Monteiro, Ricardo Ferreira; de Macedo, Margarete Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The population phenology of the cassidines, Coptocycla arcuata and Omaspides trichroa, and the chrysomeline, Platyphora axillaris, was studied at Serra dos Órgãos National Park, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Monthly surveys of larvae and adults were conducted between 2008 and 2011 at approximately 1000 m altitude on their respective host plants, Cordia polycephala (Boraginaceae), Ipomoea philomega (Convolvulaceae) and Solanum scuticum (Solanaceae). This is the first observation of larviparity and host record for Platyphora axillaris. Although having different life history traits, all species showed similar phenologies. They were abundant from October to March, months of high temperatures and intense rainfall, with two distinct reproductive peaks in the same season. Abundance dropped abruptly during the coldest and driest months, from May to August. Frequently none of these species were recorded during June and July. This phenological pattern is similar to other Chrysomelidae living in subtropical areas of Brazil. Temperature and rainfall appear to be the major factors influencing the fluctuation of these three species. PMID:26798318

  10. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-10-01

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Decentralization Leading to "Real" Decision-Making Power for Forest-dependent Communities? Case Studies from Mexico and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem F. Hajjar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization of forest governance has been promoted as a way to conserve forests more effectively, while also improving rural and forest-dependent livelihoods. Prior to assessing the consequences of this decentralization trend, there is a need to critically examine the degree to which decentralization of forest management decision making is actually happening. In particular, it is unclear whether communities are securing legal authority and/or decision-making power over the forests on which they depend. This study uses case studies of community forestry in Brazil and Mexico to examine the amount of decision-making power communities and smallholders have received over forest resources. A framework for assessment is developed that identifies criteria of relevance to community members' rights and day-to-day activities. We found that in both countries the government maintains significant control over forest resources through heavy regulation of extraction, but that communities have increasing control over day-to-day forest management decisions. We conclude by posing questions on the appropriate levels of decentralization for optimal outcomes.

  12. Phenological synchrony and seasonality of understory Rubiaceae in the Atlantic Forest, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Scarpati Liuth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests with low seasonality, climatic variables generally exert a weak influence on the phenology of species. The seasonality of phenophases in closely related taxa can be controlled by phylogenetic constraints in such environments. In this study, our aim was to describe the phenology of Rubiaceae in the understory of the Atlantic Forest in the southern part of Bahia, Brazil, as well as to evaluate the seasonality and phenological synchrony of this family. For two years, we observed 90 individuals belonging to 13 species, in an area of 0.2 ha. Leaf flushing and leaf fall did not demonstrate any seasonality, were continuous for most species and correlated with few of the climatic variables. Flowering was seasonal and correlated positively with all climatic variables. Species exhibited seasonality for this phenophase with high flowering overlap among species of Psychotria, indicating an aggregated pattern for this genus. Fruiting was also seasonal and correlated with all the climatic variables, unripe fruit development peaking at the beginning of the season during which humidity is highest and fruit ripening peaking in the season during which humidity is slightly lower. The vegetative and flowering patterns observed in the study area are commonly seen in other tropical forests. The reproductive seasonality of this family can facilitate the attraction of biotic agents, as postulated in the facilitation hypothesis. Our results demonstrate that climatic variables influenced the phenological patterns observed here, although the high reproductive seasonality and interspecific synchrony, especially in congeneric species, raises the possibility that phylogenetic proximity plays a role in the pattern of the family Rubiaceae.

  13. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PM. Andrade

    Full Text Available Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19° 58’-59’ S and 43° 52’-55’ W, 800-1100 m altitude, in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  14. Foliar growth of Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae) in a forest fragment in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P M; Santos, F A M; Martins, F R

    2008-02-01

    Eriocnema fulva Naudin is an endangered herbaceous, perennial, iteroparous, evergreen species geographically restricted to southeastern-center Minas Gerais State, SE Brazil. The individuals occur as patches on rocky riverbanks shaded by seasonal semideciduous Atlantic forest; they are fixed by roots and have a pending stem. Aiming to investigate leaf development and its importance for individual survival, fifteen contiguous plots (1 x 1 m) were set down in Jambreiro Forest (19 degrees 58'-59' S and 43 degrees 52'-55' W, 800-1100 m altitude), in the municipality of Nova Lima. A total of 260 individuals with the largest leaf blade length > or = 1 cm was tagged and measured in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Leaf expansion was recorded each month during 26 months until April 2000. Plant size was measured through leaf blade length, petiole length, stem length, and number of leaves. Significant changes were detected only after two years, thus indicating that plant growth is slow. The proportion of surviving leaves after two years was 60%. Total blade expansion took over 14 months, a slow growth rate when compared to leaves of other tropical forest canopy and understory species. Long leaf lifespans are to be found in plants exhibiting slow growth, and we observed that some leaves lived longer than three years. Petiole growth can help to better position the leaf in the search for light, thus contributing to the growth and survival of the plant. The relationships among size measures were significant, reinforcing the great contribution of leaf size for plant size. The age of the largest individual was estimated as 36 years based on the median annual leaf production rate.

  15. Detectando Earnings management no Brasil: estimando os accruals discricionários Detecting Earnings management in Brazil: estimating discretionary accruals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lopo Martinez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os modelos clássicos existentes na literatura acadêmica internacional para estimar os accruals discricionários, que são uma proxy empírica para detectar Earnings Manangement. Adicionalmente, evidencia que as Cias. Brasileiras "gerenciam" os seus resultados contábeis como resposta a estímulos do mercado de capitais. O primeiro passo é elucidar o significado de alguns conceitos relevantes tais como: accruals totais e accruals discricionários. Posteriormente, após uma análise crítica dos principais modelos de accruals agregados, implementar no contexto de empresas brasileiras, o modelo Kang e Silvaramakrishnan (1995, diagnosticado como o tecnicamente mais acurado para o Brasil. Para atestar a validade do modelo aplicado, investigamse circunstâncias em que o incentivo para gerenciamento de resultados é particularmente forte. Os resultados corroboram as hipóteses de gerenciamento de resultados para: a Evitar reportar perdas; b Sustentar o desempenho recente e c Piorar o resultado presente em prol de resultados futuros (take a bath.This paper analyzes classic models used in international academic literature to estimate discretionary accruals, which are an empirical proxy to detect earnings management. Additionally, it provides evidence that Brazilian public companies practice earnings management in response to capital market incentives. Initially, some important concepts are clarified, such as accruals and discretionary accruals. After a critical analysis of the main accruals model, the Kang & Silvaramakrishnan model (1995 was implemented in the context of Brazilian companies, which is technically considered the most accurate model for Brazil. To check the robustness of the model, circumstances were investigated where there were strong incentives to practice earnings management. The results confirm the earnings management hypothesis. Evidences were documented that Brazilian public companies manage their earnings to

  16. Cryptic diversity in an Atlantic Forest malaria vector from the mountains of South-East Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Dias, Guilherme; Fujii, Thais Tenorio Soares; Fogel, Bernardo Fernandes; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Silva-do-Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes; Pitaluga, André Nóbrega; Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José; Carvalho, Antonio Bernardo; Peixoto, Alexandre Afrânio; Rona, Luísa Damazio Pitaluga

    2018-01-15

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is the primary vector of human and simian malarias in Brazilian regions covered by the Atlantic Rainforest. Previous studies found that An. cruzii presents high levels of behavioural, chromosomal and molecular polymorphisms, which led to the hypothesis that it may be a complex of cryptic species. Here, An. cruzii specimens were collected in five sites in South-East Brazil located at different altitudes on the inner and coastal slopes of two mountain ranges covered by Atlantic Rainforest, known as Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueria. Partial sequences for two genes (Clock and cpr) were generated and compared with previously published sequences from Florianópolis (southern Brazil). Genetic diversity was analysed with estimates of population structure (F ST ) and haplotype phylogenetic trees in order to understand how many species of the complex may occur in this biome and how populations across the species distribution are related. The sequences from specimens collected at sites located on the lower coastal slopes of Serra do Mar (Guapimirim, Tinguá and Sana) clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis, while the major haplotypes from sites located on higher altitude and at the continental side of the same mountains (Bocaina) clustered with those from Serra da Mantiqueira (Itatiaia), an inner mountain range. These two An. cruzii lineages showed statistically significant genetic differentiation and fixed characters, and have high F ST values typical of between species comparisons. Finally, in Bocaina, where the two lineages occur in sympatry, we found deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium due to a deficit of heterozygotes, indicating partial reproductive isolation. These results strongly suggest that at least two distinct lineages of An. cruzii (provisorily named "Group 1" and "Group 2") occur in the mountains of South-East Brazil. At least two genetically distinct An. cruzii lineages occur in the Atlantic Forest covered

  17. Trace elements in muscle of three fish species from Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, William Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an analysis was performed on the concentrations of the trace elements Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in muscle of two carnivorous and one planktivorous fish species collected at Todos os Santos Bay (BTS). The accumulation order of the trace elements in Lutjanus analis was Al >Zn >Fe >Cr >Ba >Ni. In Cetengraulis edentulus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >As. In the species Diapterus rhombeus, the order was Al >Fe >Zn >Cr >Ni >Mn >Cd. To determine the risk related to the consumption of fish, toxicity guidelines were used as standard references. It was observed that the species C. edentulus contained concentrations of As exceeding WHO limits, but these concentrations were acceptable according to the Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) guidelines. Cd levels were found only in D. rhombeus and in low concentrations according to the determinations of WHO and ANVISA. Pb levels were not detected in any of the three fish species. The analyzed elements did not differ statistically according to the species and feeding habits. The results point to possible risks of human contamination by As related to the consumption of the fish species C. edentulus from the BTS.

  18. Diversity, composition and phenology of araneid orb-weavers (Araneae, Araneidae associated with riparian forests in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton N. L. Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Araneidae is a speciose family including web-spinning spiders that are very abundant in various terrestrial ecosystems. Several studies demonstrate that changes in vegetation surrounding rivers, streams and brooks affect the associated araneofauna. The aim of this research was to compare differences found in diversity (abundance and richness, composition and phenology of Araneidae spiders sampled in different habitats in four riparian forest catchments in southern Brazil. Samples were taken from riparian forests in four rivers of Rio Grande do Sul State: Piratini, Camaquã, Sinos and Maquiné rivers, each in a different hydrographic basin. Samples were taken twice seasonally on each basin during two years, sampling the araneofauna of the tree-shrub strata with beating tray. Six transects were employed on each basin, two per habitat: edge with grassland, forest interior and river edge. Araneids totalled 20 genera and 65 species. Comparing riparian forests significant differences are found. Spider abundance differed among riparian forests as well as species richness. Overall, Piratini river riparian forest had the higher abundance and richness for Araneidae; the lower values were in Sinos river forest. The stronger degradation and fragmentation of the riparian forests of Sinos river probably influenced the results, with human disturbance gradients associated negatively to web building. We present data on the diversity of these spiders, which were very abundant in the riparian forest interior and very rich in species in the grassland/riparian forest edge. Species composition also differs among the studied habitats (the above plus river/riparian forest edge. For the most abundant species the phenological pattern across the seasons was also analysed.

  19. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  20. Analysis of floristic composition and structure as an aid to monitoring protected areas of dense rain forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso-Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To study forest composition and structure, as well as to facilitate management plans and monitoring programs, we conducted a phytosociological survey in the PE Caverna do Diabo State Park and the Quilombos do Médio Ribeira Environmentally Protected Area, both located within the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed 20 plots of 400 m² each, including only individuals with a circumference at breast height > 15 cm. We employed cluster analysis and ordination (principal component analysis and correspondence analysis, including species data and abiotic data. We evaluated 1051 individuals, belonging to 155 species in 48 families. Of those 155, 18 were threatened species, 33 were endemic species, and 92 (59.4% were secondary species. The overall Shannon index was 4.524, one of the highest recorded for a dense rainforest in southeastern Brazil. We found that our sample plots fell into three blocks. The first was forest in which there had been human disturbance, showing low species richness, minimal density, and a small relative quantity of biomass. The second was undisturbed mature forest, showing a comparatively larger quantity of biomass. The third was mature forest in which there had been natural intermediate disturbance (dead trees, showing higher species richness and greater density. We identified various groups of species that could be used in monitoring these distinct forest conditions.

  1. Insect gall occurrence in savanna and forest remnant sites of Hidrolândia, GO, Brazil Central

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elienai Cândida e; Santos, Benedito Baptista dos; Araújo, Walter Santos de

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this study we perform an inventory of the insect galls in savanna and forest sites of Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil. We found 150 insect gall morphotypes, distributed on 39 botanical families and 104 plant species. Among the insect galls, 81 gall morphotypes were recorded in the savanna site and 73 in the forest site. The plant taxa richest in insect galls were the family Fabaceae with 22 gall morphotypes, the genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) with 15, and the species Siparuna guianensis (Si...

  2. A new species of laelapine mite (Acari: Parasitiformes: Laelapidae) associated with Proechimys dimidiatus in the Atlantic forests of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettinger, Donald; Bergallo, Helena Godoy

    2003-08-01

    Tur megistoproctus, a new species of Laelapinae, is described from the pelage of the echimyid rodent Proechimys dimidiatus from the Atlantic forests of Ilha Grande, south of Rio de Janeiro. Measurements and illustrations are included for females and males. Another laelapine mite species, Tur turki Fonseca, co-occurred with T. megistoproctus in our studies and was recorded from the same host individuals and localities. These 2 laelapine mite species appear to be exclusively associated with a complex of echimyid rodent species (subgenus Trinomys) in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil.

  3. The charcoal of Carajas: A threat to the forests of Brazil's eastern Amazon region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (BR))

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the risk of deterioration of forests in the Amazonian region, following the planning and construction of a series of pig-iron smelters in the Grande Carajas region of Brazil. The demand for wood as raw material for charcoal production will be far greater than what is possible to harvest from the forestry management plans. Silviculture plantations give a rather high price for wood, why there is prudent to anticipate that most of the charcoal is likely to come from cutting native forest as long as they exist. (U.W.).

  4. Responses of Euglossine Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina) to an Edge-Forest Gradient in a Large Tabuleiro Forest Remnant in Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswosk, J A; Ferreira, R A; Soares, E D G; Faria, L R R

    2017-05-24

    Euglossine fauna of a large remnant of Brazilian Atlantic forest in eastern Brazil (Reserva Natural Vale) was assessed along an edge-forest gradient towards the interior of the fragment. To test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages of orchid bees varies along this gradient, the following predictions were evaluated: (i) species richness is positively related to distance from the forest edge, (ii) species diversity is positively related to distance from the edge, (iii) the relative abundance of species associated with forest edge and/or open areas is inversely related to the distance from edge, and (iv) relative abundance of forest-related species is positively related to distance from the edge. A total of 2264 bees of 25 species was assessed at five distances from the edge: 0 m (the edge itself), 100 m, 500 m, 1000 m and 1500 m. Data suggested the existence of an edge-interior gradient for euglossine bees regarding species diversity and composition (considering the relative abundance of edge and forest-related species as a proxy for species composition) but not species richness.

  5. Richness of ferns and lycophytes in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Lehn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the floristic survey of ferns and lycophytes occurring in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the study area, 29 species and 2 varieties were recorded. Dryopteridaceae and Pteridaceae were the richest families (8 and 5 species, respectively and Elaphoglossum and Blechnum were the richest genera (3 species each one. Preferably, the listed species occur within the forest (68%, they occupy the terrestrial substrate (77.4%, and they are hemicryptophyte (77.4% and rosulate (64.5%. We observed four species still not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul, which are Blechnum lanceola L., Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée T. Moore, Lindsaea lancea (L. Bedd var lancea, and Mickelia nicotianifolia (Sw. R. C. Moran et al., which has its southern limit of distribution in Brazil, in the study area.

  6. A new species of the highland frog genus Holoaden (Amphibia, Strabomantidae) from cloud forests of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Itamar A; Zaher, Hussam

    2013-01-04

    A new species of the genus Holoaden is described from the Atlantic forest of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, being restricted to primary or slightly disturbed high altitude cloud forests along the northeastern portion of the Serra do Mar. The typelocality is determined as Estação Ecológica de Bananal, in the Municipality of Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its moderate body size (female 42.6-44.2 mm SVL; male 37.2-38.5 mm SVL) with long and slender limbs, a head wider than long, a highly glandular dorsum, covered by well developed macroglands that extend to the internasal region, thigh and tibia, and an intense dark brown dorsal coloration and dark grey ventral surface.

  7. High occurrence of Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica spurious infection in a village in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora do Rocio Klisiowicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals.

  8. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned Durante la sucesión secundaria forestal, el flujo de nutrientes en la hojarasca se incrementa significativamente. Los altos ingresos de materia orgánica y nutrientes a través de la hojarasca afecta positivamente la fertilidad del suelo y la composición de especies, las cuales son componentes esenciales para programas de restauración forestal y de manejo. En el presente estudio, el ingreso de nutrientes a través de la hojarasca y sus componentes fueron estimados para dos sitios de una selva lluviosa atlántica aluvial en sucesión temprana. La cantidad anual de elementos que ingresan al suelo desde la vegetación más desarrollada (sitios con alta área basal y abundancia de árboles fueron (en kg/ha: 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu y 11.2 Al. Menos de la mitad de esas cantidades fueron aportadas por la vegetación menos desarrollada, excepto para el Al. La cantidad de Al aportada a este sitio fue similar a la contribución de la vegetación más desarrollada, debido a la contribución de: Tibouchina pulchra (82% de todo el Al aportado. La eficiencia en el uso de nutrientes de la hojarasca

  9. Assesment of soil erosion by 137Cs technique in native forests in Londrina City, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avacir Casanova Andrello

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the soil erosion process in native forest by the 137Cs methodology. The mass balance model was applied to assess the rates of soil loss in three native forests around of Londrina city, Paraná, Brazil. 137Cs distribution depth was of exponential type for the three forests and 137Cs inventory was 241 Bq m-2 for Mata 1, 338 Bq m-2 for Mata 2 and 325 Bq m-2 for Mata UEL. The soil loss value calculated for three native forests was: 6,684 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mata 1, 1,788 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mata 2 and 4,524 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mata UEL.O processo de erosão de solo em floresta nativa tem sido pouco investigado. Como a metodologia do césio-137 dá resultados tanto de taxas de erosão de solo como a bioturbação no perfil de solo, ele tem sido usado para avaliar o processo de erosão de solo nestes ecossistemas. O modelo de balanço de massa foi aplicado para avaliar as taxas de perdas de solo em três florestas nativas na região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A distribuição em profundidade do césio-137 para as três florestas é do tipo exponencial. O inventário de césio-137 foi de 241 Bq m-2 para Mata 1, 338 Bq m-2 para Mata 2 e 325 Bq m-2 para Mata UEL.O valor de perda de solo calculado para Mata 1 foi 6,684 kg ha-1 yr-1, 1,788 kg ha-1 yr-1 para Mata 2 e 4,524 kg ha-1 yr-1 para Mata UEL.

  10. TREE STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF AN AREA OF MIXED RAIN FOREST IN CAMPO BELO DO SUL, SC, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Formento

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the arboreal structure of a Mixed Rain Forest was assessed in the period 1992-2003. The area belongs to the “Florestal Gateados company”, located in Campo Belo do Su county, in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil. The surwey was carried out in 16 sample units of 10 x 60 m (600 m², where all individuals with DAP > 10 cm Were registered, measured and identified. After the analysis, it could be concluded that: Lithraea brasiliensis was the most representative specie in the structure of the forest in both analised periods, and this was related to the high values of density, dominance, frequency, besides the distribution in all forest layers. The most important species, which increased their participation in the composition and structure were, Ocotea pulchella, Matayba elaeagnoides, Clethra scabra, Clethra uleana, Sebastiana commersoniana and Araucaria angustifolia; The species which decreased in their importância in the forest structure were, Myrsine coriacea Nectandra grandiflora Capsicodendron dinissi, Ilex theezans,Ilex dumosa and Xylosma ciliatifolium. The distribuition of the trees in the forest layers changed from increasing distribution in 1992 to uniformity in 2003, enhancing the increases in density of trees of the lower layer; the forest is in a successional process, indicated particularly by the dinamycs of the structure of the lower forest layers.

  11. Diversity and distribution of the bryophyte flora in montane forests in the Chapada Diamantina region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia de Brito Valente

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes constitute an important component of tropical rain forests, which provide microhabitats favorable for their establishment. Bryophytes are also quite responsive to changes in microclimate, which makes them good bioindicators. This study aimed to determine the diversity and distribution of bryophytes in upper and lower montane forests of the Chapada Diamantina region of the state of Bahia, Brazil. To that end, we studied community aspects such as richness, diversity, substrates colonized, life forms and floristic similarity between areas and regions. In 2007 and 2008, we collected specimens from six forest sites, located from the north to the south of the Chapada Diamantina region. We identified a total of 205 infrageneric taxa. In comparison with the lower montane forests, the upper montane forests presented higher diversity and species richness, as well as greater numbers of substrates colonized, life form types, species of restricted geographic distribution and species typical of shaded areas. We also found low similarity in the species composition, the populations of the upper and lower montane forests forming two large and distinct groups. Although presenting relatively high floristic homogeneity among themselves, the Chapada Diamantina areas presented little similarity with those of the Atlantic Forest. This can be explained by the differences between the two regions in terms of environmental conditions, precipitation, seasonality, elevation and continentality.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues Eliana; Domingues Marcus; Garcia Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoologi...

  13. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830) feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa-Netto,J.

    2015-01-01

    Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil), and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food ...

  14. Ichthyofauna in an estuary of the Mataripe area, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Ferraz Dias

    2011-03-01

    rede-de-abalo em cinco períodos: agosto e dezembro de 2003, março e julho/agosto de 2004 e em janeiro de 2005. Foi verificada a ocorrência de 35 espécies de actinopterígios e uma de elasmobrânquio, sendo que Oligoplites saurus, Diapterus rhombeus, Lutjanus synagris e Scomberomorus brasiliensis ocorreram em todas as campanhas. Um total de 1368 espécimes, pesando 36,10 kg, foram capturados. A biomassa total da ictiofauna foi maior no lado leste da região estudada, especialmente nas estações próximas de coroas/recifes e fundos consolidados. Um padrão similar foi também observado para os valores de diversidade. De maneira geral, baixa equitatividade e diversidade foram observadas na área de estudo, possivelmente como o resultado da rede utilizada. Ocorreu a dominância de formas juvenis de Diapterus rhombeus em todas as campanhas exceto uma (julho de 2004, quando Cyclichthys spinosus foi a espécie dominante. Embora em pequeno número, a presença de carangídeos e espécies associadas a fundos consolidados foi observada durante todo o período de estudo. Apesar das limitações impostas pelo aparelho de coleta, o papel da região estuarina sob a influência da RLAM, durante os períodos amostrados, foi classificado como área de crescimento para a maioria das espécies, principalmente a carapeba (D. rhombeus, não oferecendo potencial pesqueiro, dada a ocorrência de indivíduos jovens e de pequeno porte. Evidência de desova iminente foi relatada para Pomadasys corvinaeformis em agosto de 2003, e de desova recente em março de 2004 para Oligoplites saurus, somando-se a indivíduos maduros ocorrendo em números não-representativos para uma avaliação em nível populacional.

  15. Near-field emission profiling of tropical forest and Cerrado fires in Brazil during SAMBBA 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Hodgson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We profile trace gas and particulate emissions from near-field airborne measurements of discrete smoke plumes in Brazil during the 2012 biomass burning season. The South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA Project conducted during September and October 2012 sampled across two distinct fire regimes prevalent in the Amazon Basin. Combined measurements from a Compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 are reported for the first time in a tropical biomass burning environment. Emissions from a mostly smouldering tropical forest wildfire in Rondônia state and numerous smaller flaming Cerrado fires in Tocantins state are presented. While the Cerrado fires appear to be representative of typical fire conditions in the existing literature, the tropical forest wildfire likely represents a more extreme example of biomass burning with a bias towards mostly smouldering emissions. We determined fire-integrated modified combustion efficiencies, emission ratios and emission factors for trace gas and particulate components for these two fire types, alongside aerosol microphysical properties. Seven times more black carbon was emitted from the Cerrado fires per unit of fuel combustion (EFBC of 0.13 ± 0.04 g kg−1 compared to the tropical forest fire (EFBC of 0.019 ± 0.006 g kg−1, and more than 6 times the amount of organic aerosol was emitted from the tropical forest fire per unit of fuel combustion (EFOM of 8.00 ± 2.53 g kg−1, EFOC of 5.00 ± 1.58 g kg−1 compared to the Cerrado fires (EFOM of 1.31 ± 0.42 g kg−1, EFOC of 0.82 ± 0.26 g kg−1. Particulate-phase species emitted from the fires sampled are generally lower than those reported in previous studies and in emission inventories, which is likely a combination of differences in fire combustion efficiency and fuel mixture, along with different measurement techniques. Previous

  16. Vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment in Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Elyta Vilhalba Azeredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to conduct a floristic and phytosociological survey, as well as analyze the spatial distribution of the vascular epiphytic component in an urban forest fragment belonging to the submontane dense ombrophilous forest in the town of Criciuma, Santa Catarina, Brazil. In addition, information on the ecological groups of epiphytic species and the strategies for pollination and dispersal were also presented. One sampled 60 trees as phorophytes with DBH ≥ 10 cm, through the point-centered quarter method, and the expeditious walking method was used for recording the epiphytic species which weren’t sampled in the phorophytes through the phytosociological method. The frequency was evaluated having the occurrence of epiphytes in the phorophytes and the segments on the bole and crown as a basis. One recorded the presence of epiphytes in the phorophytes in the segments on the bole and crown. One found 65 species distributed into 39 genera and 14 families, out of which 49 were sampled in the phytosociological survey and the remaining ones in the walking survey. Bromeliaceae showed the highest richness, followed by Orchidaceae, and Cactaceae. Tillandsia recurvata (L. L. was firstly mentioned in the southern state. The specific diversity was estimated as H’ = 3.33 and evenness (E was equal to 0.86. The ecological group of holoepiphytes was the most representative one in the area under study. Entomophily and anemochory were the prevailing strategies for pollination and dispersal, respectively. In the phytosociological survey, the number of epiphytic species in the phorophytes ranged from 0 to 21. The highest importance values were those related to Rhipsalis teres (Vell. Steud. and Microgramma vacciniifolia (Langsd. & Fisch. Copel.

  17. Bird species diversity in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil is not explained by the Mid-domain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is an excellent case study for the elevational diversity of birds, and some inventories along elevational gradients have been carried out in Brazil. Since none of these studies explain the patterns of species richness with elevation, we herein review all Brazilian studies on bird elevational diversity, and test a geometric constraint null model that predicts a unimodal species-altitude curve, the Mid-domain Effect (MDE. We searched for bird inventories in the literature and also analysed our own survey data using limited-radius point counts along an 800 m elevational gradient in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We found 10 investigations of elevational diversity of Atlantic Forest birds and identified five different elevational patterns: monotonic decreasing diversity, constant at low elevations, constant at low elevations but increasing towards the middle, and two undescribed patterns for Atlantic Forest birds, trough-shaped and increasing diversity. The average MDE fit was low (r² = 0.31 and none of the MDE predictions were robust across all gradients. Those studies with good MDE model fits had obvious sampling bias. Although it has been proposed that the MDE may be positively associated with the elevational diversity of birds, it does not fit the Brazilian Atlantic Forest bird elevational diversity.

  18. Post-fire reproduction of herbs at a savanna-gallery forest boundary in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, K G; Eugênio, C U O; Franco, A C

    2017-11-01

    In Cerrado, studies of post-fire vegetation recovery show that some herbaceous species are able to flower shortly after fires. However, these were mainly short-term studies that focused on grasslands and savannas. Little is known about the effects of fire on ground layer of forests that border the savannas in Central Brazil. Thus, an accidental burning gave us the opportunity to describe the reproductive activity of the ground layer vegetation after a fire event along a savanna-forest boundary at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil. During the 16-month of the inventory, we registered 170 herbaceous species flowering or fruiting, of which 52 species (31%) may have been influenced by fire that changed their times of reproduction. In the savanna plots reproduction peaked at the end of the rainy season. Of the total number of reproducing species, 90 species occurred only in the savanna and four in the forest. Five herbs were recorded in the forest, savanna and border environments. Late dry season fire probably lead the majority of herbaceous species to have their reproduction spread throughout the study time.

  19. Post-fire reproduction of herbs at a savanna-gallery forest boundary in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Massi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Cerrado, studies of post-fire vegetation recovery show that some herbaceous species are able to flower shortly after fires. However, these were mainly short-term studies that focused on grasslands and savannas. Little is known about the effects of fire on ground layer of forests that border the savannas in Central Brazil. Thus, an accidental burning gave us the opportunity to describe the reproductive activity of the ground layer vegetation after a fire event along a savanna-forest boundary at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil. During the 16-month of the inventory, we registered 170 herbaceous species flowering or fruiting, of which 52 species (31% may have been influenced by fire that changed their times of reproduction. In the savanna plots reproduction peaked at the end of the rainy season. Of the total number of reproducing species, 90 species occurred only in the savanna and four in the forest. Five herbs were recorded in the forest, savanna and border environments. Late dry season fire probably lead the majority of herbaceous species to have their reproduction spread throughout the study time.

  20. Species composition, diversity, and vegetation structure in a gallery forest-cerrado sensu stricto transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eddie Lenza; Josias O. Santos; Leonardo Maracahipes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTWe investigated the existence of an ecotone in the species composition, diversity and vegetation structure in the transition between gallery forest and cerrado sensu strictoin central Brazil. We tested two hypotheses: 1) a ecotone can be found between gallery forest and cerrado; 2) a gradient exists in the species composition of the cerrado. We established three parallel transects of 5 m × 350 m running between gallery forest and cerrado, which were divided into subplots of 5 m × 10 m...

  1. The orchid-bee faunas (Hymenoptera: Apidae of two Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee faunas of the ‘Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil’ (8,500 ha and ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ (6,000 ha, two Atlantic Forest remnants in the southern state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, were surveyed. Seventeen chemical compounds were used as scent baits to attract orchid-bee males. Seven hundred and twelve males belonging to 20 species were actively collected with insect nets during 80 hours in February and April, 2009. Euglossa marianae Nemésio, 2011, the most sensitive orchid-bee species of the Atlantic Forest, was recorded at both preserves, though in low abundance. ‘RPPN Estação Veracel’ is the smallest forest patch where Euglossa marianae has ever been recorded.

  2. Endoparasites in domestic animals surrounding an Atlantic Forest remnant, in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Nava, Alessandra; Sousa, Amanda Oliveira de; Holsback, Luciane; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2018-02-19

    Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close contact, which facilitates the two-way flow of infectious diseases among them. We assessed endoparasites in domestic livestock from all rural properties surrounding MDSP. There were sampled 197 cattle, 37 horses, 11 sheep, 25 swine, 21 dogs, one cat and 62 groups of chickens from 10 large private properties and 75 rural settlements. Eimeria spp. was present in almost all hosts, excepted in horses, dogs and cats. Giardia cysts were present only in cattle. Nematodes were found in swine, ruminants and horses in high prevalence. Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Sarcocystis were found in dogs. Chickens were found with coccidia, Ascaridida and Capillaria spp.. These parasites can cause malnutrition and reproductive disorders for their hosts. Strategies to prevent and control the spread of endoparasites can improve wildlife, animal and human health in this area.

  3. Soil Loss Vulnerability in an Agricultural Catchment in the Atlantic Forest Biome in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gotardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates soil loss vulnerability using field samples and spatial data in a 30 km² area in the Atlantic forest biome in southern Brazil. The anthropogenic part of the landscape consists mainly of small agricultural properties. Soil loss vulnerability was calculated using adaptations of the universal soil loss equation. The results were compared to sediment data collected during field surveys. Spatial analysis was performed using a geographical information system (GIS and fine resolution data (1 m. Both field and spatial analyses produced similar results, 5.390 tons of soil loss per year using field data and 5.691 tons per year using GIS. Using soil loss and sediment data related to the Concordia River, we estimate that of all the exported sediment 25% of the lost soil reaches the river. These data are an effective source of information for municipal administrators of the region, which consists of small agricultural catchments (dominated by small properties that comprise the regional economy. A thematic map was used to determine sub-drainage priority as information for public managers.

  4. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Additional information about tick parasitism in Passeriformes birds in an Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R

    2015-11-01

    The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from crepuscular period in an Atlantic Forest area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandin, E; Santos, E B; Piovesan, M; Favretto, M A; Schneeberger, A H; Souza, V O; Muller, G A; Wagner, G

    2017-03-01

    Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.

  7. Endoparasites in domestic animals surrounding an Atlantic Forest remnant, in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close contact, which facilitates the two-way flow of infectious diseases among them. We assessed endoparasites in domestic livestock from all rural properties surrounding MDSP. There were sampled 197 cattle, 37 horses, 11 sheep, 25 swine, 21 dogs, one cat and 62 groups of chickens from 10 large private properties and 75 rural settlements. Eimeria spp. was present in almost all hosts, excepted in horses, dogs and cats. Giardia cysts were present only in cattle. Nematodes were found in swine, ruminants and horses in high prevalence. Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Sarcocystis were found in dogs. Chickens were found with coccidia, Ascaridida and Capillaria spp.. These parasites can cause malnutrition and reproductive disorders for their hosts. Strategies to prevent and control the spread of endoparasites can improve wildlife, animal and human health in this area.

  8. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  9. Small mammal populations of an agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest domain, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PS. D’Andrea

    Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.

  10. Using DNA Barcodes to Identify Road-Killed Animals in Two Atlantic Forest Nature Reserves, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica H Klippel

    Full Text Available Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus, an opossum (Didelphis aurita and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios.

  11. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  12. Euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, relative abundance, seasonal changes in the species abundance and scent association of male Euglossini collected in a semi-deciduous forest fragment in the north of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, were recorded. Euglossine males were collected twice a month, for twelve months, from 8:00 am to 3:00 pm. The scents eucalyptol, eugenol, vanillin, methyl salicylate and benzyl acetate were used as baits. A total of 434 males distributed among 3 genera and 9 species were attracted to the chemical baits. Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840 (49.8%, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (23.0% and Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982 (13.8% were dominant in number of individuals. Among the non-dominant species, Euglossa fimbriata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 was more common (9.0%, followed by E. cordata (L., 1758 (1.8%, E. truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1995 (1.4%, E. melanotricha Moure, 1967 (0.7%, E. townsendi Cockerell, 1904 (0.23% and Eufriesea auriceps Friese, 1899 (0.23%. In general, bees were more abundant in warm-wet season (September-March. Eufriesea violacea was the most seasonal species, showing activity through the warm-wet season, from October to February. Eucalyptol was the most attractive fragrance, which was responsible for 92.6% of all visits by euglossine bees.

  13. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  14. Ethnomedicinal survey of a maroon community in Brazil's Atlantic tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Bruna Farias; Voeks, Robert A; Funch, Ligia Silveira

    2016-04-02

    Considerable medicinal plant research in Brazil has focused on indigenous and mixed-race (caboclo and caiçara) communities, but relatively few studies have examined the medicinal plants and associated healing traditions of the descendants of enslaved Africans. This study surveyed the medicinal plants employed by a relatively isolated maroon community of Afro-Brazilians in the Atlantic coastal rainforests of Bahia, Brazil, a global biodiversity hotspot. The studied community is exceptional in that the residents were defacto slaves until several years ago, with no access to western medicine. We examined the following questions: 1) What medicinal plants are used in this community? 2) What are the principal taxonomic groups, life forms, source habitats, and geographical origins? 3) What species stand out as measured by use value and frequency indices? and 4) Is the community's geographical isolation and African ancestry reflected in their medicinal uses of the local flora? The study was carried out in the Quilombo Salamina Putumuju maroon community in Bahia, Brazil. Data were collected from May to October 2014 from 74 individuals (37 men and 37 women) by means of semi-structured interviews, walk in the woods, and vouchering of identified species. We used the Cultural Value Index (CV), the Relative Frequency Index (RF), and the Use Value Index (UV) to determine the importance of medicinal plant resources. Continuity of African medicinal plant uses and traditions was determined through self-reporting and comparison with previously published works. We recorded 118 medicinal plant species distributed in 100 genera and 51 families. The best represented families were: Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae. Most plant medicines were used to treat respiratory, digestive systems, genitourinary, and skin problems. The most common medicinal life form was herbs (44%), followed by trees (28%) and shrubs (18%). Native species (55%) were used somewhat more than exotic

  15. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURÍCIO B. SCHEER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed δ13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas.Muitos solos dos picos da Serra do Mar, como em muitas outras serras, apresentam horizontes hísticos espessos com elevados estoques de carbono. No entanto, a idade e constituição da matéria orgânica destes solos ainda é pouco conhecida e não se sabe se é predominantemente proveniente de comunidades de plantas do final do Pleistoceno ou do Holoceno. Este estudo foi realizado em três perfis, dois em campos altomontanos sobre Organossolos (1.335 m s.n.m e um em um colo (ponto de sela, onde a floresta altomontana sobre Gleissolos alcança seu patamar mais alto (1.325 m s.n.m. Foram realizadas análises isotópicas (δ13C da matéria orgânica de horizontes do solo para saber se plantas C3 ou C4 dominaram

  16. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are...

  17. Sustainable Forest Management and Social-Ecological Systems: An Institutional Analysis of Caatinga, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattei Faggin, Joana; Behagel, J.H.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) has globally gained support as a strategy to use and manage forest resources while maintaining forest ecosystem services. However, type, relevance, and utilisation of forest ecosystem services vary across eco-regions, countries, and policy implementation pathways.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen stock and fluxes in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil: potential impacts of climate change on biogeochemical functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Villela

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most important biomes of Brazil. Originally covering approximately 1.5 million of km², today this area has been reduced to 12% of its original size. Climate changes may alter the structure and the functioning of this tropical forest. Here we explore how increases in temperature and changes in precipitation distribution could affect dynamics of carbon and nitrogen in coastal Atlantic Forest of the southeast region of Brazil The main conclusion of this article is that the coastal Atlantic Forest has high stocks of carbon and nitrogen above ground, and especially, below ground. An increase in temperature may transform these forests from important carbon sinks to carbon sources by increasing loss of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. However, this conclusion should be viewed with caution because it is based on limited information. Therefore, more studies are urgently needed to enable us to make more accurate predictions.

  19. Structure of the tree stratum of three swamp forest communities in southern Brazil under different soil conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Carla Mancino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Restinga forests are commonly known to be plant communities rather poor in tree species. This study aimed to describe and explain the association between the floristic-structural similarities and the environmental conditions in three Swamp Restinga Forest communities in southern Brazil. In 13 plots of 100 m2 each, we sampled all individual trees (circumference at breast height >12 cm and height ≥3 m. We collected soil samples in each plot for chemical and textural analyses. Phytosociological parameters were calculated and different structural variables were compared between areas. The density of individuals did not differ between areas; however, the maximum height and abundance of species differed between the site with Histosols and the other two sites with Gleysols. Further, a canonical correspondence analysis based on a matrix of vegetation and that of environmental characteristics explained 31.5% of the total variation. The high floristic and environmental heterogeneity indicate that swamp-forests can shelter many species with low frequency. Most species were generalists that were not exclusive to this type of forest. Overall, our study showed that swamp-forests within the same region can show considerable differences in composition and structure and can include species-rich communities, mostly due to the presence of species with a broader distribution in the Atlantic Rainforest domain on sites with less stressful environmental conditions and without waterlogged conditions.

  20. Distribution and conservation of three important bird groups of the Atlantic Forest in north-east Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pernambuco Endemism Center in north-east Brazil has the most fragmented forest cover and the largest number of threatened birds of the whole Atlantic Forest. We analyzed the distribution of three groups of bird species: forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened using the interpolation method of Inverse Distance Weighting. We also checked the concentration of these birds in protected and unprotected areas, suggesting new sites that need to be protected. The richness concentration of forest-dependent, endemic and/or threatened birds in 123 sites were analysed. There was a greater concentration of the three groups in north Alagoas, south and north Pernambuco, and north and west Paraíba. The distribution of the three groups was almost regular in different vegetation types, although a lower concentration was found in the pioneer formation. There was a greater concentration of birds from all three groups between Pernambuco and Alagoas, and this must be due to the presence of more forest fragments with better structure and vegetation heterogeneity. The protected and unprotected areas hosted important records of endemic and/or threatened birds. We suggested some important places for implementation of new protected areas due to the larger concentrations of the target birds and because they are located within the boundaries of the Important Bird Areas.

  1. Bryophytes in fragments of Terra Firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, A C C; Ilkiu-Borges, A L; Tavares-Martins, A C C; Garcia, E T

    2015-08-01

    Microclimatic conditions of tropical forest favour the high richness of bryophytes, which by being sensitive to environmental changes, are important indicators of habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the richness and species composition of the bryophyte flora in fragments of terra firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil. The collections were made in August and September 2012 in 14 fragments, in which were installed two plots per fragment, one at the edge and one inside, measuring 10 × 10 m each. The results showed 77 species in 45 genera and 18 families. Lejeunea setiloba Spruce and Marchesinia brachiata (Sw.) Schiffn. are new records for Pará state. The richness families in this study were the ones typically found in tropical forest surveys. A high richness of rare species in comparison to common ones, a pattern usually observed for plants in tropical forests was not reported in this study, probably due to historical fragmentation and disturbance in the area. The richness and species composition were determined mainly by the physiognomic characteristics of the studied forest fragments.

  2. Evaluating the nodulation status of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Sergio M; Diedhiou, Abdala G; de Lima, Haroldo C; Ribeiro, Robson D; Galiana, Antoine; Castilho, Alexandre F; Henriques, João C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous leguminous species are used or have potential uses for timber production, pharmacological products, or land reclamation. Through N(2)-fixation, many leguminous trees contribute to the N-balance of tropical wetlands and rainforests. Therefore, studies of the N(2)-fixation ability of leguminous species appear to be crucial for the better use and conservation of these resources. The global nodulation inventory in the Leguminosae family is constantly being enriched with new records, suggesting the existence of undiscovered nodulated species, especially in tropical natural ecosystems and other hot spots of biodiversity. In this respect, the nodulation of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Porto Trombetas (Brazil) was surveyed. Overall, 199 leguminous species from flooded and non-flooded areas, were examined for their nodulation status by combining field observations, seedling inoculations, and screening of N(2)-fixing bacterial strains from the collected nodules. The results revealed a tendency for a higher relative frequency of nodulation in the species from the flooded areas (74%) compared with those from the non-flooded areas (67%). Nodulation was observed in the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae, with 25, 88, and 84% of the examined species in each subfamily, respectively. Of the 137 nodulated leguminous species, 32 including three Caesalpinoideae, 19 Mimosoideae, and 10 Papilionoideae are new records. One new nodulated genus (Cymbosema) was found in the Papilionoideae. Twelve non-nodulating leguminous species were also observed for the first time. The results are discussed based on the systematics of the Leguminosae family and the influence of available nutrients to the legume-bacteria symbiosis.

  3. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amom Mendes Luiz

    Full Text Available Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals, museum specimens (N = 9,730 and literature records (N = 4,763. Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%, as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%. However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%. Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for

  4. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Leão-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorphological factors are more important in structuring anuran beta diversity than climatic and spatial factors. We obtained species composition via field survey (N = 766 individuals), museum specimens (N = 9,730) and literature records (N = 4,763). Sampling area was divided in four spatially explicit geomorphological units, representing historical predictors. Climatic descriptors were represented by the first two axis of a Principal Component Analysis. Spatial predictors in different spatial scales were described by Moran Eigenvector Maps. Redundancy Analysis was implemented to partition the explained variation of species composition by geomorphological, climatic and spatial predictors. Moreover, spatial autocorrelation analyses were used to test neutral theory predictions. Beta diversity was spatially structured in broader scales. Shared fraction between climatic and geomorphological variables was an important predictor of species composition (13%), as well as broad scale spatial predictors (13%). However, geomorphological variables alone were the most important predictor of beta diversity (42%). Historical factors related to geomorphology must have played a crucial role in structuring amphibian beta diversity. The complex relationships between geomorphological history and climatic gradients generated by the Serra do Mar Precambrian basements were also important. We highlight the importance of combining spatially explicit historical and contemporary predictors for understanding

  5. Sistemas agroflorestais e seus efeitos sobre os atributos químicos em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo do Cerrado piauiense Agroforestry systems and its effects on chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de F. Iwata

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, quantificar os efeitos dos Sistemas Agroflorestais com diferentes tempos de adoção e a agricultura de corte e queima sobre os atributos químicos de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo em áreas de cerrado do estado do Piauí. Em duas épocas climáticas foram estudados quatro sistemas: sistemas agroflorestais com seis e treze anos de adoção, agricultura de corte e queima e uma floresta nativa do cerrado. As amostras de solo foram coletadas em quatro profundidades para determinação dos atributos químicos. No solo sob os Sistemas Agroflorestais foram observados, em todas as camadas avaliadas, redução dos teores de Al3+ e H++Al3+ e aumento do pH, dos teores dos nutrientes e do carbono orgânico total em relação aos demais sistemas. No solo sob agricultura de corte e queima, verificou-se que apenas nas camadas superficiais a cinza depositada sobre o solo promoveu aumento dos nutrientes, exceto para o P, que foi maior em todas as camadas. Nos demais sistemas houve diminuição dos teores dos nutrientes no período chuvoso. Os sistemas agroflorestais promoveram aumento dos teores de nutrientes do solo e garantiram melhoria da qualidade química do solo em áreas de cerrado no estado do Piauí.This study aimed to quantify the effects of agroforestry systems (AFS, with different periods of adoption, and slash and burn agriculture (SB on the chemical attributes of an Ultisol in the 'Cerrado' of Piaui State, Brazil. In two distinct climatic seasons (dry and rainy four systems were studied: AFS with six (AFS6 and thirteen years (AFS13 of adoption, an area under SB and a native forest (NF, as a reference. In the AFS, in all depths, higher reduction in the Al3+ and H+ + Al3+ contents were observed as well as an increase of pH value and contents of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg and K and organic carbon in soil. In the soil under SB, only in superficial layers, the ash deposited on the soil caused an increase in contents of

  6. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  7. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B Ferreira

    Full Text Available Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i 200 m inside the forest, ii 50 m inside the forest, iii at the forest edge, and iv 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types. By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog

  8. Breeding Guild Determines Frog Distributions in Response to Edge Effects and Habitat Conversion in the Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Beard, Karen H; Crump, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the response of species with differing life-history traits to habitat edges and habitat conversion helps predict their likelihood of persistence across changing landscape. In Brazil's Atlantic Forest, we evaluated frog richness and abundance by breeding guild at four distances from the edge of a reserve: i) 200 m inside the forest, ii) 50 m inside the forest, iii) at the forest edge, and iv) 50 m inside three different converted habitats (coffee plantation, non-native Eucalyptus plantation, and abandoned pastures, hereafter matrix types). By sampling a dry and a wet season, we recorded 622 individual frogs representing 29 species, of which three were undescribed. Breeding guild (i.e. bromeliad, leaf-litter, and water-body breeders) was the most important variable explaining frog distributions in relation to edge effects and matrix types. Leaf-litter and bromeliad breeders decreased in richness and abundance from the forest interior toward the matrix habitats. Water-body breeders increased in richness toward the matrix and remained relatively stable in abundance across distances. Number of large trees (i.e. DBH > 15 cm) and bromeliads best explained frog richness and abundance across distances. Twenty species found in the interior of the forest were not found in any matrix habitat. Richness and abundance across breeding guilds were higher in the rainy season but frog distributions were similar across the four distances in the two seasons. Across matrix types, leaf-litter species primarily used Eucalyptus plantations, whereas water-body species primarily used coffee plantations. Bromeliad breeders were not found inside any matrix habitat. Our study highlights the importance of primary forest for bromeliad and leaf-litter breeders. We propose that water-body breeders use edge and matrix habitats to reach breeding habitats along the valleys. Including life-history characteristics, such as breeding guild, can improve predictions of frog distributions in

  9. Ecological and reproductive aspects of Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura: Hylidae in an ombrophilous forest area of the Atlantic Rainforest Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gomez-Mesa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Presented is the first information on the ecological and reproductive aspects of the treefrog, Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, living in ombrophilous forest areas of the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil. We recorded the species’ daily activity and over the course of a year, population density during the year, microhabitat usage, diet, and some reproductive features (quantity, diameter and mean mass of oocytes, mean reproductive effort of female. Field sampling was conducted monthly from June 2015 to July 2016. Searches for treefrogs were systematic, using visual encounter surveys along 14 plots RAPELD long term research modules established in the forest. For each captured individual, we recorded the hour, microhabitat used, and perch height. The diet of the population was ascertained based on 15 individuals collected outside the study plot areas. Treefrogs used seven different types of microhabitats in the forest but the preferred microhabitats were tree-trunks and lianas. The amount of accumulated rainfall and air temperature interacted to explain the number of A. brunoi individuals active throughout the year. The reproductive strategy for females of this comparatively large arboreal frog in the ombrophilous forest is to produce clutches with a large number (900.8 ± 358.1 of relatively small-sized eggs. We conclude that in the ombrophious forest of the Vale Natural Reserve, A. brunoi is a nocturnal arboreal treefrog active throughout the year but activity increases during the wet season as a result of increased precipitation. In the forest, treefrogs tend to perch mainly on tree-trunks and lianas about 1 m above ground, where it feeds preferably on relatively large bodied arthropod prey. When living in the ombrophilous forest of the Atlantic rainforest, A. brunoi may change some features of its ecology (e.g. marked difference in the use of bromeliads compared to when living in restinga habitats.

  10. Dipteran fauna associated with decaying organic matter in semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Neto de Sousa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran diversity was studied in four seasonal, semi-deciduous forest fragments in southern Goiás state, Brazil. Species richness of Muscidae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families was analyzed. The insects were collected each two months over the course of one year, using traps with decaying bait. The traps were kept in the field for five days each sampling period. A total of 1,956 individuals belonging to 13 families were collected. 29 species were identified belonging to the main families. Muscidae had the highest abundance, while Sarcophagidae presented the greatest number of species. We also report the occurrence of Philornis schildi (Muscidae for the first time in Brazil. These data reinforce the importance of preserving these areas, and indicate the need for new studies to improve knowledge of the biodiversity associated with these fragments. This information may also be useful in future studies regarding the impact of human activity on insect fauna associated with this environment.

  11. Applications of radon and radium isotopes to determine submarine groundwater discharge and flushing times in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatje, Vanessa; Attisano, Karina Kammer; de Souza, Marcelo Friederichs Landim; Mazzilli, Barbara; de Oliveira, Joselene; de Araújo Mora, Tamires; Burnett, William C

    2017-11-01

    Todos os Santos Bay (BTS) is the 2nd largest bay in Brazil and an important resource for the people of the State of Bahia. We made measurements of radon and radium in selected areas of the bay to evaluate if these tracers could provide estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary and BTS. We found that there were a few areas along the eastern and northeastern shorelines that displayed relatively high radon and low salinities, indicating possible sites of enhanced SGD. A time-series mooring over a tidal cycle at Marina do Bonfim showed a systematic enrichment of the short-lived radium isotopes 223 Ra and 224 Ra during the falling tide. Assuming that the elevated radium isotopes were related to SGD and using measured radium activities from a shallow well at the site, we estimated groundwater seepage at about 70 m 3 /day per unit width of shoreline. Extrapolating to an estimated total shoreline length provided a first approximation of total (fresh + saline) SGD into BTS of 300 m 3 /s, about 3 times the average river discharge into the bay. Just applying the shoreline lengths from areas identified with high radon and reduced salinity results in a lower SGD estimate of 20 m 3 /s. Flushing times of the Paraguaçu Estuary were estimated at about 3-4 days based on changing radium isotope ratios from low to high salinities. The flushing time for the entire BTS was also attempted using the same approach and resulted in a surprisingly low value of only 6-8 days. Although physical oceanographic models have proposed flushing times on the order of months, a simple tidal prism calculation provided results in the range of 4-7 days, consistent with the radium approach. Based on these initial results, we recommend a strategy for refining both SGD and flushing time estimates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  13. Hydrological Responses to Changes in the Rainfall Regime are Less Pronounced in Forested Basins: an Analysis of Southern Brazil, 1975-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, V. B. P.; Chaffe, P. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    It is unknown to what extent the hydrological responses to changes in the rainfall regime vary across forested and non-forested landscapes. Southern Brazil is approximately 570000 km² and was naturally covered mostly by tropical and subtropical forests. In the last century, a large proportion of forests were replaced by agricultural activities. The rainfall regime has also changed substantially in the last decades. The annual rainfall, number and magnitude of extreme events, and number of non-rainy days have increased in most of the area. In this study, we investigated the changes in the regime of 142 streamflow gauges and 674 rainfall gauges in Southern Brazil, from 1975 to 2010. The changes in the regime were analyzed for forested basins (i.e., with more than 50% forest coverage) and non-forested basins (i.e., with less than 20% forest coverage). The area of the river basins ranged from 100 to 60000 km². We analyzed a total of six signatures that represent the regime, including annual averages, seasonality, floods, and droughts. The statistical trends of the signatures were calculated using the Mann-Kendall test and the Sen's slope. The results showed that the majority of basins with opposing signal trends for mean annual streamflow and rainfall are non-forested basins (i.e., basins with higher anthropogenic impacts). Forested basins had a lower correlation between trends in the streamflow and rainfall trends for the seasonality and the average duration of drought events. There was a lower variability in the annual maximum 1-day streamflow trends in the forested basins. Additionally, despite a decrease in the 31-day rainfall minima and an increase in the seasonality, in forested basins the 7-day streamflow minima increases were substantially larger than in non-forested basins. In summary, the forested basins were less responsive to the changes in the precipitation 1-day maxima, seasonality, number of dry days, and 31-day minima.

  14. The Potential of Brazil's Forest Sector for Mitigating Global Warming under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, Philip M. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia INPA, Av. Andre Araujo, 1756, C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Activities in Brazil's forest sector have substantial potential for mitigating global warming as well as additional environmental and other benefits. Silvicultural plantations of different types, reduced impact logging, and deforestation avoidance all have potential mitigation roles. The magnitude of the annual emission from recent rates of deforestation in Amazonia presents an opportunity for carbon (C) benefits through reducing current rates of deforestation. Measures related to Amazonian deforestation have greater potential carbon benefits than do options such as plantation silviculture, but much depends on how benefits are calculated. Procedures are needed for assessing the environmental and social impacts of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. 55 refs.

  15. POPULATION PARAMETERS STUDY ON Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel POPULATION DYNAMIC IN A GALLERY FOREST AT ITUTINGA – MG –BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Senna Corrêa; Eduardo Van Den Berg

    2002-01-01

    It was studied the population dynamics of Xylopia brasiliensis between 1997 and 1999 in a gallery forest (Mata de Camargos) with an area of 7,5 ha in Itutinga, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The population rates were related to the density and basal area of the species and the tree community.It was found significant differences between Blocks and Sectors envolving recruitment, change in basal area, increase and decrease. It was also studied the influence of density and basal area of Xylopia bras...

  16. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Leandro Bianco de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Souhtheastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species and 50 marsupials (7 species were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5% captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  17. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Leandro Bianco; Bossi, David Eduardo Paolinetti; Linhares, Arício Xavier

    2003-12-01

    A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species) and 50 marsupials (7 species) were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5%) captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  18. Stigmaeidae mites (Acari: Raphignathoidea) from Arecaceae of the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda Filho, Geraldo P. de; Moraes, Gilberto J. de

    2003-01-01

    This work reports the Stigmaeidae mites from native plants of the family Arecaceae, in areas of Atlantic Forest in the State of São Paulo. Samplings were conducted once in each season of the year 2000 in Cananéia, Pariquera-Açu, Piracicaba and São Pedro, on nine native species of palm trees. Two new species of Stigmaeidae were found and described, Agistemus palmae n. sp. and Agistemus caissara n. sp. Based on specimens from the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, immature stages of Agistemus florid...

  19. Air contaminants and litter fall decomposition in urban forest areas: The case of São Paulo - SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamano Ferreira, Maurício; Portella Ribeiro, Andreza; Rodrigues Albuquerque, Caroline; Ferreira, Ana Paula do Nascimento Lamano; Figueira, Rubens César Lopes; Lafortezza, Raffaele

    2017-05-01

    Urban forests are usually affected by several types of atmospheric contaminants and by abnormal variations in weather conditions, thus facilitating the biotic homogenization and modification of ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling. Peri-urban forests and even natural forests that surround metropolitan areas are also subject to anthropogenic effects generated by cities, which may compromise the dynamics of these ecosystems. Hence, this study advances the hypothesis that the forests located at the margins of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, have high concentrations of atmospheric contaminants leading to adverse effects on litter fall stock. The production, stock and decomposition of litter fall in two forests were quantified. The first, known as Guarapiranga forest, lies closer to the urban area and is located within the MRSP, approximately 20km from the city center. The second, Curucutu forest, is located 70km from the urban center. This forest is situated exactly on the border of the largest continuum of vegetation of the Atlantic Forest. To verify the reach of atmospheric pollutants from the urban area, levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu) adsorbed on the litter fall deposited on the soil surface of the forests were also quantified. The stock of litter fall and the levels of heavy metals were generally higher in the Guarapiranga forest in the samples collected during the lower rainfall season (dry season). Non-metric multidimensional scaling multivariate analysis showed a clear distinction of the sample units related to the concentrations of heavy metals in each forest. A subtle difference between the units related to the dry and rainy seasons in the Curucutu forest was also noted. Multivariate Analysis of Variance revealed that both site and season of the year (dry or rainy) were important to differentiate the quantity of heavy metals in litter fall stock, although the analysis did not show the interaction between these two

  20. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Recovery, Structure, and LAI, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of the canopy and structure of secondary forests regenerating from abandoned pastures. These secondary forests are located in the...

  1. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  2. Floristic composition and structure of an upper montane cloud forest in the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountain Range of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Pompeu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the community structure of an upper montane cloud forest (elevation, 1900 m in the Serra da Mantiqueira Mountain Range, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Our objective was to determine the comparative tree species richness and floristic diversity within this forest, which is at one of the higher elevations in the range, in relation to surrounding forests that are at lower elevations, adjusting for elevational gradients. Within 15 permanent plots (40 × 10 m each, we tagged all tree individuals with a diameter at breast height > 5 cm, registering their height and diameter. To compare the study area with neighboring cloud forests, we used the Sørensen similarity coefficient and phytosociological parameters. We sampled 1250 individuals distributed among 89 species, 55 genera, and 34 families. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed no gradients related to the vegetation or soil. We found that tree species richness and diversity were high in the study area. There was structural and floristic heterogeneity among the communities evaluated, underscoring the importance of conservation of these high-elevation ecosystems, which are so unique and irreplaceable.

  3. FLORISTIC-STRUCTURAL VARIATION OF NATURAL REGENERATION ALONG DIFFERENT TOPOGRAPHIC POSITIONS OF AN ECOTONAL FOREST IN SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayane Cristina de Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on the natural regeneration of tree species communities are important for providing information on forest development capacity. This research aimed to evaluate the floristic-structural variations of the tree regenerative component along a topographic gradient in an ecotonal area between a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest and a Deciduous Seasonal Forest of Santa Catarina, Brazil. 30 sampling units of which all regenerating tree species individuals have been identified were allocated in the forest fragment. The sampling units were then distributed along a topographic gradient into lower, intermediate and upper sectors. Abundance, richness, Shannon's diversity index (H' and Pielou's evenness index (J have been determined for both the whole community as for each sector. The community floristic-structural organization was verified by the means of the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, the indicator species analysis and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA. Abundance differences among sectors were analyzed through the Kruskal-Wallis test with post hoc multiple nonparametric test while richness differences were verified through rarefaction. Regenerating individuals density in the upper sector [129 (21.300 ind.ha-1] was lower than both in the lower [401 (63.800 ind.ha-1] and intermediary [241 (36.300 ind.ha-1] sectors. There was variation in the floristic-structural composition (p < 0.001 among topographic positions; the lower sector was the most distinct one and showed the highest number of indicator species.

  4. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Fecchio, A

    2006-11-01

    Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil) by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species) to Ara chloroptera (a large one). Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits), the annual floods (fleshy fruits), and the dry season (flowers). While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  5. Effects of soil water table regime on tree community species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Silva

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of soil water table fluctuation on tree species richness and structure of alluvial forest fragments, 24 plots were allocated in a point bar forest and 30 plots in five forest fragments located in a floodplain, in the municipality of São Sebastião da Bela Vista, Southeast Brazil, totalizing 54, 10 X 20 m, plots. The information recorded in each plot were the soil water table level, diameter at breast height (dbh, total height and botanical identity off all trees with dbh > 5 cm. The water table fluctuation was assessed through 1 m deep observation wells in each plot. Correlations analysis indicated that sites with shallower water table in the flooding plains had a low number of tree species and high tree density. Although the water table in the point bar remained below the wells during the study period, low tree species richness was observed. There are other events taking place within the point bar forest that assume a high ecological importance, such as the intensive water velocity during flooding and sedimentation processes.

  6. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830 feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil, and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal. I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  7. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830) feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2015-01-01

    Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil), and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal). I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits) exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  8. Ecology of a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Hartmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the natural history and the ecology of the species that constitute a snake assemblage in the Atlantic Rainforest, at Núcleo Picinguaba, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, located on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main aspects studied were: richness, relative abundance, daily and seasonal activity, and substrate use. We also provide additional information on natural history of the snakes. A total of 282 snakes, distributed over 24 species, belonging to 16 genera and four families, has been found within the area of the Núcleo Picinguaba. Species sampled more frequently were Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu. The methods that yielded the best results were time constrained search and opportunistic encounters. Among the abiotic factors analyzed, minimum temperature, followed by the mean temperature and the rainfall are apparently the most important in determining snake abundance. Most species presented a diet concentrated on one prey category or restricted to a few kinds of food items. The large number of species that feed on frogs points out the importance of this kind of prey as an important food resource for snakes in the Atlantic Rainforest. Our results indicate that the structure of the Picinguaba snake assemblage reflects mainly the phylogenetic constraints of each of its lineages.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi obter informações sobre a história natural e a ecologia das espécies que compõem uma taxocenoses de serpentes da Mata Atlântica, no Núcleo Picinguaba do Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, localizado no litoral norte do estado no Estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Os principais aspectos estudados foram: riqueza, abundância relativa de espécies, padrões de atividade diária e sazonal, utilização do ambiente e dieta. Um total de 282 serpentes, distribuídas em 24 espécies, pertencentes a 16 gêneros e quatro famílias, foi

  9. Abundance and stratification of soil macroarthropods in a Caatinga Forest in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VFP Araújo

    Full Text Available In arid and semiarid environments, seasonality usually exerts a strong influence on the composition and dynamics of the soil community. The soil macroarthropods were studied in a Caatinga forest located in the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN Fazenda Almas, São José dos Cordeiros, Paraíba, Brazil. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons following the method proposed by the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (TSBF, with minor modifications. At each station, 15 soil blocks (20 × 20 × 30 cm: 12 L were extracted and divided into three layers: A (0-10 cm, B (10-20 cm, and C (20-30 cm. In the rainy and dry seasons 1,306 ± 543(se and 458 ± 212 ind.m-2 macroarthropods were found, respectively, with 35 and 18 respective taxa recorded. The abundance of individuals and taxa were significantly higher in the rainy season. Isoptera (57.8% was the most abundant taxon, followed by Hymenoptera: Formicidae (17.2%, Coleoptera larvae (7.3%, and Araneae (3.5%. In the rainy season, abundance in layer A (576 ± 138 ind.m-2 was significantly higher than that of layer C (117 ± 64 ind.m-2, but was not different from layer B (613 ± 480 ind.m-2. There was also no difference between the layer B and C abundances. In the dry season, abundance in layer B (232 ± 120 ind.m-2 was not significantly different compared to layer A (182 ± 129 ind.m-2, but was significantly higher than abundance in layer C (44 ± 35 ind.m-2. During the rainy season, layer A (34 taxa was significantly richer in taxa than layers B (19 taxa and C (11 taxa. On the other hand, during the dry season the richness of layers A (12 taxa and B (12 taxa was equal, but significantly higher than that of layer C (6 taxa. Richness of taxa and abundance were positively correlated with soil organic matter and negatively correlated with soil temperature. The community of soil macroarthropods in the area of Caatinga studied has taxonomic and functional structures that are

  10. Vascular species composition of a contact zone between Seasonal and Araucaria forests in Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gnigler, Luciana; Caddah, Mayara

    2015-01-01

    A floristic survey was carried out in a contact area between Araucaria Forest and Seasonal Forest areas, in the municipality of Guaraciaba, Far West of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. We provide a checklist containing 108 species and 42 plant families for the area. Families with the most encountered number of species were Myrtaceae (eight species), Solanaceae (eight), Euphorbiaceae (seven) and Poaceae (six). Two species are classified as endangered of extinction, following IUCN criteri...

  11. From Myth to Reality: The Experience of Sustainable Tourism in The Vale Encantado Community in Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Otávio Alves; Melo, Maria Emília

    2011-01-01

    Considered one of the largest urban forests in the world and the third largest in Brazil, the Tijuca Forest, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, faces the great challenge of living harmoniously and sustainably with the 46 slums located around it. One of these communities, Vale Encantado, whose occupation dates from the mid-eighteenth century, experienced the various production cycles that developed in the area, through logging, farming, livestock production, ornamental plants and black granite min...

  12. Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa-Netto,J.

    2004-01-01

    Parakeets usually forage for massive and ephemeral plant resources at forest canopies. Fruit pulp is widely cited as a major food resource for these birds, which often eat seeds and nectar. In this study, I assessed flower and fruit production at a gallery forest in the Pantanal flood plain (Brazil) in order to evaluate the relationship between food resource production and abundance of a common parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri. Also, I evaluated the relationship between food resource production a...

  13. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  14. Rickettsia rickettsii infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille 1806), in high altitude atlantic forest fragments, Ceara State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arannadia Barbosa; Duarte, Myrian Morato; da Costa Cavalcante, Robson; de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; de Lima Duré, Ana Íris; de Melo Iani, Felipe Campos; Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, Spotted Fever (SF) is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri strain Atlantic Forest. In recent years, several human cases of a milder SF have been reported from the Maciço de Baturité region of Ceará State. Previous studies in this region found R. parkeri strain Atlantic Forest to be present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale ticks. The present study isolated and identified the Rickettsia spp. present in this new endemic area in Brazil. In March 2015, R. sanguineus s.l. and A. ovale were collected in rural areas of the Maciço de Baturité region, and subjected to the isolation technique. A bacterium was isolated from one R. sanguineus s.l., which phylogenetic analysis clustered to the R. rickettsii group. In conclusion, R. rickettsii bacteria is circulating in the studied area and may in future have an impact on the clinical diagnoses and consequently cause changes in the profile of the disease in the region. In addition, we suggest the increase of epidemiological and environmental surveillance in the area, in order to prevent Brazilian Spotted Fever cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Insect gall occurrence in savanna and forest remnant sites of Hidrolândia, GO, Brazil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elienai Cândida e Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study we perform an inventory of the insect galls in savanna and forest sites of Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil. We found 150 insect gall morphotypes, distributed on 39 botanical families and 104 plant species. Among the insect galls, 81 gall morphotypes were recorded in the savanna site and 73 in the forest site. The plant taxa richest in insect galls were the family Fabaceae with 22 gall morphotypes, the genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae with 15, and the species Siparuna guianensis (Siparunaceae with seven gall morphotypes. We found gall-inducing insects belonging to orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera. The galling insects of family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera were the most common inducing 48.1% of the gall morphotypes. This is the first systematic survey of insect galls realized in the city of Hidrolândia, being this the site with the higher insect gall diversity already cataloged to the Central region of Brazil.

  16. Forest Clearing Dynamics and the Expansion of Landholdings in Apuí, a Deforestation Hotspot on Brazil's Transamazon Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel C. Carrero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a local-scale case study in the Rio Juma Settlement Project (RJSP in Apuí, a deforestation hotspot in the southern portion of Brazil's state of Amazonas. We analyze land accumulation and land use strategies of households with a view to elucidating how their strategies are shaping deforestation. More than 76% of the household sample was from southern Brazil, and around 72% of them migrated to older expansion frontiers before reaching Apuí. The percentage of properties with legal land titles was up to five times less while land accumulation was much greater than reported for other settlement projects in Brazil. Land use change followed different patterns depending on whether the lot had been obtained with 100% forest cover or with inherited land use. Regression-tree analysis showed that the size of the cattle herd and the total area of the property do not always explain the area deforested, nor is the size of the deforested area necessarily related to productive activities. Lack of income obtained from livestock indicated that at least 30% of the cases studied were related to the speculative nature of land acquisition and deforestation. Increasing consolidation of land in larger, more highly capitalized ranches indicates the potential for high rates of deforestation in the future, even when the profitability of livestock is questionable.

  17. Fitossociologia de dois trechos inundáveis de Matas de Galeria no Distrito Federal, Brasil Phytosociology of two swamped portions of gallery forests in Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestino de Souza Gomes Guarino

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As Matas de Galeria do bioma Cerrado possuem peculiaridades fisionômicas e florísticas que permitem separá-las em dois subtipos: "não-inundável", quando em solos bem drenados; e "inundável", o subtipo menos estudado, em solos mal drenados. O presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar estrutural e floristicamente dois trechos inundáveis das matas dos córregos Acampamento (15°35'S; 48°10'W e Riacho Fundo (15°55'S; 48°02'W no Distrito Federal (DF. Para isso foi alocada em cada Mata uma grade de 160×50 m (0,8 ha, composta por 40 parcelas de 10×20 m (200 m². Todos os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m da altura do solo (DAP > 3,0 cm foram amostrados, incluindo aqueles mortos ainda em pé. Foram amostrados 6.078 indivíduos, sendo 3.030 no trecho do Acampamento (33 famílias, 49 gêneros e 60 espécies e 3.048 no Riacho Fundo (30 famílias, 41 gêneros, 53 espécies. A área basal e a diversidade (H' calculada para os trechos foram de 47,96 m²/ha e 2,99 nats/ind. (Acampamento, e 41,28 m²/ha e 2,84 nats/ind. (Riacho Fundo, respectivamente. Se comparados com matas anteriormente estudadas no DF os valores de diversidade são baixos, estando na mesma magnitude indicada para as Matas de Brejo (Higrófilas do sudeste brasileiro. Os índices de similaridade indicaram alta semelhança qualitativa (Sørensen 58,0% e quantitativa (Morisita 70,6% entre os trechos estudados, embora uma classificação por TWINSPAN tenha gerado dois grupos distintos, cada qual vinculado a um dos trechos. Os resultados reforçam indicações anteriores de que as Matas de Galeria do DF, ou trechos similares destas, inundáveis ou não, possuem comunidades arbóreas particulares, as quais estão relacionadas à bacia hidrográfica na qual a Mata esta inserida e ao padrão determinante da drenagem do solo.Gallery forests in the Cerrado biome possess physiognomic and floristic peculiarities that allow its division in two subtypes: "non-swamp" located in well drained

  18. Disparidades nas filas para transplantes de órgãos nos estados brasileiros Geographic disparities in organ transplantation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marinho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos alguns aspectos dos transplantes de órgãos nas Unidades da Federação brasileira, nos anos de 2004, 2005 e 2006. Estimamos, com base em um modelo de teoria das filas, os tempos de espera para transplantes de coração, córnea, fígado, pulmão, rim, pâncreas, e transplante simultâneo de rim e pâncreas. Os resultados indicam redução na espera por alguns órgãos (córnea, e pâncreas; elevação em outros (fígado, coração, rim/pâncreas; e ligeiras flutuações, sem tendência muito definida, nos transplantes de rim e nos transplantes de pulmão ao longo do período estudado. Os estados das regiões Sul e Sudeste (com a exceção do Rio de Janeiro e Centro-oeste têm os menores tempos de espera e as maiores taxas de atendimento do país.This study focuses on organ transplantation in Brazilian States in the years 2004, 2005, and 2006. Average waiting times were estimated by queueing theory models. We found that average waiting time for transplantation decreased for cornea and pancreas, increased for liver, heart, and kidney/pancreas, and varied erratically for kidney and lung. We also detected broad disparities in waiting times between States. Mean waiting time was shortest in the States of South, Southeast, and Midwest Brazil. These same States also showed the highest transplantation rates in the country.

  19. Abundance and frugivory of the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's southern Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2006-02-01

    Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco)--the largest Ramphastidae--usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil), in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource) and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity) on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  20. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco in a gallery forest in Brazil's Southern Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco - the largest Ramphastidae - usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil, in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  1. Conversion of forest to arable land in Southern Brazil has led to an increase in dissolved silicon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, Jérémy; Ameijeiras-Mariño, Yolanda; Vanderborght, Jan; Opfergelt, Sophie; Govers, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology plays a major role in controlling biogeochemical fluxes at various scales. Among the various controlling factors of water fluxes at the hillslope or catchment scale, land use change is a direct human effect which has been relatively under-examined despite its potential important impact. The overall objective of this research is therefore to investigate how land use change can affect water fluxes and how these changes may, on their turn, affect biogeochemical fluxes, with a particular focus on silicon (Si) dynamic. We selected two small catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. The conversion of forest to arable land in the agricultural catchment is relatively recent, as deforestation started at the beginning of the 20th century. Stream, pore and groundwater were monitored, sampled and analyzed for major elements concentrations and δ18O. Preliminary results showed that deforestation and agriculture led to an increase in solute export at the catchment outlet, with for example dissolved Si (DSi) concentration and flux two times higher for the agricultural catchment. δ18O and DSi concentration data showed the importance of preferential flow in macropores in the forested catchment, probably because of the high root and low bulk densities. This led to a reduced mobilization of the pore water during rainfall event, contrarily to the agricultural catchment. As a result, there is almost no contribution of this relatively DSi-enriched pool to the river discharge in the forested environment. Those results indicate that the conversion of forest to arable land has had a significant impact on the biogeochemical fluxes, highlighted in this study with observed changes in DSi flux. Those changes could be partially attributed to changes in water fluxes and pathways.

  2. LBA-ECO CD-05 Forest Understory Fuel Loads, Paragominas, Para, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains estimates of understory fuel loads (forest litter) at six locations near Paragominas in Northeastern Amazonia. Samples were...

  3. Forest remnants enhance wild pollinator visits to cashew flowers and mitigate pollination deficit in NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Magalhães Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollination deficit could cause low yields in cashew (Anacardium occidentale and it is possible that deforestation surrounding cashew plantations may prevent effective pollinators from visiting cashew flowers and contribute to this deficit. In the present work, we investigated the proximity effect of small and large forest fragments on the abundance and flower visits by feral Apis mellifera and wild native pollinators to cashew flowers and their interactions with yield in cashew plantations. Cashew nut yield was highest when plantations bordered a small forest fragment and were close to the large forest fragment. Yield from plantations that did not border small forest fragments but were close to the large forest fragment did not differ to yield from plantations at a greater distance to the large forest fragment. Flower visits by wild native pollinators, mainly Trigona spinipes, were negatively affected by distance to the large forest remnant and their numbers were directly correlated to nut yield. The number of A. mellifera visiting cashew flowers did not change significantly with distance to forest fragments, nor was it correlated with yield. We conclude that increasing the number of wild pollinator visits may increase yield, and proximity to large forest fragments are important for this.

  4. Rotavirus morbidity and mortality in children in Brazil Morbilidad y mortalidad por rotavirus en niños en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marli Christovam Sartori

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the epidemiology of rotavirus and estimate rotavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in children OBJETIVOS: Analizar la epidemiología del rotavirus y estimar la morbilidad y la mortalidad asociadas con las infecciones por rotavirus en niños < 5 años de edad en Brasil en 2004, antes de incluir la vacuna contra el rotavirus en el Programa Nacional de Inmunizaciones (PNI. MÉTODOS: Para estimar la morbilidad por rotavirus se revisaron los estudios publicados (1999-2006 que abordaban la incidencia de diarrea aguda en niños < 5 años de edad y la frecuencia de las infecciones por rotavirus en niños con diarrea en Brasil. Los casos de diarrea se dividieron en tres categorías de gravedad según el nivel de atención que requirieron: casos leves que solo requirieron atención domiciliaria, casos moderados que requirieron la visita a un servicio ambulatorio de salud y casos graves que requirieron hospitalización. Para estimar la mortalidad por rotavirus se utilizó el número de muertes registradas por diarrea en niños de < 5 años, según el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS de Brasil, y se calculó la proporción de muertes causadas por este virus. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que las infecciones por rotavirus causan anualmente 3 525 053 casos de diarrea, 655 853 visitas a servicios ambulatorios de salud, 92 453 hospitalizaciones y 850 muertes en niños < 5 años de edad en Brasil. CONCLUSIONES: Las infecciones por rotavirus constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en Brasil.

  5. Long-term effects of oil pollution in mangrove forests (Baixada Santista, Southeast Brazil detected using a GIS-based multitemporal analysis of aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalcanti Maia Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills are potential threats to the integrity of highly productive coastal wetlands, such as mangrove forests. In October 1983, a mangrove area of nearly 300 ha located on the southeastern coast of Brazil was impacted by a 3.5 million liter crude oil spill released by a broken pipeline. In order to assess the long-term effects of oil pollution on mangrove vegetation, we carried out a GIS-based multitemporal analysis of aerial photographs of the years 1962, 1994, 2000 and 2003. Photointerpretation, visual classification, class quantification, ground-truth and vegetation structure data were combined to evaluate the oil impact. Before the spill, the mangroves exhibited a homogeneous canopy and well-developed stands. More than ten years after the spill, the mangrove vegetation exhibited three distinct zones reflecting the long-term effects of the oil pollution. The most impacted zone (10.5 ha presented dead trees, exposed substrate and recovering stands with reduced structural development. We suggest that the distinct impact and recovery zones reflect the spatial variability of oil removal rates in the mangrove forest. This study identifies the multitemporal analysis of aerial photographs as a useful tool for assessing a system's capacity for recovery and monitoring the long-term residual effects of pollutants on vegetation dynamics, thus giving support to mangrove forest management and conservation.Vazamentos de petróleo são potenciais ameaças à integridade de ecossistemas costeiros. Em outubro de 1983, devido ao rompimento de um oleoduto, um manguezal com cerca de 300 ha, localizado na costa sudeste do Brasil foi impactado por 3.5 milhões de litros de petróleo. Visando avaliar os efeitos de longo prazo do petróleo sobre a vegetação do manguezal, foi realizada uma análise multitemporal (1962, 1994, 2000 e 2003 de fotografias aéreas em SIG. Fotointerpretação, classificação visual, quantificação de áreas, dados de campo e dados

  6. Annual variation in canopy openness, air temperature and humidity inthe understory of three forested sites in southern Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marayana Prado Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing to the knowledge of physical factors affecting community structure in Atlantic Forest remnants of southern Bahia state, Brazil, we analyzed the annual variation in the understory microclimate of a hillside forest fragment in the ‘Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Serra do Teimoso’ (RST and a rustic cacao agroforestry system (Cabruca, located nearby the RST. Canopy openness (CO, air temperature (Ta, air relative humidity (RH and vapor pressure deficit (VPD data were collected between April, 2005 and April, 2006 at the base (RSTB, 340 m and the top (RSTT, 640 m of the RST and at the Cabruca (CB, 250 m. Data of rainfall, Ta, RH and VPD were also collected in an open area (OA, 270 m. The highest rainfalls (> 100 mm occurred in November, 2005 and April, 2006, whereas October, 2005 was the driest month (< 20 mm. CO ranged between 2.5 % in the CB (April, 2006 and 7.7 % in the RST (October, 2005. Low rainfall in October, 2005 affected VPDmax in all sites. Those effects were more pronounced in OA, followed by CB, RSTB and RSTT. During the period of measurements, the values of Ta, RH and VPD in CB were closer to the values measured in OA than to the values measured inside the forest.

  7. Can proximity to roads influence forest fragmentation? A case study in northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rezzadori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and use of roads interfere with the atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fauna, and human communities surrounding them. One of the main effects caused by the implementation and operation of a road is fragmentation of natural landscapes, which consequently generates edge effects and isolation of populations. Thus, this study aimed to quantify and compare the distribution of vegetation cover in areas with and without ecological influence of roads in the Alto Uruguai region, northern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. To do this, a geo-relational database was created, where satellite images taken by Landsat V and CBERS 2b were entered. The size and amount of forest fragments were estimated in areas with and without influence of roads. The area with ecological influence of roads had less and smaller sized forest fragments when compared to the area without ecological influence. High forest fragmentation seems to be enhanced by proximity to roads in northern Rio Grande do Sul, contributing to isolate and reduce the size of native populations that occupy these areas.

  8. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  9. Bee Diversity and Solanum didymum (Solanaceae Flower–Visitor Network in an Atlantic Forest Fragment in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Lando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Atlantic Forest biome is currently undergoing forest loss due to repeated episodes of devastation. In this biome, bees perform the most frequent pollination system. Over the last decade, network analysis has been extensively applied to the study of plant–pollinator interactions, as it provides a consistent view of the structure of plant–pollinator interactions. The aim of this study was to use palynological studies to obtain an understanding of the relationship between floral visitor bees and the pioneer plant S. didymum in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest, and also learn about the other plants that interact to form this network. Five hundred bees were collected from 32 species distributed into five families: Andrenidae, Apidae, Colletidae, Megachilidae, and Halictidae. The interaction network consisted of 21 bee species and 35 pollen types. The Solanum-type bee species with the highest number of interactions were Anthrenoides sp. 1, Augochlora sp. 2, and Augochloropsis notophos, representing 71.78% of their interactions. Augochloropsis notophos and Augochlora sp. 2 were the only common species in the flowers of S. didymum. Given the results of our study, we conclude that Solanum is an important source of pollen grains for several native bee species, mainly for the solitary species that are more diverse in the south of Brazil. Moreover, our results indicate that bees from the families Halictidae (A. notophos, Augochlora and Andrenidae (Anthrenoides are the pollinators of S. didymum.

  10. The orchid bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossina in a forest fragment from western Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An orchid bee inventory was carried out in Parque Estadual São Camilo, Palotina, Paraná (Brazil; conservation unit with about 400 hectares of Semidecidual Seasonal forest. Three bait traps were installed at the border of the fragment, each one containing the following fragrances: 1,8-cineole, eugenol, and vanilin. Sampling was carried out from 09am to 03pm, October 2011 to June 2012, summing up nine sampling days. A total of 186 specimens distributed among seven species were sampled. Eufriesea violacea with 140 specimens was the most common species, followed by Euglossa fimbriata (31, Euglossa annectans (9, Eulaema nigrita (4, Euglossa cordata (1, Euglossa pleosticta (1, and Exaerete smaragdina (1. According to qualitative and NMDS analysis, the orchid bee fauna of Parque Estadual São Camilo is representative of Semidecidual Seasonal forest, with richness comparable with other assemblages in the southern distribution of Euglossina. The sampled bee richness indicates that forest fragments, even small and isolated, are important in the conservation of this bees.

  11. Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind., intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.

  12. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1 source data uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Douglas C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+. The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  13. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  14. Molecular and morphological evidence reveals a new species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis group (Hylidae, Phyllomedusinae from the Atlantic Forest of the highlands of southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bruschi

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the highland species of the clade. Chromosomal morphology is conservative, supporting the inference of homologies among the karyotypes of the species of this genus. Phyllomedusa rustica is apparently restricted to its type-locality, and we discuss the potential impact on the strategies applied to the conservation of the natural grassland formations found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. We suggest that conservation strategies should be modified to guarantee the preservation of this species.

  15. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  16. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF PALMS (ARECACEAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT OF LOWLAND DENSE HUMID FOREST IN SOUTH BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cappelatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the Dense Humid Forest is reduced to less than 5% of its original cover. However, it still has the highest richness of palms in this state, which constitute an important and economically relevant group. Environmental and demographic aspects of plant populations in forest fragments are of great importance for their management and conservation. We conducted a study on the spatial distribution and age structure of five palm species in a forest fragment at the municipality of Três Cachoeiras, in the north coast of Rio Grande do Sul. We delimited 25 10×10 m plots and counted the number of individuals in the stages of seedling, juvenile and adult for each palm species. Aggregation Indices were calculated with software SADIEShell. We performed variation partitioning analyses among species distribution and environmental variables canopy openness and soil moisture. A total of 1,443 plants were counted and the most abundant species was Euterpe edulis. The average density was of 57.72 ind. 100 m-2. Three species showed a pattern of “inverse J”, which indicated that they have a potential for regenerating in that palm community. The predominant spatial pattern was aggregated (Ia>1 and canopy openness did not influence species abundances. Only the distribution of Bactris setosa and Geonoma gamiova, both understory species, was explained by soil moisture, suggesting that other abiotic or biotic factors may be influencing the spatial arrangement of the canopy species.

  17. Litterfall production in Gallery and Mesophytic Forest, in Garapa Doline, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Antunes Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The accumulated litterfall on the soil of forests has an important role in the dynamics of these ecosystems, because the high portion of energy flowing in the system is concentrated in this compartment. The objective this work was to quantify and analyze the litterfall got understory of the Gallery and Mesophytic Forests present in the Dolina da Garapa, and to relate this data with meteorological and ecophysiological data, with aim to check different significance between these two forest environments and between the months of study. From January 2006 to December 2007 were established 50 litterfall trap in each forest environment, where was collected, weighted and classified the litterfall in leaves, stem and trunk, flowers and fruits and seed. The mean values sampled of litterfall production in total mass, leaf, flowers, stem and trunk, fruit and seeds were significatively different in two studied environments. In the correlation carried out between the meteorological and ecophysiological variables and the registered value of litterfall was observed that just the temperature variable had not significance in the coefficient of correlation (ρ < 0.5 to litterfall yield. The total production of litterfall during the studied period showed that the Mesophytic Forest is most vulnerable to external meteorological factors and ecophysiological factors of their species, than Gallery Forest. First because the spatial factor, the Forest Gallery location are in low altitude, not being exposed to meteorological factors (e.g., solar radiation as the Mesophytic,Forest, and second by proximity to the watercourse. This spatial factor and the low influence of meteorological factors kept the total litterfall production with a lower average deviation in the Gallery Forest at a temporal scale, and the Mesophytic Forest was susceptible to seasonal weather, thus having a largest average deviation of the litterfall production a long studied period.

  18. Metropolitanization and Forest Recovery in Southern Brazil: a Multiscale Analysis of the Florianópolis City-Region, Santa Catarina State, 1970 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra R. Baptista

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the contexts of globalization and the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, I present a multiscale analysis of anthropogenic landscape dynamics in the Florianópolis city-region, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Drawing on field research conducted between 2000 and 2004 and a review of the literature, I examined Brazilian demographic and agricultural census data for the period of 1970 to 1995-1996. I hypothesized that economic restructuring, new institutional arrangements, and the valuation of environmental amenities and ecosystem services have contributed to forest recovery trends and thus a forest transition in the city-region. My results indicate that along with rapid urbanization, in-migration, socioeconomic polarization, and segregation, the city-region has experienced the contraction of private agricultural land area, expansion of protected areas, recovery of forests, and conversion of coastal plain ecosystems to built environments. Future analyses of forest transition dynamics should consider the spatial configurations of socioeconomic inequality in city-regions.

  19. O viés doméstico no comércio interestadual de produtos florestais no Brasil Domestic bias in the forest product interstate trade in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo procurou estimar o efeito doméstico do comércio entre os estados brasileiros, utilizando-se dados sobre as atividades do setor florestal de acordo com a classificação nacional de atividades econômicas fiscais (CNAE-F. Para tanto, fez-se uso de um modelo geral de gravidade, que leva em consideração os efeitos das vantagens comparativas advindos das diferentes dotações de fatores. Os resultados indicaram que o tamanho do mercado tem efeito positivo na razão exportações/importações, com exceção da atividade de silvicultura. O efeito doméstico é maior nas atividades com maior intensidade de capital, apesar de variar entre as diferentes indústrias. A atividade de fabricação de produtos de madeira mostrou-se mão-de-obra intensiva. Os coeficientes estimados permitiram classificar as atividades do setor florestal no Brasil, de maneira geral, como intensivas em capital e produzindo bens de necessidade.The goal of this study was to estimate the domestic effect of trade among the Brazilian states, using data on forest sector activities according to the national classification of fiscal economic activities (CNAE-F. Thus, a general gravity model was applied taking into account the effects of comparative advantages resulting from the differences in factor endowments. The results indicated that market size has a positive effect on exports/imports ratio, except for the silviculture activity. The home market effect is greater on capital intensive activities although it varies across industries. Wood production was shown to be labor intensive. Based on the estimated coefficients, the forest sector activities in Brazil can be classified, in general, as capital intensive, producing goods necessary for consumption.

  20. Estrutura arbórea da Floresta Ombrófila Densa Altomontana de serras do Sul do Brasil Tree component structure of tropical upper montane rain forests in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve os objetivos de agrupar informações sobre a estrutura arbórea da floresta altomontana da Serra do Mar paranaense e de compará-las com as de florestas altomontanas de outras serras do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizados levantamentos fitossociológicos em diversas montanhas de quatro importantes serras (ou subserras do Paraná. Nas quatro subserras foram amostrados 2294 indivíduos (PAP > 10 cm pertencentes a 28 famílias, 43 gêneros e 78 espécies. Foi observada maior riqueza de espécies na amostragem da Serra Gigante (41 espécies, seguida pelas serras da Prata (37, da Igreja (34 e do Ibitiraquire (26. A altura média obtida para os indivíduos foi de 4,8 m, o PAP médio de 22,9 cm, a densidade média de 4779 ind/ha, a área basal média de 33,5 m²/ha e o índice de diversidade de Shannon total de 2,68 nat/ind. Agrupando informações de estudos realizados em outras subserras paranaenses, totalizando 11 levantamentos e 204 parcelas (10200 m², obteve-se uma matriz com 75 espécies determinadas, onde as cinco com maior porcentagem de importância estrutural foram Ilex microdonta, Siphoneugena reitzii, Drimys angustifolia, Ocotea porosa e Ilex chamaedrifolia. Os trechos amostrados na Serra do Mar do Paraná, apresentaram menor riqueza e diversidade que os da Serra da Mantiqueira (MG e maior que os dos Aparados da Serra Geral (SC. Tais diferenças, possivelmente, estão relacionadas às influências antrópicas, das distâncias geográficas, dos diferentes centros de endemismo, dos entornos tropicais ou subtropicais dominantes, das feições geomorfológicas, entre outros fatores.The aims of this study were: (1 to group information about the tree structure of the upper montane rain forest of Serra do Mar in the state of Paraná (PR, Southern Brazil; and (2 to compare this information with available data from other mountain ranges in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. In the four mountain ranges studied, 2294

  1. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Tatiani C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil. Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04, bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03 and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The bromeliad factor that influenced mosquito abundance and assemblage structure was fullness. The findings of the current

  2. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species to Ara chloroptera (a large one. Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits, the annual floods (fleshy fruits, and the dry season (flowers. While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  3. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  4. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  5. Helminth parasites of Hypsiboas prasinus (Anura: Hylidae) from two Atlantic forest fragments, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaire, Carla Bonetti; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2012-06-01

    Seventy-seven males of Hypsiboas prasinus from 2 Atlantic forest fragments in the municipalities of Botucatu and Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, were examined for endoparasites. The frogs were captured in summer (January until March) and winter (July/August) of 2008 and 2009. Thirty-three males (75%) from Botucatu were infected with Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , cosmocerciid nematodes, and Cylindrotaenia americana . Twenty-five tree frogs (78.5%) from Jundiaí were infected by Rhabdias cf. fuelleborni , Physaloptera sp., and cosmocerciid nematodes. Only cosmocerciid nematodes presented a statistically significance difference in prevalence (z  =  4.345; P Hylidae. This study presents 4 new records of nematodes in H. prasinus .

  6. Community Ecology of Euglossine Bees in the Coastal Atlantic Forest of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Léo Correia; Garofalo, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest stretches along Brazil's Atlantic coast, from Rio Grande do Norte State in the north to Rio Grande do Sul State in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina. This biome is one of the eight biodiversity hotspots in the world and is characterized by high species diversity. Euglossini bees are known as important pollinators in this biome, where their diversity is high. Due to the high impact of human activities in the Atlantic Forest, in the present study the community structure of Euglossini was assessed in a coastal lowland area, Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - Núcleo Picinguaba (PESM), and in an island, Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta (PEIA), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly, from August 2007 to July 2009, using artificial baits with 14 aromatic compounds to attract males. Twenty-three species were recorded. On PEIA, Euglossa cordata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) represented almost two thirds of the total species collected (63.2%). Euglossa iopoecila (23.0%) was the most abundant species in PESM but was not recorded on the island, and Euglossa sapphirina (21.0%) was the second most frequent species in PESM but was represented by only nine individuals on PEIA. The results suggest that these two species may act as bioindicators of preserved environments, as suggested for other Euglossini species. Some authors showed that Eg. cordata is favored by disturbed environments, which could explain its high abundance on Anchieta Island. Similarly, as emphasized by other authors, the dominance of Eg. cordata on the island would be another factor indicative of environmental disturbance. PMID:23901873

  7. LBA-ECO LC-02 Forest Flammability Data, Catuaba Experimental Farm, Acre, Brazil: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of controlled burns conducted to assess the flammability of mature forests on the Catuaba Experimental Farm of the Federal...

  8. LBA-ECO LC-02 Forest Flammability Data, Catuaba Experimental Farm, Acre, Brazil: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of controlled burns conducted to assess the flammability of mature forests on the Catuaba Experimental Farm of the...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tropical Forest Ecosystem Respiration, Manaus, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf, live wood (tree stem), and soil respiration were measured along with additional environmental factors over a 1-yr period in a Central Amazon terra firme forest...

  10. CMS: Forest Inventory and Biophysical Measurements, Para, Brazil, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for diameter at breast height (DBH), commercial tree height, and total tree height for forest inventories taken at the Fazenda...

  11. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  12. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  13. LBA-ECO ND-11 Soil Properties of Forested Headwater Catchments, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The results of the analysis of soil chemical parameters, texture, and color are reported for 185 georeferenced soil profile sample points over four forested...

  14. LBA-ECO LC-21 Soil Characteristics, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements for soil nutrients from areas that were selectively logged and from control areas in the Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  15. LBA-ECO LC-21 Soil Characteristics, Logged Areas, Tapajos Forest, Para, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measurements for soil nutrients from areas that were selectively logged and from control areas in the Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Carbon and Nutrient Stocks, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the carbon and nutrient stocks of above-ground vegetation and soil pools at three locations where post-pasture secondary forest...

  17. LiDAR and DTM Data from Forested Land Near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides LiDAR point clouds and digital terrain models (DTM) from surveys over the K34 tower site in the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, over forest...

  18. LBA-ECO ND-04 Secondary Forest Carbon and Nutrient Stocks, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the carbon and nutrient stocks of above-ground vegetation and soil pools at three locations where post-pasture secondary forest recovery ranged...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-05 Forest Understory Fuel Loads, Paragominas, Para, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains estimates of understory fuel loads (forest litter) at six locations near Paragominas in Northeastern Amazonia. Samples were collected from...

  20. Soil changes in a subtropical seasonal forest chronosequences in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Vargas Kilca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The abandonment of field crops and the vegetation recovery in exhausted soils have been a recently studied subject as a way to assess the forest role on the soil recovering. The aim of this study was assess changes in the chemical(14 variables and grain size (sand, silt, and clay soil features in four forests chronosequences grew over abandoned field crops in the edge of the Brazilian Southern plateau, Rio Grande do Sul State. There were selected 25 forests aging from 5 to >100 years old in areas of slopes and highlands where samples of Leptosols and Regosols were collected at 15cm in depth. The Fisher's Discriminant Analysis showed that some variable groups of soils can distinguish significantly the soils under different forest ages. Six chemical features of soil fertility were the best monitoring indicators of areas impacted by agriculture. Changes in soil did not occur in a linear way towards time.

  1. LBA-ECO ND-11 Regeneration in Undisturbed and Logged Forests, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of field surveys to determine: regeneration diversity and size distribution of plants in primary undisturbed forest; and...

  2. LBA-ECO CD-09 Soil and Vegetation Characteristics, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of soil and vegetation surveys at four distinct areas within the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 50 to 100 km south of Santarem,...

  3. LBA-ECO CD-04 Biomass Survey, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the results of a biometric tree survey of a 19.25 ha area adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 logged forest tower site in...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-04 Biomass Survey, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of a biometric tree survey of a 19.25 ha area adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 logged forest tower site in Tapajos...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-37 Secondary Forest Biomass and Age Class, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree age, forest formation, and land cover classification maps, and estimates of landscape-level above-ground live woody biomass (AGLB) for...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-37 Secondary Forest Biomass and Age Class, Rondonia, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree age, forest formation, and land cover classification maps, and estimates of landscape-level above-ground live woody biomass...

  7. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Litter Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Above-ground litter productivity was measured in a 18 ha plot adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National...

  8. LBA-ECO ND-11 Regeneration in Undisturbed and Logged Forests, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of field surveys to determine: regeneration diversity and size distribution of plants in primary undisturbed forest; and...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-09 Soil and Vegetation Characteristics, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of soil and vegetation surveys at four distinct areas within the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), 50 to 100 km south of...

  10. Estado-nação, fronteiras, margens: redesenhando os espaços fronteiriços no Brasil contemporâneo = Nation-state, frontiers, margins: redrawing the border areas in contemporary Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez, Marcos César

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fronteira é aspecto fundamental do imaginário do estado moderno. Considera-se que as funções centralizadoras e ordenadoras do estado teriam como correlato as fronteiras, os limites da centralização estatal, espaços problemáticos de dominação e de conflito. Discussões contemporâneas nas Ciências Sociais, no entanto, apontam para novas possibilidades de análise, ao enfatizar a heterogeneidade das práticas de poder – que envolvem os dispositivos da soberania, das disciplinas e da gestão governamental. Deve-se pensar menos em fronteiras, como espaços limites e periféricos ao poder central, e mais em margens que se multiplicam e se deslocam tanto na periferia quanto no centro. A investigação em curso busca analisar as novas formas de ação estatal nas fronteiras brasileiras, como o Policiamento Especializado de Fronteira, o Programa Calha Norte e o Sistema Integrado de Saúde das Fronteiras

  11. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  12. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  13. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  14. Biomassa e macronutrientes de uma floresta estacional decidual em Itaara-RS, Brasil Macronutrients quantification in a seasonal decidual forest in Itaara-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no Município de Itaara-RS, Brasil, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual secundária. Teve como objetivo quantificar os nutrientes na biomassa acima do solo, de essências florestais. Foram abatidas 20 árvores, distribuídas em cinco classes de diâmetros (3,2-13,5 cm; 13,6-23,9 cm; 24,0-33,6 cm; 33,7-44,6 cm; e 44,7-55,0 cm. A parte aérea foi fracionada em madeira do fuste, casca do fuste, galhos e folhas. Nas amostras da biomassa foram determinados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. O estoque de nutrientes na biomassa de cada componente foi obtido com base na biomassa seca estimada, multiplicada pelo teor de nutrientes. O rendimento total de biomassa foi estimado em 210,0 Mg ha-1. Para esse rendimento, as contribuições percentuais dos galhos, madeira do fuste, casca do fuste e folhas foram de 48,8; 43,3; 5,4; e 2,4, respectivamente. As folhas foram o componente com os maiores teores de N, P, K, Mg e S, enquanto no componente casca se observou o maior teor de Ca. A madeira do fuste foi o componente que apresentou os menores teores de nutrientes em sua biomassa. De modo geral, o Ca, N e o K foram os nutrientes com maiores estoques na biomassa acima do solo. Nos galhos, devido à maior biomassa, foram verificados os maiores estoques de nutrientes, seguidos pela madeira do fuste.The present study was conducted in a fragment of a seasonal deciduous forest in Itaara-RS, Brazil. The objective of this work was to quantify the nutrient in above ground biomass of forestry species. For the above ground biomass evaluation, 20 trees were cut down according to five different diameter classes (3,2-13,5 cm; 13,6-23,9 cm; 24,0-33,6 cm; 33,7-44,6 cm; 44,7-55,0 cm. The above ground biomass was separated in the compartment trunk wood, trunk bark, branches and leaves. The contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the biomass samples were determined. The stock of nutrients in the biomass for each component was obtained based on the

  15. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status.

  16. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  17. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  18. Hydrology of a Water‐Limited Forest under Climate Change Scenarios: The Case of the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Alves Rodrigues Pinheiro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the strong interactions between climate and vegetation, climate change effects on natural and agricultural ecosystems are common objects of research. Reduced water availability is predicted to take place across large regions of the globe, including Northeastern Brazil. The Caatinga, a complex tropical water‐limited ecosystem and the only exclusively Brazilian biome, prevails as the main natural forest of this region. The aim of this study was to examine the soil‐water balance for this biome under a climate‐warming scenario and with reduced rainfall. Climate change projections were assessed from regional circulation models earlier applied to the Brazilian territory. A statistical climate data generator was used to compose a synthetic weather dataset, which was later integrated into a hydrological model. Compared to simulations with current climate for the same site, under the scenario with climate change, transpiration was enhanced by 36%, and soilwater evaporation and interception were reduced by 16% and 34%, respectively. The greatest change in soil‐water components was observed for deep drainage, accounting only for 2% of the annual rainfall. Soil‐plant‐atmosphere fluxes seem to be controlled by the top layer (0.0-0.2 m, which provides 80% of the total transpiration, suggesting that the Caatinga forest may become completely soil‐water pulse dominated under scenarios of reduced water availability.

  19. Dispersal syndromes in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ângelo Jerônimo Domingues

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diaspore dispersal process is crucial for plant reproduction, since the diaspores must reach a suitable site to germinate. This paper aimed to study morphological aspects of diaspores and determine the dispersal syndromes of species occurring in the largest protection area of the Atlantic Forest in the state of Paraiba, Brazil, the Guaribas Biological Reserve. One conducted a monthly collection of fruits/seeds within the period from September 2007 to February 2009. All diaspores of the fruiting species were collected. After analyzing characteristics such as fruit and seed consistency, odor, color, size, and weight, one determined the dispersal syndrome of each species. One collected 3,080 diaspores belonging to 136 different species distributed into 27 families. Zoochory was the most abundant dispersal syndrome (58%, with 79 fruits adapted to it, followed by autochory (29%, and anemochory (13%. Throughout the study period, one found fruiting species, with a predominance of zoochoric fruits, a predictable fact in the Atlantic Forest, which provides fleshy fruits all the year round.

  20. Floristic-functional variation of tree component along an altitudinal gradient in araucaria forest areas, in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Vanessa F; Higuchi, Pedro; Silva, Ana Carolina DA; Silva, Mariele A F DA; Nunes, Amanda S; Loebens, Rodineli; Souza, Karine DE; Ferrari, Jheniffer; Lima, Carla L; Kilca, Ricardo V

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the taxonomic and functional variations of tree component of Araucaria Forest (AF) areas located along an altitudinal gradient (700, 900 and 1,600 m asl), in the southern region of Brazil. The functional traits determined were leaf area, specific leaf area, wood density, maximum potential height and dispersal syndromes and deciduousness. The data were analyzed through a functional and taxonomic dissimilarity dendrograms, community-weighted mean trait values, parametric and nonparametric tests, and Principal Component Analysis. The largest floristic-structural similarity was observed between the lower altitude areas (700 and 900 m asl), whose Bray-Curtis distance was 0.63. The area at 700 m asl was characterized by a predominance of deciduous and semi-deciduous species, with a high number of self- and wind-dispersed species, whereas the area at 1,600 m asl exhibited a predominance of animal-dispersed and evergreen species. It was also observed that there were significant variations for leaf traits, basic wood density and maximum potential height. Over all altitudinal gradient, the ordinations indicated that there was no evidence of functional differentiation among dispersal and deciduousness groups. In conclusion, the evaluated Araucaria Forest areas presented high floristic-functional variation of the tree component along the altitudinal gradient.

  1. POPULATION PARAMETERS STUDY ON Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel POPULATION DYNAMIC IN A GALLERY FOREST AT ITUTINGA – MG –BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Senna Corrêa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the population dynamics of Xylopia brasiliensis between 1997 and 1999 in a gallery forest (Mata de Camargos with an area of 7,5 ha in Itutinga, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The population rates were related to the density and basal area of the species and the tree community.It was found significant differences between Blocks and Sectors envolving recruitment, change in basal area, increase and decrease. It was also studied the influence of density and basal area of Xylopia brasiliensis on its own dynamics through regressing population rates on the density and basal area of individuals. It was found negative correlations in change in basal area, in increase in basal area and in recruitment and positive correlations in recruitment and in mortality. The localized effects of the observed correlations suggested existence of assymetric and intraspecific competition governed by the Xylopia brasiliensis adults and sub-adults, and with community adults individuals, both reducing the individual growth, recruitment and survival of the studied forest fragment.

  2. The Late Holocene upper montane cloud forest and high altitude grassland mosaic in the Serra da Igreja, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Maurício B; Curcio, Gustavo R; Roderjan, Carlos V

    2013-01-01

    Many soils of the highlands of Serra do Mar, as in other mountain ranges, have thick histic horizons that preserve high amounts of carbon. However, the age and constitution of the organic matter of these soils remain doubtful, with possible late Pleistocene or Holocene ages. This study was conducted in three profiles (two in grassland and one in forest) in Serra da Igreja highlands in the state of Paraná. We performed δ13C isotope analysis of organic matter in soil horizons to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. C3 plants seem to have dominated the mountain ridges of Serra da Igreja since at least 3,000 years BP. Even though the Serra da Igreja may represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands in soils containing organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as reported elsewhere in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, our results indicate that the sites studied are at least from the beginning of the Late Holocene, when conditions of high moisture enabled the colonization/recolonization of the Serra da Igreja ridges by C3 plants. This is the period, often reported in the literature, when forests advanced onto grasslands and savannas.

  3. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa O. Mesquita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a text, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments.

  4. Recuperation of the Terra Firme Forest Understory Bird Fauna Eight Years after a Wildfire in Eastern Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the characteristics of the understory bird fauna of four fragments of terra firme forest in eastern Acre, Brazil, that were impacted by wildfires in 2005. The study investigated the species richness and the composition of trophic guilds using mist-netting on eight transects (four in burned plots and four in control plots in the same forest fragments. Eight plots (0.12 ha were also established parallel to each transect to record the number of live trees (DBH ≥ 10 cm, palms, and dead trees. Bamboo stems were quantified in 0.024 ha subplots. No significant difference was found between burned and control plots in the species richness or abundance of birds, nor was any significant pattern found in the NMDS ordination of the composition of the communities or guilds. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA found that the burned plots were physiognomically distinct, due principally to the number of bamboo stems and dead trees. Multiple regressions based on the PCA scores and bird species richness and abundance found no significant trends. The findings of the present study indicate that the understory bird assemblage of the areas affected by a single wildfire in 2005 had almost totally recuperated eight years after this event.

  5. Microbial populations and activities of mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils from Cardoso Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupin, B; Nahas, E

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves provide a distinctive ecological environment that differentiates them from other ecosystems. This study deal to evaluate the frequency of microbial groups and the metabolic activities of bacteria and fungi isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils. Soil samples were collected during the summer and winter at depths of 0-2, 2-5 and 5-10 cm. Except for fungi, the counts of the total, sporulating, Gram-negative, actinomycetes, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria decreased significantly in the following order: Atlantic forest >mangrove > restinga. The counts of micro-organisms decreased by 11 and 21% from the surface to the 2-5 and 5-10 cm layers, but denitrifying bacteria increased by 44 and 166%, respectively. A larger growth of micro-organisms was verified in the summer compared with the winter, except for actinomycetes and fungi. The average frequency of bacteria isolated from mangrove, restinga and Atlantic forest soils was 95, 77 and 78%, and 93, 90 and 95% for fungi, respectively. Bacteria were amylolytic (33%), producers of acid phosphatase (79%) and solubilizers (18%) of inorganic phosphate. The proportions of fungi were 19, 90 and 27%. The mangrove soil studied had higher chemical characteristics than the Atlantic forest, but the high salinity may have restricted the growth of microbial populations. Estimates of the microbial counts and activities were important to elucidate the differences of mangrove ecosystem from restinga and Atlantic forest. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria in red mangrove forest at Mosquitos and Coqueiros estuaries, São Luís, State of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. C. NOGUEIRA

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a taxonomic survey of the Cyanophyceae/Cyanobacteria in a frenge red mangrove forest in the estuaries of Estreito dos Mosquitos and Coqueiros, São Luís, State of Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 15 taxa were identified in 8 families, as follows: Synechoccaceae (2, Chroococcaceae (1, Hyellaceae (1, Xenococcaceae (1, Oscillatoriaceae (1, Scytonemataceae (2, Phormidiaceae (5 and Pseudanabaenaceae (2. The species listed in this paper are all new descriptions for Maranhão, and one of them is a new ocurrence for Brazil.

  7. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  8. Influence of environmental variables on the shrub and tree species distribution in two Semideciduous Forest sites in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sheila Isabel do C; Martins, Sebastião V; de Barros, Nairam F; Dias, Herly Carlos T; Kunz, Sustanis H

    2008-09-01

    The floristic variations of shrub and tree components were studied in two sites of Semideciduous Forest, initial forest and mature forest, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, in order to analyze the floristic similarity and the correlations between environmental variables and the distribution of tree species in these forests. Individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) > or = 4.8 cm were sampled in twenty 10 x 30 m plots (10 plots in each site). The plots were distributed systematically at 10 m intervals. The environmental variables analyzed were: the canopy openness and soil chemical and texture characteristics. The two forest sites showed clear differences in the levels of canopy openness and soil fertility, factors that reflect the floristic and successional differences of the shrub and tree component, revealed by the low similarity between these forests by cluster analysis. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of environmental variables and species abundance indicated that the species in these forests studied are distributed under strong influence of canopy openness, moisture and soil fertility.

  9. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  10. Structural aspects and floristic similarity among tropical dry forest fragments with different management histories in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce useful knowledge to the initiatives of protection and management of forest fragments, more specifically for tropical dry forests which suffer with frequent anthropic activities, and due to the lack of specific studies, this article aimed describe the structure and the floristic similarity among three areas of dry forest with different management histories. The study was developed in Capitão Enéas municipality, Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, where three fragments were evaluated, being one in regeneration for 30 years, another submitted to occasional fire and the third with selective cut in small scale. The sampling was developed through the point quarter method considering all the alive phanerophyte individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH > 15 cm. In the three fragments, 512 individuals, distributed in 60 species, 47 genera, and 23 families were sampled. The most representative families were Fabaceae (26, Anacardiaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3 and Combretaceae (3. However, fourteen families were represented by only one species. Only eight species were common to all fragments - Myracrodruon urundeuva standed out with 26.9% of all sampled individuals - while a great number of species were exclusive of each fragment. The floristic and structural differences between the fragments are possibly related to the history and intensity of management in each area besides the topography variations and the presence or absence of limestone outcrops. These results show the importance of each fragment, indicating that the loss of anyone would cause negative impacts on the regional flora and consequently to the associated biodiversity.

  11. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae) in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thel, T N; Teixeira, P H R; Lyra-Neves, R M; Telino-Júnior, W R; Ferreira, J M R; Azevedo-Júnior, S M

    2015-11-01

    Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil), with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size) in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris) and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca), as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%), with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3 ± 1.35 mm (Miconia albicans) to 29.9 ± 1.7 mm (Psidium sp.). Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5), with two species each (16.6%) providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6) and drupe (33.3%, n=4) types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  12. Phyllostomidae assemblage (Chiroptera: Mammalia in altitudinal forests at the Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.

  13. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  14. Primate community of the tropical rain forests of Saracá-Taqüera National Forest, Pará, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, L.C.; Loretto, D.; Viana, L. R.; Silva Junior, José de Sousa e

    2009-01-01

    O Brasil tem o maior número de espécies de primatas do mundo, e a Amazônia é uma das mais ricas florestas, com 15 (cerca de 90%) dos gêneros de primatas neotropicais. Embora considerados elementos essenciais nas estratégias atuais de conservação, de modo geral há grande escassez de informação sobre os primatas das áreas protegidas na região. Apresentamos aqui novos dados sobre a composição da comunidade de primatas na Floresta Nacional Saracá- Taquera (429.600 ha), Pará, uma área ...

  15. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri C. C. Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typhlopidae, Chelidae, Testudinidae and Alligatoridae. Most of the recorded species presented wide geographic distribution, although some of them had distributions that were restricted to the Atlantic Forest. The species richness of Mata do Buraquinho is relatively high for an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest, and the observed anthropogenic impacts show the urgent necessity of conservation in order to guarantee the viability of populations of amphibians and reptiles.

  16. Mercury loss from soils following conversion from forest to pasture in Rondonia, Western Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Marcelo D.; Lacerda, Luiz D.; Bastos, Wanderley R.; Herrmann, Joao Carlos

    2005-01-01

    This work reports on the effect of land use change on Hg distribution in Amazon soils. It provides a comparison among Hg concentrations and distribution along soil profiles under different land use categories; primary tropical forest, slashed forest prior to burning, a 1-year silviculture plot planted after 4 years of forest removal and a 5-year-old pasture plot. Mercury concentrations were highest in deeper (60-80 cm) layers in all four plots. Forest soils showed the highest Hg concentrations, ranging from 128 ng g -1 at the soil surface to 150 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Lower concentrations were found in pasture soils, ranging from 69 ng g -1 at the topsoil to 135 ng g -1 at 60-80 cm of depth. Slashed and silviculture soils showed intermediate concentrations. Differences among plots of different soil-use categories decreased with soil depth, being non-significant below 60 cm of depth. Mercury burdens were only statistically significantly different between pasture and forest soils at the topsoil, due to the large variability of concentrations. Consequently, estimated Hg losses were only significant between these two land use categories, and only for the surface layers. Estimated Hg loss due to forest conversion to pasture ranged from 8.5 mg m -2 to 18.5 mg m -2 , for the first 20 cm of the soil profile. Mercury loss was comparable to loss rates estimated for other Amazon sites and seems to be directly related to Hg concentrations present in soils. - Deforestation can be responsible for maintaining high Hg levels in the Amazon environment, through a grasshopper effect of Hg remobilization from the affected soils

  17. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  18. Composição florística e estrutura comunitária da floresta de galeria do córrego da Paciência, Cuiabá, (MT Floristic composition and community structure of a gallery forest along the Córrego da Paciência, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A floresta de galeria de um dos braços do córrego da Paciência, no sopé da chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso (15º 21'S. 55º 49' W, foi inventariada por meio de 67 parcelas de 30m² (0,201 ha, sendo amosdos os indivíduos com circunferência ao nível do solo > 9cm em três setores da floresta; Nascentes, Vereda e Cachoeira. Foram calculados os parâmetros fitossociológicos das espécies e das famílias botânicas para toda a área amostral e para cada um dos três setores da floresta. Foram obtidas medidas de dissimilaridade florística e estrutural entre os três setores amostrais e medidas de dissimilaridade florística entre a floresta do presente estudo e cinco outras florestas riparias do Distrito Federal e dos estados de São Paulo e Mato Grosso. As seis florestas apresentaram entre si índices muito altos de dissimilaridade florística, embora algumas delas apresentassem espécies em comum entre as mais abundantes. Os três setores amostrais mostraram igualmente uma considerável dessemelhança florística e estrutural entre si. O clima, os solos e a geomcrfologia das bacias hidrográficas são evocados como responsáveis pelas diferenças interregionais entre as florestas riparias. Já as dessemelhanças intrarregionais podem ser atribuídas à fertilidade dos solos e, sobretudo, ao regime de água nos solos e nos próprios rios, os quais, por sua vez, variam com a topografia local. Os padrões de distribuição espacial marcadamente diferentes que podem ser observados para várias espécies de árvores podem ser atribuídos à elevada heterogeneidade ambiental, peculiar às florestas de galeria.The gallery forest which occurs along one of the branches of the Córrego da Paciência, southern Mato Grosso, Brazil (15º 21'S, 55º 49'W, was surveyed by 67 plots of 30m² each (0.201 ha. Individuals > 9cm in circumference at ground level were recorded. Three sites of the forest were sampled: Nascentes, Vereda and Cachoeira

  19. Urban forest and environmental inequality in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Pedlowski, Marcos; Heynen, Nikolas

    2002-01-01

    Social and spatial inequality regarding environmental resources and services is one of most complex issues affecting contemporary urban life. The objective of this research is to study the spatial distribution of trees in public areas in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This researc...... and education levels of the population seem to play a more causal on tree quantity and species diversity. This inequality stresses a problem with environmental justice, a characteristic of Brazilian cities intrinsically connected to urban sustainability....

  20. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  1. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  2. An assessment of leaf-litter and epigaeic ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae living in different landscapes of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Jesus Santos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest has a rich biodiversity increasingly threatened by human activities. Since the colonial period, the coast of the state of Bahia is among the most affected regions of Brazil by anthropic pressure. Bahia encloses Atlantic Forest remnants distributed in an area reaching 100-200 km along the east-west axis, by 1,000 km along the north-south axis, parallel to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. We report hereafter the results of an intensive field survey of leaf litter and epigaeic ants realized in forest remnants of the Atlantic Forest landscapes within the original extension of the biome in 11 localities distributed along four degrees of latitude in the state of Bahia. In each site, 16 plots were collected using pitfall and eight using Winkler traps. We identified 391 ant species belonging to 71 genera and nine subfamilies. Among all species recorded, 21 were common to the whole 11 localities, while 98 species were recorded in a single locality. This study highlights the richness and diversity of epigaeic and leaf-litter ants living in the northern part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, and is one of the most representative soil ants’ inventories ever done in this biome for a single state of Brazil.

  3. Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri C. C. Lima; Fagner R. Delfim; Gentil A. Pereira-Filho; Washington L. S. Vieira; Gindomar Gomes Santana; Kleber S. Vieira

    2008-01-01

    The Herpetofauna of an urban fragment of Atlantic Forest was investigated in relation to species richness and habitat use. Fourteen species of amphibian anurans pertaining to the families Bufonidae, Brachycephalidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae were recorded. The reptiles were represented by 37 species, distributed in the families Gekkonidae, Gymnophthalmidae, Polychrotidae, Scincidae, Teiidae, Tropiduridae, Amphisbaenidae, Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae, Typ...

  4. Evaluation of soil quality in areas of cocoa cabruca, forest and multicropping in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlantic Rain Forest is one of the most complex natural environments of the earth and, linked with this ecosystem, the cacao-cabruca system is agroforestry cultivation with an arrangement including a range of environmental, social and economical benefits and can protect many features of the biod...

  5. Assessing fire emissions from tropical savanna and forests of central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip J. Riggan; James A. Brass; Robert N. Lockwood

    1993-01-01

    Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the...

  6. Feeding preference of the sand flies Lutzomyia umbratilis and L. spathotrichia (diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in an urban forest patch in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Coelho da Rocha

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitin tests were performed on blood meals of 199 sand flies (161 Lutzomyia umbratilis, 34 L. spathotrichia, two Lutzomyia of group shannoni, one L. anduzei in a non-flooded upland forest on the Campus of the Universidade Federal do Amazonas. This is the second largest forest fragment in an urban setting in Brazil. Results on L. umbratilis, which is considered to be the principal leishmaniasis vector in this region, indicated rodents as its predominant blood source in contrast to previous reports in which blood meal analysis indicated that this species fed principally on Xenarthra (particularly sloths

  7. Communities of P-solubilizing bacteria, fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in grass pasture and secondary forest of Paraty, RJ - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souchie, Edson L.; Saggin-Júnior, Orivaldo J.; Silva, Eliane M.R.; Campello, Eduardo F.C.; Azcón, Rosario; Barea, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Communities of P-solubilizing bacteria, fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, were evaluated in two different ecosystems. Samplings taken from two areas of Atlantic forest, in Paraty - RJ, Brazil, one with a secondary forest and the other with a grass pasture were studied. Four growth media: GL (glucose and yeast extract), GES (glucose, soil extract, KNO3, CaCl2, MgSO4, NaCl, FeEDTA and micronutrients solution), GAGES (glucose, soil extract, arabinose, glycerol, CaCl2, MgSO4 and NaCl) and G...

  8. A Potentially Endangered New Species of Euptychia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from the Atlantic Coastal Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, S; Barbosa, E P; Freitas, A V L

    2017-06-01

    A new satyrine species in the subtribe Euptychiina, Euptychia atlantica Nakahara & Freitas sp. nov., is described from the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Based on the existing museum specimens, E. atlantica sp. nov. is known from the coastal montane forests of Rio de Janeiro to south Bahia, a unique biogeographical region which is undergoing rapid degradation. Illustrations of adults and their genitalia, as well as a distribution map, are provided herein, in addition to a discussion of the relationships and conservation status of the new species.

  9. Are we headed towards the defaunation of the last large Atlantic Forest remnants? Poaching activities in one of the largest remnants of the Tabuleiro forests in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, José Adelson C; Srbek-Araujo, Ana C

    2017-03-01

    Hunting is a problem to animal conservation in different parts of the world and it has caused the local extinction of several species. The aim of this study was to characterize the poaching activities in one of the main tabuleiro forest remnants of Brazil, the Linhares-Sooretama Block (LSB). Poaching records from 2010 to 2013 were gathered from the agencies responsible for monitoring and combating environmental crimes in the LSB. A total of 693 records (mean = 173 events/year) were collected involving direct (hunted animals, firearms, handmade firearms, traps, poachers, and various hunting supplies) and indirect (tree stands, baits, and poacher signs) evidences of poaching. No differences in the monthly cumulative number of records were found among years, but the distribution of records differed according to the type of evidence. A total of 40 animal seizure events were recorded involving a total of at least 15 taxa directly affected by poaching (reptiles = 2, birds = 6, mammals = 7) and 75 individuals seized (19 individuals/year). Five of the poached species are threatened. Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca) and armadillos were the most poached mammals in the region. Most of the poachers conduct such activities for fun (entertainment) and/or professionally (commercial hunting). The collected data show an approximately 32% increase in the number of poaching events in the region compared with the historical data available for LSB. It may have resulted from a gradual decrease in protection, both in terms of the number of agents deployed and the levels of effort of the teams, which began in 2009. The data demonstrate that poaching is a significant threat to the conservation of the LSB fauna, as it is in other Atlantic Forest remnants and in other regions of the world. Protection activities must be intensified to effectively combat the impacts of poaching in the LSB region, thereby contributing to the conservation of species in one of the few Atlantic Forest

  10. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ≥ 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata

  11. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) assemblages associated with Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads in Serra do Mar, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The most substantial and best preserved area of Atlantic Forest is within the biogeographical sub-region of Serra do Mar. The topographic complexity of the region creates a diverse array of microclimates, which can affect species distribution and diversity inside the forest. Given that Atlantic Forest includes highly heterogeneous environments, a diverse and medically important Culicidae assemblage, and possible species co-occurrence, we evaluated mosquito assemblages from bromeliad phytotelmata in Serra do Mar (southeastern Brazil). Methods Larvae and pupae were collected monthly from Nidularium and Vriesea bromeliads between July 2008 and June 2009. Collection sites were divided into landscape categories (lowland, hillslope and hilltop) based on elevation and slope. Correlations between bromeliad mosquito assemblage and environmental variables were assessed using multivariate redundancy analysis. Differences in species diversity between bromeliads within each category of elevation were explored using the Renyi diversity index. Univariate binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess species co-occurrence. Results A total of 2,024 mosquitoes belonging to 22 species were collected. Landscape categories (pseudo-F value = 1.89, p = 0.04), bromeliad water volume (pseudo-F = 2.99, p = 0.03) and bromeliad fullness (Pseudo-F = 4.47, p < 0.01) influenced mosquito assemblage structure. Renyi diversity index show that lowland possesses the highest diversity indices. The presence of An. homunculus was associated with Cx. ocellatus and the presence of An. cruzii was associated with Cx. neglectus, Cx. inimitabilis fuscatus and Cx. worontzowi. Anopheles cruzii and An. homunculus were taken from the same bromeliad, however, the co-occurrence between those two species was not statistically significant. Conclusions One of the main findings of our study was that differences in species among mosquito assemblages were influenced by landscape characteristics. The

  12. Structural adaptations of two sympatric epiphytic orchids (Orchidaceae to a cloudy forest environment in rocky outcrops of Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of plants in epiphytic environments depends on vegetative adaptations capable to defraud different stresses. Based on the structural diversity of the Orchidaceae, the current study has the objective of relating the anatomical structure of Dichaea cogniauxiana and Epidendrum secundum with the distinct environments where they live. It was expected that, despite structural similarities as strategies for resource acquisition, some peculiar variations related to the distinct light microenvironments (inside or in the edge of the nebular forest, near to “campo rupestre” area might be found. Leaves and roots of both species were collected in a nebular forest located at a “campo rupestre” area at Serra da Piedade, Brazil, in January and February 2005. D. cogniauxiana is adhered to trunks, in sites with high atmospheric humidity and shaded, while E. secundum is located at the edge of the nebular forest, in more luminous sites. The leaves of E. secundum had thicker cuticle and higher number of stomata per area than those of D. cogniauxiana, characteristics coherent with their distinct pattern of exhibition to sun light. The suprastomatic chambers formed by the thicker cuticle may function as a barrier of resistance to water evaporation. The succulence of the leaves of E. secundum propitiates organic acids storage at night, and the storage of starch may be involved in PEP-carboxylase metabolism, both propitiating CAM mechanism. Roots with larger number of cell layers of the velamen, and specialized thick walled cortical cells (both in E. secundum help water absorption and indicate better adaptation to an environment with intense solar radiation and a probable higher water deficit. The remarkable cell wall thickening of E. secundum exodermis can confer more efficient protection against the excess of transpiration at the border of the nebular forest. On the other hand, besides D. cogniauxiana be epiphyte, it is in a low position - in a

  13. Adequacy assessment of mathematical models in the dynamics of litter decomposition in a tropical forest Mosaic Atlantic, in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP. Nunes

    Full Text Available The study of litter decomposition and nutrient cycling is essential to know native forests structure and functioning. Mathematical models can help to understand the local and temporal litter fall variations and their environmental variables relationships. The objective of this study was test the adequacy of mathematical models for leaf litter decomposition in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. We study four native forest sites in Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, a Biosphere Reserve of the Atlantic, which were installed 200 bags of litter decomposing with 20×20 cm nylon screen of 2 mm, with 10 grams of litter. Monthly from 09/2007 to 04/2009, 10 litterbags were removed for determination of the mass loss. We compared 3 nonlinear models: 1 – Olson Exponential Model (1963, which considers the constant K, 2 – Model proposed by Fountain and Schowalter (2004, 3 – Model proposed by Coelho and Borges (2005, which considers the variable K through QMR, SQR, SQTC, DMA and Test F. The Fountain and Schowalter (2004 model was inappropriate for this study by overestimating decomposition rate. The decay curve analysis showed that the model with the variable K was more appropriate, although the values of QMR and DMA revealed no significant difference (p> 0.05 between the models. The analysis showed a better adjustment of DMA using K variable, reinforced by the values of the adjustment coefficient (R2. However, convergence problems were observed in this model for estimate study areas outliers, which did not occur with K constant model. This problem can be related to the non-linear fit of mass/time values to K variable generated. The model with K constant shown to be adequate to describe curve decomposition for separately areas and best adjustability without convergence problems. The results demonstrated the adequacy of Olson model to estimate tropical forest litter decomposition. Although use of reduced number of parameters equaling the steps of the

  14. The Tinhare-Boipeba-Camamu reefs, Bahia, Brazil; Os recifes de Tinhare-Boipeba-Camamu, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Ruy K.P.; Oliveira, Marilia D.M.; Leao, Zelinda M.A.N. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M. [AguaViva (Brazil); Martins, Pedro M.R. [El Paso Oleo e Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The coastal zone and continental shelf along Morro de Sao Paulo to Itacare, despite having a great quantity of reefs, have only received a closer attention on this aspect in the last 5 years. Until then, there was only one scientific reference published by Charles F. Hartti, more than a century ago, in his work Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil. The beginning of petroleum exploration in Camamu-Almada Basin demanded a great effort to enhance knowledge of the reef ecosystem in the area. The assessments developed by El Paso since 2002, used visual censuses in band and line intercept transects, organized in the AGRRA and PETRORISCO protocols. Nowadays we have a detailed digital map of the reefs, as part of a GIS, containing information about reef vitality, that include reefs attached to the coast and reef Banks of the region in the vicinity of Pratigi, once known only to fishermen. This article presents a overview of the reefs mapped and its vitality described up to now. (author)

  15. Communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 (Squamata: Gekkonidae in a remnant of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Augusto Gurgel de Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Communal nesting has been registered for several species of lizards. The egg aggregations offer potential advantages such as protection, predator-satiation and thermoregulation. Hemidactylus mabouia is a successful colonizing species with continuous reproduction and a fixed size of two eggs each time. Here, we report two communal nests of Hemidactylus mabouia for the Parque Estadual Mata da Pipa, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil.

  16. Relationships of vascular epiphytes with environmental factors along the Tibagi River forests, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete Bonnet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationships of vascular epiphyte richness with climatic, geomorphologic, pedologic and forest structural factors, that change along the Tibagi River. The floristic turnover of the 188 registered species was high, indicating the singularity and importance of the communities to the conservation of epiphytes in the river basin. The similarity was greater between geographically closer areas, which made possible the creation of three groups of epiphytic communities distributed along the river. The greatest richness of epiphytes was registered in the medium Tibagi, where the phytogeographic units are in liaison and the forests present the best conservation status. The increase of epiphytic richness is only significantly and positively related to the maximal diameter of trees, an important environmental factor of the enlargement of alpha diversity. The beta diversity results, probably, from environmental heterogeneity which is principally represented by distinctive geomorphologic patterns and climatic conditions between study areas and different environmental regions of the river.

  17. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  18. Quantitative ethnobotany in an atlantic forest fragment of northeastern Brazil: implications to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Luiz Vital F Cruz; De Albuquerque, Ulysses P

    2006-03-01

    An ethnobotanical study was executed in the rural community of the Municipality of "Rio Formoso", starting from the forest inventory accomplished in an Atlantic Forest remnant adjacent to the studied community. Using the methodology of quantitative ethnobotany allied to the ecological parameters (richness, relative frequency, relative density, relative dominance and importance value index) the following results were obtained: 42 inventoried species gathered in 26 families, presented from 1 to 27 means of use for the community. The largest use of the plants is related to obtaining wood in order to be used in house building, firewood production and charcoal. The largest use value was attributed to the Vouacapoua virgilioides (Kunth) Kuntze. The most frequent species were Tapirira guianensis Aubl. (Anacardiaceae), Thyrsodium schomburgkianum Benth. (Anacardiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyem. & Frodin (Araliaceae) and Dialium guianense (Aubl.) Sandwith. (Leg-Caesalpinioideae).

  19. Bryophyte flora in upland forests at different successional stages and in the various strata of host trees in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Caldeira Tavares-Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern region of the Brazilian state of Pará, approximately 90% of the forested areas are secondary forests. Secondary forests are interesting areas for floristic studies aimed at determining the effects that clear-cutting has on bryophyte communities. The aim of this study was to compare upland forests at different successional stages and the various strata of host trees, in terms of the bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte specimens were collected between August 2005 and September 2006 from host trees in primary and secondary forests of different ages and of different heights, within the municipality of Capitão Poço, in the state of Pará. The vertical distribution of bryophytes was evaluated in 15 host trees within the primary forest. We identified a total of 99 bryophyte species: 33 mosses and 66 liverworts. The dominant family was Lejeuneaceae, with 56 species. Most of the species (n = 60 had a neotropical distribution, and 3 species were endemic to Brazil. Cololejeunea minutissima var. myriocarpa (Nees & Mont. R.M.Schust., Pycnolejeunea papillosa X.-L. He, Radula mammosa Spruce and Verdoornianthus marsupiifolius (Spruce Gradst. represent new records for the state of Pará. In the successional forests evaluated, we identified 78 species, most of which (n = 38 occurred in primary forest. On the host tree trunks evaluated in the primary forest, we observed 31 species occurring at heights ranging from 2 m to 20 m. Despite the fact that secondary forests account for such a large proportion of the forested areas in Capitão Poço, we found that the bryoflora was relatively rich, comprising 31% of the species recorded for the state. The fact that 40% of the species recorded occurred exclusively in the secondary forests and the fact that 45.5% of the species recorded in primary forest occurred within the 2-20 m height range show the importance of studies focusing on bryophytes in secondary forests and in the upper strata of

  20. Fishes from Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Grande do Sul state, Atlantic Forest biome, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Marco; Bertaco, Vinicius

    2016-01-01

    The ichthyofauna herein presented was collected in streams, lake, and swamps from the Parque Estadual de Itapeva, Rio Mampituba basin. The protected area is located in the northernmost part of the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul state. Samplings resulted in 26 species, in 20 genera, 15 families, and six orders. Two species are listed as threatened and one near threatened in Rio Grande do Sul. This study represents the first fish survey in the protected area, Atlantic Forest biome.

  1. Use of production-function analysis in forest management: eucalypts in Brazil, a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, J.C.; Conto, L.

    1982-01-01

    Production-function analysis was applied to data from spacing research on a hybrid of Eucalyptus urophylla. A logarithmic-reciprocal equation was chosen as the best fitting production function, and its elasticities of production, scale and substitution computed. A set of input quantities is presented which maximize the present net worth of an infinite number of forest cycles for a range of discount rates.

  2. Diversity and distribution of oligochaetes in tropical forested streams, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Falci Theza Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and beta diversity of oligochaete assemblages were investigated in different spatial scales to verify the influence of environmental factors and geographic distance on their structure. Two types of mesohabitats (riffles and pools were sampled in eight first-order streams located in four preservation areas (Poço D’Anta Municipal Biological Reserve, Santa Cândida Municipal Biological Reserve, Ibitipoca State Park and a private farm called Fazenda Floresta and two Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomies (Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Rocky Field. Variations in the taxon richness, abundance and composition of the oligochaete assemblages occurred between streams and phytophysiognomies, but not between riffles and pools in the same stream. Low beta diversity values were found and both turnover and nestedness contributed similarly in the environments studied, which could have occurred because of the high capability of oligochaetes to adapt to different environmental conditions. Although the canonical correspondence analysis explained 85.5% of the data (first three axes, the partial Mantel test showed greater influence of geographic distance on the faunal composition than the environmental variables measured. Simple linear regression confirmed this result and showed that the decay of similarity increased with distance between streams. The information from this study sheds light on how environmental and spatial factors determine the variation in the distribution and diversity of oligochaetes in forested low-order streams.

  3. COMPOSITION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE MAMMALS IN FOREST RESERVE IN THE CERRADO OF BRAZIL CENTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Jose Viana Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge about fauna location and distribution is very important for animal biology understanding. Conservation Units are relevant to biodiversity when considering factors such as hunting, agricultural expansion and forest fires. The conservation of native vegetation fragments under more suitable management plans, recovery areas and surveys are essential to the mammals preservation. This study aimed to survey the mammals of medium and large size of the Brasilia National Forest Area 1. To carry out this study it was performed weekly rounds in search for direct and indirect mammals traces existing at forest reserve. It is reported the presence of 27 species in the study area. According to the IUCN Red List, four species are vulnerable to extinction: tapir (Tapirus terrestris, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus and oncilla (Leopardus guttulus. Two species were recorded nearly threatened species: maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus and pampas deer (Ozotocerus bezoarticus. Also according to the same list, 48% (n=13 of species are declining in population trend and 26% (n=7 for this data is unknown. Differences in the area were observed, with mammal species presence associated to Cerrado vegetation types and in distribution of records over the period.

  4. Vertical distribution of epiphytic bryophytes in Atlantic Forest fragments in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermeson Cassiano de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The microclimatic gradient established from the forest understory to the canopy provides a range of different conditions for the establishment of bryophytes along the height of a tree. We investigated epiphytic bryophyte communities of four fragments of Atlantic Forest with the aim of describing their vertical zonation and assessing differentiation among the communities of the different fragments. In each fragment, five host trees were selected from which bryophyte samples were collected in four height zones from the base to the canopy. Furthermore, 10 plots were demarcated in each fragment where bryophytes were collected from the understory. In total, 114 bryophyte species were found on the 20 sampled phorophytes, plus an additional 51 species in the understory, for a total of 165 species. Species composition of height zones differed significantly between communities of the trunk base and the canopy. The samples from the understory included 77% of all species. Among all species found, 10 showed a significant preference for a specific height. Around 70% of the bryophyte species grew as mats; this life form occurred in all trees and height zones. The results showed a weak, yet significant, vertical gradient, which differs from what is usually found in the Atlantic Forest.

  5. Caracterização fisionômica - estrutural de um remanescente de floresta ombrófila montana de Pernambuco, Brasil Physiognomic and structural characterization of a montane rain forest remnant in Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Maria Nogueira Ferraz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas ombrófilas montanas de Pernambuco são pouco estudadas quanto a fisionomia, florística, estrutura e semelhanças com as florestas de terras baixas. Visando este entendimento, foi realizada a caracterização fisionômica-estrutural do maior remanescente (São Vicente Férrer, 600 ha dessa floresta no Estado e sua comparação com outras florestas ombrófilas nordestinas de terras baixas e montanas. A área estudada localiza-se na encosta oriental do planalto da Borborema (07º38' S e 35º30' W, em altitudes entre 600 e 640 m, e tem precipitação média anual de 1.103 mm. Foram alocadas 50 parcelas de 10×20 m e incluídos os indivíduos com DAP > 5 cm. Os 1.521 indivíduos amostrados pertenceram a 58 famílias, 96 gêneros e 152 espécies. Cerca de 50% deles tiveram altura entre 6,1 e 12,0 m e diâmetro entre 5 e 10 cm, sendo representados, predominantemente, por Clusiaceae, Quiinaceae, Myrtaceae e Sapindaceae. As famílias de maior valor de importância (Myrtaceae, Clusiaceae, Moraceae, Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Vochysiaceae, Myristicaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Lecythidaceae e Anacardiaceae foram dominantes em diferentes classes de altura, tiveram número de espécies variado (1 a 10 e, geralmente, as maiores densidades. A floresta estudada foi melhor relacionada em composição de espécies e famílias com as florestas de terras baixas, embora tenha se destacado pela elevada riqueza de taxa, maior altura e principalmente pela abundância de famílias e espécies pouco comuns às florestas ombrófilas de terras baixas de Pernambuco.The montane forests of Pernambuco, Brazil, are poorly understood in relation to their flora, physiognomy, structure, and similarity to lowland forests. The physiognomy and structure of the largest ombrophilous forest fragment in the state of Pernambuco (São Vicente Ferrer, 600 ha were described and compared with other montane and lowland forests in northeastern Brazil. The study site is located on the

  6. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae Comunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinatorsComunidade de abelhas Euglossina em pequenos fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Abelhas Euglossina são importantes polinizadores nas florestas e em

  7. Sand fly population dynamics and cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers in an Atlantic forest remnant in northeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis are relatively common among soldiers involved in nocturnal activities in tropical forests. We investigated the population dynamics of sand flies in a military training camp located in a remnant of Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, where outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis have sporadically been described. From July 2012 to July 2014, light traps were monthly placed in 10 collection sites, being nine sites located near the forest edge and one near a sheep and goat stable. Light traps operated from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am, during four consecutive nights. Leishmania infection in sand flies was assessed using a fast real-time PCR assay. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis among soldiers were also investigated. In total, 24,606 sand flies belonging to 25 species were identified. Males (n = 12,683 predominated over females (n = 11,923. Sand flies were present during all months, being more numerous in March (n = 1,691 and April 2013 (n = 3,324. Lutzomyia choti (72.9% was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia longispina (13.8%, Lutzomyia complexa (5.3%, representing together >90% of the sand flies collected. Forty cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were recorded among soldiers from January 2012 to December 2014. Leishmania isolates were obtained from eight patients and were all characterized as Leishmania braziliensis. Soldiers and anyone overnighting in Atlantic rainforest remnants should adopt preventative measures such as the use of repellents on bare skin or clothes and insecticide-treated tents.

  8. Sampling strategies for tropical forest nutrient cycling studies: a case study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sparovek

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The precise sampling of soil, biological or micro climatic attributes in tropical forests, which are characterized by a high diversity of species and complex spatial variability, is a difficult task. We found few basic studies to guide sampling procedures. The objective of this study was to define a sampling strategy and data analysis for some parameters frequently used in nutrient cycling studies, i. e., litter amount, total nutrient amounts in litter and its composition (Ca, Mg, Κ, Ν and P, and soil attributes at three depths (organic matter, Ρ content, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. A natural remnant forest in the West of São Paulo State (Brazil was selected as study area and samples were collected in July, 1989. The total amount of litter and its total nutrient amounts had a high spatial independent variance. Conversely, the variance of litter composition was lower and the spatial dependency was peculiar to each nutrient. The sampling strategy for the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrient in litter should be different than the sampling strategy for nutrient composition. For the estimation of litter amounts and the amount of nutrients in litter (related to quantity a large number of randomly distributed determinations are needed. Otherwise, for the estimation of litter nutrient composition (related to quality a smaller amount of spatially located samples should be analyzed. The determination of sampling for soil attributes differed according to the depth. Overall, surface samples (0-5 cm showed high short distance spatial dependent variance, whereas, subsurface samples exhibited spatial dependency in longer distances. Short transects with sampling interval of 5-10 m are recommended for surface sampling. Subsurface samples must also be spatially located, but with transects or grids with longer distances between sampling points over the entire area. Composite soil samples would not provide a complete

  9. Population structure and reproduction of Deuterodon langei travassos, 1957 (Teleostei, Characidae in a neotropical stream basin from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology of D. langei were studied at different sites along a longitudinal gradient formed by the Ribeirão stream basin, a Neotropical stream of the Atlantic Forest, southern Brazil. Differences were observed in population structure and reproduction along the longitudinal gradient and during the study period. Juvenile fishes occurred in high abundance, mainly in the downstream site after the rainy months. Adults occurred mainly in the intermediate and upstream sites. During their life cycle, adults optimise their reproductive strategy by concentrating the reproductive period with total spawn in a short time interval before summer rains dragged the juvenile, larval forms and/or eggs downstream. The downstream site was characterized by a wide range of microhabitats (ex. submerged grass and shallow flooded area. Thus, the species used different portions of the basin in distinct stages of its life, being ecologically adapted to variation patterns in its temporal and physical environments.Aspectos da biologia de D. langei foram estudados em diferentes locais da bacia do rio Ribeirão, um riacho litorâneo da Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil. Foram observadas diferenças na estrutura da população e na reprodução, ao longo do gradiente longitudinal da bacia e do período de estudo. Os peixes juvenis ocorreram em grande abundância, principalmente no trecho a jusante da bacia, após os meses mais chuvosos. Adultos ocorreram principalmente nos trechos intermediários e a montante. Não houve diferença significativa na relação sexual entre os locais amostrados, estações do ano, meses e classes de comprimento. O comprimento médio de primeira maturação (L50 foi o mesmo para machos e fêmeas, entre 6,1 e 7,0 cm de comprimento total (Lt. O período reprodutivo foi curto (entre o final da primavera e início do verão, antes dos meses mais chuvosos, com desova total. O Índice de Atividade Reprodutiva (IAR indicou que D

  10. Doenças em eucaliptos destinados à produção de energia na região Sul do Brasil Impacts of diseases on eucalypts used for energy forests in southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Garcia Auer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    O eucalipto é o segundo gênero florestal mais plantado na região Sul do Brasil, para a produção de celulose, papel e energia. A expansão contínua dos plantios comerciais de eucalipto na região Sul do Brasil tem levado ao aumento na incidência e severidade de doenças. O presente trabalho discute a ocorrência e a distribuição de doenças do eucalipto nessa região, as espécies suscetíveis e os agentes causais. Estratégias de controle como o mapeamento de áreas de risco, o uso de material genético resistente e o controle químico são medidas adequadas para minimizar os impactos negativos na produção de madeira para energia. As doenças, em especial a ferrugem do eucalipto, que reduzem a produtividade e a qualidade da madeira foram consideradas as mais importantes e que devem ser controladas.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.373

    Eucalypts are the second forest species most planted in Southern Brazil, for production of cellulose, paper and energy. The continued expansion of commercial plantations in southern Brazil region has led to an increase on incidence and severity of diseases. The present work discusses the occurrence and distribution of diseases associated to this region, susceptible species, and causal agents. Strategies for control such as mapping of risk areas, use of resistant genetic material and chemical control are adequate measures to minimize negative impacts on wood production for energy. Diseases, as eucalypt rust, that reduce the productivity and wood quality were considered the most important and must be controlled.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.373

  11. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  12. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÁUDIA ROHDE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments.

  13. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae under external stress in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Vibrans

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of the Floristic and Forest inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000km². In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest inventory (IFN-BR, the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m² plots (20x50m each, located on a 10x10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH≥10cm are measured and collected (fertile and sterile, if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height>1.50m; DBHEste estudio es parte del inventario Florístico Forestal de Santa Catarina, realizado para evaluar los recursos forestales, la composición de especies y la estructura de remanentes de bosque, y proporciona información para actualizar la conservación de los bosques y políticas de uso de la tierra en el estado brasileño de Santa Catarina (95 000km². El inventario se aplica al muestreo sistemático, de 440 conglomerados en cuatro parcelas de 1 000m² cada una, situados en una red de 10x10km. Dentro de las parcelas, todos los individuos leñosos (DAP≥10cm fueron medidos. El estrato de regeneración (altura>1.50m, DAP<10cm se registra en 100m² en cada conglomerado. Este estudio realiza un análisis de 92 conglomerados medidos en 2008 dentro de un área de 32 320km² de bosques ombrófilos mixtos con Araucaria angustifolia ubicados en el altiplano del estado. La densidad media (DAP≥10cm es de 578 individuos/ha (desde 85/ha hasta 1 310/ha, la media de la riqueza de especies en los remanentes es de 35 (8-62, la diversidad (H’ de Shannon y Wiener varía entre 1.05 y 3.48. A pesar de la alta diversidad total de especies (364 Magnoliophyta, cinco Coniferophyta y un

  14. Edge effects in the primate community of the biological dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Bryan B; Jack, Katharine M; Spironello, Wilson R

    2014-11-01

    While much is known about abiotic and vegetative edge effects in tropical forests, considerably less is known about the impact of forest edges on large mammals. In this study, we examine edge effects in a primate community to determine: 1) the distance from the edge over which edge effects in primate density are detectable, 2) whether individual species exhibit edge effects in their density, and 3) whether biological characteristics can be used to predict primate presence in edge habitats. Given their importance to many primate species, we also examine the influence of the number of large trees. We found edge penetration distances of 150 m for the five species that experienced edge effects, suggesting that primates respond to edge-related changes in the plant community that are known to be strongest over the first 150 m. Four species had higher edge densities: Alouatta macconnelli (folivore-frugivore), Chiropotes chiropotes (frugivorous seed predator), Saguinus midas (frugivore-faunivore), and Sapajus apella apella (frugivore-faunivore); one species' density was lower: Ateles paniscus (frugivore); and the final species, Pithecia chrysocephala (frugivorous seed predator), did not show an edge-related pattern. The lone significant relationship between the biological characteristics examined (body weight, diet, group size, and home range size) and primate presence in edge habitats was a negative relationship with the amount of fruit consumed. Though we did not examine primate responses to edges that border a denuded matrix, we have shown that edges influence primate distribution even following decades of secondary forest regeneration at habitat edges. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Sandflies (Diptera, Psychodidae) from forest areas in Botucatu municipality, central western São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2013-06-13

    The study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of Leishmania spp. infection. In the present study, sandflies were captured in native fragmented forest areas in Rubião Júnior district, Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, Brazil, between September 2001 and January 2005. A minimum of two automatic light traps were installed per night from 6 pm to 8 am, in different months, resulting in approximately 900 collecting hours. During this period, 216 sandfly specimens of sixteen species were captured. Pintomyia monticola and Brumptomyia guimaraesi were the most abundant with 56 specimens (25.93%) captured per species, followed by Pintomyia fischeri 28 (12.96%) and Psathyromyia pascalei 18 (8.33%). Other captured species were Lutzomyia amarali, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae, Pintomyia misionensis, Brumptomyia carvalheiroi, Brumptomyia cardosoi, Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Brumptomyia brumpti and Brumptomyia spp. represented by 58 (26.85%) specimens. Although less frequently found, the presence of Pintomyia fischeri, Nyssomyia whitmani and Migonemyia migonei, known vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, indicates risk of American cutaneous leishmaniasis occurrence. Moreover, the absence of Lutzomyia longipalpis-the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi, which is the agent of American visceral leishmaniasis-suggests that there is no risk of introduction and establishment of this disease in the studied area.

  16. Feeding habits of the leaf litter frog Haddadus binotatus (Anura, Craugastoridae from two Atlantic Forest areas in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÍVIA COCO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio de Janeiro and in 2009 and 2010 in the state of Espírito Santo. Haddadus binotatus presented a rich diet composition, preying 19 prey types. Orthoptera, Coleoptera, and Blattodea were the most important preys in the Rio de Janeiro population, and Orthoptera, Araneae and Hemiptera were the most important in the Espírito Santo population. The diet composition differed numerically between the two localities, but not in terms of volume, which can reflect local differences in the prey availability in the two habitats. The jaw width limited the size of prey, which is expected for predators who swallow the preys without chewing. The proportion of individuals with empty stomachs was higher in the Rio de Janeiro population (39.2% than in the Espírito Santo population (17.9%, suggesting that the former could be in a lower energy balance. The females of the species were larger than the males, which may result from the production of larger eggs.

  17. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Borba-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p1 Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  18. Community structure and functional diversity of polypores (Basidiomycota in the Atlantic Forest of Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Borba-Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies have suggested that different groups of polypore species, acting as parasites and/or saprophytes, degrade different types of woody substrates. These functional groups have different decay capabilities and hence different roles in ecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe the community (species composition and their functionality inferred on the basis of substrate preference of wood-decaying polypores in the Atlantic Forest of Parque Nacional da Serra do Itajaí, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The polypore specimens and data on the substrates were sampled in two plots (100×50 m. Among 152 specimens collected, 58 species were identified. Three main dominant groups were identified. The first group comprised three dominant species, the second group five subordinate species and the third 50 rare species. The species were ordered using cluster correspondence analysis based on relative frequency of the species in the different types of substrates and the mean size of the substrate where basidiomes were found. Five functional groups were recognized: two of them were formed by Phylloporia species (P. spathulata on living roots in the ground and P. chrysita on living trunk; and three others consisted of different species of different genera, each of them characterized by the presence of one dominant, few subordinate and several rare species.

  19. Different slopes of a mountain can determine the structure of ferns and lycophytes communities in a tropical forest of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELIPE C. NETTESHEIM

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A community of Ferns and Lycophytes was investigated by comparing the occurrence of species on different slopes of a paleoisland in Southeastern Brazil. Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that slopes with different geographic orientations determine a differentiation of Atlantic Forest ferns and lycophytes community. We recorded these plants at slopes turned towards the continent and at slopes turned towards the open sea. Analysis consisted of a preliminary assessment on fern beta diversity, a Non Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and a Student t-test to confirm if sites sampling units ordination was different at each axis. We further used the Pearson coefficient to relate fern species to the differentiation pattern and again Student's t-test to determine if richness, plant cover and abundance varied between the two sites. There was a relatively low number of shared species between the two sites and ferns and lycophytes community variation was confirmed. Some species were detected as indicators of the community variation but we were unable to detect richness, plant cover or abundance differences. Despite the evidence of this variation between the slopes, further works are needed to evaluate which processes are contributing to determine this pattern.

  20. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  1. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E P; Morgado, L N; Souza, B; Carvalho, C F; Nemésio, A

    2013-08-01

    The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin) and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema) nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens), followed by Euglossa (Euglossa) truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%). Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species), followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species) and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species). Eulaema (Apeulaema) marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899) were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  2. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  3. Community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EP. Pires

    Full Text Available The community of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina was studied at an area in the transition between the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes, from March, 2010 to February, 2011 in the Barroso region, state of Minas Gerais, eastern Brazil. Orchid-bee males were collected with bait traps containing three different scents (cineole, eugenol and vanillin and with entomological nets for collecting bees on flowers. A total of 614 orchid-bee males were collected using aromatic traps, belonging to four genera and 15 species. Twenty-five female specimens belonging to two genera and at least three species were collected on flowers. Eulaema (Apeulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 was the most abundant species (50% of collected specimens, followed by Euglossa (Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure, 1996 (28%. Cineole was the most attractive compound (66.5% of males and 13 species, followed by eugenol (16% and 9 species and vanillin (13.5% and 4 species. Eulaema (Apeulaema marcii Nemésio, 2009 and Eufriesea auriceps (Friese, 1899 were attracted to all scents, whereas Euglossa species were collected only in cineole and eugenol.

  4. Uso de serviços odontológicos entre idosos brasileiros Utilization of dental services among the elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a utilização de serviços odontológicos e seus determinantes entre idosos brasileiros. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos os idosos participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde realizado em 2002 e 2003 que usaram algum serviço odontológico pelo menos uma vez na vida. Dentados e edentados foram comparados e analisados separadamente, utilizando regressão logística múltipla. RESULTADOS: Dos 5 009 participantes, 46,0% eram dentados e 54,0% edentados. A prevalência de uso de serviço odontológico no último ano foi 26,6 e 10,4%, respectivamente. Entre dentados, o uso foi maior entre aqueles com maior escolaridade, que percebiam sua mastigação como p��ssima/ruim e que relataram sensibilidade dolorosa; e menor entre os que não receberam informações sobre saúde bucal, que percebiam sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima, que tinham menor renda per capita, que precisavam de prótese e já a usavam, que precisavam de prótese e não a usavam, que tinham problemas periodontais e maior número de dentes extraídos. Entre edentados, o uso foi maior entre aqueles com maior escolaridade e os que relataram sensibilidade dolorosa; e menor entre os idosos identificados como não-brancos e os que não receberam informações sobre saúde bucal. CONCLUSÃO: A saúde bucal dos idosos brasileiros é precária e o uso de serviços odontológicos foi menor entre os que mais necessitavam. Diferentes fatores estiveram associados ao uso entre dentados e edentados. Apenas a escolaridade, o acesso a informações sobre saúde bucal e a dor nos dentes ou gengiva nos últimos 3 meses foram comuns aos dois estratos. São necessários investimentos públicos em saúde bucal para reverter esse quadro.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of dental services use and its determinants among the elderly in Brazil. METHODS: The study included the elderly participating in the Ministry of Health of Brazil’s oral health survey

  5. Diversity of bryophytes in priority areas for conservation in the Atlantic forest of northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Patrícia Pereira Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest is the region with the greatest diversity of bryophytes in the country. However, knowledge about bryophytes is irregularly distributed among Brazilian regions. Therefore, we aimed to contribute to knowledge about bryophytes on a regional scale in the northeastern Atlantic forest, to identify the centers of bryophyte diversity in that region, and to reiterate the importance and identify locations for which new protected areas should be created. We built a database of bryophytes in 23 locations of the region, based on a literature review and new floristic inventories. To identify the locations of greatest relevance to bryophyte conservation, we considered 1 total and endemic species richness, 2 phylogenetic diversity (PD, and 3 functional diversity (proportion of shade specialists. The northeastern Atlantic rainforest contains 396 spp., representing 26% of the taxa occurring in the country, 13 of which are endemic. Generalist species predominated (164 spp., followed by shade (133 spp. and sun (92 spp. specialists. The Murici Ecological Station had the highest richness, number of endemic species, and phylogenetic diversity.

  6. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  7. Phosphorus 32 cycling in the root-litter mat of Pernambuco atlantic coastal forest, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salcedo, I.H.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Elliott, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a compartmental model to describe P cycling in the root-litter mat and surface mineral soil of an Atlantic coastal forest. Considerable amounts of P accumulate in this root-litter mat, relative to available P in the underlying mineral soil. We studied the mechanisms responsible for P retention five days after addition of sup(32)P on the surface of the 02 horizon. Total sup(31)P and sup(32)P were determined in leaves, humus, mineral soil and roots. In addition, we determined sup(31)P and sup(32)P in the solution and microbial biomass of the humus material. Fluxes of sup(31)P were obtained from published data and from experimental results of sup(32)P distribution among compartments. The main fluxes taking P out from the soils solution were uptake by the microbial biomass and sorption by the humus (12.9 e 5.2 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1), respectively), while the mean flux into the roots was 3.1 mg P m sup(-2) week sup(-1). The main compartment responsible for P accumulation was the humus+fragments, which had the highest P content (61% of total P in the forest floor) and the longest turnover time (15.5 months). (author)

  8. Global warming response options in Brazil's forest sector: comparison of project-level costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    A project-level assessment of monetary and carbon costs and benefits for five classes of global warming response options in the forest sector is attempted for typical Brazilian conditions. Options considered are: silvicultural plantations (for pulp, charcoal and sawlogs), sustainable timber management and reduction of deforestation. Comparison of pulpwood and sawlog plantations with the vegetation characteristic of deforested areas indicates of modest carbon benefit. Plantations for charcoal can produce a substantial carbon benefit through fossil fuel substitution, but much of this calculated benefit disappears if discount rates greater than zero are applied to carbon. Sustainable timber management, when compared with existing forest, represents a net carbon loss, accumulation of carbon in wood products being insufficient to compensate for biomass reduction over a 100 year time scale. Reduction of deforestation has great potential as a global warming response option, its per-hectare carbon benefits being approximately four times that of silvicultural plantation establishment for pulp and sawlogs over a 100 year period. The costs of reducing deforestation are difficult to assess, however, due to the importance of government policy changes such as removal of land speculation and land tenure establishment as motives for clearing. Although these changes would not cost money and would have tremendous carbon and other benefits, they have not yet occurred. (Author)

  9. Diet of Astyanax species (Teleostei, Characidae in an Atlantic Forest River in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silveira Vilella

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of six species of Astyanax from river Maquiné are described. Fishes were sampled bi-monthly from November/95 to September/96 in two zones of the river. Items were identified, counted and had their abundance estimated according to a semi-quantitative scale. Frequency of occurrence, alimentary importance index (IFI values and a similarity analysis of diets for each species-river zone sample were examined. All the species were considered typically omnivorous, with insects and vegetal matter being the most important items in their diet. These species could act as seed dispersers, particularly for macrophytes. Intra-specific spatial differences were not observed in comparisons of samples from two diferent regions of the river, except for A. fasciatus. The presence of Podostemaceae macrophytes in the mid-course of the river seemed to be important both as an autochthonous food resource and as habitat for several organisms preyed by the Astyanax species.Seis espécies do gênero Astyanax, presentes no rio Maquiné, RS, foram estudadas quanto aos seus hábitos alimentares. Os exemplares foram amostrados bimensalmente de novembro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 nas zonas ritral e potamal do rio. Os itens alimentares foram identificados e quantificados de acordo com uma escala semi-quantitativa de abundância, utilizando-se para análise a frequência de ocorrência e um índice de importância alimentar para cada espécie e zona do rio. Análises multivariadas de agrupamento e ordenação foram utilizadas para comparar as dietas intra e interespecíficas. Todas as espécies foram consideradas onivoras, sendo que os itens mais importantes foram os insetos e restos de vegetais superiores. Sugere-se que as espécies estudadas possam atuar como dispersoras de sementes, particularmente para macrófitas. Diferenças espaciais intraespecíficas não foram encontradas, exceto para A. fasciatus. A presença de Podostemaceae no curso médio do rio parece

  10. Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil Seed rain of woody species in mosaics of Araucaria forest and grasslands in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Marchesini Grassotti dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mecanismos de dispersão de diásporos e recrutamento de plântulas evitam a competição intra-específica e possibilitam a colonização de novos ambientes. Em áreas de transição entre florestas e vegetação campestre esses processos não são aleatórios, e sim associados muitas vezes a indivíduos lenhosos isolados em tais áreas de campo ou a formações arbustivas. No sul do Brasil, as Florestas com Araucária formam mosaicos com áreas campestres e observa-se o avanço da floresta sobre os campos. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais associadas a áreas de ecótonos de Floresta com Araucária e campos e a indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Os estudos foram realizados no Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata PUCRS, em São Francisco de Paula, RS, em vegetação campestre excluída de fogo e de pastejo há 16 anos, circundada por florestas. A chuva de sementes foi avaliada mensalmente por um período de oito meses com o uso de coletores que foram posicionados em ecótonos de floresta e campos com diferentes fisionomias e sob indivíduos lenhosos isolados na matriz campestre. Tais ambientes foram comparados através de análise de variância univariada e multivariada para verificar padrões de chuva de sementes. Os resultados indicaram que a dispersão de sementes em áreas campestres ocorre preferencialmente associada a indivíduos isolados de Araucaria angustifolia e a formações arbustivas de Baccharis uncinella e que tais ambientes funcionariam como extensões de condições mais semelhantes à floresta na matriz campestre.Mechanisms of seed dispersal and recruitment avoid intraspecific competition and allow plants to colonize new habitats. In transition areas between forest and grassland, these processes are not spatially random, but are often associated with isolated woody individuals in the grassland or with areas of continuous shrub cover. In

  11. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  12. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana N Docile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the Onchocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 % in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 % in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 % in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII differed in rela&tion to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatumand S. pertinaxwere significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted

  13. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  14. Diversity of Social Wasps on Semideciduous Seasonal Forest Fragments with Different Surrounding Matrix in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Minoru Tanaka Junior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed social wasps (Polistinae present in forest fragments of northwest of São Paulo state with different surroundings composed of a matrix of citrus crops and sugarcane in the expectation that the former matrix would be more diverse than the latter. We collected specimens actively using attractive liquids. We obtained 20 species in Magda, 13 in Bebedouro, 13 in Matão, and 19 in Barretos. The most common genus was Agelaia in all of the areas. The greatest Shannon-Wiener index of diversity was obtained in Magda (H′=2.12. Species such as Brachygastra moebiana, Metapolybia docilis, Mischocyttarus ignotus, M. paulistanus and M. consimilis had not been recorded on recent surveys in the state. Furthermore M. consimilis is a new record for the state. We concluded that, with our data, a relation between the occurrence of social wasps and the surrounding matrix was not detected.

  15. Diversity and Structure of the Gama Gallery Forest in Central Brazil in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tramontina Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity and structure of the tree community of the Gama gallery forest, in the Federal District, in 2009. A total of 151 permanent plots of 10×20 m were allocated continually along ten lines perpendicular to the watercourse. All individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH equal or greater than 10 cm were tagged and measured. In total, 114 species in 52 families and 96 genera were identified. The density was 643 ind.ha-1, the basal area was 31.52 m2.ha-1 and 13 species were frequently at least in 25% of the plots. The Shannon index was 3.91 nats.ind-1 and the Pielou index was 82%, expressing the good conservation condition and the high diversity of the vegetation. The diameter distribution curve showed an "inverted J" pattern.

  16. Application of the gamma-ray attenuation technique to forest sciences in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marcos Antonio de; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Bruder, Edson Marcelo [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica]. E-mail: rezende@ibb.unesp.br

    2005-07-01

    The study of the physical characteristics of wood is fundamental to its correct utilization by the industry and to an efficient exploitation of this raw material. The most important characteristics of wood are the specific gravity, the shrinkage and the porosity. Those traits are related one to each other and to mechanic resistance and hygroscopicity. The present work proposes the utilization of the gamma-ray attenuation technique, through a sealed source of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am with an activity of 7.4 GBq and an energy of 60 keV, to the determination of physical characteristics of the wood of Pinus tecunumannii, Liquidambar styraciflua and Eucalyptus grandis from cultivated fields of Duratex S/A, in Agudos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This work presents the advantages and the facilities of the utilization of this technique in the qualitative and quantitative study of the wood from reforestation fields. This technique is employed to determine the specific gravity of a material through the attenuation of gamma-ray after crossing a sample of uniform thickness. Results revealed superior quality of wood to the species L. styraciflua, followed by E. grandis. Considerable variation in the physical properties of the sample of P. tecunumannii was observed along the radial sense, indicating that this species is highly responsive to climatic factors. The more uniform wood of E. grandis and L. styraciflua suggest that these species may be more adapted to the climatic conditions of the Sao Paulo State than P. tecunumannii. (author)

  17. Home range and density of three sympatric felids in the Southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Kasper

    Full Text Available Abstract Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus, margay (Lepardus wiedii and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.

  18. Application of the gamma-ray attenuation technique to forest sciences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Marcos Antonio de; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro; Bruder, Edson Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    The study of the physical characteristics of wood is fundamental to its correct utilization by the industry and to an efficient exploitation of this raw material. The most important characteristics of wood are the specific gravity, the shrinkage and the porosity. Those traits are related one to each other and to mechanic resistance and hygroscopicity. The present work proposes the utilization of the gamma-ray attenuation technique, through a sealed source of the radioisotope 241 Am with an activity of 7.4 GBq and an energy of 60 keV, to the determination of physical characteristics of the wood of Pinus tecunumannii, Liquidambar styraciflua and Eucalyptus grandis from cultivated fields of Duratex S/A, in Agudos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This work presents the advantages and the facilities of the utilization of this technique in the qualitative and quantitative study of the wood from reforestation fields. This technique is employed to determine the specific gravity of a material through the attenuation of gamma-ray after crossing a sample of uniform thickness. Results revealed superior quality of wood to the species L. styraciflua, followed by E. grandis. Considerable variation in the physical properties of the sample of P. tecunumannii was observed along the radial sense, indicating that this species is highly responsive to climatic factors. The more uniform wood of E. grandis and L. styraciflua suggest that these species may be more adapted to the climatic conditions of the Sao Paulo State than P. tecunumannii. (author)

  19. Análise do mosaico silvático em um fragmento de floresta tropical estacional no sudeste do Brasil Silvatic mosaic analysis in a fragment of a tropical seasonal forest in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cardoso Leite

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado na "Mata da Câmara", um fragmento de floresta estacional semidecídual localizado em São Roque, SP, e teve como objetivos a identificação e análise do mosaico silvático, discutindo-se a arquitetura atual da floresta e inferindo sobre sua dinâmica de construção. Utilizou-se o método de inventário de linhas interceptadas, em que se amostraram três áreas de 50 × 105 m. Os resultados indicaram que as porcentagens de área ocupada por ecounidades em equilíbrio 2A foram de 46,8%, 48,6% e 75,7%, respectivamente nas três áreas estudadas. Pode-se concluir que na área A há uma floresta jovem, na área B uma floresta em fase de pré-maturidade com sinais de perturbações recentes e antigas e na área C uma floresta madura com alguns sinais de perturbações antigas. Comparando os resultados desta análise com aqueles obtidos através de levantamento fitossociológico, realizado na mesma área, a análise silvigenética mostrou ser mais uma importante ferramenta para discussão da dinâmica florestal, mas que em alguns caso tende a superestimar o grau de maturidade das florestas. No contexto dos fragmentos florestais remanescentes do Estado de São Paulo, pode-se dizer que a Mata da Câmara representa uma área de floresta relativamente bem preservada.This study was carried out in "Mata da Câmara", a fragment of a seasonal semideciduous forest, in São Roque - SP, Brazil. The objective of the present work was to identify and analyze the silvatic mosaic, by discussing its current architectural aspects and inferring about its construction dynamics. The line-intercept inventory method was used in three 50 x 105 m areas. The results showed that percentages of the area occupied by 2A steady-state eco-units, were 46.8%, 48.6%, and 75.7% for areas A, B and C respectively. It can be concluded that there is a young forest in area A; a pre-mature forest with signs of both recent and old disturbances in area B, and in

  20. Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Francisco J. P.; Ferreira, Rinaldo L. C.; Marangon, Luiz C.; Silva, José A. A. da; Aparício, Perseu da S.; Alves Júnior, Francisco T.

    2009-01-01

    Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ≥ 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivídu...

  1. The Declining Cocoa Economy and the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil: Conservation Attitudes of Cocoa Planters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Keith; Caldas, Marcellus

    1994-01-01

    Causes of the degradation of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the southeastern cocoa region of the State of Bahia are investigated by means of a survey on cocoa planter's forest conservation attitudes. Policies encouraging private forest conservation, and development of forest-conserving agricultural alternatives for landless poor are recommended. (LZ)

  2. Survival, growth and reproduction by big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in open clearing vs. forested conditions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; Mark Schulze; Jurandir Galvao

    2010-01-01

    Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) trees are often retained in agricultural fields and pastures for seed and timber production after selective logging and forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon. At a forest management site in southeast Para´, we censused trees growing scattered across a large open clearing after forest removal and in heavily disturbed forest...

  3. Knowledge, use and management of native wild edible plants from a seasonal dry forest (NE, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Margarita Paloma; Peroni, Nivaldo; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-11-26

    Despite being an ancient practice that satisfies basic human needs, the use of wild edible plants tends to be forgotten along with associated knowledge in rural communities. The objective of this work is to analyze existing relationships between knowledge, use, and management of native wild edible plants and socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation. The field work took place between 2009 and 2010 in the community of Carão, Altinho municipality, in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 members of the community regarding knowledge, use and management of 14 native wild edible plants from the Caatinga region, corresponding to 12 vegetable species. In parallel, we documented the socioeconomic aspects of the interviewed population (age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation). Knowledge about edible plants was related to age but not to current occupation or use. Current use was not associated with age, gender or occupation. The association between age and past use may indicate abandonment of these resources. Because conservation of the species is not endangered by their use but by deforestation of the ecosystems in which these plants grow, we suggest that the promotion and consumption of the plants by community members is convenient and thereby stimulates the appropriation and consequent protection of the ecosystem. To promote consumption of these plants, it is important to begin by teaching people about plant species that can be used for their alimentation, disproving existing myths about plant use, and encouraging diversification of use by motivating the invention of new preparation methods. An example of how this can be achieved is through events like the "Preserves Festival".

  4. Knowledge, use and management of native wild edible plants from a seasonal dry forest (NE, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite being an ancient practice that satisfies basic human needs, the use of wild edible plants tends to be forgotten along with associated knowledge in rural communities. The objective of this work is to analyze existing relationships between knowledge, use, and management of native wild edible plants and socioeconomic factors such as age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation. Methods The field work took place between 2009 and 2010 in the community of Carão, Altinho municipality, in the state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 members of the community regarding knowledge, use and management of 14 native wild edible plants from the Caatinga region, corresponding to 12 vegetable species. In parallel, we documented the socioeconomic aspects of the interviewed population (age, gender, family income, individual income, past occupation and current occupation). Results Knowledge about edible plants was related to age but not to current occupation or use. Current use was not associated with age, gender or occupation. The association between age and past use may indicate abandonment of these resources. Conclusion Because conservation of the species is not endangered by their use but by deforestation of the ecosystems in which these plants grow, we suggest that the promotion and consumption of the plants by community members is convenient and thereby stimulates the appropriation and consequent protection of the ecosystem. To promote consumption of these plants, it is important to begin by teaching people about plant species that can be used for their alimentation, disproving existing myths about plant use, and encouraging diversification of use by motivating the invention of new preparation methods. An example of how this can be achieved is through events like the “Preserves Festival”. PMID:24279311

  5. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  6. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbek-Araujo, A C; Chiarello, A G

    2008-11-01

    Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station--SLBS). Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days), 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%), and predominantly during daytime (89%). They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border ( 0.05 in all cases), suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed.

  7. Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2004-11-01

    Parakeets usually forage for massive and ephemeral plant resources at forest canopies. Fruit pulp is widely cited as a major food resource for these birds, which often eat seeds and nectar. In this study, I assessed flower and fruit production at a gallery forest in the Pantanal flood plain (Brazil) in order to evaluate the relationship between food resource production and abundance of a common parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri. Also, I evaluated the relationship between food resource production and foraging activity. Parakeet abundance varied markedly along the year, coinciding with massive episodes of flower and fleshy fruit availability. Inga vera nectar, intensely used during the latter part of dry season, was by far the most exploited food item by parakeets when they were very abundant. The nectar comprised 34% of the parakeets' diet (N = 131 feeding records) at the gallery forest, while fleshy fruits made up the rest. Parakeets principally exploited fruits of Cecropia pachystachya and Ficus luschnathiana, besides palm fruits and Inga vera arils. The consistent relationship between foraging activity and parakeet abundance, as well as the coincidence between fluctuations of these parameters and availability of major food resources, suggests that food availability mostly influenced B. chiriri occurrence in the gallery forest. Furthermore, I found no evidence for gallery forest use for roosting and/or breeding, in spite of the fact that such factors usually influence local parakeet abundance.

  8. Tree community structure in a seasonally dry tropical forest remnant, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mattos Guimarães Apgaua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs investigate phytogeographic patterns and floristic connections of this disjunct biome. However, little is known about the structural characteristics of SDTFs. We aimed to describe the structure of a SDTF in an ecotonal area between the Cerrado and Caatinga domains. In total, 79 tree species were recorded, and high values of Shannon diversity index (3.6 nats/individual and equability (0.83 were observed. The diameter distribution for the species with higher cover values and for the entire community did not exhibit a reverse-J shaped distribution, which indicates the occurrence of different growth strategies and ecological adaptations to water stress. The results did not indicate the formation of floristic groups, as the high soil fertility in the study area results in a homogeneous environment. The structural characteristics of the study area associated with the soil composition highlight its importance for conservation and emphasize the need for community structure studies in SDTFs.

  9. Autoecology of Dryadosaura nordestina (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae from Atlantic forest fragments in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian A. Garda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Life history parameters such as diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism are crucial to understand ecological and evolutionary forces shaping species traits. Nevertheless, such information is scant in the literature for most Neotropical squamates. Gymnophthalmidae contains over 242 species in 46 genera and includes small-size, mostly terrestrial species, although psamophilic, semi-aquatic, and low vegetation dwellers also occur. Dryadosaura is a monospecific genus - Dryadosaura nordestina Rodrigues et al., 2005 - , occurring in Atlantic Forest areas from Rio Grande do Norte to Northern Bahia, and little is known about its ecology and natural history. We analyzed the species' diet, reproduction, and sexual dimorphism based on 170 specimens deposited in museum collections. Dryadosaura nordestina is considered generalist and active forager, based on dietary items. Arthropods, especially ants and insect larvae, dominate the diet. The reproductive period shows a peak during the rainy season (May through June, while recruitment occurs from July through November. Males are significantly larger than females, and sexes can also be distinguished based on shape variables: males have higher heads and longer bodies, while body height and width are larger in females.

  10. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Alencar

    Full Text Available To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators. Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  11. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed.

  12. Habitat selection by owls in a seasonal semi-deciduous forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Menq

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper tested the hypothesis that the structural components of vegetation have impact over the distribution of owl species in a fragment of a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. This paper also determined which vegetation variables contributed to the spatial distribution of owl species. It was developed in the Perobas Biological Reserve (PBR between September and December 2011. To conduct the owl census, a playback technique was applied at hearing points distributed to cover different vegetation types in the study area. A total of 56 individual owls of six species were recorded: Tropical Screech-Owl (Megascops choliba, Black-capped Screech-Owl (Megascops atricapilla, Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum, Mottled Owl (Strix virgata and Stygian Owl (Asio stygius. The results suggest that the variables of vegetation structure have impact on the occurrence of owls. The canopy height, the presence of hollow trees, fallen trees and glades are the most important structural components influencing owl distribution in the sampled area.

  13. Anthropophily of Lutzomyia wellcomei (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, José Hilário Tavares da; Inacio, Cássio Lázaro Silva; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson) (Diptera: Psychodidae) can act as an important vector of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis This study presents the results of collections carried out in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in a Conservation Unit of Rio Grande do Norte state. Collections occurred over 12 consecutive months using Shannon and CDC traps. A total of 777 sand flies from eight species were collected: Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead), Lutzomyia evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes), Lutzomyia wellcomei (Fraiha, Shaw & Lainson), Lutzomyia sordellii (Shannon & Del Ponte), Lutzomyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Lutzomyia lenti (Mangabeira), Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), and Lutzomyia abonnenci (Floch & Chassignet). Lutzomyia wellcomei was the most abundant species using the Shannon trap (97%) and L. walkeri in the CDC trap (81%). It is important to note the abundance of L. wellcomei in Shannon trap collections, which favors the capture of anthropophilic species. Lutzomyia wellcomei was only present in months where rainfall was above 100 mm, confirming it as a species adapted to wetter months. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biodiversity and Temporal Distribution of Immature Culicidae in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Gleiser, Raquel M.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of biodiversity and identify larval habitats used by immature mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest, we conducted a study in areas with various stages of preservation within the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve in Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro state. The Culicidae fauna were sampled during February, April, June, August, October, and December 2012; February, March, April, May, June, August, October, and December 2013; and January and March 2014. Immature mosquitoes were collected with dippers and suction tubes (mouth aspirators). Over the sampling period, 2697 larvae of 56 species were collected, some of which are recognized vectors of human diseases. The larval mosquito community found in artificial habitats, temporary ground water, and phytotelmata differed between sites, except for the mosquito fauna in bromeliads, which were almost 80% similar. Species segregation was more evident between larval habitats than between sites. Culex usquatus was the dominant species and colonized the highest number of larval habitats. The artificial larval habitats found in REGUA were colonized by a great diversity of species and high abundance as well, thus human artifacts left by the public in the area that collect water may promote an increase in mosquito populations. Among the species collected, some are known or suspected vectors of pathogens to humans and/or veterinary relevance, and their medical relevance is discussed. PMID:27404496

  15. Species composition and similarities among anuran assemblages of forest sites in southeastern Brazil Composição de espécies e similaridades entre taxocenoses de anuros de áreas florestais do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical forests show high anuran species richness, but some Brazilian forest formations, like cerradão, semideciduous forests and restingas, remain poorly known. The composition of anuran species were determined for four forest sites belonging to different biomes in southeastern Brazil, based on two complementary techniques (visual encounter survey and survey on breeding sites, both applied simultaneously. A total of 60 anuran species belonging to eight families was recorded. Species richness and levels of endemism were higher in the Atlantic rainforest site. Sites located in the Cerrado domain were more alike than those located in the Atlantic Forest Domain. Similarity in anuran species composition was negatively correlated to the geographical distance among sites, which explains part of similarities in species composition. Factors affecting these occurrence patterns are discussed. One species (if its identity is confirmed is considered Data Deficient by IUCN (The World Conservation Union, though it is not included in the Brazilian list of threatened amphibians. The presence of certain species with special habitats and microclimate requirements (bioindicators suggests well-preserved ecosystems.As florestas neotropicais apresentam altas riquezas de espécies de anuros, mas algumas formações florestais brasileiras, como o cerradão, as florestas semidecíduas e as restingas, permanecem pouco conhecidas. A composição de espécies de anuros de quatro áreas florestais pertencentes a diferentes biomas do sudeste do Brasil foi determinada com base em duas técnicas complementares (procura visual e investigação nos sítios reprodutivos, aplicadas de forma simultânea. Registramos um total de 60 espécies de anuros, incluídas em oito famílias. A riqueza de espécies e o nível de endemismo foram maiores na área coberta por floresta pluvial atlântica. As áreas localizadas no domínio do Cerrado foram mais similares entre si do que as

  16. Soil attributes under agroecosystems and forest vegetation in the coastal tablelands of northestern Brazil Atributos de solo de agroecossistemas e coberturas florestais dos tabuleiros costeiros do nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Vasconcellos Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the changes occurred in a set of soil attributes, particularly those related to the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC, as a function of the replacement of native forest for agricultural ecosystems of regional importance in the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil (orange, coconut, eucalyptus and sugarcane. Six commercial sites under these agroecosystems were compared to neighboring areas of native forest in five areas along this region (Coruripe, Umbaúba, Acajutiba, Cruz das Almas and Nova Viçosa. Soil samples were taken from 0-5 and 5-20 cm depth and analyzed for particle size distribution, bulk density, organic C (OC, particulate organic matter, C in soil solution, microbial biomass C, total cation exchange capacity and water stable aggregates. Linear correlation and multivariate techniques were used for data analysis. The values of base saturation and Al saturation for the 0-20 cm depth layer were also calculated. In all the studied areas, soils under native forest presented better status of physical and chemical attributes than their agroecosystem counterparts, especially in the 0-5 cm layer. For both layers, OC content was the attribute most strongly correlated with the overall changes in all attributes. Unexpectedly, the OC content showed no significant correlation with the sum of silt and clay contents. The set of variables investigated in this study is sensitive to differentiate the quality of soils under perennial and semi-perennial land uses from their counterparts under natural vegetation in the landscapes of the coastal tablelands of Northeastern Brazil.Este trabalho avaliou as alterações de um conjunto de atributos de solos dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste do Brasil, em especial os relacionados à dinâmica do C orgânico (CO, em função da substituição da vegetação florestal nativa por agroecossistemas de importância regional (laranja, coco, eucalipto e cana-de-açúcar. Seis s

  17. Feeding ecology of the Green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae in dry forests in western Brazil Ecologia alimentar da Tiriba-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura molinae em matas secas do oeste brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pyrrhura includes small to medium-sized parakeets, which inhabit both low and dry alongside tall rainforests, mainly in South America. Pyrrhura molinae is still common, year round, in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil. This parakeet, as well as most Neotropical parrots, continues to be poorly understood. Hence, in the present study I examined their foraging ecology both in a highly deciduous and in a semi-deciduous forest in western Brazil. In addition, I assessed the relationship between food resource production (flowers and fruits, and the diet of this parakeet. Pyrrhura molinae exhibited a flexible diet consisting of 16 tree species, from which it consumed flowers (three species, seeds (three species, fruit pulp or aril (four species, and both pulp and seeds (six species. Parakeets consumed a wide array of fleshy fruits in the semi-deciduous forest, especially Cecropia pachystachya catkins. Conversely, in the highly deciduous forest they extensively foraged for figs (70% of the diet, in addition to nectar and seeds from dry fruits. Ficus calyptroceras, besides being abundant, bore fruits year round, and was substantially used by parakeets every month. Potentially, by exploiting a diverse set of plant food resources, and particularly due to the substantial use of figs, asynchronously produced, Pyrrhura molinae persists during the long dry season in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil.O gênero Pyrrhura é constituido de pequenos periquitos comuns tanto em matas secas quanto úmidas, sobretudo da América do Sul. Pyrrhura molinae ocorre durante o ano todo em florestas altamente sazonais do oeste brasileiro. Essa espécie, bem como a maioria dos psitacídeo, permanece pouco conhecida. Portanto, nesse estudo, foi examinada a ecologia alimentar de P. molinae em dois tipos de florestas secas (altamente decídua e semidecídua, do oeste brasileiro, bem como as relações entre a produção de flores frutos e a

  18. Efeito do fogo sobre o banco de sementes em faixa de borda de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, SP, Brasil Fire impact on the seed bank of a seasonal semideciduous forest edge, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Galvão de Melo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os incêndios estão entre as principais causas da perda de diversidade em florestas tropicais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do fogo sobre o banco de sementes em fragmento de floresta estacional semidecidual e verificar se a intensidade desses efeitos se altera em função da distância da borda. O estudo foi realizado na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, Estado de São Paulo. Cinco dias após a passagem do fogo, foram coletadas amostras da camada superficial do solo (5 cm de profundidade, em duas faixas: 0 a 20 m e 20 a 50 m de distância da borda, na área atingida pelo fogo e em floresta não queimada adjacente utilizada como controle. Na floresta não atingida pelo fogo a densidade foi de 257 sementes.m-2 e na área queimada de 97 sementes.m-2. Quarenta espécies ocorreram na área não queimada e 26 espécies na área queimada. Ervas e gramíneas tiveram densidade relativa superior na área queimada. Para as espécies arbóreas as perdas decorrentes do fogo foram maiores na faixa mais externa do fragmento (menor riqueza e densidade, provavelmente devido à amplificação dos efeitos do fogo causada pelos efeitos de borda.Fire has been one of the main causes of diversity loss in tropical forests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fire on the seed bank in a seasonal semideciduous forest fragment, and to verify whether these impacts are influenced by distance from the edge. The study was carried out at Caetetus Ecological Station (São Paulo state, Brazil. Surface soil samples (5 cm depth were collected at two different distances from the edge (0-20 and 20-50 m, five days after fire. The same sampling procedure was applied to an unburned neighboring forest for comparison. In the unburned forest, density was 257 seeds.m² and in the burned area it was 97 seeds.m². Forty species occurred in the unburned forest and 26 species in the burned area. Relative density of herbs and grasses was higher in the

  19. Reproduction period of Mimagoniates microlepis, from an Atlantic Forest Stream in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rennó Braga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Mimagoniates microlepis was collected between January and December/2002. Three sample points were chosen at higher, medium and lower portions of Ribeirão river, located at the east of Paraná state. The reproduction period was observed by the frequency of gonad developmental stages, variation of the gonosomatic relation (RGS and gonad condition (K. The average length at the first sexual maturity (L50 and the average length when 100% of individuals were adults (L100 were calculated. The intensity of the reproductive activity (IAR was estimated at each sample point. The reproduction period started in the winter and ended at the end of spring. The high values of IAR encountered demonstrated that the reproductive activity occurred in the whole study area, mainly at the middle portion of the river. Apparently M. microlepis synchronize its fecundation and spawning with the rain regimes using the most suitable times for the cospecific encounters and offspring survival.Exemplares de Mimagoniates microlepis foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2002. Foram escolhidos três pontos amostrais localizados em regiões a montante, média e a jusante do rio Ribeirão no litoral do Paraná. A época reprodutiva foi determinada através da freqüência de estágios de desenvolvimento das gônadas, índice gonadosomático (RGS e fator de condição gonadal (K. O comprimento médio da primeira maturação (L50 e o comprimento médio em que 100% dos indivíduos são adultos (L100 foi calculado. Também foi estimado o índice de atividade reprodutiva (IAR em cada ponto amostral. O período reprodutivo teve inicio durante o inverno e terminou ao final da primavera. Os valores altos do IAR demonstram que a atividade reprodutiva ocorre em toda área estudada e principalmente na porção média do rio. Aparentemente M. microlepis sincroniza sua fecundação e desova com o ciclo das chuvas, utilizando os momentos mais adequados para encontros coespecíficos e para

  20. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Daniel; Domingues, Marcus Vinicius; Rodrigues, Eliana

    2010-10-29

    Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies, since the persistence of their uses

  1. Determination of chloromethane and dichloromethane in a tropical terrestrial mangrove forest in Brazil by measurements and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, S. R.; Schlünzen, K. H.; Grawe, D.; Seifert, R.

    2018-01-01

    Chloromethane (CH3Cl) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) are known to have both natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere. From recent studies it is known that tropical and sub tropical plants are primary sources of CH3Cl in the atmosphere. In order to quantify the biogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH2Cl2 from mangroves, field measurement were conducted in a tropical mangrove forest on the coast of Brazil. To the best of our knowledge these field measurements were the first of its kind conducted in the tropical mangrove ecosystem of Braganca. A mesoscale atmospheric model, MEsoscale TRAnsport and fluid (Stream) model (METRAS), was used to simulate passive tracers concentrations and to study the dependency of concentrations on type of emission function and meteorology. Model simulated concentrations were normalized using the observed field data. With the help of the mesoscale model results and the observed data the mangrove emissions were estimated at the local scale. By using this bottom-up approach the global emissions of CH3Cl and CH2Cl2 from mangroves were quantified. The emission range obtained with different emission functions and different meteorology are 4-7 Gg yr-1 for CH3Cl and 1-2 Gg yr2 for CH2Cl2. Based on the present study the mangroves contribute 0.3 percent of CH2Cl2 and 0.2 percent of CH3Cl in the global emission budget. This study corroborates the study by Manley et al. (2007) which estimated that mangroves produce 0.3 percent of CH3Cl in the global emission budget. Although they contribute a small percentage in the global budget, their long lifetime enables them to contribute to the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. From the detailed analyses of the model results it can be concluded that meteorology has a larger influence on the variability of concentrations than the temporal variability of the emission function.

  2. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Eliana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology

  4. Tecnociência, democracia e os desafios éticos das biotecnologias no Brasil Technoscience, democracy, and ethical challenges of biotechnology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Amaro da Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescente questionamento das idéias evolucionistas e das grandes narrativas que serviram de suporte, desde os clássicos, aos estudos nas áreas das ciências sociais tem desencadeado reações diversas no âmbito acadêmico. Se as tendências pós-modernas e as teses do fim da História se situam legitimamente neste espaço de possibilidades, não menos influentes são as propostas de releitura da realidade em que vivemos, a partir do projeto moderno e sua radicalização. É dentro deste último empreendimento que Anthony Giddens propõe a perspectiva de um novo pacto de segurança ontológica, que passa a ser construído em um mundo de sistemas abstratos que precisam ser reencaixados em dimensões globais. As discussões envolvendo as novas biotecnologias, em nível mundial e no Brasil, são reveladoras de características interessantes deste novo momento da humanidade. Os pontos de acesso desencadeados por pavores alimentares e preocupações ambientais fazem, neste sentido, mais do que diminuir a fidedignidade em relação ao conhecimento perito; provocam reordenamentos de implicações éticas, sociais e políticas bastante distintos da "heurística do medo", proposta pelo filósofo Hans Jonas. Como tais reordenamentos sinalizam para novas tendências no processo de gestão das tecnologias à luz da recente polêmica configurada em torno das novas biotecnologias no Brasil? É sobre esta questão que o presente texto pretende refletir.The increasing questioning of the evolutionist ideas and the great narratives, the classics that served as support to the studies in the field of social sciences, has led to many different reactions within the academic context. Even though the post-modern trends and theories of the end of history have a right to be in this set of possibilities, no less influential are the proposals for revising the reality in which we live from the point of view of the modern project and its radicalization. It is within

  5. THE STRUCTURE OF THE UNDERSTOREY OF PURE STAND OF Mimosa scabrella Bentham IN MINED AREA, IN POÇOS DE CALDAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Eloi Nappo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A floristic and structural survey of the natural regeneration of shrubby and arboreal species of the understory of an established homogeneous plantation of Mimosa scabrella Bentham was corried out  viewing, the  reclamation  of  a  mined  area,  in  Poços de  Caldas, Minas  Gerais State, Brazil. Nineteen  plots of 50 m2 (5 m × 10 m were used and the shrubby and arboreal individuals measuring equal or above 30 cm were sampled and 1,946 individuals belonging to 63 botanic families were found. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm, in each of the 19 plots, and the contents of sand, silt,clay, organic matters, pH nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium were analysed. The influence of the soil variables upon the density of the sampled species was analysed using the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. A significative correlation was verified among these variables at a level of 5% of probability using the Monte Carlo test. The species Miconia sellowiana, Miconia pepericarpa, Cestrum amictum, Alchornea triplinervia, Cordia superba and Casearia sylvestris presented a close to indifferent behaviour in relation to the soil variables studied, and these species largely surpassed the other species in relation to the floristic and the strutured parameters. This behaviour reinforces the indication of the species, made by NAPPO (1999, as having a potential for use in mixed and enrichment plantation in condition similar to those of the studied area. The identification and mensuration of the enviromental variables and of the history of the area are important pieces for the understanding of the process of population dynamics, and particularly, for degraded area getting to the reclamation phase.

  6. Bioavailability assessment of toxic metals using the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)" in marine sediments collected in Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jucelino B; Nascimento, Rodrigo A; de Oliva, Sergio T; de Oliveira, Olívia M C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the bioavailability of the metals (cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in sediment samples collected in seven stations from the São Paulo Estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil. The bioavailability was determined by employing the technique "acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM)". The elements cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc were determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV), while nickel was quantified utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS). The accuracy of these methods was confirmed using a certified reference material of estuarine sediment (NIST 1646). The sulfide was quantified using potentiometry with selective electrode and the organic matter determination employing an indirect volumetric method using potassium dichromate and iron(II) sulfate solutions. The bioavailability of the metals was estimated by relationship between the concentration of AVS and the sum of the concentrations of the simultaneously extracted metals (ΣSEM), considering a significant toxicity when (ΣSEM)/(AVS) is higher than 1. The bioavailability values in the seven stations studied varied from 0.93 to 1.31 (June, 2014) and from 0.34 to 0.58 (September, 2014). These results demonstrated a critical condition of toxicity (bioavailability >1) in six of the seven sediment samples collected during the rainy season (June, 2014). In the other period (September, 2014), the bioavailability was always lower than 1 for all sediment samples collected in the seven stations. The individual values of the concentrations of the five metals were compared with the parameters PEL (probable effects level) and TEL (threshold effects level), which are commonly employed for characterization of ecological risk in environmental systems. This comparison revealed that all metals have concentrations lower than the PEL and only zinc and lead in some stations have contents higher than the TEL. The

  7. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade Kersten, Rodrigo; Meneses Silva, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    A 3 000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25º30” S 48º23” W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidend...

  8. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Andrade Kersten; Sandro Menezes Silva

    2006-01-01

    A 3 000 m² area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25º30" S 48º23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidend...

  9. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  10. Chemical analysis of rainfall and throughfall in the Tapajós National Forest, Belterra, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tapajós National Forest (FLONA Tapajós has 600,000 hectares of protected forest, and is situated 50 km south of the city of Santarém, Pará, Brazil, a port city of 250,000 inhabitants that is located at the confluence of the Tapajós and Amazon Rivers. There is a lot of farmland in the region, which offers many opportunities to study changes in land use. Selective wood harvesting is one type of land use that is particularly important to the economy of Santarém. Wet and dry deposition of organic material can be an important source of nutrients for plants, and this is especially true when the soil is poor, which is the case in Santarém-Belterra plateau region, the study area of this research. In this region, the natural atmospheric deposition of nutrients is often enhanced by the burning of biomass, which releases a large part of the above-ground biomass nutrients into the atmosphere. The objectives of this study were: 1 - estimate the total wet deposition via direct precipitation and through the canopy, including dry deposition; 2 - verify potential sources of nutrients found in the total wet deposition and dry deposition; and 3 - investigate the effects of coverage vegetation on nutrient content in precipitation and throughfall. The study was conducted in FLONA Tapajós at km 67 of Santarém- Cuiabá Highway, south of the city of Santarém. The study area consisted of a portion of 100 x 100 m transects divided into 10 x 10 m plots. The area was located next to a meteorological tower 65 m tall that measures various climate parameters such as rainfall, wind speed and direction, solar radiation, temperature and humidity, among others. Direct precipitation (PD and internal precipitation (IP collectors consisted of 2 L polyethylene bottles with a 115 mm diameter funnel. Samples were collected weekly from April 2003 to March 2006. The volume of the sample was measured individually for each collector (25 traps for internal precipitation and 4

  11. The orchid-bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’, a hotspot in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemésio

    Full Text Available The orchid-bee fauna of ‘Reserva Biológica de Una’ (REBIO Una, one of the largest Atlantic Forest remnants in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, was surveyed for the first time. Baits with sixteen different scents were used to attract males of orchid bees. Eight hundred and fifty-nine males belonging to 26 species were actively collected with insect nets during 60 hours in January and February, 2009, and January, 2010. Euglossa avicula Dressler, 1982 and Euglossa milenae Bembé, 2007 have been recorded for the first time in the state of Bahia. It was found that REBIO Una has one of the most diverse and rich orchid-bee faunas of the entire Atlantic Forest domain and holds some rare species, such as Euglossa cyanochloraMoure, 1996.

  12. LBA-ECO CD-02 Leaf Water Potential, Forest and Pasture Sites, Para, Brazil: 2000-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data are reported for leaf water potential of leaves of seven species of trees and lianas from the primary forest at the km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest,...

  13. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  14. On the use of 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists for surveying birds in lowland Atlantic Forests in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid and continuous deforestation, recent bird surveys in the Atlantic Forest are following rapid assessment programs to accumulate significant amounts of data during short periods of time. During this study, two surveying methods were used to evaluate which technique rapidly accumulated most species (> 90% of the estimated empirical value at lowland Atlantic Forests in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Birds were counted during the 2008-2010 breeding seasons using 10-minute point counts and 10-species lists. Overall, point counting detected as many species as lists (79 vs. 83, respectively, and 88 points (14.7 h detected 90% of the estimated species richness. Forty-one lists were insufficient to detect 90% of all species. However, lists accumulated species faster in a shorter time period, probably due to the nature of the point count method in which species detected while moving between points are not considered. Rapid assessment programs in these forests will rapidly detect more species using 10-species lists. Both methods shared 63% of all forest species, but this may be due to spatial and temporal mismatch between samplings of each method.

  15. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-02-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity.

  16. Abundance and survival rates of three leaf-litter frog species in fragments and continuous forest of the Mata Atlântica, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Steinicke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat destruction and fragmentation alter the quality of habitats and put populations under the risk of extinction. Changes in population parameters can provide early warning signs of negative impacts. In tropical forests, where habitat loss and fragmentation are vast, such indicators are of high relevance for directing conservation efforts before effects are irreversible. Most of our knowledge from tropical ecosystems originates from community level surveys, whereas our understanding of the influence of habitat conversion on vital rates of species is limited. This study focused on the influence of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on the survival probability and abundance of three leaf-litter frog species (Rhinella ornata, Ischnocnema guentheri and I. parva in forest patches of the Atlantic rainforest of South-east Brazil compared to a continuous forest. The species differ in their matrix tolerance: high for R. ornata and low for I. guentheri and I. parva and, thus, we examined whether their survival and abundance correspond to this classification. Ischnocnema guentheri showed highest abundances in all study sites and low mortality in the forest patches compared to the continuous forest; I. parva was encountered only in isolated fragments, with very low mortality in one isolated fragment; and the matrix tolerant species had generally low abundance and showed no clear pattern in terms of mortality in the different sites. Our counter-intuitive results show that even matrix sensitive amphibian species may show high abundance and low mortality in small forest patches. Therefore, these patches can be of high value for amphibian conservation regardless of their degree of matrix aversion. Landscape level conservation planning should not abandon small habitat patches, especially in highly fragmented tropical environments.

  17. Fungos anamorfos (hyphomycetes da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, Brasil: novos registros para o Neotrópico Anamorphic fungi (hyphomycetes from Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil: new records for the Neotropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Santana Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hifomicetos são importantes decompositores e recicladores da matéria orgânica morta no ambiente e podem ser importantes patógenos de plantas e animais. Como parte do inventário da diversidade dos fungos sobre palmeiras da Amazônia Oriental, no sítio do Programa de Biodiversidade da Amazônia (PPBIO, na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, Pará, foram identificados cinco novos registros de hifomicetos para o Neotrópico: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. é citado pela primeira vez para o Brasil.The hyphomycetes are important decomposers and recyclers of dead organic matter in the environment and may be important pathogens of plants and animals. As part of the diversity inventory of palm-tree fungi from Eastern Amazonia, in Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, five new records of hyphomycetes for the Neotropics were found: Camposporium fusisporum Whitton, McKenzie & Hyde; Cylindrocarpon curtum Bugnicourt; Minimidochium microsporum Matsush.; Sporidesmiella aspera Kuthub. & Nawawi; Sporidesmium ghanaense M.B. Ellis. Stachybotrys theobromae Hansf. is cited for the first time for Brazil.

  18. Dieta de Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, Paraná, Brasil Diet of Sciurus ingrami Thomas (Rodentia, Sciuridae on a Araucauria Pine Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, em um remanescente de Floresta com Araucária, localizado no Distrito do Bugre, Município de Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brasil. O objetivo foi conhecer as espécies utilizadas na alimentação por Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 no decorrer de um ano. Foram registradas dez (N = 10 espécies na dieta dos serelepes, pertencentes a sete famílias botânicas. Os serelepes predaram sementes de três espécies e se alimentaram de três espécies exóticas, mostrando adaptabilidade a ambientes alterados.This study was conducted between February, 2002 and January, 2003 in a remnant of Araucaria Pine Forest located in the District of Bugre, Municipality of Balsa Nova, Paraná, Brazil. The goal of this study was to survey the species used as food items by Sciurus ingrami Thomas, 1901 throughout a year. Ten (N = 10 species were recorded in the diet of these squirrels, belonging to seven plant families. Squirrels preyed on seeds of three plant species and fed on three exotic species, indicating good adaptability to disturbed habitats.

  19. Environmental variables and tree population structures in deciduous forests of central Brazil with different levels of logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Luis Mascia Vieira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Population structures of six tree species in three fragments of intact seasonal deciduous forest and three fragments disturbed by logging were studied in the northeastern Goiás. Forty random 400 m² plots were allocated in each fragment to survey plant population structures, number of stumps, cattle feces, burnt logs, and canopy openness. Soil cover by life forms was estimated in 1m² sub-plots. Lianas were abundant in intermediately logged fragments and invasive herbs in the most disturbed fragment. Cattle avoided dense herbaceous strata, such as liana tangles. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica and Swartzia multijuga trees occurred at very low densities in all the fragments and their seedlings were practically absent, which might endanger their future populations in these fragments. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Astronium fraxinifolium, the most logged species, had high density of seedlings in all the fragments. However, the highest density of saplings and juvenile individuals occurred in the most disturbed fragment.As estruturas populacionais de seis espécies de árvores foram estudadas em três fragmentos de floresta estacional decidual intactos e três fragmentos impactados pela exploração seletiva de madeira no nordeste goiano. Quarenta parcelas de 400m² foram estabelecidas em cada fragmento para a amostragem de populações, número de tocos, fezes de gado, troncos queimados e abertura de dossel. A cobertura do solo por formas de vida foi estimada em sub-parcelas de 1m². Lianas foram mais abundantes em fragmentos com perturbação intermediária, enquanto herbáceas invasoras no fragmento mais perturbado. Cavanillesia arborea, Eugenia dysenterica e Swartzia multijuga ocorreram em densidades muito baixas em todos os fragmentos e plântulas foram praticamente ausentes, o que pode ameaçar o futuro de suas populações. Myracrodruon urundeuva, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Astronium fraxinifolium, as espécies mais

  20. Impacts of the Conversion of Forest to Arable Land and Long Term Agriculture Practices on the Water Pathways in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinet, J.; Minella, J. P. G.; Schlesner, A.; Lücke, A.; Ameijeiras-Marino, Y.; Opfergelt, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Gerard, G.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in runoff pathways affect many environmental processes. Land use change (LUC), and more specifically forest conversion to arable land, is one of the controls of water fluxes at the hillslope or catchment scale. Still, the long term effects of forest conversion and agricultural activities in (sub-) tropical environments have been relatively understudied. Our objective was therefore to study the impact of deforestation and land degradation through agriculture on runoff pathways. We selected two small catchments with contrasting land use (agriculture vs. natural forest) in a subtropical region in the south of Brazil. Stream-, pore-, subsurface- and rainwater were monitored, sampled and analyzed for Dissolve Silicon concentration (DSi) and δ18O isotopic signature. Both forested and agricultural catchments were highly responsive to rainfall event and only 2 runoff components contributed to the stream discharge were identified: baseflow and peak flow components. The δ18O peak flow signal in the agricultural catchment was closely related to the δ18O rainfall signal. In the forested catchment, the δ18O peak flow signal was similar to a seasonally averaged signal. This suggested that most peak flow was derived from current rainfall events in the agricultural catchment, while being derived from a mixed reservoir in the forested one. The DSi of the peak flow was low in both catchments. Hence, the mixing in the forested catchment cannot have taken place in the soil matrix as the soil pore water contained high DSi concentrations. Instead, the mixing must have taken place in a reservoir with a relatively short residence time and isolated, to some extent, from the soil matrix. The dense channel network left by decayed roots in the forest soil above a clay-rich water-impeding B horizon is the most likely candidate and this was confirmed by visual observations. Contributions of other, deeper reservoirs are unlikely given the quick response time of the catchment

  1. Color and odor of artificial fruit used to signal potential dispersers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Oliveira Barcelos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple. A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units, from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%, followed by red/vanilla (46.3%, while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x²=7.57, df=5, p=0.182 between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 925-931. Epub 2012 June 01.

  2. RICHNESS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION OF THE FERN COMMUNITY IN RIPARIAN FOREST OF THE RIVER ‘CADEIA’, IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete Teresinha Mallmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813327The present study analyzed richness and specific composition of the fern community in fragments fromthe riparian forest of river ‘Cadeia’, under different levels of human impact, in Santa Maria do Herval, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil. An amount of 120 sample units were delimited, equitably distributed in threefragments (FI, II and III in which all species were surveyed and the richness was recorded. The floristiccomposition among fragments was compared using Jaccard’s index and spatial distribution of units wasevaluated through multidimensional scaling. Richness data were presented in the form of rarefaction curvesbased on samples and non-parametric diversity estimators. A total of 40 species were found, belonging to13 families. The greater floristic similarity was between FI and FII. Sample units from FI formed the mostdefined grouping and they had more exclusive species than the others. The rarefaction curve for the totalsampling almost reached the asymptote and estimators indicated a maximum of 45 species, which meansthat the majority of species was surveyed at the study site. A decreasing gradient of mean richness per unitwas observed as the urbanization increased in the matrix habitat of the fragments. These results form a database to be used in management, conservation and reforestation measures in degraded riparian forests. Theycan be directly compared to results from other studies that used rarefaction and richness estimators, whichis not possible to do with many of the surveys accomplished in Brazil so far.

  3. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  4. Vertical oviposition activity of mosquitoes in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil with emphasis on the sylvan vector, Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Cecilia Ferreira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; de Almeida, Sergio Antonio Silva; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the vertical patterns of oviposition and temporal changes in the distribution of mosquito species in an area of the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and in particular, the behavior and oviposition of potential yellow fever virus vectors. Mosquito samples were collected from the Ecological Reserve Guapiaçu (REGUA, Brazil), which includes a somewhat disturbed forest, with a large diversity of plants and animals. In all, 5,458 specimens (ten species from seven genera) were collected. Haemagogus leucocelaenus was the most frequently captured species, representing 73% of the specimens collected. Species richness and diversity were the highest in the samples collected from the ground-level ovitraps and decreased with height. Species composition also differed significantly among heights. The largest species differences were detected between ovitraps set at the ground level and those set at 7 m and 9 m; Hg. leucocelaenus, Limatus durhamii, and Limatus paraensis contributed most to these differences. Sampling month and climatic variables had significant effects on species richness and diversity. Species diversity and richness decreased with height, suggesting that the conditions for mosquito breeding are more favorable closer to the ground. Species composition also showed vertical differences. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Runoff response for a peri-urban watershed in the Atlantic Forest Biome, southern Brazil, using the Kineros2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beling, F. A.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Heatwole, C.

    2011-12-01

    Simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed for different scenarios is an important tool for assessing the rational use of the land and natural resources, especially in environments where urbanization is not ever an organized procedure. This study used the Kineros2 event oriented hydrological model to simulate the runoff response of a 4.9 km2 peri-urban basin located in the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil, with 47% of the area being impermeable. The goal of the simulations was to estimate the characteristic parameters of the soils and land cover of the watershed to then enable the prediction of basin response for different land uses. To acheive this objective, the responses of ten measured rainfall-runoff events were used to calibrate five parameters of the model. The PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) package was used for automatic calibration of the model parameters. The quality of results is shown in Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index values varying from 0.64 up to 0.98, with an average value of 0.88. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow was 4.5% and 20.7% in the simulated runoff volume. A cross-validation using the same events used in the calibration and using average values of the calibrated parameters. gave Nash-Sutcliffe index values varying from 0.26 up to 0.92, with an average value of 0.73. The average absolute error in the simulated peak flow and runoff volume were 22.7% and 25.6%, respectively. We used two validated events to simulate distinct scenarios, being representative of a wet and of dry antecedent moisture conditions. For a scenario of a totally forested land cover, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -53% and -46% respectively, and for a wet condition, -63% and -41% respectively, relatively to the present land use. For a complete pasture land use, the simulated peak flow and runoff volume for a dry condition changed -31% and -27% respectively and

  6. Alteração estrutural de uma área florestal explorada convencionalmente na bacia do Paraíba do Sul, Minas Gerais, nos domínios de Floresta Atlântica Structural changes in a conventionally exploited forest in the Paraíba do Sul basin, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the Atlantic Forest domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Cota Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, realizado no município de Matias Barbosa,MG, na Fazenda Paciência, teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações estruturais ocorridas em uma Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, nos domínios de floresta Atlântica, em decorrência das atividades de exploração convencional de um plano de manejo. Para isso, foi utilizado um trecho contínuo de floresta que teve uma área explorada há seis anos e outra área não-explorada. Foram lançadas parcelas para estudo da vegetação arbórea, nas quais se avaliou a sua estrutura. Os dados foram analisados de forma comparativa, considerando-se a situação observada na área de floresta não-explorada como desejável. O resultado do estudo indicou que a atividade de exploração madeireira realizada na Fazenda Paciência tem levado a alterações significativas na estrutura, além de um depauperamento do valor comercial do estoque remanescente da área de floresta explorada, podendo levar a um comprometimento dos recursos da comunidade florestal.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the structural changes caused by the activities of a conventional management plan in a semideciduous forest in the Atlantic Forest domain. The study was conducted in the Fazenda Paciência, municipality of Matias Barbosa, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A continuous stretch of forest was analyzed, which contained areas that were exploited six years ago and areas that remained untouched. Plots were established to survey the floristic and structural composition of the arboreal vegetation. Data were analized in a comparative way and the state of the non-exploited forest was considered as the desirable one. The study results indicated that the harvesting as it was done at the Fazenda Paciência was causing significant changes in the floristic and structural composition, aside from decreasing the commercial value of the remaining stock, which could endanger the forest resources of the area.

  7. Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica A. Ulysséa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ant species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae from the seasonally dry tropical forest of northeastern Brazil: a compilation from field surveys in Bahia and literature records. The Caatingas occur predominantly in northeastern Brazil and comparatively it is the biome that received less attention than any other ecosystem in Brazil, representing the region where invertebrate groups are less known. We present here the first list of ant species of the Caatingas, compiling information from the literature, from a study of samples preserved in alcohol in the Laboratory of Entomology (Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, and from a field survey conducted in Milagres, Bahia, submitting standardized 1-m² samples of the leaf-litter to Winkler extractors. Summing all information, 11 subfamilies, 61 genera and 173 species (plus one subspecies of ants are recognized in the biome. This species number does not consider morphospecies that could not be named due to the lack of reliable recent taxonomic information for some Neotropical ant genera. The list presented here for ant species of the Caatingas is therefore underestimated, but it is relevant because it allows the identification of areas to be sampled in order to improve our knowledge of the diversity of ants in this biome.

  8. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  9. Os abortos no atendimento hospitalar do Estado de São Paulo, 1995 Hospitalizations by abortion, 1995 - S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Romera Sorrentino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o aborto provocado no Brasil seja importante problema de saúde, é difícil conhecer a exata medida de sua ocorrência, em função da ilegalidade dessa prática. Com a disponibilidade das informações sobre as hospitalizações pelo Ministério da Saúde, tornou-se possível conhecer, ainda que de forma incompleta, o quadro dos abortos atendidos na rede hospitalar do SUS. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as 53.861 internações com diagnóstico de aborto entre mulheres de 10 a 49 anos na rede hospitalar conveniada com o SUS no Estado de São Paulo no ano de 1995, segundo o tipo do aborto, idade e local de residência. As internações de mulheres em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995, representaram 37,8% do total das hospitalizações pagas pelo SUS, sendo que dessas 59,6% foram por questões ligadas à gravidez, parto e puerpério, dentre as quais os abortos representam cerca de 10%. Sua distribuição nas regiões da Grande São Paulo e Interior do Estado mostra que é maior a proporção aborto/parto entre as mulheres da Grande São Paulo do que do Interior (127,4 abortos a cada 1.000 partos na Grande São Paulo contra 90,9 no Interior. O tipo de aborto mais freqüente foi o aborto espontâneo (57,4% e a distribuição por idade mostra uma concentração entre os 20 e 29 anos, além de revelar que cerca de 20% deles ocorreram em adolescentes com menos de 19 anos.Despite the importance of the issue of abortion in Brazil, it is difficult to know the exact extent of the problem owing to the fact that it is an illegal practice. Information about hospitalizations from the Ministry of Health has helped an admittedly incomplete understanding of the situation with regard to abortions carried out in the SUS (Unified Health System hospital network. The objective of the study was to investigate the 53,861 hospitalizations diagnosed as abortion among women from 10 to 49 years of age in hospitals affiliated to SUS in the state

  10. OCCURRENCE OF MACROSCOPIC FUNGI IN DIFFERENT FOREST TYPES IN THE FORESTRY RESEARCH CENTRE (FEPAGRO, SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Maciel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic fungi performance a important role in the maintenance of forest environments, and studies related with the identification of species are fundamental to the research progress. This study aimed to realize a survey the species diversity of wood decomposing fungi in populations of Pinus elliottii Engelm, Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Acacia mearnsii de Wild and natural forest, in State Foundation for Agricultural Research - FEPAGRO, Forestry Research Center, located in Santa Maria, RS. Were collected 53 samples of macroscopic fungi in four areas, being 16 samples in forest of P. Elliottii; 12 samples in forest of E. globulus, 12 samples in forest of A. mearnsii and 13 samples in of native forest. In the laboratory, five genera were identified to the species level: Fuligo septica (L. F.H. Wigg, Gloeoporus dichrous (Fr. Bress., Lycogala epidendrum (L. Fr. e Trametes villosa (Sw. Kreisel.

  11. SURVIVAL OF SIX TREE SPECIES IN A SELECTIVELY EXPLORED FOREST AREA AT MOJU COUNTY-PA- BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Dinilde Ribeiro Serrão; Fernando Cristóvam da Silva Jardim; Tangriene Carvalho Nemer

    2003-01-01

    The survival rate of six forest tree species: Sterculia pruriens, Vouacapouaamericana, Jacaranda copaia, Protium paraense, Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens e Tabebuiaserratifolia, considering the distance between the clearing border and forest interior wasevaluated in the experimental area of EMBRAPA, at Moju – Pará. Nine gaps were selected,in which strips of 10m X 50m were installed, from the clearing border to the forest interior,in the directions North, South, East and West, subdivided into squ...

  12. The leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in the Cantareira State Park – São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Soliva Ribeiro

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work surveys the leaf litter ant fauna of an Atlantic Forest area in Cantareira State Park – SP, Brazil as a complement to the project “Richness and diversity of Hymenoptera and Isoptera along a latitudinal gradient in the Atlantic Forest – the eastern Brazilian rain forest” that forms part of the BIOTA-FAPESP program. The general protocol of the project was to collect 50 leaf litter samples of 1 m2 which were then sifted and submitted to Winkler extractors for 48 hours. Sixty-two species of 25 genera in eight ant subfamilies were collected. Myrmicinae was the richest with 39 species, followed by Ponerinae (14, Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae and Formicinae (two species each, Amblyoponinae, Proceratiinae and Dolichoderinae (one species each. The richest genera were Solenopsis and Hypoponera (12 morph-species each, and Pheidole (eight. Richness estimators indicated that the total number of species in the area should be between 68 and 85, in a confidence interval of 95%. In comparison, other locations of the evergreen Atlantic Forest have shown a significantly higher richness. Our hypothesis is that the proximity of regions of great urban concentration, allied to the factors that act on a local scale, modifies the structure of the local community of leaf litter ants.

  13. Undecomposed Twigs in the Leaf Litter as Nest-Building Resources for Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Areas of the Atlantic Forest in the Southeastern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Tanaami Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the leaf-litter stratum exhibits one of the greatest abundances of ant species. This diversity is associated with the variety of available locations for nest building. Ant nests can be found in various microhabitats, including tree trunks and fallen twigs in different stages of decomposition. In this study, we aimed to investigate undecomposed twigs as nest-building resources in the leaf litter of dense ombrophilous forest areas in the southeastern region of Brazil. Demographic data concerning the ant colonies, the physical characteristics of the nests, and the population and structural of the forest were observed. Collections were performed manually over four months in closed canopy locations that did not have trails or flooded areas. A total of 294 nests were collected, and 34 ant species were recorded. Pheidole, Camponotus, and Hypoponera were the richest genera observed; these genera were also among the most populous and exhibited the greatest abundance of nests. We found no association between population size and nest diameter. Only tree cover influenced the nest abundance and species richness. Our data indicate that undecomposed twigs may be part of the life cycle of many species and are important for maintaining ant diversity in the leaf litter.

  14. Medium and large-sized mammals of Deciduous Seasonal Forest remnants, in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Deonisia Hendges

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p121 Seasonal forests are one of the most endangered ecosystems in the Atlantic Forest biome, with few protected areas and scarce knowledge on fauna. In order to contribute by means of data on mammal occurrence, distribution, and conservation, this study aimed to provide a list of medium and large-sized mammal species in Fritz Plaumann State Park and in surrounding areas and identify the main threats to mammal species in these locations. Having 741 ha, the park is the only protected area with this ecosystem in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In 2007, 2010, and 2012, samplings were carried out through direct and indirect observation, camera traps, and interviews. Twenty three species were registered, representing 42% of the total number of medium and large-sized land mammals known for the state of Santa Catarina. Six species fell within some threat level in the state or national red list. Even with a small size, this park is one of the largest forest fragments in this region and a refuge for many species within a matrix under intense anthropogenic pressure (e.g. presence of exotic species, hunting. Areas adjacent to the park also show significance for mammal conservation and further strategies must involve, whenever possible, the region as a whole.

  15. Forest and field abundance of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius da Costa Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the species richness, abundance and diversity of Scarabaeidae beetles in two types of habitats (field and forest, and to assess whether their seasonal variation is related to climatic variables. This study was conducted in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Pampa biome. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 125 individuals were collected, of which six genera and 11 species from four subfamilies of Scarabaeidae were identified. 54 individuals of five species were collected from the field, and 71 individuals of eight species were collected from the forest. The most abundant species were Ataenius picinus Harold, 1868, Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 and Leucothyreus lavipes Eschscholtz, 1822, which together accounted for 86.4% of all individuals captured. The highest total number of individuals was collected in summer (78, and the highest number of species was collected in spring (9. Differences in environmental structure (and associated climate and food resource availability may be decisive and limiting factors for beetle occurrence in forest versus field areas, as various species were restricted to a specific habitat type or season.

  16. Araneofauna of the leaf litter in two areas of restinga forest in Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The soil spider fauna of a restinga forest in Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was inventoried for a year. Samples were taken in the sandy restinga forest and in the ecotone, monthly, on two 30 m-long transects. Biological material was sampled with 30x30 cm quadrats, four for each transect and eight per monthly sample, with all leaf litter in the quadrats also being collected. Over the 12 samples, dry litter weighed 11.88 kg. Of a total of 96 quadrats, we calculated an annual average of 130.1 spiders/m2. The samples yielded 1124 individuals, of which 335 were adults and 788 were immature, distributed in 26 families with the highest representativity in the Oonopidae (19.57%, Lycosidae (18.06%, Theridiidae (17.08% and Salticidae (10.68% categories. Forty-four morphospecies were distinguished, the most abundant being Euryopis sp. (13.26% and Guaraniella sp. (12.8%. The month with the highest number of individuals was February 2001 (170 spiders and the one with the lowest number was July 2001 (37 specimens. Between the two transects, more spiders were found in the sandy restinga forest Araneofauna de serapilheira em mata de restinga (629 spiders than in the ecotone (495 individuals. The species richness index was 7.39 and the estimated species richness at 53.87 morphospecies.

  17. Responses of five small mammal species to micro-scale variations in vegetation structure in secondary Atlantic Forest remnants, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Lucht Yvonne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is highly endangered and only about 7% of the original forest remains, most of which consists of fragments of secondary forest. Small mammals in the Atlantic Forest have differential responses to this process of fragmentation and conversion of forest into anthropogenic habitats, and have varying abilities to occupy the surrounding altered habitats. We investigated the influence of vegetation structure on the micro-scale distribution of five small mammal species in six secondary forest remnants in a landscape of fragmented Atlantic Forest. We tested whether the occurrence of small mammal species is influenced by vegetation structure, aiming to ascertain whether species with different degrees of vulnerability to forest fragmentation (not vulnerable: A. montensis, O. nigripes and G. microtarsus; vulnerable: M. incanus and D. sublineatus; classification of vulnerability was based on the results of previous studies are associated with distinct vegetation characteristics. Results Although vegetation structure differed among fragments, micro-scale distribution of most of the species was influenced by vegetation structure in a similar way in different fragments. Among the three species that were previously shown not to be vulnerable to forest fragmentation, A. montensis and G. microtarsus were present at locations with an open canopy and the occurrence of O. nigripes was associated to a low canopy and a dense understory. On the other hand, from the two species that were shown to be vulnerable to fragmentation, M. incanus was captured most often at locations with a closed canopy while the distribution of D. sublineatus was not clearly influenced by micro-scale variation in vegetation structure. Conclusion Results indicate the importance of micro-scale variation in vegetation structure for the distribution of small mammal species in secondary forest fragments. Species that are not vulnerable to

  18. “Entre jangadas, naranjas y eucaliptos” : Trayectoria y dinámica socio-técnica de la actividad forestal en el noreste de Entre Ríos, desde los inicios hasta comienzos del siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Carlos de la

    2017-01-01

    En la provincia de Entre Ríos las plantaciones forestales destinadas a la explotación comercial de la madera, comienzan en los inicios de la década del 50. Al comienzo de los años 80 se alcanzaba una superficie de 51.931 hectáreas forestadas con eucaliptos y pinos (Larocca, 1983), y en la actualidad la superficie es de 122.681 hectáreas (CNA, 2008). La explotación forestal se concentra en explotaciones predominantemente de tamaño medio y grandes en los departamentos de Colón y Concordia, mien...

  19. Domestic dogs in Atlantic forest preserves of south-eastern Brazil: a camera-trapping study on patterns of entrance and site occupancy rates Cães-domésticos em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil: padrões de entrada e de ocupação obtidos a partir de armadilhas fotográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC. Srbek-Araujo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Presence of exotic species in forest remnants is a major concern for the conservation of wild species, not only on islands, where potential impact is higher. Although the problem is widespread and increasing, there are few studies on Neotropical forests. Here we quantify the occurrence of domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris in an Atlantic forest reserve in south-eastern Brazil (Santa Lúcia Biological Station - SLBS. Throughout two years of monitoring with camera traps (2,142 camera-days, 25 records of 16 individual dogs were obtained in the interior of SLBS, making dogs the fourth most frequently recorded species of mammals in general and the first-ranking among Carnivora, ahead of the ocelot and puma, the top two terrestrial predators present in SLBS. Dogs entered the forest year round, in almost half of the sampled months (48%, and predominantly during daytime (89%. They were detected in various trails inside the reserve, but mostly in areas nearest to the reserve's border ( 0.05 in all cases, suggesting an erratic, non-seasonal pattern of entrance in the reserve. Data indicate that domestic dogs can be abundant and frequent visitors to little disturbed Atlantic forest reserves even when these are located in regions of low density of human population. The potential impact to native fauna is discussed.A presença de espécies exóticas em remanescentes florestais é um dos maiores problemas para a conservação de táxons silvestres, não apenas em ilhas, onde o impacto potencial do contato entre os grupos citados revela-se mais significativo. Apesar deste problema ser amplo e crescente, poucos são os estudos desenvolvidos em florestas Neotropicais. Neste sentido, o presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a presença de cães-domésticos (Canis lupus familiaris em uma reserva de Mata Atlântica localizada no Sudeste do Brasil (Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia - EBSL. A partir de dois anos de monitoramento com armadilhas fotográficas (2

  20. The floristic compositions of vascular epiphytes of a seasonally inundated forest on the coastal plain of Ilha do Mel Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Rodrigo de Andrade; Silva, Sandro Menezes

    2006-09-01

    A 3,000 m2 area of seasonally inundated forest on the island of Ilha do Mel (25 degrees 30" S 48 degrees 23" W) in Paraná, Brazil, was sampled by collecting plants from all strata, using climbing equipment when necessary. The area harbors 103 species of epiphytes, in 49 genera and 20 families, of which 28 species are pteridophytes and 75 magnoliophytes (64 Liliopsida, 11 Magnoliopsida). The most common families are Orchidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Polypodiaceae and Araceae, and frequent genera are Vriesea, Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Pleurothallis and Prosthechea. Eight families were represented by one species each. Most species were classified as obligatory holoepiphytes (62 %), followed by the relatively more rare preferential holoepiphytes (13 %), facultative epiphytes (11 %), hemiepiphytes (9 %) and accidental epiphytes (6 %).

  1. Ecology of Haemagogus sp. and Sabethes sp. (Diptera: Culicidae in relation to the microclimates of the Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudeth S Pinto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in a meteorological tower located in the Caxiuanã Forest (municipality of Melgaço, Pará, Brazil with the aim of assessing the vertical stratification of species of Haemagogus and Sabethes, potential vectors of the yellow fever virus. To investigate the role of microclimates in mosquito stratification, bimonthly collections were conducted at ground level (0 m, 8 m, 16 m and 30 m (canopy level, with the aid of entomological nets and suction tubes, from July 2005-April 2006. A total of 25,498 mosquitoes were collected; specimens of Sabethes sp. and Haemagogus janthinomyswere found mostly at heights of 16 m and 30 m while Hg. leucocelaenus was most frequently observed at ground level. The largest number of vector species was collected during the rainiest months, but this difference between seasons was not statistically significant. However, the number of Hg. janthinomys was positively correlated with variations in temperature and relative humidity.

  2. Frugivory by the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil: Roles of sex, season and sympatric species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p203 Our objective in this study was to examine the frugivory performed by the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826, in an area of the coastal Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil, including differences between sexes, seasonal variation, and relationships to other sympatric marsupials. We collected 63 fecal samples from a trap grid over a six-month period and analyzed seed presence, seed number and richness,  and diversity of fruit species in feces. Diversity of fruit items was estimated by the Shannon index. Results showed a high variability in fruit consumption along the seasons, but no sexual difference in consumption. Sympatric marsupial species, including D. aurita, showed substantial differences in frugivory which may be related to body size, space use and differences in the foraging behavior of such species.

  3. Feeding of two sympatric species of Characidium, C. lanei and C. pterostictum (Characidiinae in a coastal stream of Atlantic Forest (Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha José Marcelo R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding strategy of Characidium lanei and C. pterostictum was studied in the "Cabral" stream, a coastal stream of the Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil. The samples were taken using electric fishing between March/95 and February/96. We studied about 15 stomach contents for each species in each season of the year. The stomach contents of the studied species were composed of 39 different food items, 28 in C. lanei and 24 in C. pterostictum. Chironomidae larvae and Ephemeroptera nymph were the most important items for C. lanei, except in the summer when Acarina and not identified Arthropoda were the most important items. Chironomidae and Simulidae larvae were the most important items in C. pterostictum. These results indicated an insectivorous habits and opportunist feeding strategy to C. lanei and C. pterostictum with several items rare or not very frequent.

  4. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  5. Edge effects on fern community in an Atlantic Forest remnant of Rio Formoso, PE, Brazil Efeitos de borda na comunidade de samambaias em um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica de Rio Formoso, PE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IAA Silva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated how edge effects influence the fern community of Jaguarão Forest (08º 35' 49" S and 35º 15' 39" W, located in the district of Rio Formoso, Pernambuco, Brazil. A comparative analysis was made of the interior and edge of the fragment of forest, regarding the richness, abundance and diversity of ferns in the two areas. Six plots of 10 × 20 m were chosen, three in each area. A total of 381 ferns were recorded, which were distributed among 25 species, 17 genera and 12 families. The two areas (edge and interior were found to differ, with distinct relative air humidities and temperatures (p = 0.00254 and p = 0.00019, respectively. The interior showed higher diversity (t = 7.251 and p = 0.018 and richness (t = 6.379 and p = 0.023 than the edge area, but the same abundance (t = 1.728; p = 0.226 as the edge. Regarding the composition of the flora, it was clear that the interior is a habitat completely distinct from the edge with regard to the fern community, given that only one species, Adiantum petiolatum Desv., was common to both environments. It was concluded that the edge effect causes a decrease in richness and abundance of the fern species found in Jaguarão Forest, where the more sensitive species are being replaced by species that are tolerant to the disturbance caused by the creation of an edge.Este trabalho verificou como os efeitos de borda influenciam as comunidades de pteridófitas presentes na Mata do Jaguarão (08º 35' 49" S e 35º 15' 39" W, município de Rio Formoso, Pernambuco. O estudo foi feito através de análise comparativa entre os ambientes de interior e de borda. Para verificar a riqueza, abundância e diversidade das pteridófitas nos dois ambientes, foram estabelecidas seis parcelas de 10 × 20 m (200 m², sendo três para cada ambiente. Foram contabilizados 381 indivíduos de pteridófitas, distribuídos em 25 espécies, 17 gêneros e 12 famílias. Os dois ambientes (interior e borda caracterizaram

  6. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida

    2015-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria Forest ecotones, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazing and fire, used in pasture regeneration practices, are inter-related activities in livestock management. Both activities affect habitat characteristics by changing the structure of the herbaceous and shrubby vegetation, reducing their biomass and litter cover. This study evaluated the effect of fire and livestock grazing on the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland-Araucaria forest ecotones in southern Brazil. We compared four areas frequently affected by livestock management with four protected areas. Surveys were carried out in four sampling periods, one in each season of 2004. We captured a total of 325 individuals from 12 species of rodents - Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Akodon paranaensis Christoff, Fagundes, Sbalqueiro, Mattevi e Yonenaga-Yassuda, 2000, Akodon sp. 1, Akodon sp. 2 (2n = 34, Brucepattersonius iheringi (Thomas, 1896, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872, Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Scapteromys sp. (2n = 34, Sooretamys angouya (Fischer, 1814 and Thaptomys nigrita (Lichtenstein, 1829 - and two species of marsupials - Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847 and Philander frenatus (Olfers, 1818 -, in a total effective effort of 5254 traps.day-1. The abundance, biomass and diversity of non-flying small mammals were significantly higher in the protected areas than in those affected by fire and livestock grazing. Species strictly associated with grassland habitats were not found in the impacted area. These results indicate that the presence of herds of domestic ungulates negatively affect the assemblage of non-flying small mammals in grassland and Araucaria forest areas in southern Brazil.

  8. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Small Stem, Non-Woody Biomass, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports biomass from small stems and non-woody vegetation measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment....

  9. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Small Stem, Non-Woody Biomass, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports biomass from small stems and non-woody vegetation measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization...

  10. Mites (Acari: Trombidiformes) parasitizing mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in an Atlantic Forest area in southern Brazil with a new mite genus country record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.

  11. Snake richness in urban forest fragments from Niterói and surroundings, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citeli, Nathalie; Hamdan, Breno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity, an area which houses high species richness and endemism, but with high level of threat. With reference to the herpetofauna, until recently there has been no detailed information regarding diversity of snakes recorded in the Atlantic Forest, the number of endemic species and their distribution ranges. While these basic data were missing, large areas of original forest have continued to be lost to increased urbanization and human population, representing a severe threat to the biodiversity. New information We recorded 28 snake species in our study area. Dipsadidae was the richest family with 14 species, followed by Colubridae (eight species), Boidae (two species), Viperidae (two species), and Anomalepididae, Elapidae and Typhlopidae (one species each). Most species were forest inhabitants (61%), of which 13 are endemic to the Atlantic Forest. There were no clearly defined species clusters regarding species composition. None of the species recorded in Niterói are listed as threatened in the Brazilian Redlist. However, most of them are strongly associated with forested areas and, perhaps, are not adapted to live in small fragments. Thus, more initiatives should be implemented to evaluate the true conservation status of these species in order to better protect them. PMID:26929711

  12. Dietary breadth of the animal protein consumed by riverine communities in the Tapajós National Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Alves Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In small-scale human settlements, the acquisition of animal protein is strictly related to subsistence activities, and yours dietary habits are determined by the availability and the selectivity permitted by the diversity of these resources. This study analyzed the consumption of animal protein sources in seven traditional riverine communities of the Tapajos National Forest, located in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, considering fish, game meat and domestic animals. The analysis of animal protein consumption was based on the assumptions of the diet breadth model and the Optimal Foraging Theory. We compared diet breadths between communities and between rainy and dry seasons. The study focused on seven traditional riverside communities, six of them distributed along the right bank of the Tapajos River and one on the right bank of the Cupari River. Data collection was performed in four fields trips, two in the rainy season (May and July and two in the dry season (September and November in 2010. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews where the informant mentioned the source of animal protein consumed in the last three meals and which would be consumed at the next meal, if possible. We carried out a total of 470 interviews, where we documented 1 512 meals, and in only 12% of the meals there was no consumption of any animal protein source. The fish was consumed in 60.4% of the meals, being the most important source of animal protein consumed, differing significantly from other protein sources (χ²=23.79, df=5, pEn pequeños asentamientos rurales, la adquisición de proteína animal está estrechamente relacionada con actividades de subsistencia, y su hábitos alimentares son determinados por la disponibilidad y diversidad de estos recursos. Este estudio examinó el consumo de pescado, caza y animales domésticos en siete comunidades tradicionales ribereñas de la Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, ubicadas en la Amazonia oriental Brasile

  13. Parasitism of Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Cycloramphidae by Hannemania sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae in an area of Atlantic Forest, Ilha Grande, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatano F.H.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied some parameters of the parasitism by the mite Hannemania sp. on the endemic frog Hylodes phyllodes in the Atlantic Forest of Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity and total intensity of infestation, body regions infected, and host sexual differences in parasitism rate of the larvae of Hannemania sp. on individuals of H. phyllodes were assessed. Prevalence was 86.5% (N = 37; total of 1,745 larvae of Hannemania sp for male hosts and 91.7% (N =12; total of 330 larvae for female hosts, with no significant difference between the sexes. Overall prevalence of Hannemania sp. on H. phyllodes was 87.7%. Mean intensity of infestation in males (54.5 ± 42.5; range 1-173 larvae was higher than in females (29.9 ± 47.6; range 1-166. We conclude that the rates of intensity, abundance, and prevalence of Hannemania larvae parasitizing Hylodes phyllodes at Ilha Grande were considerably high, suggesting that this species of anuran constitutes a relevant host for this mite species to complete its lifecycle in the area. Differences between males and females in infestation rates probably reflect their differential use of space in the forest.

  14. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, Brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Vieira, Ana Raquel; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Moreira, Israel Martins; Yoshizawa, Maria Amélia Cavalcanti; Coutinho, Milton Lopes; Prado, Paulo Sousa; Souza, Jorge Lopes de; Chaib, Antônio Jesus de Melo; Moreira, João Suender; Castro, Cleudson Nery de

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF). Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the canopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69%) during the rainy season (86%). The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes) albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (pAedes scapularis and Aedes serratus. No flavivirus was detected in the 2,677 examined mosquitoes. We recommend continued and systematic entomological monitoring in areas vulnerable to the transmission of YF in the Federal District of Brazil.

  16. Changes in ichthyofauna composition along a gradient from clearwaters to blackwaters in coastal streams of Atlantic forest (southeastern Brazil in relation to environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge of the freshwater ichthyofauna of coastal streams in the State of São Paulo (Brazil is a cause of concern, as these streams are inserted in the Atlantic forest, a hotspot highly threatened. The aim of the present study is to investigate the freshwater ichthyofauna composition of clear and blackwater streams in a preservation area of Brazilian Atlantic forest. Fish samples were taken using electrofishing. A total of 20 species were registered, with Astyanax ribeirae, Hollandichthys multifasciatus, and Mimagoniates microlepis (Characiformes, Characidae as the more representative. In general, the observed pattern of occurrence and distribution of fish species varied according to habitat characteristics, due to the longitudinal gradient in clearwaters, and among clearwaters and blackwaters. In clearwater streams, the headwater stretches had lower species diversity, while the opposite occurred in the middle and lower sites. These longitudinal variations of ichthyofauna were related with habitat characteristics (depth, stream flow, and bottom type in which they were found, since the diversity of habitats was higher in headwaters and lower in downstream reaches (middle and lower sites. The physical and chemical variables of water do not seem to have influenced the distribution of species in clearwater streams, but the clear and blackwater fish composition was influenced mainly by pH concentration. Unlike the spatial differences, significant temporal differences were not registered in fish assemblages, probably due to the absence of a pronounced dry season in the studied region.

  17. Parasitism of Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Cycloramphidae) by Hannemania sp (Acari: Trombicuudae) in an area of Atlantic Forest, Ilha Grande, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, F H; Gettinger, D; Van Sluys, M; Rocha, C F D

    2007-06-01

    We studied some parameters of the parasitism by the mite Hannemonia sp. on the endemic frog Hylodes phyllodes in the Atlantic Forest of Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). Prevalence, mean abundance, mean intensity and total intensity of infestation, body regions infected, and host sexual differences in parasitism rate of the larvae of Hannemania sp. on individuals of H. phyllodes were assessed. Prevalence was 86.5% (N = 37; total of 1,745 larvae of Hannemania sp) for male hosts and 91.7% (N = 12; total of 330 larvae) for female hosts, with no significant difference between the sexes. Overall prevalence of Hannemania sp. on H. phyllodes was 87.7%. Mean intensity of infestation in males (54.5 +/- 42.5; range 1-173 larvae) was higher than in females (29.9 +/- 47.6; range 1-166). We conclude that the rates of intensity, abundance, and prevalence of Hannemania larvae parasitizing Hylodes phyllodes at Ilha Grande were considerably high, suggesting that this species of anuran constitutes a relevant host for this mite species to complete its life-cycle in the area. Differences between males and females in infestation rates probably reflect their differential use of space in the forest.

  18. Edge effects and landscape matrix use by a small mammal community in fragments of semideciduous submontane forest in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santos-Filho

    Full Text Available A community of small mammals was studied in seasonal semideciduous submontane forest in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study evaluated the use of edge and matrix pasture, by different small mammal species. Overall, 31 areas were studied, with a total sampling effort of 33,800 trap x nights. Only seven of the 25 species captured in the study sites were able to use the pasture matrix; we classified these species as generalists. Fourteen species were found to be intermediate in habits, being able to use forest edges. We found only four species habitat specialists, occurring only on transect lines in the interior of the fragment, at least 150 m from the edge. Transects located in the pasture matrix and 50 m from the edge had significantly lower species richness and abundance than transects located in the fragment edge or in the interior of the fragment. All transects located within the fragment had similar species richness and abundance, but transects located 50 m from the edge had slightly lower, but non-significant, species richness than transects located 100 m apart from edges. Rarefaction curves demonstrated that only medium-sized fragments (100 300 ha reached an asymptote of species accumulation. The other areas require further sampling, or more sampling transect, before species accumulation curves stabilize, due to a continued increase in species number.

  19. Estratégia de relacionamento entre os membros da cadeia produtiva no Brasil: reflexões sobre o tema Strategy of relations among the members of the productive chain in Brazil: reflections on the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Reis Lobo Vasconcelos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente número de alianças entre as organizações tem propiciado a formação de verdadeiras redes, configurando o que se chama hoje de Sociedade em Rede. Observa-se que a maior parte do valor dos produtos das empresas é produzida nestas redes e não mais isoladamente por uma única empresa. O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir a estratégia de relacionamento entre os membros da cadeia produtiva no Brasil, com foco na aprendizagem e no compartilhamento do conhecimento, em contextos marcados pela inovação e pela formação de redes. São apresentados os resultados parciais de uma pesquisa em cadeias produtivas no Brasil, envolvendo 46 empresas. São analisados os relacionamentos das empresas com fornecedores, distribuidores, clientes e consumidores finais. Os resultados da pesquisa são comparados com um caso de sucesso de cadeia produtiva do setor automobilístico, descrito na literatura. Os resultados mostram que existe ainda um longo percurso a ser perseguido pela maioria das empresas para se inserirem na chamada Sociedade em Rede.The growing number of alliances among organizations has led to the formation of real networks, forming the so-called Network Society. It is evident, today, that most of the value of these companies' products is produced within these networks rather than by a single company. This article discusses knowledge sharing in contexts marked by innovation and by the creation of networks, and presents a survey on productive chains in Brazil involving 46 companies. In this context, we analyze these companies' relations with suppliers, distributors, customers and consumers. Our findings are compared with the successful case of a productive chain of the automotive sector, indicating that most companies still have a long way to go in terms of improvements in order to enter into the framework of the Network Society.

  20. Estudo fenológico em três fases sucessionais de uma floresta estacional decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS, Brasil Phenology study in three successional stages of a seasonal deciduous forest in Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáren Andreis

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em 40 parcelas de área fixa pertencentes a três estágios sucessionais, denominados: Capoeirão, Floresta Secundária e Floresta Madura, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual no município de Santa Tereza, RS. Foram realizadas observações fenológicas quinzenais em 53 espécies arbóreas, numa média de 8,4 indivíduos por espécie, durante o período de 16 de novembro de 2001 a 10 de novembro de 2002. As fenofases observadas foram floração, frutificação e mudança foliar. Os resultados indicaram que a atividade reprodutiva manteve uma porcentagem relativamente baixa nos três estágios sucessionais durante o período observado, com tendências em ser menor durante a estação de inverno. A quantidade total de folhas na árvore, não se distinguindo estágio sucessional, diminuiu de aproximadamente 85% no período de maior atividade vegetativa para até 35% no inverno, período de repouso, sendo a Floresta Madura a subsere, que manteve os maiores porcentuais de folhas durante o período estudado.The present study was accomplished in forty permanent plots belonging to three forest successional stages, denominated: Brush Forest, Secondary Forest and Mature Forest, in a seasonal deciduous forest in the municipal district of Santa Tereza, RS, Brazil. Phenologic observations were accomplished fortnightly for 53 arboreal species, in an average of 8,4 individuals per species, during the period of November 2001 to November 2002. The stages observed were flowering, fruiting and foliage change. The results indicate that the reproductive activity remained relatively low for three successional stages during the observed period, with a tendency to be even lower during winter. The total amount of leaves on the trees, regardless of the successional stage, decreased from approximately 85%, in the period of higher vegetative activity, to 35% in the winter, resting season. The Mature Forest maintained the largest percentage

  1. Rubiaceae Juss. da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Rubiaceae Juss. from Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefa Valdivina Pereira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento florístico e estudo taxonômico da família Rubiaceae, da Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG. Foram registrados para a Reserva 14 gêneros compreendendo 30 espécies. Destas, 19 apresentaram hábito arbustivo e 11 são herbáceos. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Psychotria (10 espécies, Borreria (quatro, Coccocypselum (três e Coussarea e Palicourea (duas. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia e Rudgea apresentaram uma única espécie cada. São fornecidas neste trabalho chaves analíticas, descrições, ilustrações, comentários taxonômicos e distribuição geográfica para cada espécie.This work consists of a floristic survey and a taxonomical study of the Rubiaceae at the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Fourteen genera comprising thirty species were found in the Reserve. From this total, nineteen were shrubs and eleven were herbs. The genera with larger species numbers were Psychotria (10, Borreria (four, Coccocypselum (three, and Coussarea and Palicourea (two. Bathysa, Chiococca, Coutarea, Diodia, Faramea, Galium, Mitracarpus, Richardia and Rudgea presented one species. Analytic key, descriptions, illustrations, taxonomical comments and geographic distribution of each species were also presented in this paper.

  2. C and N Content in Density Fractions of Whole Soil and Soil Size Fraction Under Cacao Agroforestry Systems and Natural Forest in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Joice Cleide O.; Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela Forestieri; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio Carlos; Polidoro, Jose Carlos; Machado, Regina Cele R.; Baligar, Virupax C.

    2011-07-01

    Agroforestry systems (AFSs) have an important role in capturing above and below ground soil carbon and play a dominant role in mitigation of atmospheric CO2. Attempts has been made here to identify soil organic matter fractions in the cacao-AFSs that have different susceptibility to microbial decomposition and further represent the basis of understanding soil C dynamics. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter density fractions and soil size fractions in soils of two types of cacao agroforestry systems and to compare with an adjacent natural forest in Bahia, Brazil. The land-use systems studied were: (1) a 30-year-old stand of natural forest with cacao (cacao cabruca), (2) a 30-year-old stand of cacao with Erythrina glauca as shade trees (cacao + erythrina), and (3) an adjacent natural forest without cacao. Soil samples were collected from 0-10 cm depth layer in reddish-yellow Oxisols. Soil samples was separated by wet sieving into five fraction-size classes (>2000 μm, 1000-2000 μm, 250-1000 μm, 53-250 μm, and cacao AFS soils consisted mainly (65 %) of mega-aggregates (>2000 μm) mixed with macroaggregates (32-34%), and microaggregates (1-1.3%). Soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N content increased with increasing soil size fraction in all land-use systems. Organic C-to-total N ratio was higher in the macroaggregate than in the microaggregate. In general, in natural forest and cacao cabruca the contribution of C and N in the light and heavy fractions was similar. However, in cacao + erythrina the heavy fraction was the most common and contributed 67% of C and 63% of N. Finding of this study shows that the majority of C and N in all three systems studied are found in macroaggregates, particularly in the 250-1000 μm size aggregate class. The heavy fraction was the most common organic matter fraction in these soils. Thus, in mature cacao AFS on highly weathered soils the main mechanisms of C stabilization could be the physical

  3. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Pessanha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to con-duct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C. sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia , Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43, an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition

  4. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  5. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. USE OF THE DE LIOCOURT QUOTIENT IN THE EVALUATION OF THE DIAMETRIC DISTRIBUTION IN FRAGMENTS OF OMBROPHYLOUS FOREST, PERNAMBUCO STATE-BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tarcísio Alves Junior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Great part of the biodiversity of the ecosystem of tropical forests is being lost even before we have full knowledge of its natural wealth, making it important perform studies that can provide knowledge and the maintenance of its structure, besides making possible the exploration of its products, goods and/or services in a planned and rational form, guaranteeing the continuous flow of these resources. The general objective of this study was to use the De Liocourt quotient in the evaluation of the diametric distribution in fragments of Ombrophylous Forest located in the city of Catende, Pernambuco state - Brazil, having as specific objectives: to describe the diametric structure of the fragments and the species of greater importance using the Value of Importance Index (VI; and to evaluate the degradation and the state of succession of the studied areas. The diametric distribution revealed uneven-aged forests as the diametric curve of distribution resembled a reverse J-shape. The values of basal area in the fragments were of 23.6 and 20.9 m2.ha-1, for Mata das Caldeiras and Mata das Galinhas. The fragments were, on average, in the secondary period of succession. Some species presented difficulties in the rate of recruitment, which could lead to the extinguishing of some species in the future. Species, such as Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Dialium guianense (Aubl. Sandwith and Brosimum discolor Schott, demonstrated a distinct diametric structure among the fragments. The species Plathymenia foliolosa Benth. presented accented discontinuities in the diametric structure in both areas.

  7. Color and odor of artificial fruit used to signal potential dispersers in the Atlantic forest in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Oliveira Barcelos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit color and odor are the main features regulating the rate of fruit predation and dispersal. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of odor and color on fruit predators and dispersers. The present study was conducted in a 30ha area of secondary forest in Southeastern Atlantic Brazil. This area was divided into two transects, in which four points were marked with a 30m distance from each other. Each sampling point contained a total of 30 artificial fruit which belong to six different treatment groups, with five artificial fruit per group. Each group was randomly placed on the ground and that artificial fruit was checked every seven days. For each group of five fruit, 5mL of essence (vanilla or pineapple were placed, and no essence was used in the control group. Artificial fruit was made with green and red nontoxic modeling clay, as well as artificial essences (vanilla and pineapple. A total of 960 fruits were used. Predated fruit equaled 26.9% (258 units, from which the red/pineapple had the highest predation rate (81.9%, followed by red/vanilla (46.3%, while green/control fruits were not predated. Throughout the experiment, bitten fruit and pecked fruit equaled 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. No significant differences were recorded (x²=7.57, df=5, p=0.182 between bitten and pecked fruit. Fruit color and odor are important in attracting predators and dispersers, which explains the high rate of predation of red/vanilla and red/pineapple, and the absence of predated fruits in the green/control group. Regarding the potential disperser, there was no statistically significant difference between pecked fruit and bitten fruit. As a result, it should be taken into consideration that zoochory (mammalochory and ornithochory is the most important dispersal; therefore, it should be concluded that birds are more attracted by color and mammals by odor. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 925-931. Epub 2012 June 01.El olor y el color de los frutos son las

  8. New records of Anopheles homunculus in central and Serra do Mar biodiversity corridors of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cardoso, Jader C; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sant'ana, Denise C; Motoki, Maysa T; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2012-03-01

    Two new records of Anopheles homunculus in the eastern part of the Atlantic Forest are reported. This species was found for the first time in Barra do Ouro district, Maquiné municipality, Rio Grande do Sul state, located in the southern limit of the Atlantic Forest. The 2nd new record was in the Serra Bonita Reserve, Camacan municipality, southeast Bahia state. These records extend the geographical distribution of An. homunculus, suggesting that the species may be widely distributed in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest. It is hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of the species may be caused by inadequate sampling, and also difficulties in species identification based only on female external characteristics. Species identification was based on morphological characters of the male, larva, and pupa, and corroborated by DNA sequence analyses, employing data from both 2nd internal transcribed spacer of nuclear ribosomal DNA and of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I.

  9. A new species of Symbra (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae, Heimbrinae from dry forest in Brazil and new occurrence records for other Heimbrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniell Rodrigo Rodrigues Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The geographic ranges of Heimbra opaca (Ashmead, 1894, H. bicolor Subba Rao, 1978 and H. parallela Stage & Snelling, 1986 are extended based on study of material deposited in the entomological collections of the Laboratório de Sistemática e Bioecologia de Parasitoides e Predadores da APTA (Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brasília, DF, Brazil. Symbra potiguara Perioto & Fernandes sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae is described, illustrated and compared with S. cordobensis Stage & Snelling, 1986, the single species previously known for this genus. A key to the genera of Heimbrinae and to the species of Symbra is provided.

  10. Utilização de serviços de saúde por menores de cinco anos no extremo Sul do Brasil Determinants of hospitalization among children under five years of age in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os principais determinantes da utilização de serviços de saúde por menores de cinco anos, um estudo de base populacional por amostragem sistemática foi realizado no extremo sul do Brasil. Doze entrevistadores previamente treinados aplicaram questionários padronizados às mães sobre variáveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas e ambientais da família e padrão de morbidade e utilização de serviços de saúde entre estas criancas. Dentre os 514 menores de cinco anos estudados, metade foi levado à consulta médica nos últimos três meses e 11,5% foram hospitalizados nos útimos 12 meses. As infecções respiratórias responderam por cerca de dois terços das consultas médicas e praticamente metade das hospitalizações. Após ajuste para diversos fatores de confusão, os principais determinantes da utilização de serviços de saúde foram: idade da criança, escolaridade do pai e tipo de moradia. A identificação desses determinantes e das principais características dos seus usuários podem auxiliar no planejamento de futuras ações em saúde e no alcance daquelas crianças que necessitam de cuidados em saúde, mas que não fazem uso dele.To identify the main determinants of health services utilization by children under five years of age, a population-based study using systematic sampling was conducted in Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Twelve previously trained interviewers applied a standardized home questionnaire to mothers in order to obtain data on living conditions, medical consultations, and hospitalization for children under five years of age. Among 514 children covered by the study, 50% had required consultation with a physician in the previous three months and 11% had been hospitalized in the previous twelve months. Acute respiratory infection was responsible for almost two-thirds of the consultations and half of the hospitalizations. After adjusting the analysis for several confounders, the most important

  11. Estrutura populacional de Pinus elliottii em áreas de regeneração florestal em Juiz de Fora, MG Population structure of Pinus elliottii in areas of forest regeneration in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Aperibense Menon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas do gênero Pinus são conhecidas pelo potencial de invasão biológica. O Campus da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF foi arborizado na década de 1960 com o plantio massivo de Pinus elliottii, e hoje a espécie está alastrada. Neste estudo, realizado no Campus da UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG foi analisada a estrutura populacional da espécie em dois ambientes de regeneração florestal: aberto (pastagem abandonada e fechado (floresta secundária. Partiu-se da premissa que o ambiente aberto apresentaria uma população mais estruturada, pela preferência da espécie por áreas abertas. A amostragem foi por parcelas aleatórias (15 parcelas de 5 m x 5 m em cada ambiente, onde foram medidos todos os indivíduos da espécie (árvores: DAP ≥ 5 cm; arvoretas: DAP 0,05 com as variáveis ambientais indicou que a competição por recursos com a vegetação nativa não é um problema aparente para a permanência da espécie. Plants of the genus Pinus are known worldwide by biological invasion potential. In the 1960s there were massive plantations of Pinus elliottii in the Campus of Juiz de Fora University, and nowadays the species is widespread. This study analyzed the species population structure in two distinct forest regeneration environments: open area (abandoned pasture and closed-canopy (secondary forest on the campus of UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. The hypothesis were that the open environment would present a better structured population, due to the preference of species for open areas. Random plots were allocated (15 plots of 5 m x 5 m in each environment, and all individuals of the species (trees: dbh . 5 cm, saplings, dbh 0.05 with environmental variables showed that competition for resources within the local vegetation is not an apparent problem for the permanence of species.

  12. Estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de dois estádios sucessionais de floresta estacional semidecidual na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, Viçosa, MG, Brasil Structure of the tree-shrub component in two successional stages of semideciduous forest in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, Viçosa, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Isabel do Carmo Pinto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo das variações estruturais do componente arbustivo- arbóreo em dois estádios sucessionais - inicial e madura - de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, na Reserva Florestal Mata do Paraíso, em Viçosa, MG, Brasil. A Reserva Florestal está situada nas coordenadas 20º45'S e 42º55'W e a uma altitude média de 689 m. O clima da região é classificado como Cwb pelo sistema de Köppen. As espécies arbustivo-arbóreas foram amostradas dentro de 20 parcelas de 10 x 30 m, sendo 10 parcelas em cada estádio sucessional, sendo considerados apenas os indivíduos com diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo (DAP > 4,8 cm. Na floresta inicial foram amostrados 399 indivíduos, distribuídos em 27 famílias e 55 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Piptadenia gonoacantha, Vernonanthura diffusa, Miconia cinnamomifolia, Piptocarpha macropoda e Luehea grandiflora. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,31 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,83. No estádio floresta madura foram amostrados 623 indivíduos, distribuídos em 31 famílias e 78 espécies. As espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram Euterpe edulis, Piptadenia gonoacantha, Nectandra lanceolata, Myrcia sphaerocarpa e Guapira opposita. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,46 nat.ind.-1 e a equabilidade de Pielou (J', igual a 0,79. As distribuições diamétricas das quatro espécies mais abundantes em cada estádio sucessional apresentaram padrões distintos, aparentemente relacionados ao estádio sucessional.The study of the floristic and structural variations of the tree-shrub component was carried out in two successional stages of Semideciduous Forest, initial and mature, located in the Mata do Paraíso Forest Reserve, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The Forest Reserve is located at 20º45'S and 42º55'W, with average altitude of 689 m. The regional climate is classified as Cwb by the Köppen system

  13. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  14. Prevalence of sport injuries during the 53th Regional Games in Franca (SP, Brazil Prevalência de lesões esportivas durante os 53os Jogos Regionais em Franca (SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpo