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Sample records for forensic toxicology proficiency-testing

  1. The FAA's postmortem forensic toxicology self-evaluated proficiency test program: the first seven years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A K

    2000-03-01

    Existing proficiency-testing (PT) programs do not address the complexity of postmortem forensic toxicology. These programs do not include decomposed samples and solid tissues. Therefore, the Federal Aviation Administration in July 1991 started such a needed PT program. This program is used to: (i) professionally develop and maintain technical currency on a voluntary, interlaboratory, and self-evaluation basis, and (ii) quantifiably assess methods in the absence and presence of interfering substances. There are currently about 30 laboratories in the program. Functioning under various governmental/non-governmental agencies and academic institutions, these laboratories represent a broad cross-section of the country. PT samples are distributed quarterly, and result summaries are sent to the participants, while maintaining their anonymity. Since the inception of the program, 28 PT samples encompassing whole blood, plasma, urine, kidney, or liver, with (or without) drugs, metabolites, and common chemicals (nicotine, caffeine, beta-phenylethylamine, etc.) have been analyzed by the participants. Analytical findings were generally consistent with the anticipated values, but they were dependent on the nature and conditions of the specimens and types of the added analytes. Some incidences of false positives of concern were noted, as well. This PT program is one of the few programs recommended by the American Board of Forensic Toxicology in which laboratories may participate for their accreditation by the Board. It is anticipated that this PT program will continue to play a critical part in supporting the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) component of forensic toxicology, thereby enhancing operational performance.

  2. Arab Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (ASWGFT: Guidelines for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable results and valid analytical data are an essential requirement for proper interpretation of forensic toxicology cases, especially when evaluating scientific studies and daily routine work, and when presenting any toxicological findings as a criminal evidence. In contrast, the results of unreliable analyses can be disputed in court and can also lead to unfair legal judgments against the defendant, or can result in wrong treatment in cases of rehabilitation for patients. In order to establish strong evidence and make a correct decision, the lab is asked to give high quality data that are based on reliable analytical methods. For that reason, all new analytical methods used in forensic toxicology, including the clinical diagnosis of causes of death, require careful care during the development of the analytical method and during its application. This is also an urgent need in the context of quality management and accreditation, especially as those issues have become increasingly important in the science of poisons and drug analysis in recent years. The Arab Society for forensic sciences and forensic medicine (ASFSFM will publish the first version of Guidelines for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology issued by the Arab Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (ASWGFT. This aims to be a distinguished scientific publication written in Arabic which introducing the scientific terms of analytical methods in the field of forensic toxicology to Arab readers. The Arab Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology has chosen the first issue to be a manual of guidelines for method validation in forensic toxicology, similar to the international organizations who are actively publishing in this field. The guidelines contain a systematic scientific message that can be published and circulated among Arab laboratories. It will also encourage other Arab scientific working groups in the field of forensic sciences to produce similar publications

  3. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bocxlaer, J F; Clauwaert, K M; Lambert, W E; Deforce, D L; Van den Eeckhout, E G; De Leenheer, A P

    2000-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry has evolved from a topic of mainly research interest into a routinely usable tool in various application fields. With the advent of new ionization approaches, especially atmospheric pressure, the technique has established itself firmly in many areas of research. Although many applications prove that LC-MS is a valuable complementary analytical tool to GC-MS and has the potential to largely extend the application field of mass spectrometry to hitherto "MS-phobic" molecules, we must recognize that the use of LC-MS in forensic toxicology remains relatively rare. This rarity is all the more surprising because forensic toxicologists find themselves often confronted with the daunting task of actually searching for evidence materials on a scientific basis without any indication of the direction in which to search. Through the years, mass spectrometry, mainly in the GC-MS form, has gained a leading role in the way such quandaries are tackled. The advent of robust, bioanalytically compatible combinations of liquid chromatographic separation with mass spectrometric detection really opens new perspectives in terms of mass spectrometric identification of difficult molecules (e.g., polar metabolites) or biopolymers with toxicological relevance, high throughput, and versatility. Of course, analytical toxicologists are generally mass spectrometry users rather than mass spectrometrists, and this difference certainly explains the slow start of LC-MS in this field. Nevertheless, some valuable applications have been published, and it seems that the introduction of the more universal atmospheric pressure ionization interfaces really has boosted interests. This review presents an overview of what has been realized in forensic toxicological LC-MS. After a short introduction into LC-MS interfacing operational characteristics (or limitations), it covers applications that range from illicit drugs to often abused prescription medicines and some

  4. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  5. Exit association-mediated suicide: toxicologic and forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, C; Augsburger, M; Horisberger, B; Lucchini, P; Rivier, L; Mangin, P

    1999-03-01

    The Swiss German chapter of the Exit Association provides conditional assistance to individuals wishing to end their own lives. The Exit Association advocates death with dignity and fights for the right to freely choose the timing of one's own death. According to the Swiss criminal code (articles 114 and 115), altruistic assistance to suicide is not punishable. Active euthanasia is punished by imprisonment. An individual commits active euthanasia if he or she is driven by honorable motives (e.g., pity) and causes the death of another person wishing to die who seriously and insistently requests such action. Based on our information, the preparation for suicide and its completion relies on a well-defined protocol. First, the candidate's eligibility for Exit Association assistance is verified. The candidate then writes a farewell declaration that explicitly confirms the will to terminate his or her own life. A written report describes the events during the suicide procedure. Depending on the circumstances, the investigative judge requests a forensic autopsy and toxicologic analyses. The results of the forensic investigations conducted in the cases presented here are in agreement with the scenario described in the reports of the Exit Association, namely, suicide by massive ingestion of pentobarbital.

  6. Gender differences in drug abuse in the forensic toxicological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccelli, C; Della Casa, E; Paternoster, M; Niola, M; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in substance use/abuse have been the focus of research in the last 15 years. Initiation, use patterns, acceleration of disease course, and help-seeking patterns are known to be influenced by gender differences with regard to biological, psychological, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This paper presents a systematic review of published data on gender differences in the use/abuse of psychoactive and psychotic drugs, focusing on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. The basis for this paper was obtained by Medline searches using the search terms "human" and "gender", combined with individual drug names or "drugs of abuse". The reference lists of these papers were further checked for other relevant studies. The gender difference in drug abuse is more evident in adults than in adolescents (13-19 years): adult men are 2-3 times more likely than women to develop drug abuse/dependence disorders and approximately 4 times as likely to have an alcohol use disorder. Such prevalence rates have not been observed in adolescents. Differences between men and women involve: (i) the biological response to the drug, (ii) the progression to drug dependence, and (iii) the comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, which may be due to both sociocultural factors and innate biological differences. A crucial role played by ovarian hormones (oestrogens and progesterone) has been documented in both human and animal model studies. Epidemiological data on how particular psychobiological and physiological characteristics in females influence vulnerability to both drug addiction and toxicological consequences of drugs are still in their infancy. Significant gaps remain in our knowledge, which are primarily attributable to the lack of empirical data that only a systematic and multidisciplinary approach to the topic can generate. The introduction of gender into forensic toxicological evaluations may help elucidate the relationship between the body's absorption of abused drugs

  7. "New designer drugs" in aspects of forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciów-Głąb, M; Rojek, S; Kula, K; Kłys, M

    2014-01-01

    In autumn of 2010, in response to an ever-increasing market of "new designer drugs" and in view of new legal regulations, the Sanitary Inspection inspected numerous so-called "smart shops" where such products were sold. In the course of mass inspections, 3545 packages of various preparations were secured on the market in the Malopolska province. A total of 942 preparations were collected for analysis; of this number, 539 were sold as tablets and pills and 403 as plant-derived substances. The objective of the study was to determine potentially psychoactive components of the investigated preparations. The prepared samples were identified by employing an analytical procedure where the analytes were investigated by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) and thus a library of mass spectra was created. The analysis revealed the following substances in the investigated products: piperazine derivatives (BZP, MPMP, TFMPP), cathinone derivatives (N-ethylcathinone, buthylone, ethylone, methylone, buphedrone, flephedrone), pyrovalerone derivatives (MDPV, naphyrone), and synthetic cannabinoids (AM-694, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-250). An unlimited source, i.e. the Internet, continues to provide the worldwide market with preparations of this type and their composition is constantly modified. The scale and complexity of the problem pose a challenge to forensic and clinical toxicology in the field of new designer drugs.

  8. “New designer drugs” in aspects of forensic toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Maciów-Głąb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : In autumn of 2010, in response to an ever-increasing market of “new designer drugs” and in view of new legal regulations, the Sanitary Inspection inspected numerous so-called “smart shops” where such products were sold. In the course of mass inspections, 3545 packages of various preparations were secured on the market in the Malopolska province. A total of 942 preparations were collected for analysis; of this number, 539 were sold as tablets and pills and 403 as plant-derived substances. The objective of the study was to determine potentially psychoactive components of the investigated preparations. Material and methods : The prepared samples were identified by employing an analytical procedure where the analytes were investigated by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS and thus a library of mass spectra was created. Results: The analysis revealed the following substances in the investigated products: piperazine derivatives (BZP, MPMP, TFMPP, cathinone derivatives (N-ethylcathinone, buthylone, ethylone, methylone, buphedrone, flephedrone, pyrovalerone derivatives (MDPV, naphyrone, and synthetic cannabinoids (AM-694, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-122, JWH-200, JWH-250. Conclusions : An unlimited source, i.e. the Internet, continues to provide the worldwide market with preparations of this type and their composition is constantly modified. The scale and complexity of the problem pose a challenge to forensic and clinical toxicology in the field of new designer drugs.

  9. Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Alamenou, P.; Elbers, I.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was

  10. The current role of on-line extraction approaches in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Daniel M

    2014-08-01

    In today's clinical and forensic toxicological laboratories, automation is of interest because of its ability to optimize processes, to reduce manual workload and handling errors and to minimize exposition to potentially infectious samples. Extraction is usually the most time-consuming step; therefore, automation of this step is reasonable. Currently, from the field of clinical and forensic toxicology, methods using the following on-line extraction techniques have been published: on-line solid-phase extraction, turbulent flow chromatography, solid-phase microextraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, single-drop microextraction and on-line desorption of dried blood spots. Most of these published methods are either single-analyte or multicomponent procedures; methods intended for systematic toxicological analysis are relatively scarce. However, the use of on-line extraction will certainly increase in the near future.

  11. Application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in forensic chemistry and toxicology with focus on biological matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Werner; Keller, Thomas; Regenscheit, Priska

    1995-01-01

    The IMS (Ion Mobility Spectroscopy) instrument 'Ionscan' takes advantage of the fact that trace quantities of illicit drugs are adsorbed on dust particles on clothes, in cars and on other items of evidence. The dust particles are collected on a membrane filter by a special attachment on a vacuum cleaner. The sample is then directly inserted into the spectrometer and can be analyzed immediately. We show casework applications of a forensic chemistry and toxicology laboratory. One new application of IMS in forensic chemistry is the detection of psilocybin in dried mushrooms without any further sample preparation.

  12. Association of pulmonary histopathological findings with toxicological findings in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Miloš S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Drug abuse remains a significant social problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to estimate association between pulmonary histopathological changes and results of toxicological analyses in forensic autopsies of illicit drug users. Methods. This investigation was performed in the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Belgrade, and in the Clinical Center, Department of Forensic Medicine, Kragujevac, from 2000 to 2004, and included 63 medicolegal autopsies of heroin or other drug consumers who suddenly died. Autopsies, postmortem toxicological examination of drugs and serological analyses of anti- HIV/HBV/HCV antibodies were performed. Results. The deceased persons were mostly male, 46/63 (73.01%, ranged in age from 19 to 49 years (mean 31 years and all were whites. Postmortem toxicological examination was performed on all of the deceased persons and drugs in the fatal range were identified in only eight of them (12.7%, in the toxic range in ten (15.87%, and in minimal concentrations in 35 (55.56% of the deceased persons. Drugs identified in the fatal, toxic or minimal range included heroin-morphine (38/53, cocaine (4/53, tramadol (3/53, and lorazepam (1/53. In the 7 remaining subjects, ethanol in combination with heroin was found in 4 cases, and diazepam in combination with heroin in 3 cases. Dominant pathomorphological changes were findings in the lung tissue. Most common histological changes observed in drug users were pulmonary edema - 55/63 (87.3%, acute alveolar hemorrhages - 49/63 (77.78%, hemosiderin-laden macrophages (siderophages - 52/63 (82,54%, and emphysematous changes - 51/63 (80,95%. Conclusion. Pulmonary edema is the frequent non-specific autopsy finding which is associated with virtually all routes of drug administration. The histopatological study is necessary to determinate a cause of death when a deceased person has the history of dependence or abouse of psychoactive drugs with negative toxicological

  13. Crime Laboratory Proficiency Testing Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joseph L.; And Others

    A three-year research effort was conducted to design a crime laboratory proficiency testing program encompassing the United States. The objectives were to: (1) determine the feasibility of preparation and distribution of different classes of physical evidence; (2) assess the accuracy of criminalistics laboratories in the processing of selected…

  14. Application of gas chromatography-surface ionization organic mass spectrometry to forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Watanabe-Suzuki, Kanako; Seno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Katsumata, Yoshinao

    2002-08-25

    Surface ionization (SI), which consists in the formation of positive and negative ions along the course of thermal desorption of particles from a solid surface, was first applied as a detector for gas chromatography (GC), GC-surface ionization detection (SID); we developed many new sensitive methods for the determination of abused and other drugs by GC-SID. Recently, Fujii has devised a combination of SI and a quadrupole mass spectrometer and named this system a surface ionization organic mass spectrometer (SIOMS), which is highly selective and sensitive for organic compounds containing tertiary amino groups. We have tried to apply this mass spectrometer to forensic toxicological study; so far we have succeeded in determining important drugs-of-abuse and toxic compounds, such as phencyclidine (PCP), pethidine, pentazocine, MPTP and its derivatives from human body fluids with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this review, we describe our recent studies on the application of GC-SIOMS to forensic toxicology. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Evaluation of Mycology Laboratory Proficiency Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Andrew A.; Salkin, Ira F.; McGinnis, Michael R.; Gromadzki, Sally; Pasarell, Lester; Kemna, Maggi; Higgins, Nancy; Salfinger, Max

    1999-01-01

    Changes over the last decade in overt proficiency testing (OPT) regulations have been ostensibly directed at improving laboratory performance on patient samples. However, the overt (unblinded) format of the tests and regulatory penalties associated with incorrect values allow and encourage laboratorians to take extra precautions with OPT analytes. As a result OPT may measure optimal laboratory performance instead of the intended target of typical performance attained during routine patient testing. This study addresses this issue by evaluating medical mycology OPT and comparing its fungal specimen identification error rates to those obtained in a covert (blinded) proficiency testing (CPT) program. Identifications from 188 laboratories participating in the New York State mycology OPT from 1982 to 1994 were compared with the identifications of the same fungi recovered from patient specimens in 1989 and 1994 as part of the routine procedures of 88 of these laboratories. The consistency in the identification of OPT specimens was sufficient to make accurate predictions of OPT error rates. However, while the error rates in OPT and CPT were similar for Candida albicans, significantly higher error rates were found in CPT for Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and other common pathogenic fungi. These differences may, in part, be due to OPT’s use of ideal organism representatives cultured under optimum growth conditions. This difference, as well as the organism-dependent error rate differences, reflects the limitations of OPT as a means of assessing the quality of routine laboratory performance in medical mycology. PMID:10364601

  16. Proficiency test in the accreditation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2008-01-01

    In the accreditation process of a radioactivity measurements laboratory, according to ISO standard 17025, proficiency tests play a fundamental role. These PTs constitute an irreplaceable tool for the validation of measuring methods. In the case of Spain, ENAC, which is the Spanish accreditation national body, requires that the laboratory has to take part in a PT for each one of the accredited measuring methods in the period of time between two reassessments of the accreditation, what happens every 4-5 years. In specific areas of determination procedures, among which radioactive measurements could be included, the number of methods which can be accredited is very large. The purpose of the present work is to establish a classification into families of the different radioactivity measurement procedures, as well as to establish complementary actions that guarantee that carrying out periodically proficiency-tests on any of the included procedures in each family, every measurement procedure include in that family is controlled, complying with the criteria established by ENAC

  17. Evaluation of Cases Consulted to Forensic Toxicology Laboratory between 2008 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ethem Goren

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, we aimed to determine annual and seasonal distribution of cases and affecting factors of the distribution in Cukurova University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory. Method: Five-year (up to 2012 from 2008 archives of cases consulted to our forensic toxicology laboratory was investigated and classified according to gender, situation of case, type of poisoning, seasonal distribution, findings were statistically evaluated by SPSS v20.0 software Results: After screening five-year archives using laboratory registration book, we determined that of 608 cases 49.5 % were from emergency medicine, 19.6 % from pediatric, 7.4 % from psychiatry, 4.4 % 4.4 from neurology, 2.3 % from other units of the hospital, 7.9 % from judicial authorities, 4.8 % from special requests and 6.1 % from circumjacent hospitals. 57.9 % of the cases are male and 42.1 % are female. 87.3 % of 608 cases were clinical cases, 7.9 % were forensic cases, 4.8 % special requests. 95.8 % of judicial cases were male and 85.4 % were drugs of abuse cases. 28.1 % of clinical cases were the carbon monoxide poisoning and 64.3 % of the carbon monoxide poisoning cases were female. Conclusion: When five-year data were evaluated, we determine that numbers of case are increasing every year. Males are more than in females. Forensic cases which were mostly drugs of abuse were most commonly have seen in male. When our data were investigated together with TUBIM’s data belong to 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 (Turkey Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction, the use of drug abuse were seen most commonly in male. Also carbon monoxide poisoning in clinical cases were evaluated and we see that Carbon monoxide intoxication in winter was more than in summer due to heating. Women who exposed to carbon monoxide were more than men to be much more at home according to men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 675-680

  18. Frequency of forensic toxicological analysis in external cause deaths among nursing home residents: an analysis of trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Georgia; Murphy, Briony; Pilgrim, Jennifer; Bugeja, Lyndal; Ranson, David; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias

    2017-03-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the utility of forensic toxicology in the investigation of premature external cause deaths of residents in nursing homes. The aim of this study is to describe the frequency and characteristics of toxicological analysis conducted in external cause (injury-related) deaths amongst nursing home residents in Victoria, Australia. This study was a retrospective cohort study examining external cause deaths among nursing home residents during the period July 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012 in Victoria, Australia, using the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). The variables examined comprised: sex, age group, year-of-death, cause and manner of death. One-third of deaths among nursing home residents in Victoria resulted from external causes (n = 1296, 33.3%) of which just over one-quarter (361, 27.9%) underwent toxicological analysis as part of the medical death investigation. The use of toxicological analysis varied by cause of death with a relatively low proportion conducted in deaths from unintentional falls (n = 286, 24.9%) and choking (n = 36, 40.4%). The use of toxicological analysis decreased as the decedents age increased. Forensic toxicology has the potential to contribute to improving our understanding of premature deaths in nursing home residents however it remains under used and is possibly undervalued.

  19. Bacterial deposition of gold on hair: archeological, forensic and toxicological implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trace metal analyses in hair are used in archeological, forensic and toxicological investigations as proxies for metabolic processes. We show metallophilic bacteria mediating the deposition of gold (Au, used as tracer for microbial activity in hair post mortem after burial, affecting results of such analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human hair was incubated for up to six months in auriferous soils, in natural soil columns (Experiment 1, soils amended with mobile Au(III-complexes (Experiment 2 and the Au-precipitating bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans (Experiment 3, in peptone-meat-extract (PME medium in a culture of C. metallidurans amended with Au(III-complexes (Experiment 4, and in non-auriferous soil (Experiment 5. Hair samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In Experiments 1-4 the Au content increased with time (P = 0.038. The largest increase was observed in Experiment 4 vs. Experiment 1 (mean = 1188 vs. 161 microg kg(-1, Fisher's least significance 0.001. The sulfur content, a proxy for hair metabolism, remained unchanged. Notably, the ratios of Au-to-S increased with time (linear trend P = 0.02 and with added Au and bacteria (linear trend, P = 0.005, demonstrating that larger populations of Au-precipitating bacteria and increased availability of Au increased the deposition of Au on the hair. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions of soil biota with hair post mortem may distort results of hair analyses, implying that metal content, microbial activities and the duration of burial must be considered in the interpretation of results of archeological, forensic and toxicological hair analyses, which have hitherto been proxies for pre-mortem metabolic processes.

  20. Aberrant PO2 values in proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, C E; Clausen, J L; Mahoney, J

    1993-03-01

    We prospectively determined the frequency of aberrant vials of fluorocarbon/buffer used for proficiency testing of measurements of pH, PCO2, and PO2, using 20 duplicate vials from 12 lots of fluorocarbon/buffer and two arterial blood gas analyzers in eight reference laboratories. We defined aberrant vials as vials for which both duplicate measurements differed from the mean value of repeated measurements for the specific instrument (for each lot of testing materials) by > 0.04 for pH, > 10% of the mean or 3.0 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PCO2; or > 10% of the mean or 6 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PO2. Four of 1620 vials (0.25%) were aberrant, all based on PO2 measurements (range of mean values: pH, 7.181-7.631; PCO2, 12.7-65.9; PO2, 32.5-150.1) were 0.0055 for pH, 0.67 mm Hg for PCO2, and 1.65 mm Hg for PO2. Deliberate contamination of the fluorocarbon emulsion with room air, as might occur during sampling from the vial, indicated that only minor increases in PO2 (e.g., 1.0 mm Hg at PO2 of 56 mm Hg) occur when samples are aspirated. Larger increases in PO2 (mean 7.1 mm Hg at a PO2 of 66 mm Hg) occurred when the syringe samples were contaminated with room air. We conclude that isolated aberrant measurements of PO2 in blood gas proficiency testing attributable to vial contents can occur, but the frequency is very low.

  1. Choosing the right laboratory: a review of clinical and forensic toxicology services for urine drug testing in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2015-01-01

    Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy.

  2. Proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Jong, de J.; Lee, van der M.K.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    The here described proficiency test for heavy metals in compound feed was organised by RIKILT, Wageningen UR in accordance with ISO 17043. RIKILT Wageningen UR has an ISO/IEC 17043 accreditation for proficiency tests of residues in products of animal origin. However, this specific test is not part

  3. Proficiency test for tropane alkaloids in food en feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Proficiency testing is conducted to provide laboratories with a powerful tool to evaluate and demonstrate the reliability of the data that are produced. Next to validation and accreditation, proficiency testing is an important requirement of the EU Additional Measures Directive 93/99/EEC [1] and is

  4. Biosampling strategies for emerging drugs of abuse: towards the future of toxicological and forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercolini, Laura; Protti, Michele

    2016-10-25

    The term "new psychoactive substances" refers to emerging drugs of abuse whose chemical structure and psychoactive effects are similar to other already known compounds, often providing a "legal" alternative to internationally regulated drugs and mostly available via on-line retail sites. There are several categories of new psychoactive substances, such as synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone analogues, phenethylamines, tryptamines, and the need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological and forensic analysis. The purpose of this review is to highlight biosampling, sample preparation and analysis of the most important classes of emerging drugs of abuse in biological matrices, focusing on alternatives to classical blood and urine "in tube" approach, still representing the standard routine for bioanalysis, despite inherent flaws regarding handling, stability and process feasibility. Chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometry are usually exploited to identify and quantify new psychoactive substances; due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, it is possible to determine low concentrations not only in plasma and urine, but also in alternative matrices like dried blood spots, oral fluid, hair, other body fluids and tissues. Current literature on analytical methodologies applied to these samples is still limited and a more thorough validation is often required, including a comparison among the results obtained from conventional approaches and from innovative strategies, in order to determine their actual suitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  6. Acceptability criteria for linear dependence in validating UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination in forensic and toxicological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Klimenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is the result of authors’ research in the field of development of the approaches to validation of quantitative determination methods for purposes of forensic and toxicological analysis and devoted to the problem of acceptability criteria formation for validation parameter «linearity/calibration model». The aim of research. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the present approaches to acceptability estimation of the calibration model chosen for method description according to the requirements of the international guidances, to form the own approaches to acceptability estimation of the linear dependence when carrying out the validation of UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination for forensic and toxicological analysis. Materials and methods. UV-spectrophotometric method of doxylamine quantitative determination in blood. Results. The approaches to acceptability estimation of calibration models when carrying out the validation of bioanalytical methods is stated in international papers, namely «Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical method validation» (U.S. FDA, 2001, «Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology» (SWGTOX, 2012, «Guidance for the Validation of Analytical Methodology and Calibration of Equipment used for Testing of Illicit Drugs in Seized Materials and Biological Specimens» (UNODC, 2009 and «Guideline on validation of bioanalytical methods» (ЕМА, 2011 have been analysed. It has been suggested to be guided by domestic developments in the field of validation of analysis methods for medicines and, particularly, by the approaches to validation methods in the variant of the calibration curve method for forming the acceptability criteria of the obtained linear dependences when carrying out the validation of UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination for forensic and toxicological analysis. The choice of the method of calibration curve is

  7. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  8. Proficiency Testing and Language Teaching: Russian and Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Garn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential application of proficiency testing in U.S. colleges and universities. Specific consideration is giv-en to: the Oral Proficiency Interview, based on ILR or ACTFL guidelines, administered on a large scale at the Defense Language In-stitute and occasionally employed in American academia; the Diag-nostic Assessment Interview, the assessment tool of choice at DLI, basically unheard of in academia; and the new Polish proficiency test, which is part and parcel of the standardized series of language tests administered throughout Europe, based on Language Testers of Eu-rope guidelines. The author proposes that introducing the underlying principles of proficiency testing into American academia and promot-ing a better awareness of level tasks and expectations on the part of language teachers could help to eliminate the disconnect between testing and teaching. It could benefit instruction from early to ad-vanced stages.

  9. [Application of operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicology: experimental studies on alcohol and abusable drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, S

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes some experiments that apply the operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicological research. These techniques may be useful in investigating the mechanisms of action, toxic symptoms, legal competence and drug metabolism associated with substance abuse such as abuse of alcohol, psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and organic solvents. 1) Genetic research on alcohol preference in rats. We applied operant conditioning to investigate alcohol preference in rats and constructed an apparatus for the measurement of discriminated operate responses for water or alcohol reinforcement in rat. This apparatus is a modified Skinner box with a one-lever two-liquid system. Fixed ratio-10 (FR-10) schedules of reinforcement are used to increase the work of the rat before it obtains the reinforcement. The voluntary choice of water or 10% ethanol by the rat can be assessed quantitatively by measuring the lever-pushing responses. It is an extremely useful method for measuring the real alcohol preference of rats. A rat was kept in a Skinner box overnight. The numbers of responses and reinforcement for water and ethanol and the volumes of the two liquids consumed were recorded. The ratio of ethanol reinforcement was defined as the number of ethanol reinforcement to the total number of ethanol and water reinforcement. The ratio of ethanol intake was defined as the volume of ethanol consumed to the volume of water and ethanol consumed. Ethanol consumption per g body weight was calculated from the volume of ethanol consumed by the rat. We used this apparatus to investigate alcohol preference of more than 300 Wistar Albino Rats, and divided them into a high alcohol preference (HAP) group and a low alcohol preference (LAP) group. Inbreeding between littermates was conducted in each of the HAP and LAP groups. The liver tissue of each offspring was obtained and the cytosol fraction was collected and subjected to isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide gel

  10. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl,...

  11. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...

  12. Are antibiotic screening approaches sufficiently adequate? A proficiency test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A proficiency test including the screening analysis of antibiotics in beef using cryogenicly minced materials was organized by RIKILT in 2009. The test included blank beef samples and beef samples spiked with either flumequine or a combination of lincomycin and spectinomycin around the maximum

  13. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  14. Developing the Assessment Literacy of University Proficiency Test Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing use of English language proficiency test scores by universities around the world to select international students has resulted in a range of admissions, marketing, academic and teaching support staff interacting with the tests in different ways. To date, there has been little research investigating the assessment literacy…

  15. Current use of high-resolution mass spectrometry in drug screening relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanperä, Ilkka; Kolmonen, Marjo; Pelander, Anna

    2012-05-01

    Clinical and forensic toxicology and doping control deal with hundreds or thousands of drugs that may cause poisoning or are abused, are illicit, or are prohibited in sports. Rapid and reliable screening for all these compounds of different chemical and pharmaceutical nature, preferably in a single analytical method, is a substantial effort for analytical toxicologists. Combined chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques with standardised reference libraries have been most commonly used for the purpose. In the last ten years, the focus has shifted from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, because of progress in instrument technology and partly because of the polarity and low volatility of many new relevant substances. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), which enables accurate mass measurement at high resolving power, has recently evolved to the stage that is rapidly causing a shift from unit-resolution, quadrupole-dominated instrumentation. The main HRMS techniques today are time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Orbitrap Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. Both techniques enable a range of different drug-screening strategies that essentially rely on measuring a compound's or a fragment's mass with sufficiently high accuracy that its elemental composition can be determined directly. Accurate mass and isotopic pattern acts as a filter for confirming the identity of a compound or even identification of an unknown. High mass resolution is essential for improving confidence in accurate mass results in the analysis of complex biological samples. This review discusses recent applications of HRMS in analytical toxicology.

  16. [The analysis of the articles related to toxicological (forensic) chemistry published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" in 2004-2013. Part 1. The structure and quality of the publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A M

    2015-01-01

    The elements of the scientometric survey were applied for the analysis of the character, structure, and subject-matter of the articles related to toxicological (forensic) chemistry that had been published in the journal during the period from 2004 to 2013. The data on the number of publications and their authors are presented. The emphasis is laid on the merits and demerits of the papers submitted for publications.

  17. A new role of proficiency testing in nuclear analytical work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The most recent definition of measurement result requires a statement of uncertainty whenever results obtained by nuclear or other quantitative methods of analysis are reported. Proficiency testing (PT) therefore must include the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased quantity values......, but reliable estimates of their uncertainty Hence, a reference value with the smallest possible uncertainty is needed to ascertain the proficiency of laboratories reporting results with lower than average uncertainty. A strategy based on the T-statistic is proposed leading to an accepted reference value...

  18. Laboratory competence evaluation through proficiency testing - mycotoxins in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory for analysis of mycotoxins in food at the Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Serbia participated in 15 proficiency testing schemes in period 2012-2016, comprising 22 determinations of regulated mycotoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenone, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin, in different food commodities: wheat, corn, barley, breakfast cereals, infant food, milk, wine and fruit juice. Analyses were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (patulin, deoxynivalenol or fluorescence detection (aflatoxin M1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone using o-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivatization (fumonisins or UV postcolumn derivatization (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, following clean-up on immunoaffinity columns with specific antibodies, except in case of patulin when solvent extraction and solid-phase C-18 clean-up were used. Laboratory performance assessed in terms of z scores showed all satisfactory results. In depth evaluation revealed following distribution of z scores (absolute values: 59.1% up to 0.5, 36.4% between 0.5 and 1.0, and 4.5% above 1.0. Analysis of trends performed for multiple determinations of individual mycotoxins showed several changes of z score to better or worse rank. Overall assessment of the performance in proficiency testing demonstrated laboratory competence for analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  19. Uncertainty evaluation in 2008 IAEA proficiency test using phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Geraldo, Bianca, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: biancageraldo@yahoo.com.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-LAPOC), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Jacomino, Vanusa M.F., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.B., E-mail: bettymay@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN/DIREJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    LAPOC participated in the 2008 IAEA ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) Proficiency Test (PT) for phosphogypsum, which is a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) derived from phosphate industry, an abundant solid waste of low cost. Its reutilization would avoid environmental impact in large areas where the product is stored. Research involving possible uses for phosphogypsum is ever more important, from economic, technological, and environmental points of view. This paper describes results from this Proficiency Test (measured radionuclides: {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 230}Th, and {sup 210}Pb), as well as a short description of the nuclear analytical techniques emphasizing sources of uncertainty, such as Alpha Spectrometry (Alpha Analyst, Canberra, surface barrier detectors) and Gamma Spectrometry (Canberra, Hyper Pure Germanium Detector with 45 % efficiency). Corrections for decay, reference date, and recovery were applied. As an example, results obtained for {sup 210}Pb through the use of a specific uncertainty calculation software are presented below. Each parameter whose uncertainty is quantified was carefully described, with appropriate numerical value and unit, to determine its partial contribution to the combined total uncertainty. Results from PTs provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of the method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PTs are an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Laboratory practice. (author)

  20. Uncertainty evaluation in 2008 IAEA proficiency test using phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabiana F.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Geraldo, Bianca; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth M.B.

    2009-01-01

    LAPOC participated in the 2008 IAEA ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) Proficiency Test (PT) for phosphogypsum, which is a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) derived from phosphate industry, an abundant solid waste of low cost. Its reutilization would avoid environmental impact in large areas where the product is stored. Research involving possible uses for phosphogypsum is ever more important, from economic, technological, and environmental points of view. This paper describes results from this Proficiency Test (measured radionuclides: 234 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 230 Th, and 210 Pb), as well as a short description of the nuclear analytical techniques emphasizing sources of uncertainty, such as Alpha Spectrometry (Alpha Analyst, Canberra, surface barrier detectors) and Gamma Spectrometry (Canberra, Hyper Pure Germanium Detector with 45 % efficiency). Corrections for decay, reference date, and recovery were applied. As an example, results obtained for 210 Pb through the use of a specific uncertainty calculation software are presented below. Each parameter whose uncertainty is quantified was carefully described, with appropriate numerical value and unit, to determine its partial contribution to the combined total uncertainty. Results from PTs provide independent information on performance of a Laboratory and have an important role in method validation; especially because it allows the assessment of the method performance over an entire range of concentrations and matrices. PTs are an important tool to demonstrate equivalence of measurements, if not their metrological comparability, and to promote education and improvement of Laboratory practice. (author)

  1. [Plants' materials and synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors use as a substitute of Marihuana, appearing in a current forensic toxicology practice of evidence materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa species Indica (Marihuana) is nowadays one of the most common plant drug, with psychoactive activity, presently appearing on the illegal market in Poland. It is reported that frequency of securing evidential materials so called substitute of Marihuana, is growing rapidly during the last few years. The substitutes of Marihuana occurring on the market are of natural or synthetic origins, for example different species of raw plants' materials having action similar to Cannabis or raw plants' materials with no psychoactive properities but with an addition of components so called synthetic cannabinoids. The review presents recent developments in drug market and current problems of forensic toxicology on the example of Marihuana.

  2. Novel Selectivity-Based Forensic Toxicological Validation of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitative Determination of Eight Amphetamines in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Sebastiaan F.; Fedick, Patrick W.; Berendsen, Bjorn J. A.; Nielen, Michel W. F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Graham Cooks, R.; van Asten, Arian C.

    2017-12-01

    Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry is used to identify and quantify eight individual amphetamines in whole blood in 1.3 min. The method has been optimized and fully validated according to forensic toxicology guidelines, for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy- N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy- N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Additionally, a new concept of intrinsic and application-based selectivity is discussed, featuring increased confidence in the power to discriminate the amphetamines from other chemically similar compounds when applying an ambient mass spectrometric method without chromatographic separation. Accuracy was within ±15% and average precision was better than 15%, and better than 20% at the LLOQ. Detection limits between 15 and 50 ng/mL were obtained using only 12 μL of whole blood. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Role of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization in clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control, and biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hans H

    2002-04-01

    This paper reviews procedures for the detection or quantification of drugs, pesticides, pollutants, and/or their metabolites relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control, or biomonitoring using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). Papers written in English between 1995 and 2000 are reviewed. Procedures are included for the analysis of the following halogen-containing or derivatizable compounds in common biosamples, such as whole blood, plasma, or urine, and in alternative matrices such as sweat, hair, bone, or muscle samples of humans or rats: benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, opioids, acetylsalicylic acid, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ketoprofen, methylphenidate enantiomers, tegafur, zacopride, anabolic steroids, chlorophenols, chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, organochlorines, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The principal information on each procedure is summarized in three tables to facilitate the selection of a method suitable for a specific analytic problem.

  4. [State under the influence of drugs or psychotropic agents--a comparison of toxicological and medical examinations in materials of the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Silesian University of Medicine, Katowice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyńska, Małgorzata; Kulikowska, Joanna; Celiński, Rafał; Nowicka, Joanna; Rojek, Sebastian; Uttecht-Pudełko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, the authors present the results of toxicological examinations of blood samples taken from drivers during road check procedures or from perpetrators of traffic road accidents, which--taking into consideration the kind of the determined agents and their concentrations--were compared with the results of medical examinations from blood sampling protocols studied in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Silesian University of Medicine. All the blood samples were first analyzed using an immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Then, the LC-MS method was used. The positive results of screening for the presence of cannabinols were verified by GC-MS. Out of 329 blood samples, 145 were positive. The presence of cannabinols, amphetamine or MDMA was the most predominant finding. Diazepam was determined in 4 cases and opiates in 1 case. Only in 31% cases did positive results of toxicological examinations correspond to deviations found during the medical examinations constituting the basis for the final diagnosis of state "under the influence". In practice, appraisal of drug influence during medical examination seems to be limited and dependent on variable reactions of the examined individuals to a psychoactive agent, time lapse between the traffic road event and the examination or concomitant symptoms associated with ethylene alcohol activity. The final diagnosis of state "under the influence of drugs" or "under the influence of psychotropic agents" given by the physician does not result from the effect of these substances observed during the medical examination, but is very often formulated based on the medical history or police findings. The analysis of the above mentioned cases where Delta9THC or/and amphetamine was detected showed no correlation between the concentration of the psychoactive agent determined in blood and symptoms triggered by its action as described by the physician.

  5. Discrepancies between diagnoses of methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication based on determinations performed in the regional clinical toxicology centre and in the department of forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Cywka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The situations in which autopsy blood toxicology results do not confirm methanol and/or ethylene glycol intoxications diagnosed during patients` hospitalizations are frequently observed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Material and methods: In order to verify inconsistent findings, serum samples of 18 individuals, routinely stored in the regional clinical toxicology centre after testing, were re-examined using the specific method of gas chromatography (GC. Results: None of the fatal methanol intoxications was confirmed; toxic concentration of glycol was detected only in one case whereas the remaining determinations were negative or revealed “congeneric” concentrations. In cases of negative results of chromatographic re-analyses, the difference between hospital analysis and GC results were on average 29.6 mg% (max. 127.7 mg% for glycol and 31.8 mg% (max. 80.0 mg% for methanol. Severe metabolic acidosis was found in all hospitalized patients. In the hospital setting, “intoxications” were diagnosed even when low concentrations of methanol or glycol (below the cut-off values were detected with spectrophotometry, which is the method still used in the hospital laboratory. The diagnosis of methanol intoxication in a car accident victim was particularly bizarre; as were the methanol intoxication diagnoses established in cases of acute diabetes-associated complications (4, pancreatitis (1, pneumonia (2 and peritonitis (1, gastrointestinal haemorrhage (1, and decompensated hepatic cirrhosis (1. The therapeutic management based on those diagnoses was incorrectly targeted at the non-existing intoxication that was considered the cause of patient’s deteriorating condition. Conclusions : Our findings indicate inadequate knowledge of physicians to interpret and critically verify toxicological results. Moreover, low cost and speed of spectrophotometric analysis should not veil its significant limitations: mainly low specificity and

  6. Discrepancies between diagnoses of methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication based on determinations performed in the regional clinical toxicology centre and in the department of forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywka, T; Teresiński, G; Cwiklińska, M; Buszewicz, G; Matysiak, P

    2014-01-01

    The situations in which autopsy blood toxicology results do not confirm methanol and/or ethylene glycol intoxications diagnosed during patients` hospitalizations are frequently observed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. In order to verify inconsistent findings, serum samples of 18 individuals, routinely stored in the regional clinical toxicology centre after testing, were re-examined using the specific method of gas chromatography (GC). None of the fatal methanol intoxications was confirmed; toxic concentration of glycol was detected only in one case whereas the remaining determinations were negative or revealed "congeneric" concentrations. In cases of negative results of chromatographic re-analyses, the difference between hospital analysis and GC results were on average 29.6 mg% (max. 127.7 mg%) for glycol and 31.8 mg% (max. 80.0 mg%) for methanol. Severe metabolic acidosis was found in all hospitalized patients. In the hospital setting, "intoxications" were diagnosed even when low concentrations of methanol or glycol (below the cut-off values) were detected with spectrophotometry, which is the method still used in the hospital laboratory. The diagnosis of methanol intoxication in a car accident victim was particularly bizarre; as were the methanol intoxication diagnoses established in cases of acute diabetes-associated complications (4), pancreatitis (1), pneumonia (2) and peritonitis (1), gastrointestinal haemorrhage (1), and decompensated hepatic cirrhosis (1). The therapeutic management based on those diagnoses was incorrectly targeted at the non-existing intoxication that was considered the cause of patient's deteriorating condition. Our findings indicate inadequate knowledge of physicians to interpret and critically verify toxicological results. Moreover, low cost and speed of spectrophotometric analysis should not veil its significant limitations: mainly low specificity and interference with exo- and endogenous blood constituents, especially

  7. 25-27 Kasım 2015 Adli Toksikoloji Kursu Advances Updated in Forensic Toxicology Ardından

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebile Dağlıoğlu

    2015-12-01

    şyeri uyuşturucu testi ile ilgili analizler bilim alanina ait çalışmalar biyokimya laboratuarları ve biyokimya ile sınırlı olamaz. Çeşitli bilimsel disiplinlerden deneyimli ve iyi eğitimli uzmanlar kombine güç olmalıdır. Sonuç olarak, Türk Hükümeti uyuşturucu ve uyuşturucu bağımlılığı ile mücadelede daha bilimsel, etkin ve güncel uygulamaları planlamalı ve yürürlüğe koymalıdır. Ayrıca uyuşturucu ve uyuşturucu bağımlılığı konusunda çalışmalar yapacak yetkinlikte ve yeterlilikte insan gücünü yetiştirmek üzere Türkiye Ulusal Uyuşturucu Enstitüsünü oluşturmalıdır. Bu uyuşturucu ve uyuşturucu bağımlılığı ile mücadelede daha bilimsel yöntemler kullanılarak ilerleme anlamı taşıyacaktır. Amerika Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüleri bünyesinde bulunan Amerika Ulusal Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı Enstitüsü’nün (NIH/NIDA genel yapılanması Türkiye Ulusal Uyuşturucu Enstitüsü için bir örnek olabilir. Not: Adli ve Klinik Toksikoloji Derneği –AKTOD (Society of Forensic and Clinical Toxicology-SoFoCT başkanlığını Ege Üniversitesi Madde Bağımlılığı, Toksikoloji ve İlaç Bilimleri Enstitüsü’nden Doç.Dr. Serap Annette Akgür yapmaktadır. Dernek iletişimi için www.adlikliniktoksikoloji.org sitesine başvurabilirsiniz.

  8. Psychotropic Medications in Swedish Homicide Victims and Offenders: A Forensic-Toxicological Case-Control Study of Adherence and Recreational Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Jonatan; Forsman, Jonas; Sturup, Joakim; Masterman, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess the extent to which adherence to, and recreational use of, psychotropic medications influence the risk of homicide offending and victimization. We conducted a population-based case-control study by way of linking a nationwide registry of dispensed prescriptions with a forensic-toxicological database. Homicide victims (n = 200) and offenders (n = 105) were identified for the years 2007-2009 and vehicle-accident controls (n = 1,643) for the years 2006-2013. The occurrence of congruence and incongruence between dispensed prescriptions and toxicology was used as a measure of adherence and recreational use. For antidepressants, incongruence-but not congruence-between dispensed prescriptions and toxicology was associated with a significantly increased risk of homicide offending (odds ratio adjusted for age and sex [aOR] = 6.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3-11.6) but not homicide victimization (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.0). For antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, a significantly increased risk of homicide offending was associated with incongruence between prescriptions and toxicology (aOR = 7.0; 95% CI, 2.8-17.7), whereas risk estimates for congruence were not significantly elevated for either homicide offending or victimization. For GABAergic hypnotics, congruence and incongruence were significantly associated with increased risks of both homicide offending (aOR = 5.4; 95% CI, 2.6-11.0 and aOR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.6-9.3, respectively) and homicide victimization (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.2 and aOR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.7-6.1, respectively). Sensitivity analyses with a subset of controls yielded similar estimates. Nonadherence to medications used to treat affective and psychotic disorders appears to elevate the risk of homicide offending. Both medicinal and recreational use of GABAergic hypnotics appears to elevate the risk of homicide offending and victimization. In summary, vigilance regarding adherence to medications prescribed for mood disorders and

  9. Quality control of the analysis of histamine in fish by proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Warlley P.; Tette, Patrícia A. S.; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of histamine is required by the European Union for the importation of tuna and other Scombroid fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the analysis of histamine in fish, by means of reference material (RM) and of proficiency test (PT). Sample analysis carried out using RM provided 89.4% recovery. During the proficiency test, the histamine content of the sample was 311.9 mg/kg and the z-score was zero. These results assure the good performance of the laboratory in the analysis of histamine in fish, asuring reliability of results to clients.

  10. Final report proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2005-06-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides was organised within the frame of the Technical Cooperation project: RAS/9/024 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Regional Data Base' to evaluate the analytical performance of 14 laboratories from 12 Asian countries. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation of this proficiency test showed that 58% of all reported results obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  11. The Contribution of Test-Takers' Speech Content to Scores on an English Oral Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    The content that test-takers attempt to convey is not always included in the construct definition of "general" English oral proficiency tests, although some English-for-academic-purposes (EAP) speaking tests and most writing tests tend to place great emphasis on the evaluation of the content or ideas in the performance. This study…

  12. [The analysis of the articles concerning toxicological (forensic) chemistry published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza (Forensic Medical Expertise)" during the period from 2004 to 2013. Part 2. The analysis and assessment of the publications, peculiarities of the development of investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A M

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the results of the analysis of the publications concerning toxicological (forensic) chemistry issues published in the journal "Sudebno-meditsinskaya ekspertiza" during the period from 2004 to 2013 with their assessment making use of scientometrical methods. Special emphasis is laid on the publications devoted to the development and improvement of the approaches to the investigation into narcotic and psychotropic drugs as well as other toxic substances. Specific features of such investigations are described.

  13. Design of experiments, a powerful tool for method development in forensic toxicology: application to the optimization of urinary morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S; Barroso, M; Castañera, A; Dias, M

    2010-04-01

    The application of the design of experiments to optimize method development in the field of forensic toxicology using the urinary morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis as an example is described. Morphine and its trideuterated analogue (used as an internal standard) were extracted from urine samples by liquid-liquid extraction (ToxiTubes A) and derivatized by silylation. Chromatographic analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Using the peak area ratio (morphine-to-internal standard) as the response, we investigated the independent variables that could influence the acid hydrolysis, including temperature (range 70-130 degrees C), acid volume (range 500-1,000 microL) and time (range 15-90 min). A 2(3) full factorial design for the screening and a response surface methodology, including a central composite design for optimization, were applied. The factors which influenced the response to a greater extent were temperature and its interaction both with time and acid volume. By application of a multiple regression analysis to the experimental data, a second-order polynomial equation was obtained. The optimal predicted conditions for morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis were 115 degrees C, 38 min and 500 microL for temperature, time and acid volume, respectively. Using design of experiments, instead of the one factor at a time approach, we achieved the optimum combination of all factor values, and this allowed the best results to be obtained, simultaneously optimizing resources. In addition, time and money can be saved, since other approaches are in general more time-consuming and laborious, and do not take into account the interactions between factors.

  14. IAEA-RML-2013-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a second proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  15. IAEA-RML-2014-02 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a third proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  16. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E.

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  18. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Heather L.; Anderson, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requir...

  19. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  20. Performance of Clinical Laboratories in South African Parasitology Proficiency Testing Surveys between 2004 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Leigh; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Performance in proficiency testing (PT) schemes is an objective measure of a laboratory's best performance. We examined the performance of participants in two parasitology PT schemes in South Africa from 2004 through 2010. The average rates of acceptable scores over the period were 58% and 66% for the stool and blood parasite schemes, respectively. In our setting, participation in PT alone is insufficient to improve performance; a policy that provides additional resources and training seems necessary. PMID:22814470

  1. Leukopak PBMC sample processing for preparing quality control material to support proficiency testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ambrosia; Keinonen, Sarah; Sanchez, Ana M; Ferrari, Guido; Denny, Thomas N; Moody, M Anthony

    2014-07-01

    External proficiency testing programs designed to evaluate the performance of end-point laboratories involved in vaccine and therapeutic clinical trials form an important part of clinical trial quality assurance. Good clinical laboratory practice (GCLP) guidelines recommend both assay validation and proficiency testing for assays being used in clinical trials, and such testing is facilitated by the availability of large numbers of well-characterized test samples. These samples can be distributed to laboratories participating in these programs and allow monitoring of laboratory performance over time and among participating sites when results are obtained with samples derived from a large master set. The leukapheresis procedure provides an ideal way to collect samples from participants that can meet the required number of cells to support these activities. The collection and processing of leukapheresis samples require tight coordination between the clinical and laboratory teams to collect, process, and cryopreserve large number of samples within the established ideal time of ≤8 hours. Here, we describe our experience with a leukapheresis cryopreseration program that has been able to preserve the functionality of cellular subsets and that provides the sample numbers necessary to run an external proficiency testing program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-01-01

    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  3. Production and characterization of a traceable NORM material and its use in proficiency testing of gamma-ray spectrometry laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, H; Riedl, J; Maringer, F J; Baumgartner, A; Stietka, M; Kabrt, F

    2018-04-01

    This paper outlines the process of characterizing a new NORM material for proficiency testing made of quartz sand with significantly elevated levels of 226 Ra obtained from the backflush of a drinking water treatment facility. Samples of the fully characterized NORM material were sent to European laboratories concerned with radioactivity measurements and environmental monitoring by gamma-ray spectrometry for proficiency testing. The paper discusses the results, specific requirements, problems and solutions that were found during the characterization process and the proficiency test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory issues in accreditation of toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Michael G

    2012-09-01

    Clinical toxicology laboratories and forensic toxicology laboratories operate in a highly regulated environment. This article outlines major US legal/regulatory issues and requirements relevant to accreditation of toxicology laboratories (state and local regulations are not covered in any depth). The most fundamental regulatory distinction involves the purposes for which the laboratory operates: clinical versus nonclinical. The applicable regulations and the requirements and options for operations depend most basically on this consideration, with clinical toxicology laboratories being directly subject to federal law including mandated options for accreditation and forensic toxicology laboratories being subject to degrees of voluntary or state government–required accreditation.

  5. The English Proficiency Test of the Iranian Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Noori

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the serious decisions which every administrator may need to make during his/her professional career is to select or reject applicants based on their general language skills or competence. These significant decisions, which may be of serious consequences not only for the individuals but also for the society in general, are occasionally made based on norm-referenced proficiency tests. Out of internationally available proficiency tests such as the TOEFL test, those which fit the specific local cultural and academic contexts seem of greater prominence. One such test, which has been specifically designed for the Iranian EFL context by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology, is the MSRT proficiency test. While a few studies have been conducted on the analysis of the reliability and validity of the mentioned test, no study has yet reviewed the test and its component parts. Therefore, the current study aimed at considering the strengths and weaknesses of the test in general and its component items in particular. The results implicated that the MSRT benefits from more efficient general reliability and validity, well planned language items, practicality, ease of administration, objective scoring, ease of accessibility, as well as reasonable fees, while it needs to be more substantiated in terms of the inclusion of the speaking skill assessment, the computerized adaptive assessment procedures, and the correction factor for guessing. In addition, the use of the individual-based listening apparatus for testing listening comprehension as well as the consideration of the integrative communicative tests for its concurrent validity purposes can contribute to more appropriate distinction of proficient and non-proficient applicants.

  6. Participation on official proficiency test of the OPCW: case study of Brazilian Army – IDQBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. C.; Ferreira, C. N.; Cardozo, M.; de Paula, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, Brazil has been the scene of international events, gaining worldwide repercussion. However, this increases the risk of terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. It brings the need to achieve proficiency to do a quick and unequivocal identification of these dangerous compounds. Thinking about it, the Laboratory of Chemical Analyzes (LAQ) of Brazilian Army has participated since the end of 2010 in the interlaboratory tests promoted by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In this article, we discuss about the participation of LAQ in the 40th OPCW Proficiency Test, one more step in the way to become a laboratory designated by OPCW and an international reference.

  7. Proficiency tests for radionuclide laboratories supporting the network of IMS stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhu, Paula E-mail: paula.karhu@ctbto.org; Jerome, Simon M

    2004-09-01

    A tailored proficiency test programme in high-resolution {gamma}-spectrometric analysis has been established for the radionuclide laboratories designated to support the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). It entails certified reference samples that contain fission products relevant to the CTBT. The sample geometries and materials correspond to aerosol filter samples from the high-volume samplers of the radionuclide stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the related calibration sources are matrix and geometry matched to the reference samples.

  8. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the 99Tcm measurements in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing 99 Tc m . Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  9. External quality assessment (EQA) in molecular immunohematology: the INSTAND proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegel, Willy A; Chiosea, Ion; Sachs, Ulrich J; Bein, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Background Genotyping for red blood cell (RBC), platelet and granulocyte antigens is a new tool for clinical pathology, transfusion medicine services and blood banks. Proficiency in laboratory tests can be established by external quality assessments (EQAs), which are required for clinical application in many health care systems. There are few EQAs for molecular immunohematology. Methods We analyzed the participation and pass rates in an EQA for RBC, platelet and granulocyte antigens. This EQA was distributed by INSTAND, a large non-profit provider of proficiency tests, twice per year since fall 2006 as EQA no. 235 Immunohematology A (molecular diagnostic). The coordinators defined at the outset which alleles are mandatory for detection. Results The number of participants steadily increased from 51 to 73 per proficiency by fall 2012. More than 60 institutions utilized this EQA at least once a year. Approximately 80% of them participated in RBC, 68% in platelet and 22% in granulocyte systems. With the exceptions of RHD (82%) and granulocytes (85%), pass rates exceeded 93%. While the pass rate increased for granulocyte and decreased for the ABO system, the pass rates for the other systems changed little over 6 ½ years. Conclusions The INSTAND proficiency test program was regularly used for EQA by many institutions, particularly in Central Europe. While the technical standards and pass rates in the participating laboratories were high, there has been little improvement in pass rates since 2006. PMID:24111785

  10. Proficiency testing materials for pH and blood gases. The California Thoracic Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, J L; Levy, S E; Mohler, J G; Van Kessel, A L

    1986-02-01

    The California Thoracic Society Blood Gas Proficiency Testing Program distributed ampules from three separate lots of quality control products every three months as unknowns to participating clinical (survey) laboratories and ten selected reference laboratories. For eight quarters, aqueous buffers were distributed. For each lot, PCO2 and pH measurements varied within narrow ranges between laboratories. Concurrently, the PO2 measurements varied widely between reference laboratories as well as survey laboratories, but varied minimally when repeatedly assessed on each reference laboratory machine. Change to a fluorocarbon-containing emulsion as a testing medium resulted in a significant reduction in within model and overall variability for PO2. We attribute this reduction in variability to the higher O2 content and decreased temperature sensitivity for PO2 of the fluorocarbon-containing emulsion. Because we have no evidence that the magnitude of the interinstrument differences in PO2 found with these materials would be found with fresh human blood we recommend that regulatory agencies use the results of proficiency testing for PO2 cautiously.

  11. Preparation, characterization and use of a reference material to proficiency testing for determination of metals in fish tissue in natura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Luciana Vieira de

    2013-01-01

    The proficiency tests are widely used to evaluate the analytical capacity of laboratories and also as part of the accreditation process. For this reason, are important tools for the control of the quality of the analytical results obtained in the laboratories that work directly with seafood companies. In Brazil there are no providers of proficiency testing for metals potentially toxic in fish tissues. In this work will be described all steps used for the production of reference materials to be used in a proficiency testing pilot study for As, Cd, Pb and Hg in fish tissue following the recommendations of the ISO Guide 35. He preparation scheme consisted in selecting the individuals, cleaning, grinding, homogenization and fortification with As, Cd and Pb in two concentration levels. The preparation resulted in 164 sachets of 10 g each. In order to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation in the samples conservation 52 sachets were irradiated with 60 Co (10.00 ± 1.05 kGy) in a gamma cell. This material with others non irradiated 52 sachets were used for the homogeneity and stability studies. The remaining 60 were used for the proficiency testing. The results demonstrated that both materials were homogeneous and presented good stability (during a period of 45 days). However, the irradiated material present better integrity, concerning biological degradation, when stored in ambient temperature. For this reason they were used to the proficiency testing pilot program. Ten laboratories participated in the proficiency testing pilot study and the results were evaluated using the following tests: z-score, confidence ellipse and En numbers. This work demonstrates the capability of the laboratory to produce reference materials as well as to organize and conduct proficiency testing. (author)

  12. Organization of Proficiency Testing for Dairy Laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia in Order to Improve Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in proficiency testing is not only an obligation for all analytical laboratories which tend to be credible, but also an opportunity to check how the results agree with the reference or assign value. The Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Dairy Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb, is itself incorporated in the proficiency testing organized by dairy laboratories from Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland and Slovenia. The aim is to find out its own accuracy and reliability in particular milk and dairy products analyses. On the basis of seven years experience of participating in proficiency testing, five years ago the Reference Laboratory started organizing its own proficiency testing for dairy laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia for milk components such as milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count. The results of the analyses have been statistically analyzed and, on the basis of Z-score, the successful measurements have been estimated. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the organisation and data processing of proficiency testing for milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count in milk for the involved dairy laboratories.

  13. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret

  14. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the world wide proficiency tests organised every year by the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory. This series of PTs is designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to maintain their accreditation and to provide a forum for discussions regarding the analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides. The range of sample types available for analysis has been mainly at environmental levels. In this PT, the test item set consisted of six samples: one phosphogypsum (the IAEA-434 reference material) and five water samples spiked with natural radionuclides. The main task of the participating laboratories was to identify and traceably quantify the activity levels of radionuclides present in these matrices. The tasks of the IAEA were to prepare and distribute the samples to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analysis results and to compile a comprehensive report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were traceable to international standards of radioactivity. In this PT, 1800 test items (reference materials) were prepared and distributed to 300 laboratories from 76 countries in November 2008. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 15 May 2009. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse Ra-226, U-234 and U-238 in water samples 01 and 02, and gross alpha/beta in water samples 03, 04 and 05. In the phosphogypsum sample number 06 the participants were asked to analyse Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the reference materials, and a rating system was applied. Three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) and six expert

  15. Use of Proficiency Testing as a Tool to Improve Quality in Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Heather L; Anderson, Nancy L

    2013-09-15

    Proficiency testing (PT) is a valuable tool for assessing laboratory performance and verifying the accuracy and reliability of test results. Participation is required by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) of 1988 for each of the microbiology subspecialties (bacteriology, mycobacteriology, mycology, parasitology, and virology), and the regulations include specific PT requirements for each subspecialty. To determine the use and perceived value of PT beyond meeting CLIA requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded a cooperative agreement with the Association of Public Health Laboratories to convene a series of focus groups to query laboratory professionals responsible for PT. The seven focus groups were comprised of 60 laboratory professionals representing large and small clinical laboratories, microbiology subspecialties, and public health. While participants acknowledged the need to perform PT to meet regulatory requirements, many also cited benefits and challenges beyond regulatory compliance.

  16. Proficiency testing in the light of a new rationale in metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj

    2008-01-01

    The novel proposed definition of measurement result in the international metrology vocabulary requires a revision of standards and guidelines for proficiency testing (PT), and a new approach to processing proficiency data is needed to test the ability of laboratories to present not only unbiased...... quantity values, but reliable estimates of their uncertainty. Hence, an accepted reference value with the smallest possible uncertainty is needed to ascertain the proficiency of laboratories reporting results with lower than average uncertainty. A strategy based on the T-statistic is proposed leading...... to an accepted reference value that fully reflects the uncertainties reported by participants in a PT scheme and permits calculation of En-numbers to distinguish whether or not measurement results are consistent with the accepted definition of the measurand. The strategy is applied to PT data from a recent...

  17. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  18. Analysing sensory panel performance in a proficiency test using the PanelCheck software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, O.; Luciano, G.; Nilsen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses statistical methods and a workflow strategy for comparing performance across multiple sensory panels that participated in a proficiency test (also referred to as inter laboratory test). Performance comparison and analysis are based on a data set collected from 26 sensory panels......Check software, a workflow is proposed that guides the user through the data analysis process. This allows practitioners and non-statisticians to get an overview over panel performances in a rapid manner without the need to be familiar with details on the statistical methods. Visualisation of data analysis...... results plays an important role as this provides a time saving and efficient way of screening and investigating sensory panel performances. Most of the statistical methods used in this paper are available in the open source software PanelCheck, which may be downloaded and used for free....

  19. A Biospecimen Proficiency Testing Program for Biobank Accreditation: Four Years of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaignaux, Amélie; Ashton, Garry; Coppola, Domenico; De Souza, Yvonne; De Wilde, Annemieke; Eliason, James; Grizzle, William; Guadagni, Fiorella; Gunter, Elaine; Koppandi, Iren; Shea, Katheryn; Shi, Tim; Stein, Julie A; Sobel, Mark E; Tybring, Gunnel; Van den Eynden, Gert; Betsou, Fay

    2016-10-01

    Biobanks produce and distribute biospecimens, ensuring their fitness for purpose and accurately qualifying them before distribution. In their efforts toward professionalization, biobanks can nowadays seek certification or accreditation. One of the requirements of these standards is regular participation in Proficiency Testing (PT) programs. An international PT program has been developed and provided to biobanks and other laboratories that perform specific tests to qualify different types of biospecimens. This PT program includes biospecimen testing schemes, as well as biospecimen processing interlaboratory exercises. This PT program supports the development of biobank quality assurance by providing the possibility to assess biobank laboratory performance and useful insights into biobank laboratory method performance characteristics and thus fulfill the demands from accreditation authorities.

  20. Current landscape and new paradigms of proficiency testing and external quality assessment for molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Lisa V; Lubin, Ira M; Barker, Shannon; du Sart, Desiree; Elles, Rob; Grody, Wayne W; Pazzagli, Mario; Richards, Sue; Schrijver, Iris; Zehnbauer, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Participation in proficiency testing (PT) or external quality assessment (EQA) programs allows the assessment and comparison of test performance among different clinical laboratories and technologies. In addition to the approximately 2300 tests for individual genetic disorders, recent advances in technology have enabled the development of clinical tests that quickly and economically analyze the entire human genome. New PT/EQA approaches are needed to ensure the continued quality of these complex tests. To review the availability and scope of PT/EQA for molecular genetic testing for inherited conditions in Europe, Australasia, and the United States; to evaluate the successes and demonstrated value of available PT/EQA programs; and to examine the challenges to the provision of comprehensive PT/EQA posed by new laboratory practices and methodologies. The available literature on this topic was reviewed and supplemented with personal experiences of several PT/EQA providers. Proficiency testing/EQA schemes are available for common genetic disorders tested in many clinical laboratories but are not available for most genetic tests offered by only one or a few laboratories. Provision of broad, method-based PT schemes, such as DNA sequencing, would allow assessment of many tests for which formal PT is not currently available. Participation in PT/EQA improves the quality of testing by identifying inaccuracies that laboratories can trace to errors in their testing processes. Areas of research and development to ensure that PT/EQA programs can meet the needs of new and evolving genetic tests and technologies are identified and discussed.

  1. Recent developments in analytical toxicology : for better or for worse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, RA

    1998-01-01

    When considering the state of the art in toxicology from an analytical perspective, the key developments relate to three major areas. (1) Forensic horizon: Today forensic analysis has broadened its scope dramatically, to include workplace toxicology, drug abuse testing, drugs and driving, doping,

  2. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. How Are Spoken Skills Assessed in Proficiency Tests of General English as a Foreign Language? A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Varela, Mª Luisa; Palacios, Ignacio M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines some of the best known proficiency tests in English, with particular focus on the oral component. Attention is paid to the following issues, among others: the weighting of oral elements in testing, the criteria used for the assessment of oral skills and the relation of these to the general guidelines in the "Common…

  4. English Proficiency Tests and Communication Skills Training for Overseas-Qualified Health Professionals in Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wette, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews recent literature on a number of problematic issues arising from the use of English proficiency tests by registration bodies as the sole assessment of the professional communication skills of overseas qualified health professionals from non-English-speaking backgrounds. It discusses differences between the assessment…

  5. Emergency Response Proficiency Test for Japanese Laboratories: Determination of Selected Radionuclides in Water, Soil, Vegetation and Aerosol Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary for compliance with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness in this regard by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, rapid and consistent worldwide response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. In addition, the IAEA coordinates the worldwide network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA). After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, Japan requested the IAEA to organize an emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories with the aim of assessing their capacity to rapidly and accurately measure radionuclides in environmental samples. The IAEA responded to the request by assembling a special sample set covering the main environmental samples and radionuclides of interest in the case of a nuclear emergency situation. Water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filter samples were made available to Japanese laboratories for analysis by gamma ray spectrometry. This report presents the results of the IAEA-TEL-2011-08 emergency response proficiency test for Japanese laboratories on the determination of selected radionuclides in water, soil, vegetation and aerosol filters. The report includes descriptions of the methodologies and data evaluation approach used, as well as summary evaluations of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports of each laboratory. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in their efforts to improve the quality of

  6. Results of a Saxitoxin Proficiency Test Including Characterization of Reference Material and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A saxitoxin (STX proficiency test (PT was organized as part of the Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk (EQuATox project. The aim of this PT was to provide an evaluation of existing methods and the European laboratories’ capabilities for the analysis of STX and some of its analogues in real samples. Homogenized mussel material and algal cell materials containing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP toxins were produced as reference sample matrices. The reference material was characterized using various analytical methods. Acidified algal extract samples at two concentration levels were prepared from a bulk culture of PSP toxins producing dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii. The homogeneity and stability of the prepared PT samples were studied and found to be fit-for-purpose. Thereafter, eight STX PT samples were sent to ten participating laboratories from eight countries. The PT offered the participating laboratories the possibility to assess their performance regarding the qualitative and quantitative detection of PSP toxins. Various techniques such as official Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC methods, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for sample analyses.

  7. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-01-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60 Co≤4.6%, 134 Cs≤4.7%, 137 Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3 H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  8. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Proficiency test on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes with multi-residue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Grimalt, Susana; Dabrio, Marta; Cordeiro, Fernando; Fiamegos, Yiannis; Robouch, Piotr; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2015-05-22

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 37 (IMEP-37) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the world-wide performance of food control laboratories on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes. This PT supports the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin. Eighty-one participants reported results, forty from EU Member States and forty-one from outside the EU. The test item was a grape sample spiked with 20 selected pesticides. The results of the participants were rated with z- and zeta (ζ-) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for the proficiency assessment, σˆ, of this PT was set at 25% for the 20 measured pesticides based on previous experience with similar measurands. The results reported to IMEP-37 showed that the participants performed satisfactorily, ranging from 81% (carbendazim) to 97% (azoxystrobin, penconazole, pyrimethanil) of the participating laboratories. However, only 30% of the participants managed to analyze all pesticides satisfactorily. Overall, the performance of the participants in this PT was good but there is room for improvement in the development of multi-residue methods for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of pesticides with an increased accuracy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Proficiency testing to detect Trichinella larvae in meat in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, G; Tonanzi, D; Cherchi, S; Galati, F; Bella, A; Interisano, M; Ludovisi, A; Amati, A; Pozio, E

    2016-11-15

    According to the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/1375 (replacing the Commission Regulation (EC) No 2075/2005), all animals, which are potential carriers of Trichinella spp. larvae, should be tested at the slaughterhouse or game-handling establishments according to one of the approved tests. One of the core duties of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites is to organize proficiency testing (PT), as stated in the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council. The aim of this work was to evaluate the results of PTs of the digestion method carried out by the National Reference Laboratories for Parasites (NRLPs) over a nine year period (2007-2015). Participating laboratories received a panel of samples consisting in 35g or 100g of minced pork or horse meat spiked with Trichinella spiralis live larvae. The number of spiked samples varied from 2 to 9 over the years. A negative control was also included in the panel, except during the 2015 PT, when only positive samples were used. The percentage of NRLPs, which passed the PT, increased from 83.3% in 2007 to 100% in 2014. Considering the number of recovered larvae, the heterogeneity in participant's results reduced overtime. The values of the overall mean difference between spiked and recovered larvae decreased during the study period, witnessing a general improvement of NRLPs performance and confirming the effectiveness of PT for a good performance of this test. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proficiency testing/external quality assessment: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Jones, Graham R D; Horowitz, Gary L; Weykamp, Cas

    2011-12-01

    Proficiency testing (PT), or external quality assessment (EQA), is intended to verify on a recurring basis that laboratory results conform to expectations for the quality required for patient care. Key factors for interpreting PT/EQA results are knowledge of the commutability of the samples used and the process used for target value assignment. A commutable PT/EQA sample demonstrates the same numeric relationship between different measurement procedures as that expected for patients' samples. Noncommutable PT/EQA samples frequently have a matrix-related bias of unknown magnitude that limits interpretation of results. PT/EQA results for commutable samples can be used to assess accuracy against a reference measurement procedure or a designated comparison method. In addition, the agreement of the results between different measurement procedures for commutable samples reflects that which would be seen for patients' samples. PT/EQA results for noncommutable samples must be compared to a peer group mean/median of results from participants who use measurement procedures that are expected to have the same or very similar matrix-related bias. Peer group evaluation is used to asses whether a laboratory is using a measurement procedure in conformance to the manufacturer's specifications and/or in conformance to other laboratories using the same technology. A noncommutable PT/EQA sample does not give meaningful information about the relationship of results for patients' samples between different measurement procedures. PT/EQA provides substantial value to the practice of laboratory medicine by assessing the performance of individual laboratories and, when commutable samples are used, the status of standardization or harmonization among different measurement procedures.

  12. Does proficiency testing improve the quality of hantavirus serodiagnostics? Experiences with INSTAND EQA schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jörg; Grunert, Hans-Peter; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Kruger, Detlev H

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus infections in Germany appear periodically with peak numbers every 2-3 years. The reported cases in the years 2007, 2010 and 2012 exceeded many times over those in the years in-between. In order to reveal faults of certain in vitro diagnostic assays (IVDs), to harmonize the performances of the individual assays and to improve the users' competence in interpreting the results, the National Consiliary Laboratory for Hantaviruses and INSTAND e.V. (Society for Promoting Quality Assurance in Medical Laboratories e.V.) established an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for proficiency testing of hantavirus serodiagnostics. The first EQA scheme (pilot study) started in March 2009 with 58 participating laboratories from Germany and neighboring countries. Twice a year four serum samples were sent out to the participants to investigate whether the sample reflects an acute or past infection and to distinguish between infections with the hantavirus types Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), both endemic in Central Europe. In addition, samples negative for anti-hantavirus antibodies were tested in order to examine the specificity of the IVDs applied in the participating laboratories. An increasing number of laboratories participated, with a maximum of 92 in March 2014. When summarizing in total 2592 test results, the laboratories reached an overall specificity of 96.7% and a sensitivity of 95% in their detection of a hantavirus infection. A correct distinction between acute and past infections was forwarded in 90-96% of replies of laboratories. Exact serotyping (PUUV vs. DOBV) of the infection was reported in 81-96% of replies with the lowest accuracy for past DOBV infections; cross-reactivities between diagnostic antigens of the two viruses as well as persistent IgM titers in humans may interfere with exact testing. The EQAs revealed acceptable results for the serodiagnostic of hantavirus infection including serotyping but further improvement

  13. The Importance of Reagent Lot Registration in External Quality Assurance/Proficiency Testing Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavelin, Anne; Riksheim, Berit Oddny; Christensen, Nina Gade; Sandberg, Sverre

    2016-05-01

    Providers of external quality assurance (EQA)/proficiency testing schemes have traditionally focused on evaluation of measurement procedures and participant performance and little attention has been given to reagent lot variation. The aim of the present study was to show the importance of reagent lot registration and evaluation in EQA schemes. Results from the Noklus (Norwegian Quality Improvement of Primary Care Laboratories) urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and prothrombin time international normalized ratio (INR) point-of-care EQA schemes from 2009-2015 were used as examples in this study. The between-participant CV for Afinion ACR increased from 6%-7% to 11% in 3 consecutive surveys. This increase was caused by differences between albumin reagent lots that were also observed when fresh urine samples were used. For the INR scheme, the CoaguChek INR results increased with the production date of the reagent lots, with reagent lot medians increasing from 2.0 to 2.5 INR and from 2.7 to 3.3 INR (from the oldest to the newest reagent lot) for 2 control levels, respectively. These differences in lot medians were not observed when native patient samples were used. Presenting results from different reagent lots in EQA feedback reports can give helpful information to the participants that may explain their deviant EQA results. Information regarding whether the reagent lot differences found in the schemes can affect patient samples is important and should be communicated to the participants as well as to the manufacturers. EQA providers should consider registering and evaluating results from reagent lots. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  14. Proficiency testing/external quality assurance for the PFA-100(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Bonar, Roslyn

    2012-02-15

    Platelet function testing is integral to haemostasis investigations and the Platelet Function Analyser-100 (PFA-100(®)) is globally the most utilised primary haemostasis-screening instrument. External Quality Assurance (EQA) (or proficiency testing) is critical to ensuring quality of test practice, but EQA for platelet function is logistically challenging and actual test-challenges generally not possible. A novel approach was therefore developed whereby a range of formulated test tubes are distributed to EQA participants to which citrated normal whole blood collected on site is added, thereby creating test material that can be locally evaluated. Several exercises have been conducted over the past four years (total of 18 challenges, most designed to mimic an aspirin effect or a mild or severe primary haemostasis defect, tested in 26-47 laboratories). Numerical results for PFA-100(®) closure times (CTs) and interpretive comments provided by participants were analysed. Reported CTs for each challenge were within limits of expectation and good reproducibility was evidenced by repeated challenges. Coefficients of variation (CVs) generated for two PFA-100(®) cartridge types (C/ADP and C/Epi) for challenges [median (range): 14.8 (3.9-29.5) and 13.9 (0.6-29.5)] was similar to those obtained using native whole blood [15.6 (14.2-18.9) and 17.3 (13.5-20.5)]. Interpretations were in general also consistent with expectations and test data provided by laboratories. In conclusion, an EQA process for the PFA-100(®) has been developed that includes a highly reproducible test-challenge process, not only proving the concept is possible for platelet function testing, but also providing a valuable mechanism for monitoring and improving laboratory performance.

  15. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R T; Yan, X; Wick, M T; Rodriguez, A B; Xiong, X; Ginocchio, C C; Mitchell, M J; Caliendo, A M

    2012-02-01

    While viral load testing has gained widespread acceptance, a primary limitation remains the variability of results, particularly between different laboratories. While some work has demonstrated the importance of standardized quantitative control material in reducing this variability, little has been done to explore other important factors in the molecular amplification process. Results of 185 laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2009 viral load proficiency testing (PT) survey (VLS) were examined. This included 165 labs (89.2%) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 99 (53.5%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 64 (34.6%) for BK virus (BKV). At the time of PT, laboratories were asked a series of questions to characterize their testing methods. The responses to these questions were correlated to mean viral load (MVL) and result variability (RV). Contribution of individual factors to RV was estimated through analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling and the use of backward selection of factors to fit those models. Selection of the quantitative calibrator, commercially prepared primers and probes, and amplification target gene were found most prominently associated with changes in MVL or RV for one or more of the viruses studied. Commercially prepared primers and probes and amplification target gene made the largest contribution to overall variability. Factors contributing to MVL and RV differed among viruses, as did relative contribution of each factor to overall variability. The marked variability seen in clinical quantitative viral load results is associated with multiple aspects of molecular testing design and performance. The reduction of such variability will require a multifaceted approach to improve the accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility of these important tests.

  16. Proficiency testing for HIV, tuberculosis and malaria diagnosis in clinical laboratories in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onubogu, Catherine C.; Okoye, Rosemary N.; Nwokoye, Nkiru N.; Onwuamah, Chika K.; Musa, Adesola Z.; Raheem, Toyosi Y.; Aniedobe, Maureen N.; Nduaga, Samuel J.; Essien, Ini-Obong; Idigbe, Emmanuel O.

    2014-01-01

    Background Proficiency testing (PT) is a means of verifying the reliability of laboratory results, but such programmes are not readily available to laboratories in developing countries. This project provided PT to laboratories in Nigeria. Objectives To assess the proficiency of laboratories in the diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. Methods This was a prospective study carried out between 2009 and 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered to 106 randomly-selected laboratories. Forty-four indicated their interest in participation and were enrolled. Four rounds of pre-characterised plasma panels for HIV, sputum films for tuberculosis and blood films for malaria were distributed quarterly by courier over the course of one year. The results were returned within two weeks and scores of ≥ 80% were reported as satisfactory. Mentoring was offered after the first and second PT rounds. Results Average HIV PT scores increased from 74% to 95% from the first round to the third round, but decreased in the fourth round. For diagnosis of tuberculosis, average scores increased from 42% in the first round to 78% in the second round; but a decrease to 34% was observed in the fourth round. Malaria PT performance was 2% at first, but average scores increased between the second and fourth rounds, culminating in a fourth-round score of 39%. Many participants requested training and mentoring. Conclusions There were gross deficiencies in the quality of laboratory services rendered across Nigeria. In-country PT programmes, implemented in conjunction with mentoring, will improve coverage and diagnosis of HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. PMID:29043176

  17. Clinical pharmacology quality assurance program: models for longitudinal analysis of antiretroviral proficiency testing for international laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFrancesco, Robin; Rosenkranz, Susan L; Taylor, Charlene R; Pande, Poonam G; Siminski, Suzanne M; Jenny, Richard W; Morse, Gene D

    2013-10-01

    Among National Institutes of Health HIV Research Networks conducting multicenter trials, samples from protocols that span several years are analyzed at multiple clinical pharmacology laboratories (CPLs) for multiple antiretrovirals. Drug assay data are, in turn, entered into study-specific data sets that are used for pharmacokinetic analyses, merged to conduct cross-protocol pharmacokinetic analysis, and integrated with pharmacogenomics research to investigate pharmacokinetic-pharmacogenetic associations. The CPLs participate in a semiannual proficiency testing (PT) program implemented by the Clinical Pharmacology Quality Assurance program. Using results from multiple PT rounds, longitudinal analyses of recovery are reflective of accuracy and precision within/across laboratories. The objectives of this longitudinal analysis of PT across multiple CPLs were to develop and test statistical models that longitudinally: (1) assess the precision and accuracy of concentrations reported by individual CPLs and (2) determine factors associated with round-specific and long-term assay accuracy, precision, and bias using a new regression model. A measure of absolute recovery is explored as a simultaneous measure of accuracy and precision. Overall, the analysis outcomes assured 97% accuracy (±20% of the final target concentration of all (21) drug concentration results reported for clinical trial samples by multiple CPLs). Using the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act acceptance of meeting criteria for ≥2/3 consecutive rounds, all 10 laboratories that participated in 3 or more rounds per analyte maintained Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act proficiency. Significant associations were present between magnitude of error and CPL (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001) and antiretroviral (Kruskal-Wallis P < 0.001).

  18. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Soil and Water. IAEA-TEL-2011-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network is a cooperative effort of analytical laboratories worldwide. Members of the network are nominated by their respective Member States on the expectation of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The ALMERA network consists of 131 laboratories representing 81 Member States at December 2012. The IAEA's Environment Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco are the central coordinators of the ALMERA network activities. The IAEA helps the ALMERA network to maintain their readiness by coordinating activities, including the organization of meetings, development of standardized methods of sample collection and analysis, and organization of interlaboratory comparison exercises and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control. IAEA proficiency tests and interlaboratory comparison exercises are organized on a regular basis specifically for the members of the ALMERA network. At least one exercise is organized per year by the IAEA for the ALMERA network. These exercises are designed to monitor and to demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. The ALMERA proficiency tests enable ALMERA members to report their results on gamma emitting radionuclides in a very short time frame, i.e. three days, which is what would be required for emergency response. This publication presents the results of the ALMERA proficiency test IAEA-TEL-2011-04 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in water and soil. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described

  19. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L V; Sarkis, J E S; Ulrich, J C; Hortellani, M A

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g −1

  20. Worldwide proficiency test for X ray fluorescence laboratories PTXRFIAEA/05 determination of minor and trace elements in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The proficiency test (code PTXRFIAEA05) was the fifth worldwide exercise organized by the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in order to assist X ray fluorescence laboratories in assessment and improvement of their analytical performance. The test was carried out within the IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03) on Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. Marine sediment test samples with established homogeneity and well characterized known target values of the mass fractions of analytes were distributed to participating laboratories. The laboratories were requested to analyze the sample using established techniques following their analytical procedures. Based on the results of the proficiency test presented in the report each participating laboratory should assess its analytical performance results by using the specified criteria and, if appropriate, to identify discrepancies, and to correct relevant analytical procedures. The next proficiency test exercise will be executed in 2009

  1. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA08: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Natural Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The IAEA assists Member State laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, developing standardized analytical methods, and conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory organizes tests for Member State laboratories. This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA08 on the determination of minor and trace elements in natural soil. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems and to support Member State laboratories in improving the quality of their analytical results, maintaining their accreditation and providing a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed to enable the identification of potential analytical problems

  2. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  3. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  4. [Fatal poisoning due to narcotic abuse in the analytic-toxicological practice of Forensic Medicine Department Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice in years 1996-202].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Artur; Celiński, Rafał; Kulikowska, Joanna; Albert, Małgorzata; Sybirska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    147 cases of fatal poisonings in people due to narcotic abuse examined in the Forensic Medicine Department Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice in the years 1996-2002 have been presented in the paper. In the group examined there were 126 males and 21 females at the age of 16-44. Opium narcotics were found in 139 out of 147 cases and amphetamine derivatives in 18. Opiates were indicated in 58 individuals and amphetamine only in 8. In 35 poisoned people opiates with barbituric acid derivatives were found. In 3 cases death resulted after taking opiates and amphetamine derivatives. 1 individual died after taking opiates and substances of the phenothiazine group. In the organic fluids of 18 people opiates and medicines being derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine and barbituric acid were found. Amphetamine and derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine were found in 6 individuals and opiates, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and amphetamine in 1 individual. Concentrations of all the substances indicated ranged widely and were as follows: microgram/ml for opiates; microgram/ml for amphetamine; microgram/ml for 1.4-benzodiazepine derivatives and microgram/ml for barbituric acid derivatives. Ethanol was found in 18 individuals and its concentration was @1000.

  5. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Jannetto, Paul J; Langman, Loralie J

    2016-12-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used in the Toxicological analysis of drugs, poisons, and metabolites of both. To date, MS applications have permeated all fields of toxicology which include; environmental, clinical, and forensic toxicology. While many different analytical applications are used in these fields, MS and its hyphenated applications such as; gas chromatography MS (GC-MS), liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS), inductively coupled plasma ionization MS (ICP-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS n ) have emerged as powerful tools used in toxicology laboratories. This review will focus on these hyphenated MS technologies and their applications for toxicology.

  6. [Forensic medicine and criminalistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerd, W

    1989-01-01

    The supplementary designation "criminalistics" in the title of certain forensic medical institutes in the first half of this century is to be regarded as a reaction to faulty developments in our specialty, which almost led to the elimination of forensic medicine as an independent scientific discipline in the 1960s. The ability to think in terms of criminalistics and the corresponding working procedures has always been a crucial precondition for the forensic physician, since forensic medicine is the application of medical knowledge for juridical purposes. Forensic medicine originated with the appraisal of cases of violent death by doctors, i.e., reconstruction of the facts in the case. To use the term "criminalistics" in the form of a supplementary designation is thus not required. An attempt is nevertheless made to define "medical criminalistics" as a small but important component of criminalistics. They are subdivided into two phases: the first part begins at the scene of the crime or the place of discovery (local evidence). Here, the trained eye of the forensic physician is indispensable to the criminal investigation department and the prosecutor. Medical criminalistic thinking and working procedures continue at the autopsy. Here, forensic autopsy differs from that practiced by the pathologist. Without knowledge of the situation at the discovery location, the forensic physician runs the risk of not recognizing facts that are important for reconstruction and thus becoming a "destroyer of clues". The second part of medical criminalistics is the actual detection of medical clues, i.e., the investigation of medical clues with special methods, including histological and toxicological investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. A new challenge in forensic toxicology exemplified by a case of murder under the influence of a synthetic cannabinoid - AM-2201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Maciów-Głąb, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2017-07-01

    Among new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the narcotic market, a significant number consists of synthetic cannabinoids commonly known as smokable herbal "spice" and "K2", and which are legally treated as a legal alternative to marijuana. The dearth of information on the pharmacology of these intoxicants as they are introduced into the market has created the urgent need among healthcare providers for case studies on the substances belonging to this group, both in terms of the consequences of using such intoxicants, and in methods of detection. The subject of the present report is a multi-parameter analysis of a criminal case of an 18-year-old male who was charged with murder of his female relative and attempted murder of two other victims by stabbing. The defendant pleaded guilty, but he claimed that he had been acting without volition, because he was under the influence of the synthetic cannabinoid AM-2201, which had been purchased from a dealer as a 10g package labelled "Mr Green - No bad trip". Analytical methods including gas chromatography - electron ionization - quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-EI-QIT/MS) and liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) were developed to determine the presence of AM-2201 in the Mr Green - No Bad Trip, and in the blood of the perpetrator, respectively. Toxicological findings are discussed in the context of psychoactive and adverse physical effects resulting from the presence of AM-2201 in the human body; the observations were also analyzed in conjunction with data from the literature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Proficiency Testing for Bacterial Whole Genome Sequencing: An End-User Survey of Current Capabilities, Requirements and Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Sintchenko, Vitali; Karlsmose Pedersen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised public health microbiology. Given the potential impact of NGS, it is paramount to ensure standardisation of ‘wet’ laboratory and bioinformatic protocols and promote comparability of methods employed by different laboratories...... and their outputs. Therefore, one of the ambitious goals of the Global Microbial Identifier (GMI) initiative (http://​www.​globalmicrobiali​dentifier.​org/​) has been to establish a mechanism for inter-laboratory NGS proficiency testing (PT). This report presents findings from the survey recently conducted...

  9. Proficiency testing for bacterial whole genome sequencing: an end-user survey of current capabilities, requirements and priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Sintchenko, Vitali; Karlsmose Pedersen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionised public health microbiology. Given the potential impact of NGS, it is paramount to ensure standardisation of 'wet' laboratory and bioinformatic protocols and promote comparability of methods employed by different laboratories...... and their outputs. Therefore, one of the ambitious goals of the Global Microbial Identifier (GMI) initiative (http://www.globalmicrobialidentifier.org/) has been to establish a mechanism for inter-laboratory NGS proficiency testing (PT). This report presents findings from the survey recently conducted by Working...

  10. Determination of a selection of anti-epileptic drugs and two active metabolites in whole blood by reversed phase UPLC-MS/MS and some examples of application of the method in forensic toxicology cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Hasvold, Inger; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Øiestad, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative determination of anti-epileptic drug concentrations is of great importance in forensic toxicology cases. Although the drugs are not usually abused, they are important post-mortem cases where the question of both lack of compliance and accidental or deliberate poisoning might be raised. In addition these drugs can be relevant for driving under the influence cases. A reversed phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the quantitative analysis of the anti-epileptic compounds carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, 10-OH-carbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, pregabalin, and topiramate in whole blood, using 0.1 mL sample volume with methaqualone as internal standard. Sample preparation was a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and methanol. The diluted supernatant was directly injected into the chromatographic system. Separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC® BEH Phenyl column with gradient elution and a mildly alkaline mobile phase. The mass spectrometric detection was performed in positive ion mode, except for phenobarbital, and multiple reaction monitoring was used for drug quantification. The limits of quantification for the different anti-epileptic drugs varied from 0.064 to 1.26 mg/L in blood, within-day and day-to-day relative standard deviations from 2.2 to 14.7% except for phenobarbital. Between-day variation for phenobarbital was 20.4% at the concentration level of 3.5 mg/L. The biases for all compounds were within ±17.5%. The recoveries ranged between 85 and 120%. The corrected matrix effects were 88-106% and 84-110% in ante-mortem and post-mortem whole blood samples, respectively. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Screening approach by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the blood quantification of thirty-four toxic principles of plant origin. Application to forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Romeuf, Ludovic; Bévalot, Fabien; Boyer, Baptiste; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-15

    Plant poisonings have left their mark on history and still cause many deaths, whether intentional or accidental. The means to show toxicological evidence of such poisonings should be implemented with great care. This article presents a technique for measuring thirty-nine toxic principles of plant origin in the blood, covering a large amount of toxins from local or exotic plants: α-lobeline, α-solanine, aconitine, ajmaline, atropine, brucine, cephalomannine, colchicine, convallatoxin, cymarine, cytisine, digitoxin, digoxin, emetine, gelsemine, ibogaine, jervine, kavain, lanatoside C, lupanine, mitragynine, neriifolin, oleandrin, ouabain, paclitaxel, physostigmine, pilocarpine, podophyllotoxin, proscillaridin A, reserpine, retrorsine, ricinine, scopolamine, senecionine, sparteine, strophanthidin, strychnine, veratridine and yohimbine. Analysis was carried out using an original ultra-high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Extraction was a standard solid phase extraction performed on Oasis(®) HLB cartridge. Thirty-four of the thirty-nine compounds were put through a validation procedure. The assay was linear in the calibration curve range from 0.5 or 5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L according to the compounds. The method is sensitive (LOD from 0.1 to 1.6 μg/L). The within-day precision of the assay was less than 22.5% at the LLOQ, and the between-day precision was less than 21.5% for 10 μg/L for all the compounds included. The assay accuracy was in the range of 87.4 to 119.8% for the LLOQ. The extraction recovery and matrix effect ranged from 30 to 106% and from -30 to 14%, respectively. It has proven useful and effective in several difficult forensic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Worldwide open proficiency test on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. IAEA-CU-2007-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of radionuclides in spinach, soil and water. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was mainly focused on the assessment of the analytical performance in the determination of nuclides in different matrices. Therefore, the property values of the PT samples were traceable to international standards. Additionally, the evaluation of the data focused also on the uncertainty estimations reported by participants. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable enhancing identification of potential analytical problems. Finally, every participant received an individual report shortly after the deadline to provide quick feedback to the participants

  13. Assessment of the uncertainty and the proficiency test for accrediting KOLAS of ISO 17025 for a neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, H.; Sim, C.M.; Lim, I.C.; Hong, K.P.; Choi, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    KOLAS(Korea of Lab Accreditation Scheme) is the charter member of ILAS (International Lab Accreditation Scheme) and APLAS (Asia Pacific Lab Accreditation Scheme), which originates from ISO 17025. KATS (Korea Agent of Technology Standard) governs the KOLAS. The KOLAS describes the basis of satisfying those issues related to a quality assurance and management system. The requirements specify an organization, the accommodation and environmental conditions, an uncertainty in the measurement and an inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program. The evaluation process of the requirements of certifying KOLAS for HANARO NRF has been proceeded by a neutron radiography laboratory, NRT level II course of SNT-TC-1A II is opened, with 20 persons attending for certification. An inter-laboratory comparison or proficiency test program is conducted through with Kyoto University in accordance with ASTM method for determining the imaging quality in direct thermal neutron radiographic testing (E545-91). In order to determine the uncertainty, dimensional measurements for the calibration fuel pin of the RISO using a profile project is performed with the ASTM practice for thermal neutron radiography of materials (E748-95) (orig.)

  14. Analysis of a provider of proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons for dosimetry in function of guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Zaretzky, Alba; Stefanic, Amalia M.; Saravi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ionising Radiation Dosimetry Group (CNEA) has participated of the last intercomparison scheme organized by EUROMET. This intercomparison was held starting 2005 until 2008.The objective of this paper is to analyze this Association as a proficiency test provider according to the ISO/IEC Guide 43 (1997) 'Proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons' and ILAC G13 Guide (2007) 'Guidelines for the Requirements for the Competence of Providers of Proficiency Testing Schemes'. The analysis of EURAMET (so called since 2007) as the provider of this dosimetric comparison was made taking into account the following sections of the ILAC G13 Guide: Conduct of proficiency testing schemes; Statistical design, Communication with participants and Reports, taking them as essential parameters of the compliance of a proficiency test provider with the general requirements set by the Guides. This intercomparison had special characteristics coming from the participants and the primary objective of the scheme. It is remarkable the important degree of agreement of the organization with Guides ISO/IEC 43 and ILAC G13. (author)

  15. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the type and approximate amount of legal and illegal drugs a person has taken. How the Test is ... prescription medicines that have not been prescribed, and illegal drugs have not been detected. A blood toxicology screen ...

  16. Final report on the proficiency test of the Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Radecki, Z.; Trinkl, A.; Sansone, U.; Benesch, T.

    2005-08-01

    This report presents the statistical evaluation of results from the analysis of 12 radionuclides in 8 samples within the frame of the First Proficiency Test of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement Environmental RAdioactivity (ALMERA) organized in 2001-2002 by the Chemistry Unit, Agency's Laboratory in Seibersdorf. The results were evaluated by using appropriate statistical means to assess laboratory analytical performance and to estimate the overall performance for the determination of each radionuclide. Evaluation of the analytical data for gamma emitting radionuclides showed that 68% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. However, transuranic radionuclides obtained only 58% for the same criteria. (author)

  17. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Karen I

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN is a global collaboration to support the objective that anyone affected by malaria receives effective and safe drug treatment. The Pharmacology module aims to inform optimal anti-malarial drug selection. There is an urgent need to define the drug exposure - effect relationship for most anti-malarial drugs. Few anti-malarials have had their therapeutic blood concentration levels defined. One of the main challenges in assessing safety and efficacy data in relation to drug concentrations is the comparability of data generated from different laboratories. To explain differences in anti-malarial pharmacokinetics in studies with different measurement laboratories it is necessary to confirm the accuracy of the assay methods. This requires the establishment of an external quality assurance process to assure results that can be compared. This paper describes this process. Methods The pharmacology module of WWARN has established a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC programme consisting of two separate components: 1. A proficiency testing programme where blank human plasma spiked with certified reference material (CRM in different concentrations is sent out to participating bioanalytical laboratories. 2. A certified reference standard programme where accurately weighed amounts of certified anti-malarial reference standards, metabolites, and internal standards are sent to participating bioanalytical and in vitro laboratories. Conclusion The proficiency testing programme is designed as a cooperative effort to help participating laboratories assess their ability to carry out drug analysis, resolve any potential problem areas and to improve their results - and, in so doing, to improve the quality of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic data published and shared with WWARN. By utilizing the same source of standards for all laboratories, it is possible to minimize bias arising from poor

  18. Update on the College of American Pathologists Experience With High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Proficiency Testing for Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mohiedean; Zhao, Chengquan; Davey, Diane D; Fan, Fang; Husain, Mujtaba; Laser, Alice; Ocal, Idris T; Shen, Rulong Z; Goodrich, Kelly; Souers, Rhona J; Crothers, Barbara A

    2016-12-01

    - Since 2008, the College of American Pathologists has provided the human papillomavirus for cytology laboratories (CHPV) proficiency testing program to help laboratories meet the requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. - To provide an update on trends in proficiency testing performance in the College of American Pathologists CHPV program during the 4-year period from 2011 through 2014 and to compare those trends with the preceding first 3 years of the program. - Responses of laboratories participating in the CHPV program from 2011 through 2014 were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed model to compare different combinations of testing medium and platform. - In total, 818 laboratories participated in the CHPV program at least once during the 4 years, with participation increasing during the study period. Concordance of participant responses with the target result was more than 98% (38 280 of 38 892). Overall performance with all 3 testing media-ThinPrep (Hologic, Bedford, Massachusetts), SurePath (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey), or Digene (Qiagen, Valencia, California)-was equivalent (P = .51), and all 4 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved platforms-Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen), Cervista (Hologic), Aptima (Hologic), and cobas (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California)-outperformed laboratory-developed tests, unspecified commercial kits, and other (noncommercial) methods in ThinPrep medium (P < .001). However, certain off-label combinations of platform and medium, most notably Cervista with SurePath, demonstrated suboptimal performance (P < .001). - Laboratories demonstrated proficiency in using various combinations of testing media and platforms offered in the CHPV program, with statistically significant performance differences in certain combinations. These observations may be relevant in the current discussions about FDA oversight of laboratory-developed tests.

  19. ALMERA proficiency test on the determination of Po-210 in water. IAEA-CU-2007-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network established by the IAEA in 1995 makes available to Member States a worldwide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The network is a technical collaboration of existing institutions. It provides an operational framework to link expertise and resources, in particular when a boundary-transgressing contamination is expected or when an event is of international significance. A primary requirement of the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparisons which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. Continued membership has benefits in training and educational opportunities, Enhanced mutual trust in results and methodology and objective evidence for accreditation purposes. The performance evaluation results of the interlaboratory comparisons performed in the frame of the ALMERA network are not anonymous for those laboratories nominated to participate as ALMERA members. The Po-210 poisoning event which occurred in November 2006 brought into focus a number of issues, including the capacity of laboratories to rapidly and accurately determine this radionuclide in environmental samples. A number of requests were received from ALMERA members to address this issue. Responding to these requests, the Chemistry Unit of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory in the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratory in Austria, conducted a proficiency test in the frame of the ALMERA network on the determination of Po-210 in water. The aim was to gather information on the current state of practice for Po-210 measurements

  20. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  1. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Moss-Soil and Water IAEA-CU-2009-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA assists Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria, organizes interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-CU-2009- 03 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in moss-soil and spiked water. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support Member State laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results and maintain their accreditation, and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The number of samples, their matrix interferences and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way that enables identification of potential analytical problems.

  2. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Martin, P.; Makarewicz, M.; Mohagheghi, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Centre of Sandia National Laboratories of the United States (SNL) has initiated the Radiation Measurements Cross Calibration (RMCC) project. The RMCC aims to promote regional cooperation in the Middle East for preparedness for radiological emergencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is cooperating with Sandia National Laboratories in this project. On a practical level, the initial aim of the RMCC is to establish a network of experts to cooperatively standardize nuclear monitoring and measurement capabilities in the Middle East by applying internationally recognized standards for laboratory radiation measurements. One of the project activities is to assist selected radiation measurement laboratories to participate in a quality assurance program and proficiency tests. During the second Workshop of the RMCC Project, organised by Sandia National Laboratories in Doha, Qatar, 12-17 November 2005, it was agreed to request the Chemistry Unit at the Agency's Seibersdorf laboratories to organise a special Proficiency Test (PT) for participants, for gamma-emitters in sea water. It is well known that proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. According to the requirements of the RMCC project the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water was conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The Chemistry Unit is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and

  3. Preparation and characterisation of in-house reference material of tylosin in honey and results of a proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Gowik, Petra

    2011-08-26

    The analysis of incurred material from animals treated with pharmacologically active substances is an efficient way to check the accuracy of a method. Tylosin A was chosen for the preparation of that material because it is highly effective in controlling active infections of American Foulbrood (AFB), a global threat to apiculture, but residues in honey are not allowed according to European legislation. For this reason an in-house reference material of honey containing the macrolide tylosin A and its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) was prepared. After the treatment of a beehive with the appropriate macrolide tylosin A, the honey samples were collected. The incurred honey material was diluted by mixing with blank honey. Concentrations of 25.81 μg kg(-1) for tylosin A and of 19.28 μg kg(-1) for its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) were reached. The homogeneity was checked by analysing 12 bottles in duplicate. The stability was tested at different defined temperatures and storage conditions. The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable. Samples of this in-house reference material were used for the realisation of a proficiency test with international participation. All participants accomplished satisfying results with the exception of one laboratory. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Commutability of proficiency testing material containing tobramycin: a study within the framework of the Dutch Calibration 2.000 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robijns, Karen; Boone, Niels W; Jansen, Rob T P; Kuypers, Aldy W H M; Neef, Cees; Touw, Daan J

    2017-02-01

    Results from external quality assessment schemes (EQASs) can provide information about accuracy and comparability of different measurement methods, provided that the material used in these schemes behave identical to patient samples among the different methods, a characteristic also known as commutability. The aim of this study was to assess the commutability of different matrices for the material used in an EQAS for tobramycin. Proficiency testing material (PTM) and patient samples containing tobramycin were prepared, collected, pooled, and distributed to participating laboratories for analysis. Low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations in liquid human, liquid bovine and lyophilized bovine serum were tested in this study. The patient serum results of every laboratory were plotted against each of the other laboratories, and the distances of the PTM results to the patient serum regression line were calculated. For comparison, these distances were divided by the average within-laboratory standard deviation (SDwl) of the results reported in the official EQAS for tobramycin, resulting in a relative residual. The commutability decision limit was set at 3 SDwl. With 10 laboratories participating in this study, 45 laboratory couples were formed. For human serum, only one relative residual for high concentrations of tobramycin was found outside the commutability decision limit. For liquid and lyophilized bovine sera, the number of relative residuals outside the decision limit was between 15 and 18 for low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations. The PTM used for tobramycin is preferably prepared with human serum.

  5. Reliability of the k{sub 0}-standardization method using geological sample analysed in a proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaes, Ana Clara O.; Menezes, Maria Ângela de B.C., E-mail: anacpelaes@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an analytical technique to determine the elemental chemical composition in samples of several matrices, that has been applied by the Laboratory for Neutron Activation Analysis, located at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear /Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (Nuclear Technology Development Center/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy), CDTN/CNEN, since the starting up of the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor, in 1960. Among the methods of application of the technique, the k{sub 0}-standardization method, which was established at CDTN in 1995, is the most efficient and in 2003 it was reestablished and optimized. In order to verify the reproducibility of the results generated by the application of the k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN, aliquots of a geological sample sent by WEPAL (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories) were analysed and its results were compared with the results obtained through the Intercomparison of Results organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015. WEPAL is an accredited institution for the organisation of interlaboratory studies, preparing and organizing proficiency testing schemes all over the world. Therefore, the comparison with the results provided aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of the quality of the results obtained by the CDTN. The objective of this study was to verify the reliability of the method applied two years after the intercomparison round. (author)

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  7. Chromosome microarray proficiency testing and analysis of quality metric data trends through an external quality assessment program for Australasian laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D C; Adayapalam, N; Bain, N; Bain, S M; Brown, A; Buzzacott, N; Carey, L; Cross, J; Dun, K; Joy, C; McCarthy, C; Moore, S; Murch, A R; O'Malley, F; Parker, E; Watt, J; Wilkin, H; Fagan, K; Pertile, M D; Peters, G B

    2016-10-01

    Chromosome microarrays are an essential tool for investigation of copy number changes in children with congenital anomalies and intellectual deficit. Attempts to standardise microarray testing have focused on establishing technical and clinical quality criteria, however external quality assessment programs are still needed. We report on a microarray proficiency testing program for Australasian laboratories. Quality metrics evaluated included analytical accuracy, result interpretation, report completeness, and laboratory performance data: sample numbers, success and abnormality rate and reporting times. Between 2009 and 2014 nine samples were dispatched with variable results for analytical accuracy (30-100%), correct interpretation (32-96%), and report completeness (30-92%). Laboratory performance data (2007-2014) showed an overall mean success rate of 99.2% and abnormality rate of 23.6%. Reporting times decreased from >90 days to 102 days to <35 days for abnormal results. Data trends showed a positive correlation with improvement for all these quality metrics, however only 'report completeness' and reporting times reached statistical significance. Whether the overall improvement in laboratory performance was due to participation in this program, or from accumulated laboratory experience over time, is not clear. Either way, the outcome is likely to assist referring clinicians and improve patient care. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Fiebig, Uwe; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Rummel, Andreas; Luginbühl, Werner; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT) on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay). Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay. PMID:26703724

  9. A new certified reference material for benzene measurement in air on a sorbent tube: development and proficiency testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caurant, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France); Lalere, B.; Schbath, M.C.; Stumpf, C.; Sutour, C.; Mace, T.; Vaslin-Reimann, S. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Paris (France); Quisefit, J.P.; Doussin, J.F. [Universite Paris 12 et CNRS (UMR 7583), Faculte des Sciences et Technologie, Laboratoire Inter-universitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, Unite Mixte de Recherche Universite Paris 7 (France)

    2010-11-15

    A certified matrix reference material (CRM) for the measurement of benzene in ambient air has been developed at Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais. The production of these CRMs was conducted using a gravimetric method fully traceable to the International System of Units. The CRMs were prepared by sampling an accurate mass of a gaseous primary reference material of benzene, using a high-precision laminar flowmeter and a mass flow controller, with a PerkinElmer sampler filled with Carbopack trademark X sorbent. The relative standard deviations obtained for the preparation of a batch of 20 tubes loaded with 500 ng of benzene were below 0.2%. Each CRM is considered independent from the others and with its own certified value and an expanded uncertainty estimated to be within 0.5%, lower than the uncertainties of benzene CRMs already available worldwide. The stability of these materials was also established up to 12 months. These CRMs were implemented during proficiency testing, to evaluate the analytical performances of seven French laboratories involved in benzene air monitoring. (orig.)

  10. The 4TH Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison: Using ISO-13528 for Proficiency Testing of Canopy Reflectance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobron, N.; Widlowski, J.; Pinty, B.

    2013-12-01

    Physically-based radiative transfer (RT) models are increasingly used as building tools for satellite retrieval algorithms of quantitative surface information, like LAI, FAPAR and surface albedo. The Radiation Transfer Model Intercomparison (RAMI) activity aims at assessing the reliability of these modeling tools under controlled experimental conditions. In an effort to enhance the rigor of its benchmarking protocols (as well as their utility outside the canopy RT community) RAMI-IV focused on existing ISO standards - rather than ad hoc performance metrics - to evaluate the quality of computer simulation models. ISO-13528, which was originally developed for inter-laboratory comparison efforts of chemical analyses, was selected by RAMI for this purpose since it aims to guarantee that measurement results fall within specified tolerance criteria from a known reference. More importantly, ISO-13528 provides guidelines for comparisons where the true value of the target quantity is unknown and hence must be replaced by a reliable 'conventional reference value' to enable absolute performance tests. This contribution will show, for the first time, how an existing ISO standard can be used for the proficiency testing of physically-based computer simulation models. Detailed results of model performance will be shown for simulations of shortwave radiative quantities in vegetated environments as prescribed in RAMI-IV.

  11. Cytology Proficiency Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations at Section 493.855(a) state The laboratory must ensure that each individual engaged in the...

  12. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  13. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  14. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  15. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  16. FORENSIC SCIENCE:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world. PMID:27688352

  17. Evaluation of kodecytes using function-spacer-lipid constructs as a survey material for external proficiency testing for ABO subgrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young Ae; Kang, Seon Joo

    2017-11-01

    It is not easy to find natural red blood cells (RBCs) with weak A (A w ) or weak B phenotype (B w ) for use as quality controls in ABO subgroup testing (subgrouping). The aim of this study was to prepare RBC kodecytes with synthetic blood group A and/or B function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs and to evaluate the possibility of using such kodecytes as a survey material for an external proficiency test (PT) to improve the quality of subgroup analysis. Three types of survey samples, including O phenotype RBCs and A kodecytes with A w (0.02 mg/mL FSL-A solution) and B kodecytes with B w (0.15 mg/mL FSL-B solution) were sent to 53 laboratories for an educational trial of PT for subgrouping. Cell typing was done using the manual tube technique. Forty-three laboratories responded, and the re-activities of the survey samples varied from 0 to 4+ against anti-A and anti-B monoclonal reagents(MoAbs). Twenty-nine laboratories (67%) correctly grouped the B w kodecytes as B w . Fifteen (35%), 21 (48%), and 6 (13%) laboratories grouped the A w kodecytes as A w , A 2 , and O phenotypes, respectively. The anti-A MoAb clone affects the results of cell typing for A w kodecytes. The stability of kodecytes was similar to that of natural O RBCs during storage. Our kodecytes were useful as a survey material, and the survey results showed the necessity of materials for PT for subgrouping to improve the quality of laboratory analysis regardless of the different reactions according to the MoAb. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Nia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98% and specificity (100% of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  19. The fourth radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI-IV): Proficiency testing of canopy reflectance models with ISO-13528

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlowski, J.-L.; Pinty, B.; Lopatka, M.; Atzberger, C.; Buzica, D.; Chelle, M.; Disney, M.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.-P.; Gerboles, M.; Gobron, N.; Grau, E.; Huang, H.; Kallel, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Lewis, P. E.; Qin, W.; Schlerf, M.; Stuckens, J.; Xie, D.

    2013-07-01

    The radiation transfer model intercomparison (RAMI) activity aims at assessing the reliability of physics-based radiative transfer (RT) models under controlled experimental conditions. RAMI focuses on computer simulation models that mimic the interactions of radiation with plant canopies. These models are increasingly used in the development of satellite retrieval algorithms for terrestrial essential climate variables (ECVs). Rather than applying ad hoc performance metrics, RAMI-IV makes use of existing ISO standards to enhance the rigor of its protocols evaluating the quality of RT models. ISO-13528 was developed "to determine the performance of individual laboratories for specific tests or measurements." More specifically, it aims to guarantee that measurement results fall within specified tolerance criteria from a known reference. Of particular interest to RAMI is that ISO-13528 provides guidelines for comparisons where the true value of the target quantity is unknown. In those cases, "truth" must be replaced by a reliable "conventional reference value" to enable absolute performance tests. This contribution will show, for the first time, how the ISO-13528 standard developed by the chemical and physical measurement communities can be applied to proficiency testing of computer simulation models. Step by step, the pre-screening of data, the identification of reference solutions, and the choice of proficiency statistics will be discussed and illustrated with simulation results from the RAMI-IV "abstract canopy" scenarios. Detailed performance statistics of the participating RT models will be provided and the role of the accuracy of the reference solutions as well as the choice of the tolerance criteria will be highlighted.

  20. Information resources in toxicology--Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preziosi, Paolo; Dracos, Adriana; Marcello, Ida

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of current resources in the field of toxicology in Italy. The discussion will begin with a brief history of toxicology in this country, which includes the study of the toxicity of plants and other natural substances, and the birth of industrial and forensic toxicology. We will also provide information on research, education, and hazard control in the field of toxicology. Within this context we will examine the public bodies responsible for surveillance and regulatory activities, state-owned and private structures involved in toxicological research, and the educational programs and research activities of universities. Particular emphasis will be placed on the activities of the National Health Service, which plays an important role in areas such as clinical toxicology, food safety, and animal health, as well as those of national and regional agencies dedicated to the protection of the environment. The presentation will be organized as follows: - A Brief History of Toxicology in Italy; - Professional Societies; - National Health Service; - National Bodies; - Resources for the Environment; - Biomedical Websites; - Recent Publications; - Research Structures; - Graduate and Postgraduate Programs; - Legislation

  1. Method validation and verification in liquid scintillation counting using the long-term uncertainty method (LTUM) on two decades of proficiency test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrezen, F.; Vasile, M.; Loots, H.; Bruggeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    Results from proficiency tests gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation counting of 3 H (184 results) and 14 C (74 results) are used to verify the validated measurement methods used by the laboratory, in particular the estimated uncertainty budget of the method and its reproducibility and stability. A linear regression approach is used for the analysis of the results, described in the literature as the long term uncertainty in measurement method. The present study clearly indicates the advantages of using proficiency test results in identifying possible constant or proportional bias effects as well as the possibility to compare the laboratory performance with the performance of peer laboratories. (author)

  2. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used......-score values) may be considered satisfactory. When compared with the results of a previous similar scheme, the overall performance improved by around 30%, again demonstrating that analytical performance can be improved by regular participation in PT....

  3. Final report on the proficiency test on the determination of total arsenic concentration in water TC Project BGD/08/018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Rossbach, M.; Benesch, T.; Campbell, M.; Sansone, U.; Will, K.; Schorn, R.; Toervenyi, A.

    2005-02-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of arsenic in drinking water was organised within the frame of the TC project BGD/8/018 to evaluate the analytical performance of laboratories in Bangladesh. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation showed that 61% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the accuracy and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  4. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  5. Undergraduates' intentions to take a second language proficiency test: a comparison of predictions from the theory of planned behavior and social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bih-Jiau; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    English competency has become essential for obtaining a better job or succeeding in higher education in Taiwan. Thus, passing the General English Proficiency Test is important for college students in Taiwan. The current study applied Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and the notions of outcome expectancy and self-efficacy from Bandura's social cognitive theory to investigate college students' intentions to take the General English Proficiency Test. The formal sample consisted of 425 undergraduates (217 women, 208 men; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.3). The theory of planned behavior showed greater predictive ability (R2 = 33%) of intention than the social cognitive theory (R2 = 7%) in regression analysis and made a unique contribution to prediction of actual test-taking behavior one year later in logistic regression. Within-model analyses indicated that subjective norm in theory of planned behavior and outcome expectancy in social cognitive theory are crucial factors in predicting intention. Implications for enhancing undergraduates' intentions to take the English proficiency test are discussed.

  6. Alcohols toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  7. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-05 proficiency test on the determination of 137Cs and 210Pb in spiked soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Azeredo, A.M.G. Da F.; Sansone, U.; Kim, C.-K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.; Tarjan, S.

    2006-04-01

    This report summarises the results of a proficiency test conducted within the frame of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Hungarian National Food Investigation Institute, as IAEA collaborating Centre in the field of preparation of reference materials. This proficiency test was organized and conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The soil test material was prepared according to a validated procedure by the Chemistry Unit staff. Full technical details of the proficiency test set of materials are described in the report. 40 test samples (reference materials) were distributed to the participating laboratories in January 2006. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set to 20 February 2006. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse the samples employing the methods used in their routine work, so that their performance on the test samples could be directly related to the real performance of the laboratory. Each laboratory was given a confidential code to assure the anonymity of the evaluation results. 8 laboratories from the 8 initially registered reported to the IAEA their results. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the reference materials, and a rating system was applied. The analytical results of both 137 Cs and 210 Pb were satisfactory. The analytical uncertainties associated with the results were, in general, appropriate for the analytes and matrices considered in the current proficiency test. With the advent of 'mutual recognition' on a world wide basis, it is now essential that laboratories participate in proficiency testing schemes that will provide an interpretation and assessment of results which is transparent to the participating laboratory and its 'customer'. New requirements coming into force (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) require that laboratories have to express their

  8. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  9. Digital Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, Simson L.

    2013-01-01

    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  10. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stéphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair.

  11. Research in Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    3 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS ..........................................................6 E. SURVEY OF AGENCIES AND VENDORS PROVIDING COMPUTER...lead to the formulation of computer forensic material for a potential Computer Forensic Course at NPS. 6 D. WHAT IS COMPUTER FORENSICS...Individualization 8. Reconstruction 63 What is Computer Forensics? Computer Forensics involves the identification, extraction, preservation and

  12. Palynology: its position in the field of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevan A J; Horrocks, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Here we examine the current state of palynology in the field of forensic science. Forensic palynology is discussed with reference to other forensic disciplines to help understand what is required for its progress. Emerging developments are also discussed. Palynomorphs potentially deliver excellent trace evidence, fulfilling the requirements relating to the transfer, persistence, and detection of such evidence. Palynological evidence can provide very powerful investigative and associative evidence. Despite this, the application of palynology to forensic science has had mixed success. There are many anecdotal stories where pollen evidence has had spectacular successes. But it is extremely underutilized in most countries because it is labor-intensive and requires considerable expertise and experience, there is a lack of control over sample collection and inadequate resourcing and funding, and its crime-solving power is not well known. Palynology has been applied to forensic problems in an unstructured way, resulting in a lack of formalized discussion of the underlying principles. As there is renewed questioning of the acceptability of most evidence types in the current legal environment, there is a need for the establishment of palynological evidence through validation-type studies and experimentation, and the implementation of independent proficiency testing.

  13. Animal toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdur, M.

    1996-12-31

    The chapter evaluates results of toxicological studies on experimental animals to investigate health effects of air pollutants and examines the animal data have predicted the response to human subject. Data are presented on the comparative toxicity of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid. The animal data obtained by measurement of airway resistance in guinea pigs and of bronchial clearance of particles in donkeys predicted clearly that sulfuric acid was more irritant than sulfur dioxide. Data obtained on human subjects confirmed this prediction. These acute studies also correctly predicted the comparative toxicity of the two compounds in two year studies of monkeys. Such chronic studies are not possible in human subjects but it is a reasonable to assume that sulfuric acid would be more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Current findings in epidemiological studies certainly support this assumption.

  14. External quality assessment/proficiency testing and internal quality control for the PFA-100 and PFA-200: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Bonar, Roslyn

    2014-03-01

    Platelet function testing is an essential component of comprehensive hemostasis evaluation within the framework of bleeding and/or bruising investigations, and it may also be performed to evaluate antiplatelet medication effects. Globally, the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100 (Siemens Healthcare, Marburg, Germany) is the most used primary hemostasis-screening instrument and has also been recently remodeled/upgraded to the PFA-200. The PFA-100 is sensitive to a wide range of associated disorders, including platelet function defects and von Willebrand disease (VWD), as well as to various antiplatelet medications. The PFA-100 is also useful in therapy monitoring, especially in VWD. External quality assessment (EQA) (or proficiency testing) and internal quality control (IQC) are critical to ensuring quality of test practice, inclusive of all hemostasis tests. However, both EQA and IQC for platelet function testing, including the PFA-100, is logistically challenging, given theoretical requirements for production, storage, and shipment of large volumes of "stabilized" normal and pathological blood/platelets covering both normal function plus a wide variety of potential defects. We accordingly describe the development and testing of novel feasible approaches to both EQA and IQC of PFA-100/PFA-200 instruments, whereby a range of formulated "platelet function antagonist" materials are utilized. For EQA purposes, these are distributed to participants, and citrated normal whole blood collected on site is then added locally, thereby creating test material that can be locally evaluated. Several exercises have been conducted by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPAQAP) over the past 6 years. A total of 26 challenges, with most designed to mimic moderate to severe primary hemostasis defects, have been tested in 26 to 50 laboratories depending on the year of dispatch. Numerical results for PFA-100/PFA-200 closure times (CTs) and

  15. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA09: Determination of Major, Minor and Trace Elements in a River Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test PTXRFIAEA09 on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in river clay. Methodologies, a data evaluation approach, a summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out within the IAEA project Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of the project was to enhance the capability of interest Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health and agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluating environmental pollution

  17. Baseline Assessment of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Reference Material and Proficiency Testing/External Quality Assurance Material Commutability: A Vitamin D Standardization Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Karen W; Sempos, Christopher T; Tai, Susan S-C; Camara, Johanna E; Wise, Stephen A; Eckfeldt, John H; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Carter, Graham D; Jones, Julia; Myers, Gary L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Miller, W Greg; Bachmann, Lorin M; Young, Ian S; Pettit, Juanita; Caldwell, Grahame; Liu, Andrew; Brooks, Stephen P J; Sarafin, Kurtis; Thamm, Michael; Mensink, Gert B M; Busch, Markus; Rabenberg, Martina; Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead; Galvin, Karen; Zhang, Joy Y; Kinsella, Michael; Oh, Kyungwon; Lee, Sun-Wha; Jung, Chae L; Cox, Lorna; Goldberg, Gail; Guberg, Kate; Meadows, Sarah; Prentice, Ann; Tian, Lu; Brannon, Patsy M; Lucas, Robyn M; Crump, Peter M; Cavalier, Etienne; Merkel, Joyce; Betz, Joseph M

    2017-09-01

    The Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) coordinated a study in 2012 to assess the commutability of reference materials and proficiency testing/external quality assurance materials for total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in human serum, the primary indicator of vitamin D status. A set of 50 single-donor serum samples as well as 17 reference and proficiency testing/external quality assessment materials were analyzed by participating laboratories that used either immunoassay or LC-MS methods for total 25(OH)D. The commutability test materials included National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 972a Vitamin D Metabolites in Human Serum as well as materials from the College of American Pathologists and the Vitamin D External Quality Assessment Scheme. Study protocols and data analysis procedures were in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The majority of the test materials were found to be commutable with the methods used in this commutability study. These results provide guidance for laboratories needing to choose appropriate reference materials and select proficiency or external quality assessment programs and will serve as a foundation for additional VDSP studies.

  18. Teaching forensic medicine in the University of Porto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Santos, Agostinho

    2014-07-01

    The University of Porto (UP) provides education in Forensic Medicine (FM) through the 1st, 2nd and 3rd cycle of studies, post-graduation and continuing education courses. This education is related to forensic pathology, clinical forensic medicine (including forensic psychology and psychiatry), forensic chemistry and toxicology, forensic genetics and biology, and criminalistics. With this work we intent to reflect on how we are currently teaching FM in the UP, at all levels of university graduation. We will present our models, regarding the educational objectives, curricular program and teaching/learning methodologies of each cycle of studies as well as in post-graduate and continuing education courses. Historically, and besides related administratively to the Ministry of Justice, the Portuguese Medico-Legal Institutes (since 1918) and more recently the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (INMLCF) also have educational and research responsibilities. Thus, it lends space and cooperates with academic institutions and this contribution, namely regarding teaching forensic sciences in Portugal has been judged as an example for other Countries. This contribution is so important that in UP, the Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of the Faculty of Medicine (FMUP) shares, until now, the same physical space with North Branch of the INMLCF, which represents a notorious advantage, since it makes possible the "learning by doing". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. [New discoveries in forensic medicine. Hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaempe, B

    1999-03-29

    A review of forensic chemical drug testing in hair is given. Applications for analysis of hair are described. The special problems linked to the determination of drugs in hair such as contamination, differences in sex and ethnic groups and cosmetic pretreatment of the hair are outlined. It is concluded that greater knowledge of hair analysis is needed before the results can be used for toxicological evaluation at the same level as blood. On the other hand, a chemical hair analysis might expose a (mis)use of drugs and follow it step by step up to half a year back in time. In this way, it may supplement a systematic toxicological analysis (STA) for 'a general unknown' for use by police and forensic pathologists.

  20. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  1. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  2. Environmental Toxicology Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fully-equipped facilities for environmental toxicology researchThe Environmental Toxicology Research Facility (ETRF) located in Vicksburg, MS provides over 8,200 ft...

  3. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  4. Nanotechnology - The future armour of forensics: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay R Hallikeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the study of the control of matter of an atomic and molecular scale. At present the most widespread forensic application of micro fluidic systems is post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR quantization. These systems are currently being used in several forensic laboratories to perform post-PCR quantification of mitochondrial DNA. Another innovation relates to assisting in solving gun crime. Using a nanoscale developer and an X-ray source, it is possible to image the etched fingerprints even if the casing has been wiped or washed. This technology is going to revolutionize the fields of virtopsy, crime scene investigation, identification, forensic ballistics, and toxicology.

  5. Forensic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  6. Misinterpretation Rates of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion in the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic PAP Education and PAP Proficiency Test Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengquan; Crothers, Barbara A; Ghofrani, Mohiedean; Li, Zaibo; Souers, Rhona J; Hussain, Mujtaba; Fan, Fang; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; Davey, Diane D

    2016-08-23

    Context .- Misinterpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is an important problem in daily practice and in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) PAP Proficiency Test (PAP-PT). Objective .- To investigate factors related to misinterpretation of HSIL through responses in a proficiency test versus an educational environment. Design .- We retrospectively evaluated 28 000 responses in the PAP Education Program (PAP-Edu) and 59 140 responses in PAP-PT from 1147 field-validated HSIL slides from 2007 to 2014. The related factors, such as program types, preparation types, participant types, and program years, were evaluated. Results .- Overall, 4.0% (2379 of 59 140) of responses for HSIL slides from PAP-PT were misinterpreted as either low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or negative, significantly more than those from PAP-Edu (3.2%; 898 of 28 000). However, the false-negative rate (misinterpreted as negative) was 0.9% (519 of 59 140) for PAP-PT, lower than that for PAP-Edu (1.0%; 266 of 28 000). The misinterpretation rates in PAP-PT trended down with time. Misinterpretation rates did not vary significantly by preparation methods. The misinterpretation rate for HSIL in the pathologists' responses was lower than that in cytotechnologists' in PAP-PT. More HSIL was misinterpreted as LSIL than as benign in both programs. Cytotechnologists interpreted HSIL as LSIL twice as much as pathologists. The most common false-negative misinterpretations were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and reparative change. Conclusions .- The higher LSIL misinterpretation rate by cytotechnologists may be related to the differences in reporting responsibilities and proficiency test grading criteria. The trend of gradually decreasing misinterpretation rates of a reference diagnosis of HSIL in the PAP-PT program may be related to higher test-taking confidence and better preparation through educational programs. The fact that

  7. High-resolution mass spectrometry in toxicology: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Meyer, Markus R

    2016-09-01

    This paper reviews high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) approaches using time-of-flight or Orbitrap techniques for research and application in various toxicology fields, particularly in clinical toxicology and forensic toxicology published since 2013 and referenced in PubMed. In the introduction, an overview on applications of HRMS in various toxicology fields is given with reference to current review articles. Papers concerning HRMS in metabolism, screening, and quantification of pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and toxins in human body samples are critically reviewed. Finally, a discussion on advantages as well as limitations and future perspectives of these methods is included.

  8. Founding Editorial – Forensics and TheScientificWorld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Rowe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of a new millennium it seems a good idea to stop for a moment and take stock of the current state of forensic science. As a field of scientific research and scientific application, forensic science is a little more than a century old. Forensic science may be said to have begun in 1887 with the simultaneous publication of A. Conan Doyle’s A Study in Scarlet and Hans Gross’s Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter. Conan Doyle’s novel introduced to the world the character of Sherlock Holmes, whose literary career would popularize the use of physical evidence in criminal investigations. Gross’s manual for examining magistrates suggests ways in which the expertise of chemists, biologists, geologists, and other natural scientists could contribute to investigations. Gross’s book was translated into a number of languages and went through various updated editions during the course of the century. The intervening century saw the development and application of fingerprinting, firearm and tool mark identification, forensic chemistry, forensic biology, forensic toxicology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, and forensic engineering. Increasingly, the judicial systems of the industrial nations of the world have come to rely upon the expertise of scientists in a variety of disciplines. In most advanced countries, virtually all criminal prosecutions now involve the presentation of scientific testimony. This has had the beneficial effect of diminishing the reliance of courts on eyewitness testimony and defendant confessions.

  9. Utilizing global data to estimate analytical performance on the Sigma scale: A global comparative analysis of methods, instruments, and manufacturers through external quality assurance and proficiency testing programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, Sten A

    2016-06-01

    To assess the analytical performance of instruments and methods through external quality assessment and proficiency testing data on the Sigma scale. A representative report from five different EQA/PT programs around the world (2 US, 1 Canadian, 1 UK, and 1 Australasian) was accessed. The instrument group standard deviations were used as surrogate estimates of instrument imprecision. Performance specifications from the US CLIA proficiency testing criteria were used to establish a common quality goal. Then Sigma-metrics were calculated to grade the analytical performance. Different methods have different Sigma-metrics for each analyte reviewed. Summary Sigma-metrics estimate the percentage of the chemistry analytes that are expected to perform above Five Sigma, which is where optimized QC design can be implemented. The range of performance varies from 37% to 88%, exhibiting significant differentiation between instruments and manufacturers. Median Sigmas for the different manufacturers in three analytes (albumin, glucose, sodium) showed significant differentiation. Chemistry tests are not commodities. Quality varies significantly from manufacturer to manufacturer, instrument to instrument, and method to method. The Sigma-assessments from multiple EQA/PT programs provide more insight into the performance of methods and instruments than any single program by itself. It is possible to produce a ranking of performance by manufacturer, instrument and individual method. Laboratories seeking optimal instrumentation would do well to consult this data as part of their decision-making process. To confirm that these assessments are stable and reliable, a longer term study should be conducted that examines more results over a longer time period. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A demonstration of the use of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry [UPLC/MS] in the determination of amphetamine-type substances and ketamine for forensic and toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Luigino G; Pianca, Dennis J; Whittall, Ian R; Maher, William A; Kyd, Jennelle M

    2006-05-19

    We have recently seen the emergence of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry as an alternative to traditional high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. The strengths of UPLC technology promote the ability to separate and identify drug compounds with significant gains in resolution and sensitivity and marked reductions in the overall time of analysis. As increased throughput is the desire of the practical toxicology laboratory, the aim of this study was to trial commercially available technology by assessment of the separation of several commonly encountered amphetamine-type substances. From injection of a poly-drug reference standard and whole blood extract, we successfully separated and identified amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, phentermine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA and ketamine in less than 3 min using the Acquity UPLC-Micromass Quattro Micro API MS instrumentation (Waters Corporation, USA). In addition to this significant reduction in overall run time, all peaks exhibited acceptable resolution using selected ion recording (SIR), with analysis indicating the capability to separate 5-11 peaks in 1.75 min using the current system parameters. From this introductory data, it is therefore indicated that the technological advancements defining ultra-performance liquid chromatography will allow it to serve as a powerful analytical tool for rapid throughput analysis.

  11. Reproductive and developmental toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    .... Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology is a comprehensive and authoritative resource providing the latest literature enriched with relevant references describing every aspect of this area of science...

  12. Emerging trends in forensic science with special emphasis on nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Rukmani

    2011-01-01

    Forensic science uses the basic principles of all physical and natural science and have evolved many domain of its owns, like Anthropometry, fingerprint, Foot print, ballistics, documentation, Forensic Biology and Serology, Forensic Chemistry, Nuclear forensic science, Forensic Physic, Toxicology, Odontology, Forensic DNA, Cyber Forensic, Forensic Psychology, Forensic engineering etc., which provides a fool prove scientific aid to criminal justice administration. Nuclear forensic science is a fairly young discipline and only a small number of laboratories are active practitioners. However, the number of incidents of illicit trafficking reported and furthermore, the threat of nuclear terrorism calls for preparedness and for effective tools providing hints on the origin of the material and thus on the perpetrator. The determination of characteristic parameters is subject to ongoing research and development work in a number of nuclear measurement laboratories. Parameters like isotopic composition, chemical impurities, age of the material, macroscopic parameters and microstructure provide clues on the origin and on the intended use of the material. Today, nuclear forensics has reached a high degree of maturity and it is highly relevant in the areas of non-proliferation and of nuclear security. Continued development activities and strengthened international cooperation will be of key importance for the perfection of the discipline of nuclear forensics

  13. Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters - Results from a worldwide proficiency test

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geldern, Robert; Verma, Mahendra P.; Carvalho, Matheus C.; Grassa, Fausto; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Monvoisin, Gael; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) are of particular interest in aquatic geochemistry. The precision for this kind of analysis is typically reported in the range of 0.1 to 0.5‰. To date, no published data attempted a comparison of δ13C measurements of DIC and DOC from for natural water samples among different laboratories. Five natural water sample types (lake water, seawater, two geothermal waters, and petroleum well water) were analyzed for their δ13C-DIC and δ13C-DOC values by 5 laboratories with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in an international proficiency test. Reported δ13C-DIC values for lake water and seawater showed fairly good agreement within a range of about 1‰ whereas geothermal and petroleum waters were characterized by much larger differences of up to 6.6‰ between laboratories. In contrast, δ13C-DOC values were only comparable for seawater and showed differences of 10 to 21‰ for all other samples. This study [1] indicates that scatter in δ13C-DIC isotope data can be in the range of several per mil for samples from extreme environments (geothermal waters) and may not yield reliable information with respect to dissolved carbon (petroleum wells). The analyses of lake water and seawater also revealed a larger than expected difference. Evaluation of analytical procedures of the participating laboratories indicated that the differences cannot be explained by analytical errors or different data normalization procedures and must be related to specific sample characteristics or secondary effects during sample storage and handling. Our results reveal the need for further research on sources of error and on method standardization. References [1] van Geldern, R., Verma, M.P., Carvalho, M.C., Grassa, F., Huertas, A.D., Monvoisin, G. and Barth, J.A.C. (2013): Stable carbon isotope analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in natural waters - Results from a

  14. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  16. Green Toxicology – Application of predictive toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Taxvig, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    reduction. This objective is partly achieved through core principles of green chemistry. However, better utilization of existing predictive toxicological tools alongside new inventions is still required. For this, input from toxicologists early in the chemical enterprise is necessary to make informed...... safer chemicals and to identify problematic compounds already in use such as industrial compounds, drugs, pesticides and cosmetics, is required. Green toxicology is the application of predictive toxicology to the production of chemicals with the specific intent of improving their design for hazard...... to be applied in chemical risk assessment to a greater extent than is currently the case. Greater focus on these tools, their strengths and weaknesses, should be part of chemistry training at the university level, thus ensuring constant focus on the issue and fostering new inventions into the future....

  17. Update: potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 during a laboratory proficiency test--United States and Canada, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-18

    In November 2007, New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) officials notified CDC of potential exposures to attenuated vaccine strain Brucella abortus RB51 (RB51) in multiple clinical laboratories that participated in a Laboratory Preparedness Survey (LPS) proficiency test. NYSDOH conducted a survey of participating laboratories and identified 17 laboratories that reported handling the RB51 sample in a manner placing lab workers at potential risk for exposure. Subsequently, CDC recommended that public health officials conduct a review of biosafety practices at all LPS-participating laboratories to identify any additional RB51 exposures. This report summarizes the results of investigations in 36 states, two cities, one county, and the District of Columbia. As of January 14, 2008, follow-up by public health officials with LPS-participating laboratories throughout the United States identified a total of 916 laboratory workers in 254 laboratories with potential RB51 exposure. The results highlight the need for routine adherence to recommended biosafety practices when working with infectious organisms, particularly during widespread infectious-disease events, including bioterrorism attacks.

  18. External quality assurance of fibrinogen assays using normal plasma: results of the 2008 College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mark T; Olson, John D; Chandler, Wayne L; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Eby, Charles S; Teruya, Jun; Hollensead, Sandra C; Adcock, Dorothy M; Allison, Paul M; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice K; Smith, Marc D

    2012-07-01

    Proper diagnosis and therapy of fibrinogen deficiency requires high-quality fibrinogen assays. To assess the interlaboratory bias, precision, and grading of fibrinogen assays used by laboratories participating in the United States College of American Pathologists proficiency testing program in coagulation. Two identical vials of normal plasma were sent to more than 3500 laboratories. Participants measured fibrinogen levels using local methods. Fifty different fibrinogen methods were evaluated. All-method bias was 8.3% (range of method-specific biases, 0.0%-27.0%) and all-method coefficient of variation was 7.7% (range of method-specific coefficients of variation, 0.7%-25.8%). After controlling for reagent/instrument type, mean fibrinogen levels were 11.6% higher for prothrombin time-based reagents compared to Clauss (P graded as pass or fail using a target range of ±20% from the method mean (total pass rate, 98.8%). Total fail rate was 3.0-fold lower for mechanical instruments compared to photo-optical (0.5% versus 1.5%, P  =  .001). Nonetheless many photo-optical methods had very high precision and very low fail rates. Fibrinogen assays showed highly variable methodology and performance characteristics. Bias, precision, and grading were affected by the type of reagent or instrument used.

  19. Motor proficiency in normal children and with learning difficulty: a comparative and correlational study based on the motor proficiency test of Bruininks-Oseretsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Roberto Moreira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to verify the difference between children with learning disabilities and children without learning disabilities through motor proficiency test of Bruininks and Ozeretsky (1978. The sample was constituted by 30 children, with 8-year average age, 15 males and 15 females, subdivided into two groups of 15 children from both sexes: children without learning disabilities attending 3rd grade and children with learning disabilities attending 2nd grade having failed a term once. All of them came from a middle class background, according to Grafar scale (adapted by Fonseca, 1991. All children presenting any other disabilities were excluded from the sample. Intelligence factor “G” was controlled by using a percentile, higher or equal to 50 (middle and high level, measured by Raven’s (1974 progressive combinations test. In motor proficiency, children with learning disabilities showed significant differences when compared with normal children of the same age, in all components of global, composed and fine motricity. The tests administered showed a strong correlation between the variables of the motor proficiency components. The results lead to the conclusion that there were significant differences in motor proficiency between normal children and children with learning disabilities, who showed specific motor difficulties evincing a more vulnerable motor profile and not the presence of neurological dysfunction signs.

  20. Implementation of Cell Samples as Controls in National Proficiency Testing for Clopidogrel Therapy-Related CYP2C19 Genotyping in China: A Novel Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guigao Lin

    Full Text Available Laboratories are increasingly requested to perform CYP2C19 genetic testing when managing clopidogrel therapy, especially in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To ensure high quality molecular testing and ascertain that the referring clinician has the correct information for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, a proficiency testing scheme was set up to evaluate the laboratory performance for the entire testing process. Proficiency panels of 10 cell samples encompassing the common CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms were distributed to 62 participating laboratories for routine molecular testing and the responses were analyzed for accuracy of genotyping and the reporting of results. Data including the number of samples tested, the accreditation/certification status, and test methodology of each individual laboratory were also reviewed. Fifty-seven of the 62 participants correctly identified the CYP2C19 variants in all samples. There were six genotyping errors, with a corresponding analytical sensitivity of 98.5% (333/338 challenges; 95% confidence interval: 96.5-99.5% and an analytic specificity of 99.6% (281/282; 95% confidence interval: 98.0-99.9%. Reports of the CYP2C19 genotyping results often lacked essential information. In conclusion, clinical laboratories demonstrated good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, the pharmacogenetic testing community requires additional education regarding the correct reporting of CYP2C19 genetic test results.

  1. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  2. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  3. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  4. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  5. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2013-01-01

    Forensic odontology (dental forensics) can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be pra...

  6. [Toxicological evaluation in the childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Rodrigo, Carlos; Marrón, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Intoxications in infancy require urgent medical treatment within national health systems. In our country they represent 0.3% of paediatric urgencies. Most of them are accidental intoxications but is not infrequent to find some related to child abuse or to suicidal intentions, especially in adolescence. The objectives of the study are to evaluate both clinical health care and medical legal aspects in intoxications in infancy. Medical assistance is described and it includes clinical diagnosis, typology of the more common toxics, percentages and referral to social work and emergency care equipment units of the Ministry of Social Welfare and the Department of Health or, where appropriate, directly to prosecutors and courts for their intervention. In cases of detection of alcohol, drugs or medication in infants, the importance of the correct interpretation of the results of toxicological findings is discussed. Several studies for the interpretation of results concerning the detection of these toxics are reported. Both legal aspects and the forensic medical opinion are assessed. The findings will be analysed by the judicial authority in order to circumscribe responsibilities or to take appropriate decisions concerning the protection of infants' interests. In conclusion intoxication in infancy can lead to legal proceedings requiring specific actions for their protection. Both physicians and hospitals must comply with the legal requirement of the submission to the court of judicial parties. On the other hand, this information is an interesting step toward reinforcing public health surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  8. Forensic science: the truth is out there

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Lynne D.

    2002-06-01

    Criminalistics, one of the many sub-divisions of forensic science, is an applied science in which items of evidence are analyzed to provide investigative information and scientific evidence to be used in courts of law. Laboratories associated with governmental public agencies are typically involved in criminal cases as opposed to civil cases, and those types of cases that fall within the jurisdiction of the particular agency. Common analytical divisions within criminalistics laboratories include blood alcohol testing, toxicology, narcotics, questioned documents, biology, firearms, latent fingerprints, physical and trace evidence sections. Specialized field investigative services may be provided in the areas of clandestine drug laboratories and major crimes (firearms, biology, trace, arson/explosives). Forensic science best practice requires the use of non-destructive testing whenever reasonably possible. Several technically difficult situations (bodies and evidence encased in cement and metal) are presented as a challenge to audience.

  9. A Multilaboratory Commutability Evaluation of Proficiency Testing Material for Carbamazepine and Valproic Acid: A Study Within the Framework of the Dutch Calibration 2000 Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robijns, Karen; Boone, Niels W; Kuypers, Aldy W H M; Jansen, Rob T P; Neef, Cees; Touw, Daan J

    2015-08-01

    Medical laboratories are required to participate in interlaboratory comparisons of the analyses they perform. The materials used in these comparisons need to be of sufficient quality so that the comparison provides a picture of the performances. One of the main characteristics of the testing material is commutability, which is the ability of a material to yield the same numerical relationships between results of measurements as those relationships obtained when the same procedures are applied to patient samples. The aim of this study was to assess the commutability of 3 different matrices for the preparation of proficiency testing material (PTM) for the analysis of carbamazepine and valproic acid. Patient samples and PTM containing various concentrations of carbamazepine and valproic acid were collected, prepared, and shipped to different laboratories for analysis. Reported results for patient samples from each laboratory were plotted against results for patient samples of each of the other laboratories, and the corresponding regression line was calculated. The distance of results from PTM to the regression line is a measure for commutability. The distance is expressed as a multiple of the SDwl (average within-laboratory SD as calculated from external quality assessment scheme results) and referred to as relative residual. A commutability decision limit of 2 SDwl was set. For carbamazepine and valproic acid, a total of 78 and 105 laboratory couples respectively could be formed. The number of relative residuals for liquid human serum outside the commutability decision limit was 1, 4, and 0 for low, medium, and high concentrations of carbamazepine, respectively and 3, 1, and 0 for low, medium, and high concentrations of valproic acid, respectively. In both liquid and lyophilized bovine sera, the number of relative residuals outside the commutability decision limit was between 2 and 15 and between 6 and 21 for carbamazepine and valproic acid, respectively. Although

  10. National Toxicology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at NTP Study Types Nominations to the Testing Program Study Results & Research Projects Areas of Research Data & ... on for decisions that matter. The National Toxicology Program provides the scientific basis for programs, activities, and ...

  11. Molecular aspects of toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hathway, D. E

    1984-01-01

    The subject matter of this book is organized into chapters that deal wwith separate subjects and, whilst this treatment reveals the structure of molecular aspects of toxicology, it inevitably incurs...

  12. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  13. Operational Toxicology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Confcrencc\\ Stanford) California, August. Stapleton, A.R., DelRaso, N., and Chan, V. 2005. Noneholinesterase Mechanism(s) ofChlorpyrifos Neurotoxicity ...Noncholinesterase Meehanism(s) ofChlorpyrifos Neurotoxicity Indicated by Gene Expression Profiles of Rat Brain Tissue. Presented at the Toxicology & Risk...Toxicology of Aluminum Nanoparticles in Rat Lung Macrophages. The Toxicologist 90( I): 353. 49 Hess, K.L., Hussain, S.M., Jones, R.L., Mattie, D.R

  14. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application; Metodo de Visualizacion de los Resultados de las Pruebas de Capacitacion por medio de la Grafica de Kiri. Aplicacion Informatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-09-13

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  15. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CIEMAT Interlaboratories Comparison of the Results obtained in the Proficiency Test Run by IAEA; Comparacion Interlaboratorios del CIEMAT de los Resultados Obtenidos en la Prueba de Capacitacion de Analisis de Transuranicos en Cenizas propocionadas por el OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Anton, M. P.; Alvarez, A.; Navarro, N.; Meral, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Higueras Lafaja, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Forensic Chemistry Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the types of terrorism and crime nowadays, the importance of the forensic sciences can be bett er understood. Forensic science is the application of the wide spectrum of science to answer the question of legal system. It contains the application of the principles, techniques and methods of basic sciences and its main aim is the determination of the physical facts which are important in legal situations. Forensic chemistry is the branch of chemistry which performs the chemical analysis of evidences that used in the courts. Forensic chemist is the professional chemist who analyzes the evidences from crime scene and reaches a result by application of tests. Th us, they have to have a special education. In forensic laboratories candidates who have chemistry/biochemistry undergraduate degree and took biology and forensic chemistry lectures are preferred. It is necessary to design graduate and undergraduate education to train a forensic chemist. Science education should be at the core of the undergraduate education. In addition to this strong laboratory education on both science and forensic science should be given. Th e graduate program of forensic science example should contain forensic science subjects, strong academic lectures on special subjects and research and laboratory components.

  19. [Application of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry in toxicological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Wen; Shen, Bao-Hua; Zhuo, Xian-Yi

    2011-10-01

    Due to the diversity of toxicologically relevant substances, the uncertainty of target compounds and the specificity of samples, toxicological screening techniques have always been valued by the forensic toxicologists. Depending on its powerful separation ability, superhigh resolution and accurate mass measurement, combined with the two levels spectrum database matching and abundance ratio of isotope ion, the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analyzers have increasingly advantage in screening and identification of chemical compound. This review focuses on the applications of LC-HRMS in screening and identification of drug-of-abuse, prescription drugs, pesticide and stimulant. The prospect of LC-HRMS in forensic toxicology analysis is also included.

  20. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  1. IMPORTANCE OF GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TO METAL POISONING IN FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    SÖYLEMEZOĞLU, Tülin; KAYAALTI, Zeliha

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms require varying amounts of essential metals like iron,calcium, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. Heavy metals suchas arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury, have no vital or beneficial effect onorganisms. All of these metals are toxic at different concentrations and theiraccumulation of human body can cause chronic toxic effects and serious illness.Human organism accumulates heavy metals as a result of lifestyle andenvironmental pollution.  Toxic metalsdisrupt me...

  2. “New designer drugs” in aspects of forensic toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Martyna Maciów-Głąb; Sebastian Rojek; Karol Kula; Małgorzata Kłys

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study : In autumn of 2010, in response to an ever-increasing market of “new designer drugs” and in view of new legal regulations, the Sanitary Inspection inspected numerous so-called “smart shops” where such products were sold. In the course of mass inspections, 3545 packages of various preparations were secured on the market in the Malopolska province. A total of 942 preparations were collected for analysis; of this number, 539 were sold as tablets and pills and 403 as plant-deriv...

  3. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Ribeiro; Cristiana Santos; Valter Gonçalves; Ana Ramos; Carlos Afonso; Maria Elizabeth Tiritan

    2018-01-01

    Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology), identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, ille...

  4. IRSN's radiological proficiency testings: a key for managing the quality of test laboratories in charge of the environmental radioactivity survey in France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameon, R.; Gleizes, M.; Maulard, A.; Moine, J.; Vignaud, C. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    In France, many actors are involved in environmental monitoring (IRSN, operators of nuclear facilities, State services, approved air quality monitoring associations, environmental protection associations, private environmental laboratories...). The French National Network for Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring (RNM) federates all these entities. RNM brings together the environmental measurement results made in a regulatory framework on the French territory and make them available to the public through a web site. The quality of these measurements is guaranteed by subjecting the test laboratories to an approval procedure under the control of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN). The approval procedure includes administrative requirements (the laboratory shall meet ISO 17025 requirements) and the participation to proficiency testings (PT) provided by IRSN in order to demonstrate their technical competence. As approvals cover all components of the environment, the five-year PT program is defined on a combination of: - 6 types of environmental matrices: water, soil/sediments, biological matrices (tea, tobacco, fish, milk,...), aerosols on filters, gas-air (activated charcoal cartridge) and ambient air (RPL dosimeters), - 17 categories of radioactive measurements: g-emitters, gross a, gross b, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, pure b-emitters, U isotopes and U content, Th isotopes, {sup 226}Ra and decay products, {sup 228}Ra and decay products, Pu/Am, {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I, noble gases, g-dose rate. Following ISO/CEI 17043 requirements, IRSN, as an accredited PT provider is in charge of: - Preparation and dispatch of test items, - Control of the homogeneity and stability of produced test items, - Determination of the assigned values, - Analysis of the results transmitted by participants in terms of relative bias, En number and z-score, - Publication of the report. PT program managed by IRSN groups 6 to 7 interlaboratory comparisons per year. Each of

  5. Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

  6. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  7. Forensic odontology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Duane E

    2014-06-01

    This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements.

  8. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics....

  9. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  10. Autoradiography in pharmacology and toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    81 abstracts on autoradiography in pharmacology and toxicology were presented, divided into six sessions concerning: 1) methods 2) hormones and receptors, 3) drugs, 4) toxicology, 5) metals, 6) fetal distribution. (author)

  11. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Macek, K J

    1980-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the field of aquatic toxicology is provided. In order to provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art in aquatic toxicology relative to classical toxicology, the two fields are compared from the standpoint of the type of scientist practicing each field, the respective objectives of each, the forces which drive the activity in each field, and the major advantages and disadvantages accruing to the practitioner of aquatic toxicology as a result of the diffe...

  12. American College of Medical Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxicology Course Registration/Survey/Conditions Committee Members Technology Media Forum Case Notes Links Toxicology Treatment Centers Choosing ... ASM) - Agenda Satellite Session I: Epidemic of Addiction Satellite Session II: Zika Toxicology for Medical Students & Residents FIT Research ... Module 6-7: Psychological Consequences of Mass Exposure and Risk Communication Module 8: Neurotoxins Module 9: Water, Food, and ...

  13. External quality assessment schemes for toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    2002-08-14

    A variety of external quality assurance (EQA) schemes monitor quantitative performance for routine biochemical analysis of agents such as paracetamol, salicylate, ethanol and carboxyhaemoglobin. Their usefulness for toxicologists can be lessened where the concentrations monitored do not extend fully into the toxic range or where the matrix is synthetic, of animal origin or serum as opposed to whole human blood. A scheme for quantitative determinations of a wider range of toxicological analytes such as opioids, benzodiazepines and tricyclics in human blood has been piloted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS). Specialist schemes are available for drugs of abuse testing in urine and for hair analysis. Whilst these programmes provide much useful information on the performance of analytical techniques, they fail to monitor the integrated processes that are needed in investigation of toxicological cases. In practice, both qualitative and quantitative tests are used in combination with case information to guide the evaluation of the samples and to develop an interpretation of the analytical findings that is used to provide clinical or forensic advice. EQA programs that combine the analytical and interpretative aspects of case studies are available from EQA providers such as UKNEQAS and the Dutch KKGT program (Stichting Kwaliteitsbewaking Klinische Geneesmiddelanalyse en Toxicologie).

  14. Toxicological aspects of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Puertas, P.

    1991-01-01

    Different toxicological aspects of water have been studied, remarking the activity of various chemical substances in the organism. These substances are divided in: trace metals (Sb, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se), other contaminants (CN-, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pesticides, detergents) and radioactivity. Finally, some considerations on this subject are made [es

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    increase within the study period. Observed changes for these indices from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate ...

  16. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols use...

  17. Animal-free toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2013-01-01

    assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure...

  18. Environmental toxicology: current developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, John

    1998-01-01

    ... continuation orders which may be cancelled at any time and which provide for automatic billing and shipping of each title in the series upon publication. Please write for details. TITLEEnvironmental Toxicology Current Developments Edited by J.Rose University of Central Lancashire, Preston (UK) GORDON AND BREACH SCIENCE PUBLISHERS Australia * Canada...

  19. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  20. Designation of the European Working Group on Legionella Infection (EWGLI) amplified fragment length polymorphism types of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 and results of intercentre proficiency testing Using a standard protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fry, N K; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Bergmans, A

    2002-01-01

    Infections (EWGLI) AFLP types, (ii). describes the EWGLI AFLP types identified for the 130 strains in the EWGLI culture collection, and (iii). reports the results of a newly introduced international programme of proficiency testing. Following preliminary analysis of 20 epidemiologically unrelated isolates...... (recorded as AFLP type 001-016 or untypeable) was determined by participants with reference to these 16 AFLP types, either visually or using gel analysis software where available, and reported to the coordinating centre. Nine of the 12 strains, including an epidemiologically related pair and two pairs...

  1. [Forensic odontology. Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, F S

    1995-06-01

    Human teeth and dental restorations have proven to remain stable during a long time as well as in extreme situations such as fire. Therefore, forensic odontology can play an important part in the identification of severe mutilated bodies of unknown persons. The essence of the identification procedure is comparing the post mortem remains with the ante mortem records. In this issue several authors describe the importance of forensic odontology by means of the use of dental records in mass disasters. Another aspect of forensic odontology is the examination of bite marks, which can be seen in some criminal cases.

  2. Aerospace Toxicology: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    through the atmosphere (28), whereas astronautcs s a relatvely new field related to the art and scence of space flght (26). Avaton s another...result of exposures to a sngle chemcal or to multple chemcals (or chemcal mxtures). 2.2 Pesticidal Toxicology Toxcologcal aspects of...chemcals. Snce organophosphorus compounds and carbamates nhbt acetylcholnesterase and cholnesterases, actvtes of these enzymes n red blood

  3. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  4. Assessment of food toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gosslau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in food toxicology is evident by the dependency of humankind on nutrition by virtue of their heterotrophic metabolism. By means of modern biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, computer science, bioinformatics as well as high-throughput and high-content screening technologies it has been possible to identify adverse effects and characterize potential toxicants in food. The mechanisms of toxicant actions are multifactorial but many toxic effects converge on the generation of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation resulting in cell death, aging and degenerative diseases. Integration of food toxicology data obtained throughout biochemical and cell-based in vitro, animal in vivo and human clinical settings has enabled the establishment of alternative, highly predictable in silico models. These systems utilize a combination of complex in vitro cell-based models with computer-based algorithms. A decrease of rodent animal testing with its limitations of high costs, low throughput readouts, inconsistent responses, ethical issues and concerns of extrapolability to humans have led to an increased use of these but also alternative lower hierarchy surrogate animal models (e.g. Drosophila melanogaster; Caenorhabditis elegans or Danio rerio and efforts to integrate organotypic systems and stem cell-based assays. Despite those achievements, there are numerous challenges in various disciplines of food toxicology.

  5. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red

  6. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  7. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  8. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  9. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... Each specific area of toxicology relevant for drug discovery is discussed in detail, including theory, experimental approaches, and data interpretation supported by comprehensive up-to-date references...

  10. Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, K J

    1980-02-01

    A brief history of the development of the field of aquatic toxicology is provided. In order to provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art in aquatic toxicology relative to classical toxicology, the two fields are compared from the standpoint of the type of scientist practicing each field, the respective objectives of each, the forces which drive the activity in each field, and the major advantages and disadvantages accruing to the practitioner of aquatic toxicology as a result of the differences in objectives and driving forces.

  11. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H

    2017-04-01

    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  12. Postmortem Biochemistry and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Flanagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of postmortem biochemistry and toxicology is either to help establish the cause of death, or to gain information on events immediately before death. If self-poisoning is suspected, the diagnosis may be straightforward and all that could be required is confirmation of the agents involved. However, if the cause of death is not immediately obvious then suspicion of possible poisoning or of conditions such as alcoholic ketoacidosis is of course crucial. On the other hand, it may be important to investigate adherence to prescribed therapy, for example with anticonvulsants or antipsychotics, hence sensitive methods are required. Blood sampling (needle aspiration, peripheral vein, for example femoral, ideally after proximal ligation before opening the body minimizes the risk of sample contamination with, for example, gut contents or urine. Other specimens (stomach contents, urine, liver, vitreous humor may also be valuable and may be needed to corroborate unexpected or unusual findings in the absence of other evidence. The site of sampling should always be recorded. The availability of antemortem specimens should not necessarily preclude postmortem sampling. Appropriate sample preservation, transport, and storage are mandatory. Interpretation of analytical toxicology results must take into account what is known of the pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the agent(s in question, the circumstances under which death occurred including the mechanism of exposure, and other factors such as the stability of the analyte(s and the analytical methods used. It is important to realise that changes may occur in the composition of body fluids, even peripheral blood, after death. Such changes are likely to be greater after attempted resuscitation, and with centrally-acting drugs with large volumes of distribution given chronically, and may perhaps be minimised by prompt refrigeration of the body and performing the autopsy quickly.

  13. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur

    2014-01-01

    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  14. Toxicology of freshwater cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, H M; Arachchi, D N Magana; Abeysekara, T; Guneratne, L

    2016-07-02

    Many chemical contaminants in drinking water have been shown to cause adverse health effects in humans after prolonged exposure. Cyanobacteria are one of the most potent and diverse groups of photosynthetic prokaryotes. One key component of cyanobacterial success in the environment is the production of potent toxins as secondary metabolites, which have been responsible for numerous adverse health impacts in humans. Anthropogenic activities have led to the increase of eutrophication in freshwater bodies' worldwide, causing cyanobacterial blooms to become more frequent. The present article will discuss about harmful cyanobacteria and their toxicology with special references to microcystin, nodularin, and cylindrospermopsin.

  15. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomi...

  16. False-positive Papanicolaou (PAP) test rates in the College of American Pathologists PAP education and PAP proficiency test programs: evaluation of false-positive responses of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer to a negative reference diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Barbara A; Booth, Christine Noga; Darragh, Teresa Marie; Zhao, Chengquan; Souers, Rhona J; Thomas, Nicole; Moriarty, Ann T

    2014-05-01

    In cytology proficiency testing (PT), participants fail for incorrectly interpreting a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer (HSIL+) Papanicolaou test result as negative. This penalty may lead to a false-positive interpretation of negative slides as HSIL+ to avoid failure. To investigate factors related to false-positive responses in a PT versus an educational environment. We analyzed 420,079 responses from 9414 validated negative reference slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology (PAP Education) and compared them with responses from the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program for the percentage of false-positive (HSIL+) interpretations in each of 7 negative subcategories. We evaluated the influence of preparation type (ThinPrep, SurePath, and conventional Papanicolaou test), participant type (pathologist or cytotechnologist), and program time interval (preproficiency test or PT) on a false-positive response. Reference diagnosis and participant type, but not preparation type, were statistically correlated to false-positive responses. The interaction between program time interval and participant type was also significant. Pathologists had higher rates of false-positive results on preproficiency test (1.2% [800 of 68,690]) than they did on PT (0.8% [993 of 129,857]). Cytotechnologists had no differences between program time intervals (preproficiency, 0.9% [515 of 63,281] versus PT, 1.0 [1231 of 121,621]; P = .91). Negative subcategories frequently mistaken for HSIL+ were reparative changes (4.7% [427 of 9069]), atrophic vaginitis (1.8% [18 of 987]), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (1.2% [2143 of 178,651]), but during PT, false-positive rates were significantly increased only for the negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and herpes simplex virus (P Testing Program than they did in PAP Education, but participants were more likely to report a

  17. Nanotechnology: toxicologic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Ann F; Sargent, Linda M; Porter, Dale W; Sager, Tina M; Chen, Bean T; Frazer, David G; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Reynolds, Steven H; Battelli, Lori A; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L; Mercer, Robert R

    2013-02-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies.

  18. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graduate Thesis Assistance Grant Winner Call for Nominees: Anthropology Section T. Dale Stewart Award 2018 Annual Scientific Meeting Registration Information You’ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) ...

  19. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  20. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forensic pathologist to perform the actual examination. Unlike clinical laboratories that are certified under specific standards of the federal Clinical Laboratory Improvements Act (CLIA), forensic laboratories prove their competence ...

  1. Reprint Library for Toxicology Data Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S. N.; Khan, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Industrial Toxicology Research Center, Lucknow, India, maintains a register of toxicology and provides its research workers with current information mainly through its collection of reprints. (Author)

  2. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Pediatric medicolegal autopsy in France: A forensic histopathological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delteil, Clémence; Tuchtan, Lucile; Torrents, Julia; Capuani, Caroline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique

    2018-01-01

    The aim of postmortem medicolegal examination in pediatric death is primarily to establish the circumstances and causes of death and to exclude child abuse. In France, pediatric death is systematically documented by medicolegal or medical autopsy. In case of medicolegal autopsy, the complementary examinations, requested and financed by justice, are rarely limited to a histopathological examination. However in medical autopsies other tools are available to the pathologist as toxicology, biochemistry and molecular biology. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the efficacy of forensic histopathology in pediatric forensic autopsies. We analyze the main causes of pediatric death in a forensic context. Between 2004 and 2015, 157 infant deaths were identified in Marseille university hospital. The forensic histopathology and autopsy reports of all 157 cases were available for systematic review. Medical or surgical causes represented 41,3% of deaths in our center, accidental causes 8.1% and child abuse 28,8%. The definitive diagnosis was made at autopsy in 30% of cases and at histopathological examination in 70% highlighting that forensic histopathology is an indispensable tool in pediatric medicolegal autopsies. Significant histological abnormalities may be detected in selected organs such as the brain, lungs, heart, liver, adrenal glands and kidneys in spite of macroscopically normal appearances. This justifies systematic sampling of all organs. Despite the implementation of the French sudden infant death protocol which recommends medical autopsies, too many pediatric autopsies are carried out in a medicolegal context. 30% of the cases remain without diagnosis at the end of the autopsy and histological examination. This number could be reduced by the contribution of others laboratory investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-21

    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  5. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  6. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  7. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  8. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  9. Chiral Drug Analysis in Forensic Chemistry: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many substances of forensic interest are chiral and available either as racemates or pure enantiomers. Application of chiral analysis in biological samples can be useful for the determination of legal or illicit drugs consumption or interpretation of unexpected toxicological effects. Chiral substances can also be found in environmental samples and revealed to be useful for determination of community drug usage (sewage epidemiology, identification of illicit drug manufacturing locations, illegal discharge of sewage and in environmental risk assessment. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the application of chiral analysis in biological and environmental samples and their relevance in the forensic field. Most frequently analytical methods used to quantify the enantiomers are liquid and gas chromatography using both indirect, with enantiomerically pure derivatizing reagents, and direct methods recurring to chiral stationary phases.

  10. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Onkarrao Malve

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology.

  11. Forensic pharmacology: An important and evolving subspecialty needs recognition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2016-01-01

    With training in pharmacology, a pharmacologist has an expert knowledge as well as working experience in the subjects of therapeutics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology along with exposure to subjects such as forensic medicine during the medical education. All these knowledge domains can be applied and act as an interface to the forensic situations. The skills and expertise of a forensic pharmacologist can be useful in a large and diverse number of legal cases. With an ever increasing incidence of criminal and civil cases in India, the development and inclusion of forensic pharmacologist in the judicial system of India are the need of the hour. The research in pharmacology has witnessed great technological advancement that allows it to expand its scope beyond the domain of therapeutics, thus enabling Indian pharmacologists to explore the niche area of Forensic Pharmacology. Differing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in living and dead, drug interactions, abuse of drugs, personal injury or death due to drug exposure leading to medico-legal issues, environmental exposure to chemicals, and doping and forensic pharmacovigilance are the diverse aspects of Forensic Pharmacology.

  12. Forensic Investigation of Methadone Concentrations in Deceased Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Parvaz; Kelly, Lauren E; Ross, Colin J; Kepron, Charis; Edwards, James N; Koren, Gideon

    2016-03-01

    There is a paucity of data to aid in assessing whether postmortem methadone findings in breastfed infants are clinically and/or toxicologically significant. Two cases are reported in which methadone was detected in deceased neonates whose mothers were enrolled in methadone maintenance programs and were breastfeeding. In addition to a complete autopsy and toxicological testing for alcohol, prescription medications, and drugs of abuse, pharmacogenetic analysis was performed for variants in genes related to methadone metabolism and response. In both cases, the postmortem methadone concentration measured in neonatal heart blood was higher than the maximum serum methadone concentration reported in living breastfed infants whose mothers were receiving methadone. However, additional analysis of antemortem blood indicated postmortem redistribution of methadone. Pharmacogenetic results were suggestive of a potential predisposition to methadone toxicity based on studies in adults; the significance of these findings in breastfed neonates requires further research. The medical cause of death was unascertained in both cases. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The first article of the volume describes the theory and practice of RIA with particular reference to the analysis of drugs in body fluids in a forensic context. RIA theory is outlined from basic principles but the inherent assumptions are often inapplicable in practice and so the empirical design of an assay is considered in detail. Particular emphasis is given to the development of assays for drugs screening that detect classes of structurally related compounds rather than individual drugs. The preparation of radiolabelled drugs, the synthesis of immunogens for raising anitisera, the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antisera, and methods for separating free and antibody-bound antigens are reviewed. Quality assurance, trouble-shooting and the possible hazards of forensic RIA are discussed, and published RIA methods for drug analysis are tabulated. Many non-isotopic immunoassays have been developed in recent years but are omitted from this account because to date they are less applicable than RIA to samples such as haemolysed blood that are frequently encountered in forensic toxicology. Future progress in forensic drug RIA is likely to be concerned with applying the technique to more compounds, improving the methods for preparing immunogens and radiolabelled drugs, and investigating the use of monoclonal anti-drug antibodies. (orig./MG)

  14. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  15. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  16. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  17. Experimental water toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrushaytis, G.P. (ed.)

    1984-01-01

    The problem of water toxicology and marine ectoxicology, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Riga, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the problem of creating artificial controlled marine ecosystems for the purpose of utilizing them in ecotoxicological studies and for solving problems in the intensification of bioproduction processes and predicting the functional state of water ecosystems under conditions of water pollution by toxic substances. Investigations were conducted on the effects of pesticides, phenols, and heavy metal ions on planktonic crustacea and fish. Studies were also concerned with the effect of gonadotoxic substances, including detergents, on the gametogenesis process in fish. Morphological changes in the ovicells of fish can lead to a reduction in the sensitivity of the receptor zones of the follicular casings to hormonal substances, as well as infertility.

  18. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-07

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  19. Ninth Triennial Toxicology Salary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Shayne Cox; Sullivan, Dexter Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This survey serves as the ninth in a series of toxicology salary surveys conducted at 3-year intervals and beginning in 1988. An electronic survey instrument was distributed to 5919 individuals including members of the Society of Toxicology, American College of Toxicology, and 23 additional professional organizations. Question items inquired about gender, age, degree, years of experience, certifications held, areas of specialization, society membership, employment and income. Overall, 1293 responses were received (response rate 21.8%). The results of the 2014 survey provide insight into the job market and career path for current and future toxicologists. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  1. Exploring trends in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Gowhar, Owais; Ain, Tasneem S; Sultan, Saima

    2014-12-01

    Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology.

  2. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  3. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  4. Soil Science Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M

    2009-01-01

    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  5. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  6. Ethics and Medical Toxicology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Stolbach, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Optimizing care in medical toxicology necessitates designing and conducting ethical research. Nevertheless, the context of medical toxicology can make clinical research ethically challenging for a variety of reasons: medical toxicology is typified by relative rare conditions; making precise and rapid diagnoses is often fraught with uncertainty; emergent and urgent clinical exigencies make consent difficult or impossible; and some exposures are stigmatized or related to illegal activities that can compromise collecting accurate data from patients. In this paper, we examine some of the ethical issues in medical toxicology research that are especially salient in effort to promote optimal research in the field. The particular issues to be addressed are as follows: (1) rare conditions and orphan agents, (2) randomization and control arms, (3) inclusion and exclusion criteria, (4) outcome measures, (5) consent, (6) confidentiality, (7) registries, (8) oversight, and (9) transparency and reporting. Thinking about these ethical issues prospectively will help researchers and clinicians appropriately navigate them.

  7. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  8. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aggregated Computational Toxicology Online Resource (AcTOR) is EPA's online aggregator of all the public sources of chemical toxicity data. ACToR aggregates data...

  9. Predictive toxicology in drug safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Jinghai J; Urban, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    .... It provides information on the present knowledge of drug side effects and their mitigation strategy during drug discovery, gives guidance for risk assessment, and promotes evidence-based toxicology...

  10. Mass Spectrometry Applications for Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Mbughuni, Michael M.; Jannetto, Paul J.; Langman, Loralie J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicology is a multidisciplinary study of poisons, aimed to correlate the quantitative and qualitative relationships between poisons and their physiological and behavioural effects in living systems. Other key aspects of toxicology focus on elucidation of the mechanisms of action of poisons and development of remedies and treatment plans for associated toxic effects. In these endeavours, Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful analytical technique with a wide range of application used i...

  11. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  12. [Toxicologic blood emergency screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sabine; Manat, Aurélie; Dumont, Benoit; Bévalot, Fabien; Manchon, Monique; Berny, Claudette

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the stop marketing by Biorad company of automated high performance liquid chromatograph with UV detection (Remedi), we developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and to give an approximation of the overdose of molecules frequently encountered in drug intoxications. Therefore two hundred eighty seventeen blood samples were collected over a period of one year and allowed us to evaluate and compare the performance of these two techniques. As identification, GC-MS does not identify all molecules detected by Remedi in 24.2% of cases; there is a lack of sensitivity for opiates and the systematic absence of certain molecules such as betablockers. However, in 75.8% of cases the GC-MS detects all molecules found by Remedi and other molecules such as meprobamate, paracetamol, benzodiazepines and phenobarbital. The concentrations obtained are interpreted in terms of overdose showed 15.7% of discrepancy and 84.3% of concordance between the two techniques. The GC-MS technique described here is robust, fast and relatively simple to implement; the identification is facilitated by macro commands and the semi quantification remains manual. Despite a sequence of cleaning the column after each sample, carryover of a sample to the next remains possible. This technique can be used for toxicologic screening in acute intoxications. Nevertheless it must be supplemented by a HPLC with UV detection if molecules such as betablockers are suspected.

  13. Toxicology of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    Data are reviewed from studies on the toxicity of Pu in experimental animals. Of the several plutonium isotopes, only 238 Pu and 239 Pu have been studied well. Sufficient results have been obtained to show that the behavior of 238 Pu in biological systems and the resulting biological effects cannot be precisely predicted from studies of 239 Pu. This probably applies also to other radiologically important plutonium isotopes which have half-lives ranging from 45 days to 10 7 years and decay by β-emission, electron capture, and spontaneous fission, as well as by emission of α-particles. All the biological effects of plutonium described in this review are attributed to alpha-particle radiation emitted by the plutonium. However, since plutonium is a chemically active heavy metal, one cannot ignore the possibility of chemical toxicity of the low-specific-activity isotopes, 239 Pu, 242 Pu, and 244 Pu. The preponderance of our knowledge of plutonium toxicology has come from short-term studies of relatively high dosage levels in several animal species. The consequences of high-level internal exposures can be predicted with confidence in experimental animals and probably also in man. However, considering the care with which plutonium is handled in the nuclear industry, a high-level contamination event is unlikely. Considerably less is known about the long-term effects of low levels of contamination. (250 references) (U.S.)

  14. Designing Proficiency Tests to Accredit Previous Knowledge in American and British Literature in a Bilingual Education Program (Diseño de exámenes de suficiencia para acreditar el conocimiento previo en literatura americana y británica en un programa de educación bilingüe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Chica, César Julio; D'Costa Martínez, Catalina; Franco Jácome, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the kind of American and British literature tests that can be designed to allow students who enter a bilingual education program at a private university in Colombia to have their previous knowledge in these two subjects accredited through a proficiency test. Students' needs, opinions, beliefs, existing commercial…

  15. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , it is necessary to develop new processes and techniques to retrieve evidence from computers. Specialists commonly refer to this discipline as Cyber Forensics [BJ05]. 1.1 Defining Cyber Forensics According to Jones [Jo07], Cyber Forensics is “… the process... it [KH02]. The current forensic best practice is to unplug a machine to acquire an image of the hard drive. This technique can cause data corruption, system downtime and consequential revenue loss for businesses. Section 3 discusses this dead...

  16. Molecular Advancements in Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu Rs, A; Rose, D

    2015-05-11

    Forensic odontology explores the field of human identification through dental tissues in cases where there is the destruction of body tissues in criminal investigations and mass disasters. Forensic odontology involves dentists participating in legal and criminal issues. Parameters such as age and gender identification are important in identifying the person or persons. Over the last two decades, the molecular aspect of forensic sciences has increased, and these molecular techniques now provide a novel approach to forensic odontology. Molecular advancements in science like DNA analysis have extended the range of forensic dentistry, as teeth possess the character of resistance toward physical or chemical aggressions. Teeth provide the abundant space for DNA, and hence teeth represent an excellent source of genomic DNA. The present paper focusses on molecular advancements in the field of forensic odontology.

  17. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  18. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  19. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  20. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator...

  1. Dental Forensics: Bitemark Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology (dental forensics can provide useful evidence in both criminal and civil cases, and therefore remains a part of the wider discipline of forensic science. As an example from the toolbox of forensic odontology, the practice and experience on bitemark analysis is reviewed here in brief. The principle of using visible bitemarks in crime victims or in other objects as evidence is fundamentally based on the observation that the detailed pattern of dental imprints tend to be practically unique for each individual. Therefore, finding such an imprint as a bitemark can bear a strong testimony that it was produced by the individual that has the matching dental pattern. However, the comparison of the observed bitemark and the suspected set of teeth will necessarily require human interpretation, and this is not infallible. Both technical challenges in the bitemarks and human errors in the interpretation are possible. To minimise such errors and to maximise the value of bitemark analysis, dedicated procedures and protocols have been developed, and the personnel taking care of the analysis need to be properly trained. In principle the action within the discipline should be conducted as in evidence-based dentristy, i.e. accepted procedures should have known error rates. Because of the involvement of human interpretation, even personal performance statistics may be required from legal expert statements. The requirements have been introduced largely due to cases where false convictions based on bitemark analysishave been overturned after DNA analysis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.76

  2. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available and dynamic, volatile data (Forte 2008:13). This technique addresses many of the problems associated with Dead Forensic Acquisition, but brings about some additional problems. The most critical of these problems are data modification and court acceptance... technology (Maat 2004:i). This adds to cyber crime’s threat and complicates the investigation process due to crime’s increased sophistication (Pan & Batten 2005:1). These developments leave Law Enforcement outdated. In some incidents, legal aspects...

  3. About forensic phonetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Hollien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets forth the goals and content of Forensic Phonetics and its major elements. Considered are 1 the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, 2 enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings, 3 authentication of recordings, 4 speaker identification, and 5 detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech, and the psychological stress evaluation systems that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors also will be considered.

  4. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  5. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  6. Cancer and Toxicology Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The Cancer and Toxicology Section is concerned with the investigation of the mechanisms by which chemicals, radiation, and viruses cause the changes broadly identified as cancer. In addition, the study of mechanisms has been extended to include the nontumorigenic effects of various agents associated with fossil energy and fuels. Research in molecular genetics of carcinogenesis focuses largely on the transposon properties of the genomes of retroviruses. The transposon structure of the DNA genomes of endogenous murine N-tropic and B-tropic type C retroviruses is being elucidated, and their chromosomal location mapped in hamster-mouse cell hybrids. A model of the mechanism of retrovirus induction by radiation and chemicals is being developed, and experiments have established that compounds such as hydroxyurea act as inducer. There is the possibility that transposition of sequences of this endogenous virus may be linked to leukemogenesis. Research in regulation of gene expression aims at defining in molecular terms the mechanisms determining expression of specific genes, how these are regulated by hormones, and the events responsible for dysfunction of gene expression in cancer. In corollary work, a library of cloned cDNAs specific for products of genes of special interest to regulation is being developed. Improvement of reversed-phase chromatography as a means of isolating bacterial plasmids and restriction fragments of DNA is underway. Newly developed techniques permit the isolation of supercoiled plasmid DNA directly from bacterial extracts. The technology has been developed recently for the photosynthetic growth of the chemo-autotrophic organism Rhodospirillum rubrum and the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase has been produced in quantity

  7. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  8. Computed Tomography in Forensic Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2015-01-01

    Modern diagnostic imagining techniques are gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Denmark has been involved in the development of this use of imaging techniques from the beginning. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Southern Denmark acquired a helical computed tomography (CT...... AND METHODS: This thesis investigated 900 forensic cases that were CT-scanned and autopsied at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, from 2006-2011. The scanner was a Siemens Somatom Spirit dual-slice CT-scanner with a Siemens Syngo MultiModality workstation. Contrast enhancement...

  9. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  10. Postmortem bone marrow analysis in forensic science: study of 73 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattoli, Lucia; Tsokos, Michael; Sautter, Julia; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Maselli, Eloisa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Delia, Mario; Solarino, Biagio

    2014-01-01

    In forensic sciences, bone marrow (BM) is an alternative matrix in postmortem toxicology because of its good resistance to autolysis and contaminations. Nevertheless, few studies have been focused on postmortem BM morphological changes after pathological stimuli. We examined 73 BM samples from forensic autopsies; causes of death were both natural and traumatic. BM samples were collected from the sternum by needle aspiration and biopsy; in selected cases, immunohistochemistry was performed. Few autolytic changes were found; BM cellularity decreased with increasing age and postmortem interval. Notable cell changes were detected in 45 cases (61.64%): neoplastic (n=4), and non-neoplastic BM findings (n=41), including multiorgan failure/sepsis (n=26), myelodisplastic-like conditions (n=11), and anaphylactic reactions (n=4). The results showed that BM cellularity supported circumstantial and autopsy findings, suggesting that BM samples could be a useful tool in forensic science applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatores a serem levados em consideração para o desenvolvimento de testes de proficiência oral em contexto virtual Aspects to be considered in the development of oral proficiency tests in virtual contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Biondo Salomão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Novos contextos de aprendizagem virtual de línguas estrangeiras vêm surgindo com o desenvolvimento das novas tecnologias. Há a necessidade agora de se pensar em como a competência linguística poderá ser também avaliada em meio virtual. Este artigo traz uma retrospectiva da origem e desenvolvimento das provas de proficiência oral para falantes de línguas estrangeiras, buscando também levantar e discutir os aspectos a serem levados em consideração para a formulação deste tipo de teste em ambiente virtual.New virtual contexts for learning foreign languages have been arising from the development of new communication technologies. Now, there is the necessity to think about how the students' communicative competence may be evaluated in such virtual contexts. This article aims at presenting a retrospective of the origin and development of oral proficiency tests for speakers of foreign languages, as well as pointing out and discussing the aspects that should be taken into account when designing this kind of tests for virtual environments.

  12. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  13. Forensic DNA data banking by state crime labortaories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, J.E. [Eunice Kennedy Shrive Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of the responsible crime laboratories in the first 19 states with legislation establishing forensic DNA data banks. The survey inquired into the labs` policies and procedures regarding the collection, storage, and analysis of samples; the retention of samples and data; search protocols; access to samples and data by third parties; and related matters. The research suggests that (1) the number of samples collected from convicted offenders for DNA data banking has far surpassed the number that have been analyzed; (2) data banks have already been used in a small but growing number of cases, to locate suspects and to identify associations between unresolved cases; (3) crime labs currently plan to retain indefinitely the samples collected for their data banks; and (4) the nature and extent of security safeguards that crime labs have implemented for their data banks vary among states. The recently enacted DNA Identification Act (1994) will provide $40 million in federal matching grants to states for DNA analysis activities, so long as states comply with specified quality-assurance standards, submit to external proficiency testing, and limit access to DNA information. Although these additional funds should help to ease some sample backlogs, it remains unclear how labs will allocate the funds, as between analyzing samples for their data banks and testing evidence samples in cases without suspects. The DNA Identification Act provides penalties for the disclosure or obtaining of DNA data held by data banks that participate in CODIS, the FBI`s evolving national network of DNA data banks, but individual crime labs must also develop stringent internal safeguards to prevent breaches of data-bank security. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  15. Clinical toxicology and military application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, S A

    2006-01-01

    The changing operational tempo and types of deployment have, since the end of the Cold War, required a change in CBRN training. The threat from weapons of mass destruction has been replaced with the threat from improvised explosive devices and insurgent attempts to develop asymmetric weapons to target military and civilian populations. In addition exposure to hazardous materials as well as environmental hazards and natural toxins requires a greater awareness of the necessary supportive and definitive management. Developing a cadre of specialists with an interest in toxicology and environmental medicine, within either emergency or acute medicine, would be advantageous to deployed units as well as specialised units, including those tasked in support of UK homeland security. An established pathway for sub-specialisation in clinical toxicology does not yet exist. With the establishment of the College of Emergency Medicine, as well as the Acute Medicine Society and Intensive Care Society further development of clinical toxicology is likely.

  16. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  17. phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dealer

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. ... Keywords: Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial Activity, Toxicological Activity Acacia senegal,. Extracts. INTRODUCTION ..... Vegetable Drugs; Chemical Industries. Branch; Division of ...

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  19. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Database (DART)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A bibliographic database on the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) with references to developmental and reproductive toxicology...

  20. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  1. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  2. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  3. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  4. Statistical aspects of forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben

    This PhD thesis deals with statistical models intended for forensic genetics, which is the part of forensic medicine concerned with analysis of DNA evidence from criminal cases together with calculation of alleged paternity and affinity in family reunification cases. The main focus of the thesis...

  5. Forensic Photography: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Y; Kumar MS

    2015-01-01

    Forensic Odontology requires the use of photography for either evidential or investigative purposes. Smith in 1970 said the photographer is expected to produce “something which will convey to the eye of the viewer an accurate reproduction of the scene as it would appear if the viewer actually saw the scene”. If the depictions are precise, the photographs will play a vital role and will be readily accepted as evidence. It is the assumption of dentists that only their counterparts who have s...

  6. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  7. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  8. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  9. Forensics mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of possibilities of digitized mobile(portable devices, and methods of research data with them.Emphasis is placed on the forensic investigation of mobilephones, but are covered by other media and research for digitalprocessing, transmission and storage of information.A special emphasis was made on the software tools in carrying out the acquisition of digital data, with the aim of sending the reader on ways and methods to protect data but also knowledgewhich is the same all be found and how they can be misused for criminal purposes

  10. Science: Aquatic Toxicology Matures, Gains Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagani, Ron

    1980-01-01

    Reviews recent advances in aquatic toxicology, whose major goal is to protect diverse aquatic organisms and whole ecological communities from the dire effects of man-made chemicals. Current legislation is reviewed. Differences in mammalian and aquatic toxicology are listed, and examples of research in aquatic toxicology are discussed. (CS)

  11. Proficiency test for antibiotics in bovine muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.; Berendsen, B.J.A.; Pikkemaat, M.G.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine muscle, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative

  12. Proficiency test for antibiotics in beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, B.J.A.; Stolker, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of antibiotics in bovine tissues, including the screening analysis. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for screening and quantitative and

  13. Proficiency test for paracitides in salmon muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, I.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this proficiency study was to give laboratories the possibility to evaluate or demonstrate their competence for the analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle. This study also provided an evaluation of the methods applied for the quantitative analysis of parasiticides in salmon muscle.

  14. Blood-alcohol proficiency test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A preliminary survey has been performed to ascertain the validity of the blood alcohol analysis performed by a number of laboratories on a voluntary basis. Values of accuracy and precision of the tests are presented. /Abstract from report summary pag...

  15. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Surprises and omissions in toxicology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rašková, H.; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), S94-S96 ISSN 1210-7778. [Inderdisciplinary Czech-Slovak Toxicological Conference /8./. Praha, 03.09.2004-05.09.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : bacterial toxins Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  17. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings that deal will radioactive particles. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics

  18. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  19. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  20. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  1. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  2. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: tumey2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  3. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  5. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  6. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already

  7. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  8. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to their book After Testimony (2012) Jakob Lothe, Susan Suleiman and James Phelan ask the question whether the disappearance of the last witness will affect the way the public discourse deals with the Holocaust. This article attempts to address that question and suggests a mode...... of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  9. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  10. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  11. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  12. A history of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-04-01

    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology expectati......This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...... the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions....

  14. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  15. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  16. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  17. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  18. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The death of Adolf Hitler--forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Daniela; Boschi, Ilaria; Polacco, Matteo; Rainio, Juha

    2005-09-01

    The death of Adolf Hitler is one of the unsolved mysteries of the twentieth century. Numerous historians and journalists have attempted to piece together the details, but despite the interest in the forensic literature regarding the identification of the body, there has not been much scientific debate about the alleged cause of death--cyanide poisoning, gunshot injury, or both. The available literature concerning Hitler's cause of death is incomplete because the toxicological analysis has not been performed and because the skull bone fragment with a gunshot wound possibly from Hitler's corpse has not been properly examined. This has given basis for various theories, which are reviewed. We believe that mtDNA analysis of the skull fragments and of Hitler's jaw, now filed in Moscow, and samples from maternal relatives of Hitler are crucial linking the skull fragment with the gunshot wound to Hitler.

  1. [The contribution of E.O. Mukhin to the development of forensic medicine in Russia during the first half of the XIXth century (on the occasion of his 250th birthday anniversary)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigolkin, Yu I; Lomakin, Yu V

    Efrem Osipovich Mukhin, actual state councilor, was a known surgeon, anatomist, physiologist, toxicologist, and hygienist. He is honoured as one of the founders of the Russian school of forensic medical expertise and traumatology. During 22 years, E.O. Mukhin headed the Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Forensic Medicine at the Moscow Imperial University where he taught forensic medicine, anatomy, physiology, toxicology, and medical police. He was the first Russian scientist to develop the fundamentals of reflexology and most comprehensively present the problem of integration of the organism and its environment. E.O. Mukhin is considered to be the initiator of anatomo-physiological research in medicine.

  2. Forensic relevance of glucuronidation in phase-II-metabolism of alcohols and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeferstein, Herbert

    2009-04-01

    Forensic toxicology means detecting toxic or pharmacologically active substances in body fluids and organs and the evaluation and judgement of the respective results. In the legal judgement, not only the taken in active drugs, but also their metabolites are to be included. Regarding metabolism one distinguishes phase-I- and phase-II-metabolism. In the phase-I-metabolism, active substances are converted by oxidation, reduction or hydrolysis, but influencing the polarity of more lipophilic substances often not decisively. The pharmacological activity is often preserved or even increased. In phase-II-metabolism a highly hydrophilic substance--mostly glucuronic acid--is coupled to the active substances or the respective phase-I-metabolites. This reaction step decisively increases hydrophilicity of lipophilic substances, thus enhancing renal elimination and often also abolishing pharmacologically and/or toxicologically effects. Nevertheless the interaction of different drugs and alcohols in glucuronidation and the glucuronides of phase-II-metabolism still do not play a substantial role in the forensic-toxicological analysis and interpretation of results so far. However, in vitro investigations since 1999 in our lab show that such interactions are not unlikely. For valid interpretation of complex cases in the future it may become necessary not only to quantify drugs and the phase-I-metabolites but also the phase-II-metabolites and discuss possible interactions in the metabolism.

  3. Forensic seismology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  4. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  5. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  7. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  9. Deaths from abdominal trauma: analysis of 1888 forensic autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLYANNA HELENA COELHO BORDONI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the epidemiological profile of deaths due to abdominal trauma at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of the reports of deaths due to abdominal trauma autopsied from 2006 to 2011. Results: we analyzed 1.888 necropsy reports related to abdominal trauma. Penetrating trauma was more common than blunt one and gunshot wounds were more prevalent than stab wounds. Most of the individuals were male, brown-skinned, single and occupationally active. The median age was 34 years. The abdominal organs most injured in the penetrating trauma were the liver and the intestines, and in blunt trauma, the liver and the spleen. Homicide was the most prevalent circumstance of death, followed by traffic accidents, and almost half of the cases were referred to the Forensic Medicine Institute by a health unit. The blood alcohol test was positive in a third of the necropsies where it was performed. Cocaine and marijuana were the most commonly found substances in toxicology studies. Conclusion: in this sample. there was a predominance of penetrating abdominal trauma in young, brown and single men, the liver being the most injured organ.

  10. Clinical and forensic signs related to cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; Duarte, José Alberto; Proença, Jorge Brandão; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2012-03-01

    Good laboratory practice in toxicological analysis requires pre-analytical steps for collection of detailed information related to the suspected poisoning episodes, including biological and non-biological circumstantial evidences, which should be carefully scrutinized. This procedure provides great help to unveil the suspected cause of poisoning, to select the appropriate and correct samples to be analyzed and can facilitate the decision about the analytical techniques to perform. This implies a good knowledge of the signs related to acute and chronic intoxications by drugs of abuse. In this manuscript we highlight and discuss clinical and forensic imaging related to cocaine abuse, namely the midline destructive lesion, dental health, pseudoscleradermatous triad and crack hands, necrosis and gangrene of extremities and several other skin manifestations, reticular purpura, intracerebral and peripheral hemorrhages, angioneurotic edema, rhabdomyolysis, and crack lung. For this purpose, the state of the art on this topic is discussed, using clinical and forensic cases from our professional database in complement to images and mechanistic data from literature.

  11. Forensic Polygraph in Crime Investigation: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabad Ayoub

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A polygraph is an instrument that measures and records physiological changes inside the body. In the absence of a valid physical evidence, polygraphy may be a useful technique to verify truthfulness or detect deception. The present study was conducted to determine the truthfulness of a suspect in a murder case that was referred to PFSA for a polygraph examination. The stomach contents of the examinee and the hyoid bone of the vicvtim were submitted to the department of toxicology and forensic pathology at the PFSA, respectively. In the present study, integrated zone comparison technique (IZCT and forensic assessment interview technique (FAINT designed for specific and multi issue testing were used to examine the suspect. Computerized Academy for Scientific Investigative training (ASIT Algorithm and weighted scoring were applied in IZCT and FAINT scoring, respectively. The suspect of this murder case was brought to PFSA for polygraph examination. During the initial interview, the suspect denied any involvement in the said case. However, after complete polygraph examination, the suspect was proven to have been deceptive and later on confessed to police officials. The polygraph examination of the suspect proved him deceptive which was later confirmed by his confession. His stomach did not contain any toxic/ sedative material.

  12. Graduate Training in Toxicology in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robens, J. F.; Buck, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are an American Board of Veterinary Toxicology survey and evaluation of the training resources available in graduate programs in toxicology located in colleges of veterinary medicine. Regulatory toxicology, number of toxicologists needed, and curriculum are also discussed. (JMD)

  13. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    OpenAIRE

    Raghav Kumar; Appaji Athota; Trisha Rastogi; Sunil Kumar Karumuri

    2015-01-01

    In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of diffe...

  14. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  15. Requirements-driven adaptive digital forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale, Liliana; Yu, Yijun; Salehie, Mazeiar; Cavallaro, Luca; Tun, Thein Than; Nuseibeh, Bashar

    2013-01-01

    A digital forensics process aims to collect and analyze the evidence essential to demonstrate a potential hypothesis of a crime. We propose the use of forensic requirements to automate a digital forensics process. We augment traditional reactive digital forensics processes - used to perform an investigation - with proactive evidence collection and analysis activities, which provide immediate investigative suggestions before an investigation starts. These activities dynamically adapt depending...

  16. Toxicological analysis of formalin-fixed or embalmed tissues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Panagiota; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Dona, Artemisia; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotiris

    2013-12-10

    During the autopsy of forensic cases, when there is no suspicion of drug use or chemical exposure, biological fluids may not be obtained for toxicological analysis, while specimens of tissues may be collected and preserved in a formalin solution for histological examination. When specific questions arise after the burial, the only possible options are the exhumation of an embalmed body or the toxicological analysis of the formalin-fixed specimens. The drug concentrations in these specimens can be altered due to the extraction efficiency and/or the chemical activity of the formalin solutions used during chemical fixation or embalming process. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies about the determination of specific groups of drugs in formalin-fixed or embalmed specimens and their stability after chemical fixation or embalming process. The analytical aspects of this determination are also discussed. The stability of drugs in formalin environment and the possible reaction of the drugs with formaldehyde, which is a highly reactive chemical substance, should always be considered during post-mortem/post-embalming forensic analysis. The additional analysis of the formalin solution in which the tissue was preserved is considered necessary. The identification and the evaluation of the possible degradation products or chemical derivatives are extremely useful during the interpretation of the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Best practice approach to live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Live Forensic discipline instigates the development of a method that allows forensically sound acquisition to stand fast in a court of law. The study presents the development of a comprehensive model for forensically sound...

  18. Ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Reena; Young, John L; Coleman, Jacquelyn T; Norko, Michael A; Griffith, Ezra E H

    2011-01-01

    Several organizations have developed guidelines to help authors and editors of medical journals negotiate ethics dilemmas in publishing, but very little is known about how these guidelines translate to the context of forensic psychiatry. In this article, we explore the important topic of ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing. First, we review the historical development of ethics principles in medical and psychiatric publishing. We then analyze eight ethics dilemmas that have arisen in the publication of The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (The Journal) from 2000 to 2009, including disputes about authorship, conflict of interest, redundant publication, bias in peer reviewers, confidentiality in case reports, and others. We identify ethics principles that were relevant to the dilemmas and discuss how they were resolved by the editors of The Journal. We conclude by using the principles identified in the practical resolution of ethics dilemmas to derive a conceptual foundation for ethics in forensic psychiatry publishing.

  19. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...... the participation of scientific actors in the development of anticipatory governance deliberations concerning the widening application of forensic genetics in an increasing number of criminal and civil jurisdictions....

  20. Evolution of toxicology information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassom, J.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Society today is faced with new health risk situations that have been brought about by recent scientific and technical advances. Federal and state governments are required to assess the many potential health risks to exposed populations from the products (chemicals) and by-products (pollutants) of these advances. Because a sound analysis of any potential health risk should be based on the use of relevant information, it behooves those individuals responsible for making the risk assessments to know where to obtain needed information. This paper reviews the origins of toxicology information systems and explores the specialized information center concept that was proposed in 1963 as a means of providing ready access to scientific and technical information. As a means of illustrating this concept, the operation of one specialized information center (the Environmental Mutagen Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will be discussed. Insights into how toxicological information resources came into being, their design and makeup, will be of value to those seeking to acquire information for risk assessment purposes. 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Amine promiscuity and toxicology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Esther C Y; Steeno, Gregory; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Zhang, Liying; Shah, Falgun; Price, David A

    2017-02-01

    Drug discovery programs often face challenges to obtain sufficient duration of action of the drug (i.e. seek longer half-lives). If the pharmacodynamic response is driven by free plasma concentration of the drug then extending the plasma drug concentration is a valid approach. Half-life is dependent on the volume of distribution, which in turn can be dependent upon the ionization state of the molecule. Basic compounds tend to have a higher volume of distribution leading to longer half-lives. However, it has been shown that bases may also have higher promiscuity. In this work, we describe an analysis of in vitro pharmacological profiling and toxicology data investigating the role of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in imparting promiscuity and thus off-target toxicity. Primary amines are found to be less promiscuous in in vitro assays and have improved profiles in in vivo toxicology studies compared to secondary and tertiary amines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of Proteomic Technologies to Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteomics is the large-scale study of gene expression at the protein level. This cutting edge technology has been extensively applied to toxicology research recently. The up-to-date development of proteomics has presented the toxicology community with an unprecedented opportunit...

  3. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  4. Desenvolvimento de itens de ensaio de proficiência para pesquisa de Salmonella spp. em matriz chocolate | Development of proficiency test items for Salmonella spp. research in chocolate matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Cabral da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver itens de ensaio (IE liofilizados contendo Salmonella spp., em matriz chocolate, para utilização em ensaio de proficiência (EP. Foi realizada a análise microbiológica de uma amostra de chocolate granulado para verificar se estava livre do micro-organismo alvo. Para monitoramento da qualidade dos IE, realizou-se estudos de homogeneidade e estabilidade em longo e curto prazo, bem como verificou-se a presença de vácuo nas amostras garantindo a eficiência do processo de liofilização. A análise microbiológica do chocolate indicou ausência de contaminação por Salmonella spp., estando apto para ser utilizado como matriz. A técnica de liofilização, com uso de trealose como crioprotetor, se mostrou eficaz para dessecação dos IE produzidos. O lote produzido se apresentou suficientemente homogêneo, pois o micro-organismo estava presente em todos os frascos analisados. O lote se apresentou estável à temperatura de -20ºC (em cinco semanas e -70ºC (em 26 semanas; na estabilidade de transporte, foi considerado estável a 4ºC (em quatro dias. O lote de IE produzido nesse estudo apresentou qualidade que o torna apto para uso em EP, o que visou contribuir para o aumento da confiabilidade dos resultados das análises dos laboratórios e propiciar subsídios para a identificação e solução de problemas. ================================================ The aim of this study was to develop lyophilized test items (TI containing Salmonella spp., in chocolate matrix to be used in proficiency testing programs (PTP. Microbial analysis was conducted on samples of granulated chocolate to verify that the sample was free of the target microorganisms. Homogeneity and stability studies in long and short term were carried out to monitor TI quality; the presence of vacuum in the samples was also verified, to ensure the efficiency of the lyophilization process. The results of the microbial testing indicated no

  5. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  6. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  7. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decade...... sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this chapter, we provide an overview on conventional DNA diagnostics and the possible applications of single cell sequencing and NGS in forensic medicine....

  8. Toxicological profile for radium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Radium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substances' toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  9. Toxicological profile for plutonium. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Plutonium is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile is not intended to be an exhaustive document; however, more comprehensive sources of specialty information are referenced. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. Following the statement is material that presents levels of significant human exposure and, where known, significant health effects. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information

  10. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  11. A critical review of the causes of death among post-mortem toxicological investigations: analysis of 34 buprenorphine-associated and 35 methadone-associated deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, S; Borron, S W; Giudicelli, C P; Tourneau, J; Baud, F J; Ricordel, I

    2004-08-01

    To assess the trends in the number, mortality and the nature of forensic cases involving toxicological detection of buprenorphine or methadone among toxicological investigations performed in Paris from June 1997 to June 2002. Retrospective, 5 year study with review of premortem data, autopsy, police reports, hospital data, and post-mortem toxicological analyses. 34 forensic cases of buprenorphine and 35 forensic cases of methadone detection among 1600 toxicological investigations performed at the Laboratory of Toxicology in the Medical Examiner's Office in Paris. Therapeutic, toxic or lethal drug concentrations were defined based upon the results of blood analyses and the published literature. Drug concentrations were cross-referenced with other available ante- and post-mortem data. Subsequently, we classified a 'clear responsibility', 'possible responsibility' or 'not causative' role for buprenorphine or methadone in the death process, or 'no explanation of death'. Buprenorphine and methadone can be regarded as being directly implicated in, respectively, four of 34 death cases (12%) and three of 35 death cases (9%), and their participation in the lethal process is strongly plausible in eight (buprenorphine) and 11 (methadone) additional deaths. Analysis of causes of death reveals the difficulties in determining the role of substitution drugs in the death process, as many other factors may be involved, including circumstances surrounding death, past history, differential selection of subjects into either substitution modality and concomitant intake of other drugs (especially benzodiazepines and neuroleptics). The potential for synergistic or additive actions by other isolated molecules-particularly opioids, benzodiazepines, other psychotropes and alcohol-must be also considered.

  12. Novel First Responder Script as a Tool for Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilkovski, Marjan; Bogdanoski, Mitko; Risteski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The computer forensics as a branch of digital forensic pertaining to legal evidence found in computers and digital storage media. In order forensic acquisition to be more reliable it must be performed on computers that have been powered off. This type of forensics is known as ‘traditional’ or 'dead' forensic acquisition. However, this type of forensic cannot be used to collect and analyze the information which is not on the hard disk, or encrypted data. The disadvantages of the dead forensics...

  13. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  14. Results of the 1999-2000 collaborative exercise and proficiency testing program on mitochondrial DNA of the GEP-ISFG: an inter-laboratory study of the observed variability in the heteroplasmy level of hair from the same donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Antonio; Salas, Antonio; Albarrán, Cristina; Arroyo, Eduardo; Castro, Azucena; Crespillo, Manuel; di Lonardo, Ana María; Lareu, María Victoria; Cubría, Carlos López; Soto, Manuel López; Lorente, José A; Semper, Marta Montesino; Palacio, Ana; Paredes, Manuel; Pereira, Luisa; Lezaun, Anna Pérez; Brito, José Pestano; Sala, Andrea; Vide, María Conceiçao; Whittle, Martín; Yunis, Juan J; Gómez, Josefina

    2002-01-24

    The Spanish and Portuguese working group (GEP) of international society for forensic genetics (ISFG) 1999-2000 collaborative exercise on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) included the analysis of four bloodstain samples and one hair shaft sample by 19 participating laboratories from Spain, Portugal and several Latin-American countries. A wide range of sequence results at position 16,093 of the HV1 (from T or C homoplasmy to different levels of heteroplasmy) were submitted by the different participating laboratories from the hair shaft sample during the first phase of this exercise. During the discussion of these results in the Annual GEP-ISFG 2000 Conference a second phase of this exercise was established with two main objectives: (i) to evaluate the incidence of the HV1 sequence heteroplasmy detected in Phase I across different sample types from the same donor including blood, saliva, and hair shafts, (ii) to perform a technical review of the electropherograms to evaluate the relative levels of heteroplasmies obtained by the different laboratories and also to examine the source of possible errors detected in Phase I. Anonymous review of the raw sequence data permitted the detection of three transcription errors and three errors due to methodological problems. Highly variable levels of heteroplasmy were found in the hair shaft and more stability in blood and saliva. Three laboratories found variable levels of heteroplasmy at position 16,093 across adjacent fragments from the same hair shaft. Two laboratories also described more than one heteroplasmic position from a single hair. The relevance of these findings for the interpretation of mtDNA data in the forensic context is also discussed.

  15. Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chris

    2006-10-16

    Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness.

  16. The First Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Meeting 2014: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The First Arab Forensic Science & Forensic MedicineMeeting 2014 was held in Riyadh (October 26-28, 2014at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS,Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This event of greatscientific importance was organized under the patronageof NAUSS by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences andForensic Medicine (ASFSFM and in cooperation withthe College of Forensic Sciences (NAUSS. This was thesecond international event organized by the Arab Societyfor Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine during 2014.This regional event brought together 144 forensicscientists, forensic medicine specialists, jurists,criminologists, DNA specialists and forensic toxicologistsfrom 13 different Arab countries (Hashemite Kingdomof Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Bahrain,Republic of Algeria, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Republicof Sudan, Sultanate of Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Republic ofLebanon, Egypt, Kingdom of Morocco, and Republic ofYemen to present and discuss their latest achievementsand research findings in various disciplines of forensicsciences.

  17. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  18. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  19. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Curriculum Guidelines on Forensic Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum design explain the scope of forensic dentistry and interrelationships with other fields, give an overview of the curriculum, and outline suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty and facility…

  1. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  2. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  4. Forensic Classification of Digital Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov N. A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several classification schemes for digital information that could be used as sources of evidence in criminal proceedings are offered. In terms of application the proposed classification is very important for the development of forensic tools, means, methods, techniques for the detection, capture, inspection, seizure, investigation of digital information, as well as for the detection and investigation of crimes

  5. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  6. Insect Detectives-Forensic Entomology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Insect Detectives - Forensic Entomology. P K Sumodan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 51-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/08/0051-0058. Keywords.

  7. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  8. Forensic evaluation for maternal reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A W; Harner, H M

    1999-03-01

    1. Forensic evaluation reports provide an expert opinion including basis for the opinion and supporting research, if available. 2. Maternal protection of a child is evaluated by past and present behavior. 3. Risk assessment factors for child abuse include child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, parent-child relationship, severity of child abuse, chronicity of child abuse, predator access, and social and economic factors.

  9. Forensic DNA phenotyping : Regulatory issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, E.J.; Schellekens, M.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping is an interesting new investigation method: crime-scene DNA is analyzed to compose a description of the unknown suspect, including external and behavioral features, geographic origin and perhaps surname. This method is allowed in some countries but prohibited in a few

  10. Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K

    2013-05-01

    In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes.

  11. Mammal toxicology of synthetic pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Ryozo; Yamada, Tomoya; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroids show moderate acute oral toxicity in rodents, and their typical toxicological signs are tremors (T syndrome) for Type I (generally non-cyano pyrethroids) and choreoathetosis with salivation (CS syndrome) for Type II (generally α-cyano pyrethroids). However, some pyrethroids show mixed clinical signs. Mainly Type II pyrethroids cause paresthesia, which is characterized by transient burning/tingling/itching sensation of the exposed skin. Also, it has been suggested that some pyrethroids cause developmental neurotoxicity, but available evidence has been judged to be insufficient. While some pyrethroids have been shown to cause tumors in rodent models, the tumor induction does not appear to reflect a common carcinogenic endpoint for this particular subset of compounds. Analysis of carcinogenic mode of action in some cases provides evidence not relevant in humans. Pyrethroids produce no common teratogenic effects in a particular species based on similarity in structure or mode of insecticidal action.

  12. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological methods are crucial to extract as much valid information as possible from human metal exposures. Thus, modern epidemiological approaches have elucidated human health effects that were not apparent in the past. At the same time, metal toxicology has served as a useful arena...... for testing and further refining methods for study design and data analysis. In contrast to most organic compounds, metals are not broken down, and many of them are retained in the body for long periods, thereby facilitating exposure assessment. In conjunction with the use of inexpensive metal analytical...... to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity...

  13. Testing of Binders Toxicological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, V.; Nelyubova, V.; Rykunova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the toxicological effect of binders with different compositions on the vital activity of plant and animal test-objects. The analysis of the effect on plant cultures was made on the basis of the phytotesting data. The study of the effect of binders on objects of animal origin was carried out using the method of short-term testing. Based on the data obtained, binders are ranked according to the degree of increase in the toxic effect: Gypsum → Portland cement → Slag Portland cement. Regardless of the test-object type, the influence of binders is due to the release of various elements (calcium ions or heavy metals) into the solution. In case of plant cultures, the saturation of the solution with elements has a positive effect (there is no inhibitory effect), and in case of animal specimens - an increase in the toxic effect.

  14. Predictive toxicology: the paths of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, Ph.; Vallier, L.; Legallais, C.; Leclerc, E.; Prot, J.M.; Choucha, L.; Baudoin, R.; Dufresne, M.; Gautier, A.; Carpentier, B.; Mansuy, D.; Pery, A.; Brochot, C.; Manivet, Ph.; Rabilloud, Th.; Spire, C.; Coumoul, X.; Junot, Ch.; Laprevote, O.; Le pape, A.; Le Guevel, R.; Tourneur, E.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Chassin, C.; Aloulou, M.; Goujon, J.M.; Hertif, A.; Ouali, N.; Vimont, S.; Monteiro, R.; Rondeau, E.; Elbim, C.; Werts, C.; Vandewalle, A.; Ben Mkaddem, S.; Pedruzzi, E.; Coant, N.; Bens, M.; Cluzeaud, F.; Ogier-Denis, E.; Pongnimitprasert, N.; Babin-Chevaye, C.; Fay, M.; Bernard, M.; Dupuy, C.; Ei Benna, J.; Gougerot-Pocidale, M.A.; Braut-Boucher, F.; Pinton, Ph.; Lucioli, J.; Tsybulskyy, D.; Joly, B.; Laffitte, J.; Bourges-Abella, N.; Oswald, I.P.; Kolf-Clauw, M.; Pierre, St.; Bats, A.S.; Chevallier, A.; Bui, L.Ch.; Ambolet-Camoit, A.; Garlatti, M.; Aggerbeck, M.; Barouki, R.; Al Khansa, I.; Blanck, O.; Guillouzo, A.; Bars, R.; Rouas, C.; Bensoussan, H.; Suhard, D.; Tessier, C.; Grandcolas, L.; Pallardy, M.; Gueguen, Y.; Sparfel, L.; Pinel-Marie, M.L.; Boize, M.; Koscielny, S.; Desmots, S.; Pery, A.; Fardel, O.; Alvergnas, M.; Rouleau, A.; Lucchi, G.; Mantion, G.; Heyd, B.; Richert, L.; Ducoroy, P.; Martin, H.; Val, St.; Martinon, L.; Cachier, H.; Yahyaoui, A.; Marfaing, H.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martin-Chouly, C.; Bonvallet, M.; Morzadec, C.; Fardel, O.; Vernhet, L.; Baverel, G.; El Hage, M.; Nazaret, R.; Conjard-Duplany, A.; Ferrier, B.; Martin, G.; Legendre, A.; Desmots, S.; Lecomte, A.; Froment, P.; Habert, R.; Lemazurier, E.; Robinel, F.; Dupont, O.; Sanfins, E.; Dairou, J.; Chaffotte, A.F.; Busi, F.; Rodrigues Lima, F.; Dupret, J.M.; Mayati, A.; Le Ferrec, E.; Levoin, N.; Paris, H.; Uriac, Ph.; N'Diaye, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Fardel, O.; Assemat, E.; Boublil, L.; Borot, M.C.; Marano, F.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Martiny, V.Y.; Moroy, G.; Badel, A.; Miteva, M.A.; Hussain, S.; Ferecatu, I.; Borot, C.; Andreau, K.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Marano, F.; Boland, S.; Leroux, M.; Zucchini-Pascal, N.; Peyre, L.; Rahmani, R.; Buron, N.; Porcedou, M.; Fromenty, B.; Borgne-Sanchez, A.; Rogue, A.; Spire, C.; Claude, N.; Guillouzo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of possible noxious effects in relation with the exposure to one or several chemical, physical or biological agents present in our domestic or professional environment is one of today's big public health stakes. Another stake is the better assessment of the risks linked with the use of health-care products. The efficacy and predictiveness of toxicology studies are directly related to the combination of alternate complementary methods and animal experiments (obtaining data from different species and with different models: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo). Despite important efforts, the toxicological evaluation remains perfectible. The proceedings of this 2010 congress of the French Society of cell pharmaco-toxicology deal with recent advances, both scientific and technological, in 'predictive toxicology'. Four main topics are approached: cell and organ models, 'omics', in silico modeling, and new technologies (imaging, cell ships, high-speed processing). Among the different presentations, 3 abstracts present some recent advances in imaging techniques applied to toxicology studies. These are: 1 - first uses in toxicology of TOF-SIMS mass spectroscopy imaging (O. Laprevote, Paris-Descartes Univ. (FR)); 2 - Small animal imaging, a tool for predictive toxicology (A. Le Pape, CNRS Orleans (FR)); 3 - uranium localization at cell level using SIMS imaging technique (C. Rouas et al., IRSN Fontenay-aux-Roses (FR)). (J.S.)

  15. Integrative Systems Biology Applied to Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning

    associated with combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Testing all possible combinations of the tens of thousands environmental chemicals is impractical. This PhD project was launched to apply existing computational systems biology methods to toxicological research. In this thesis, I present in three...... projects three different approaches to using computational toxicology to aid classical toxicological investigations. In project I, we predicted human health effects of five pesticides using publicly available data. We obtained a grouping of the chemical according to their potential human health effects...

  16. New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A258 002 AD NEW ROTIFER BIOASSAYS FOR AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY FINAL REPORT TERRY W. SNELL JULY 15, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND...Incluce Securiy Cawhca•r• on) New Rotifer Bioassays for Aquatic Toxicology 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Terry W. Snell 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 113b. riME COVERED...rotifers. I. A test for brackish and marine environments with Brachionus plicatilis. Aquatic Toxicology . 14: 65-80. Snell, T. W. and G. Persoone. 1989

  17. Multiscale Toxicology- Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, S. T. [ORNL; Holsapple, M. P. [Battelle Memorial Institute

    2013-10-31

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established between Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the goal of combining the analytical and synthetic strengths of the National Laboratories with BMI's expertise in basic and translational medical research to develop a collaborative pipeline and suite of high throughput and imaging technologies that could be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of material and drug toxicology in humans. The Multi-Scale Toxicity Initiative (MSTI), consisting of the team members above, was established to coordinate cellular scale, high-throughput in vitro testing, computational modeling and whole animal in vivo toxicology studies between MSTI team members. Development of a common, well-characterized set of materials for testing was identified as a crucial need for the initiative. Two research tracks were established by BMI during the course of the CRADA. The first research track focused on the development of tools and techniques for understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials, specifically inorganic nanoparticles (NPs). ORNL"s work focused primarily on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of a common set of NPs for dissemination to the participating laboratories. These particles were synthesized to retain the same surface characteristics and size, but to allow visualization using the variety of imaging technologies present across the team. Characterization included the quantitative analysis of physical and chemical properties of the materials as well as the preliminary assessment of NP toxicity using commercially available toxicity screens and emerging optical imaging strategies. Additional efforts examined the development of high-throughput microfluidic and imaging assays for measuring NP uptake, localization, and

  18. [Forensic entomology and globalisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetto, M; Vanin, S

    2004-06-01

    The main aim of Forensic Entomology has always been, and is today, to establish the time of death (P.M.I.: Postmortem Period) or, more exactly, how long a carrion has been exposed in the environment. Most of the invertebrate fauna occurring on corpses consists of insects (mostly Diptera and Coleoptera). They are selectively attracted by the decomposing status of the carrion, and form complex communities or biocenosis within necrophagous or sarcophagous species and their predators, parasites and parasitoids, competing each one another. The rapid and continuos changes of the micro-ecosystem (the body), until its breakdown, does not permit the achievement of a steady state or an equilibrium in the animal communities. These continuous modifications give us the possibility to estimate when (and where) the death has occurred, by the identification of the species feeding on the corpse, the knowledge of their life history, and the length of each stage of their cycle at varying the temperature and the other abiotic factors, external to the carrion ecosystem. The P.M.I. today is still largely based on the tables of faunal succession on human cadavers recognised by Mégin in 1894, with few changes proposed by Authors from other countries. In the last years, however, it happens more and more often, that the natural communities are subverted by the presence of allocton species, which can compete, predate or parasite the most common local sarcophagous insects, modifying, this way, the succession waves and the trophic nets. The immission in the environment of foreign species may be voluntary or casual, but in any case is due to anthropic activities. The voluntary immission happens when some species, employed in the biological struggle against pest or dangerous insects, for pollination of allocton plants, or for other commercial utilities, are beyond man's control and swarm onto the environment; the casual spread is due to the globalisation phenomenon, that distributes the "little

  19. Foundations of Forensic Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.

    1992-07-01

    , soil) adhering to a meteorite are samples of the actual physical environment in which the meteorite rested. Adhesion may derive from chemical cementation (incl. rust from the meteorite), biologic activity (incl. desert varnish?), or impact processes [2]. Given the wide diversity of geological materials and processes on the Earth, adhering geological materials may be useful forensic tools. For instance, fall in a volcanic terrane may be inconsistent with adhering sediments of clean quartz sand. Biologic matter on meteorites includes animal and vegetable matter mixed with the adhering geological materials, lichens and other plants growing in place, and purposefully attached animal matter (e.g. insect eggs). The most useful biological data may be provided by pollen, which can often be referred unambiguously to genera and species of plants. For example, sediments adhering to meteorites from the central Nullabor Plain (W. Australia) are different from sediments from the Plain's margin in S. Australia. Sediment on meteorites from the central Nullabor (e.g. Mundrabilla) lacks quartz sand and consists almost entirely of clay-sized particles, consistent with derivation from the local saprolitic soil. Sediment on meteorites from the eastern Nullabor (e.g. Hughes and Cook, S.A.) contains a significant fraction of quartz sand, 1/4- to 1/2-mm grains, probably blown from the Great Victoria Desert to the north and northwest. However, sedimentologic data alone may be misleading. For instance, sediments adhering to Nuevo Mercurio stones (H5; Zacatecas, Mexico) are clay-sized and lack coarser material. But sediment on Nuevo Mercurio (b), a ureilite found in the Nuevo Mercurio strewn field, consists of quartz sand and clay pellets, 1/4 to 1/2 mm diameter. Clearly, local environments may affect the character of sediment adhering to a meteorite, and careful detailed study may be required to determine whether a meteorite has been transported. I am grateful to R. Farrell and D. New for

  20. Hair analysis in toxicological investigation of drug-facilitated crimes in Denmark over a 8-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose

    2018-01-01

    -facilitated crimes (DFCs). This paper presents an overview of toxicological investigations that have used hair analysis in DFC cases from 2009 to 2016 in Denmark. Hair concentrations were determined for 24 DFC-related drugs and metabolites, including benzodiazepines and other hypnotics, antihistamines, opioid...... analgesics, antipsychotics, barbiturates, and illicit drugs from DFC cases. Drug detection in hair in DFC cases following a single or few intakes of chlorprothixene, codeine, diphenhydramine, oxazepam, oxycodone, promethazine, and phenobarbital is reported for the first time in forensic toxicology....... A literature review on concentrations in the published DFC-related hair cases and on concentrations in hair of these substances after single and multiple doses is included. These cases demonstrate the value of segmental hair analysis in DFCs and facilitate future interpretations of results....

  1. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating

  2. Multiscale Toxicology - Building the Next Generation Tools for Toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrall, Brian D.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2012-09-01

    A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was sponsored by Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle, Columbus), to initiate a collaborative research program across multiple Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories aimed at developing a suite of new capabilities for predictive toxicology. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging classes of engineered nanomaterials was chosen as one of two focusing problems for this program. PNNL’s focus toward this broader goal was to refine and apply experimental and computational tools needed to provide quantitative understanding of nanoparticle dosimetry for in vitro cell culture systems, which is necessary for comparative risk estimates for different nanomaterials or biological systems. Research conducted using lung epithelial and macrophage cell models successfully adapted magnetic particle detection and fluorescent microscopy technologies to quantify uptake of various forms of engineered nanoparticles, and provided experimental constraints and test datasets for benchmark comparison against results obtained using an in vitro computational dosimetry model, termed the ISSD model. The experimental and computational approaches developed were used to demonstrate how cell dosimetry is applied to aid in interpretation of genomic studies of nanoparticle-mediated biological responses in model cell culture systems. The combined experimental and theoretical approach provides a highly quantitative framework for evaluating relationships between biocompatibility of nanoparticles and their physical form in a controlled manner.

  3. Environmental chemistry and toxicology of mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Guangliang; Cai, Yong; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2012-01-01

    ... employed in recent studies. The coverage discusses the environmental behavior and toxicological effects of mercury on organisms, including humans, and provides case studies at the end of each chapter...

  4. Phytochemical, Toxicological and Pharmacological Studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-23

    Jan 23, 2015 ... Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Metabolic Diseases Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee. University, Seoul ...... Stuppner H, Ganzera M. Determination of safrole in different Asarum species by headspace gas chromatography. Chromatographia 1998; 47: 685-. 688. 18.

  5. MINING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY INFORMATION WEB RESOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental toxicology is the study of the ecological effects of anthropogenic substances released into the environment. It is a relatively diverse field addressing impacts to aquatic and terrestrial organisms and communities. The determination of potential risk associated with...

  6. Comparative BioInformatics and Computational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reflecting the numerous changes in the field since the publication of the previous edition, this third edition of Developmental Toxicology focuses on the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and incorporates current technologies for testing in the risk assessment process.

  7. Pulmonary toxicology of respirable particles. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, C.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Mahaffey, J.A. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 44 papers presented in these proceedings. The last paper (Stannard) in the proceedings is an historical review of the field of inhalation toxicology and is not included in the analytics. (DS)

  8. Forensic botany: usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Viivi; Korpelainen, Helena; Kostamo, Kirsi

    2007-10-25

    Two experiments were performed to test the relevance of bryophyte (Plantae, Bryophyta) material for forensic studies. The first experiment was conducted to reveal if, and how well, plant fragments attach to footwear in general. In the test, 16 persons walked outdoors wearing rubber boots or hiking boots. After 24h of use outdoors the boots were carefully cleaned, and all plant fragments were collected. Afterwards, all plant material was examined to identify the species. In the second experiment, fresh material of nine bryophyte species was kept in a shed in adverse conditions for 18 months, after which DNA was extracted and subjected to genotyping to test the quality of the material. Both experiments give support for the usability of bryophyte material in forensic studies. The bryophyte fragments become attached to shoes, where they remain even after the wearer walks on a dry road for several hours. Bryophyte DNA stays intact, allowing DNA profiling after lengthy periods following detachment from the original plant source. Based on these experiments, and considering the fact that many bryophytes are clonal plants, we propose that bryophytes are among the most usable plants to provide botanical evidence for forensic investigations.

  9. Food for thought ... A toxicology ontology roadmap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    Foreign substances can have a dramatic and unpredictable adverse effect on human health. In the development of new therapeutic agents, it is essential that the potential adverse effects of all candidates be identified as early as possible. The field of predictive toxicology strives to profile the potential for adverse effects of novel chemical substances before they occur, both with traditional in vivo experimental approaches and increasingly through the development of in vitro and computational methods which can supplement and reduce the need for animal testing. To be maximally effective, the field needs access to the largest possible knowledge base of previous toxicology findings, and such results need to be made available in such a fashion so as to be interoperable, comparable, and compatible with standard toolkits. This necessitates the development of open, public, computable, and standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies so as to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. Such ontology development will support data management, model building, integrated analysis, validation and reporting, including regulatory reporting and alternative testing submission requirements as required by guidelines such as the REACH legislation, leading to new scientific advances in a mechanistically-based predictive toxicology. Numerous existing ontology and standards initiatives can contribute to the creation of a toxicology ontology supporting the needs of predictive toxicology and risk assessment. Additionally, new ontologies are needed to satisfy practical use cases and scenarios where gaps currently exist. Developing and integrating these resources will require a well-coordinated and sustained effort across numerous stakeholders engaged in a public-private partnership. In this communication, we set out a roadmap for the development of an integrated toxicology ontology

  10. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Understanding Nuclear Forensics in 5 Questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Forensic science, commonly referred to as forensics, is the examination of physical, biological, behavioural and documentary evidence. The goal of forensics is to discover linkages among people, places, things and events. A sub-discipline of forensic science, nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material, which can assist in law enforcement investigations as well as assessments of the potential vulnerabilities associated with the use, production and storage of these materials as part of a nuclear security infrastructure. The analysis of nuclear or other radioactive material seeks to identify what the materials are, how, when, and where the materials were made, and what their intended uses were. Nuclear forensics is an important tool in the fight against illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological material

  12. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  13. Advances in American forensic sciences. California's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W G

    1981-06-01

    The forensic sciences in the United States, specifically forensic medicine, have benefited primarily from the advances made by the New York Medical Examiner Office pioneers and the philosophy developed in the Massachusetts medicolegal structure as begun in 1877. California's pioneering role is directly related to the development of criminalistics which in turn served as a stimulus for the improvement and development of forensic medicine in that state. Historically many private practitioners were involved in general criminalistics in California before the system of state criminalistic laboratories and criminal investigations was well established. Any report on the growth of the forensic sciences must include mention of the earlier pioneers including Heinrich, Kirk, Kytka, Crossman, Abernethy, Pinker, Helsel, and Noxley. A review of the current state of the art in the forensic sciences is presented, as is a review of the contributions of California to the development of American forensic sciences.

  14. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  16. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  17. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Ophoff; Alastair Irons

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cy-bercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digi-tal forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration...

  18. Risk assessment of forensic patients: nurses' role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinares, Maxima; McMaster, Jeff James; McNamee, Jim

    2005-03-01

    One of the unique roles of forensic nurses is to conduct risk assessments. Establishing a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship helps forensic nurses perform accurate and useful risk assessments. Accurate risk assessments can facilitate formulation of individualized risk management plans, designed to meet patients' needs and ensure public safety. The importance of forensic nurses' knowledge and application of appropriate communication and proper documentation cannot be overemphasized.

  19. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of...

  20. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination.

  1. Forensic experience of Saudi nurses; an emerging need for forensic qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Dalia M; Alfaraidy, Maram; Alsowayigh, Kholoud; Alhusain, Awal; Almadani, Osama M

    2014-10-01

    Forensic nursing was recognized as a nursing subspecialty after the perceived need for forensic nurses to bring about their nursing duties while at the same time helping legal authorities to deliver justice. With the increased rate of cases that are presenting to the forensic centers in Saudi Arabia, there was a need for the presence of nurses to work side by side to physicians. This study was aimed at determining the forensic qualifications of nurses working in emergency departments in the area of Dammam and their knowledge about principles of forensic nursing. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to registered nurses who are working in Emergency departments of secondary hospitals in the area of Dammam. Questions included knowledge, awareness and attitude toward forensic nursing. A total of 96 participants responded to the questionnaire with females representing 78% (n: 75). Diploma was the highest earned nursing degree in 95% (n: 91) of participants. Only 33% (n: 32) were aware of the term forensic nursing and the majority of the respondents gave invalid or didn't know the answers to knowledge questions. A total of 77% (n: 74) agreed that they are not adequately trained for handling forensic cases. Saudi nurses need forensic education. The presence of qualified forensic nurses would help delivering optimal forensic services and would assist in bringing justice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Forensic Acquisition of Cloud Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Roussev, Vassil; Barreto, Andres; Ahmed, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing and cloud storage services, in particular, pose a new challenge to digital forensic investigations. Currently, evidence acquisition for such services still follows the traditional method of collecting artifacts on a client device. This approach requires labor-intensive reverse engineering efforts, and ultimately results in an acquisition that is inherently incomplete. Specifically, it makes the incorrect assumption that all storage content for an account is fully replicated on...

  3. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. Copyright © 2006 Central Police University.

  4. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  5. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić Jelena; Jović Slavoljub

    2008-01-01

    Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case rega...

  6. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  7. Toxicological assessment of Ashitaba Chalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronpot, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    The plant Angelica keiskei contains two main physiologically active flavonoid chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol. Known as ashitaba in Japan, powder from the sap is widely consumed for its medicinal properties in Asia as a dietary supplement. Limited previously reported mammalian studies were without evidence of toxicity. GLP studies reported here, including a bacterial reverse mutation assay, a chromosome aberration assay, and an in vivo micronucleus assay are negative for genotoxicity. A GLP- compliant 90-day repeated oral gavage study of ashitaba yellow sap powder containing 8.45% chalcones in Sprague Dawley rats resulted in expected known physiological effects on coagulation parameters and plasma lipids at 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. Ashitaba-related pathology included a dose-related male rat-specific alpha 2-urinary globulin nephropathy at 100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg/day and jejunal lymphangiectasia in both sexes at 1000 mg/kg/day. All other study parameters and histopathological changes were incidental or not of toxicological concern. Based on these studies ashitaba chalcone powder is not genotoxic with a NOAEL of 300 mg/kg in male and female rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Introduction: biomarkers in neurodevelopment toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.

    1987-10-01

    The search for markers of toxicant exposure and effect upon the development of organisms presents a set of challenges that differ in many ways from those encountered in the study of markers in reproduction or pregnancy. These latter two fields specify a relatively narrow set of organs or biological systems. The term development, on the other hand, can apply to any organ system, or to any set of phenomena that changes in an ordered way over time. For this reason the papers presented in the session on development were chosen to narrow the focus to neurodevelopmental markers, as such markers may be altered by neurotoxic exposure. In attempting to meet this task, the authors have been able to select a group of investigators who work at the leading edges of their respective fields of developmental neuroanatomy, neurotoxicology, neuroendocrinology, neuropsychology, and infant development. The notion that toxicants could affect behavior certainly is not new. Recent knowledge that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral aberrations can occur at exposures below those which produce organic changes, and that behavioral observation might provide early markers of effect has given rise to two new fields: behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology.

  9. USE OF DNA TECHNOLOGY IN FORENSIC DENTISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Sales-Peres, Arsenio; de Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira; de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    The established importance of Forensic Dentistry for human identification, mainly when there is little remaining material to perform such identification (e.g., in fires, explosions, decomposing bodies or skeletonized bodies), has led dentists working with forensic investigation to become more familiar with the new molecular biology techniques. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article presents a literature review referring to the main studies on Forensic Dentistry that involve the use of DNA for human identification, and makes an overview of the evolution of this technology in the last years, highlighting the importance of molecular biology in forensic sciences. PMID:19089123

  10. Frequently cited journals in forensic psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Works cited in six forensic psychology journals published 2008-2010 were counted to identify the most frequently cited journals. The sample of works cited (N = 21,776) was not a definitive ranked list of important journals in forensic psychology, but was large enough to indicate high-impact journals. The list of frequently cited publications included more general psychiatry and psychology journals than titles specific to forensic psychology. The implications of the proportion of general versus specific titles for collections supporting research in forensic psychology were discussed.

  11. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  12. Chinese Forensic Psychiatry: History, Development and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China has a long history of forensic psychiatry, which can be traced even back to Zhou dynasty (11 th century B.C.. However, modern forensic psychiatry has not been set up in China until the 1970s. After the interruption of Cultural Revolution of 1966-1976, there was a period of rapid development. In the past five years, a series of judicial identification system reforms have been taking place. In 2010, China had 225 forensic psychiatry agencies, 2,090 forensic psychiatry experts and 40,822 cases. The experts are organized within the separate agencies of psychiatric hospitals, universities, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of the Ministry of Justice and other forensic agencies. Apart from criminal forensic psychiatry, the experts are often asked to evaluate civil competency for the clients involved in civil litigation. Chinese forensic psychiatry has developed rapidly during the past 30 years, and formed the characteristics of its own under the special legal system. However, there is still much work for Chinese forensic psychiatrists to do for the future.

  13. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N.; Babu, N. Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C.; Masthan, K. M. K.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists’ participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations. PMID:26015703

  15. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of forensic odontology: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachander, N; Babu, N Aravindha; Jimson, Sudha; Priyadharsini, C; Masthan, K M K

    2015-04-01

    Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology admits dentists' participation or identification of the victim and assisting legal and criminal issues. It refers to the proper handling, examination, identification and evaluation of dental evidence. This article summarizes the evolution of forensic odontology that started right from Garden of Eden to the modern scenario in identification of the gang rape case which happened in the state capital. Forensic dentistry plays a significant role in identifying the victims of crime, deceased individuals through the examination of anatomical structures, dental appliances and dental restorations.

  17. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Application of thermoresponsive HPLC to forensic toxicology: determination of barbiturates in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Sanae; Watanabe, Kanako; Hirano, Seishiro; Yamagishi, Itaru; Gonmori, Kunio; Minakata, Kayoko; Suzuki, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed for the assays of five barbiturates in human urine using a new thermoresponsive polymer separation column, which is composed of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer. According to elevating the column temperature from 10 ℃ to 50 ℃, five barbiturates, such as metharbital, primidone, phenobarbital, mephobarbital and pentobarbital, became well separated by this method. Five barbiturates showed good linearity in the range of 0.2-10...

  19. Species identification in forensic samples using the SPInDel approach: A GHEP-ISFG inter-laboratory collaborative exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cíntia; Pereira, Rui; Prieto, Lourdes; Aler, Mercedes; Amaral, Cesar R L; Arévalo, Cristina; Berardi, Gabriela; Di Rocco, Florencia; Caputo, Mariela; Carmona, Cristian Hernandez; Catelli, Laura; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Coufalova, Pavla; Furfuro, Sandra; García, Óscar; Gaviria, Anibal; Goios, Ana; Gómez, Juan José Builes; Hernández, Alexis; Hernández, Eva Del Carmen Betancor; Miranda, Luís; Parra, David; Pedrosa, Susana; Porto, Maria João Anjos; Rebelo, Maria de Lurdes; Spirito, Matteo; Torres, María Del Carmen Villalobos; Amorim, António; Pereira, Filipe

    2017-05-01

    DNA is a powerful tool available for forensic investigations requiring identification of species. However, it is necessary to develop and validate methods able to produce results in degraded and or low quality DNA samples with the high standards obligatory in forensic research. Here, we describe a voluntary collaborative exercise to test the recently developed Species Identification by Insertions/Deletions (SPInDel) method. The SPInDel kit allows the identification of species by the generation of numeric profiles combining the lengths of six mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene regions amplified in a single reaction followed by capillary electrophoresis. The exercise was organized during 2014 by a Working Commission of the Spanish and Portuguese-Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG), created in 2013. The 24 participating laboratories from 10 countries were asked to identify the species in 11 DNA samples from previous GHEP-ISFG proficiency tests using a SPInDel primer mix and control samples of the 10 target species. A computer software was also provided to the participants to assist the analyses of the results. All samples were correctly identified by 22 of the 24 laboratories, including samples with low amounts of DNA (hair shafts) and mixtures of saliva and blood. Correct species identifications were obtained in 238 of the 241 (98.8%) reported SPInDel profiles. Two laboratories were responsible for the three cases of misclassifications. The SPInDel was efficient in the identification of species in mixtures considering that only a single laboratory failed to detect a mixture in one sample. This result suggests that SPInDel is a valid method for mixture analyses without the need for DNA sequencing, with the advantage of identifying more than one species in a single reaction. The low frequency of wrong (5.0%) and missing (2.1%) alleles did not interfere with the correct species identification, which demonstrated the

  20. Non-precautionary aspects of toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Empirical studies in toxicology aim at deciphering complex causal relationships, especially in regard to human disease etiologies. Several scientific traditions limit the usefulness of documentation from current toxicological research, in regard to decision-making based on the precautionary principle. Among non-precautionary aspects of toxicology are the focus on simplified model systems and the effects of single hazards, one by one. Thus, less attention is paid to sources of variability and uncertainty, including individual susceptibility, impacts of mixed and variable exposures, susceptible life-stages, and vulnerable communities. In emphasizing the need for confirmatory evidence, toxicology tends to penalize false positives more than false negatives. An important source of uncertainty is measurement error that results in misclassification, especially in regard to exposure assessment. Standard statistical analysis assumes that the exposure is measured without error, and imprecisions will usually result in an underestimation of the dose-effect relationship. In testing whether an effect could be considered a possible result of natural variability, a 5% limit for 'statistical significance' is usually applied, even though it may rule out many findings of causal associations, simply because the study was too small (and thus lacked statistical power) or because some imprecision or limited sensitivity of the parameters precluded a more definitive observation. These limitations may be aggravated when toxicology is influenced by vested interests. Because current toxicology overlooks the important goal of achieving a better characterization of uncertainties and their implications, research approaches should be revised and strengthened to counteract the innate ideological biases, thereby supporting our confidence in using toxicology as a main source of documentation and in using the precautionary principle as a decision procedure in the public policy arena

  1. Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

  2. 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference, ASFSFM 2017: Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam A. Bakdash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM at Naif Arab University for Security Sciences seeks to present the latest developments in all fields of forensic sciences through holding specialized scientific events and academic activities. This is also achieved through its periodic scientific peer-reviewed journal, the Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine. It also seeks to promote scientific research in all fields of forensic science and forensic medicine, and seeks actively to contribute in holding scientific meetings in accordance with advanced scientific standards, including the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference. This important event was attended by scientists and experts from various fields of criminal and forensic sciences from both Arab and non-Arab countries. This conference was a significant scientific accomplishment that contributed to the advancement of forensic sciences and forensic medicine in the Arab world. The conference aimed, in accordance with the vision of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies.  Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, represented by the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine, held the 3rd International Arab Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine Conference on the University's campus during the period from 21st to 23rd November 2017. The event included the participation of more than 720 experts in forensic sciences and forensic medicine from 33 countries all over the world. Experts discussed and presented the latest developments in their fields. The conference provided a creative environment for students from both local and international universities to benefit from experts and specialists, and to access the most recent research.  On behalf of His Excellency the president of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences, and the Arab Society for

  3. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  4. International Arab Forensic Science and Forensic Medicine Conference: ASFSFM 2015 Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Chadhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The International Arab Forensic Science and Forensic Medicine Conference 2015 (ASFSFM Conference 2015 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  5. 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting, ASFSFM 2016: Meeting Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsallam Bakdash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS is to enhance peace, security, and justice in Arab societies through education, research, and advanced professional training in various disciplines of security and forensic sciences. NAUSS strives to improve the academic and professional skills of forensic scientists and security personnel to combat crime and terrorism by utilizing all the available tools of modern technology. NAUSS also realizes the importance of scientific research in the social, economic, and technological development of a society and is, therefore, committed to encouraging and supporting research at every level. NAUSS has given the fields of forensic sciences and forensic medicine a top priority and the attention they deserve. In pursuit of its objectives, and in cooperation with other Arab member organizations, NAUSS launched the Arab Society for Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (ASFSFM in 2013. The Society had the honour of being officially launched by His Royal Highness, Prince Mohammed bin Naif bin Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of the Interior, Honorary President of the Council of Arab Ministers of Interior and Chairman of the Supreme Council of NAUSS. The 2nd Arab Forensic Science & Forensic Medicine Meeting (ASFSFM Meeting 2016 was yet another part of the efforts and concern of NAUSS to advance the skills and knowledge of Arab specialists and to facilitate cooperation among forensic scientists and institutions engaged in the practice, education and research of forensic sciences and forensic medicine at various levels.

  6. Handbook of digital forensics of multimedia data and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Digital forensics and multimedia forensics are rapidly growing disciplines whereby electronic information is extracted and interpreted for use in a court of law. These two fields are finding increasing importance in law enforcement and the investigation of cybercrime as the ubiquity of personal computing and the internet becomes ever-more apparent. Digital forensics involves investigating computer systems and digital artefacts in general, while multimedia forensics is a sub-topic of digital forensics focusing on evidence extracted from both normal computer systems and special multimedia devices, such as digital cameras. This book focuses on the interface between digital forensics and multimedia forensics, bringing two closely related fields of forensic expertise together to identify and understand the current state-of-the-art in digital forensic investigation. Both fields are expertly attended to by contributions from researchers and forensic practitioners specializ ng in diverse topics such as forensic aut...

  7. Evaluation of Postmortem Drug Concentrations in Bile Compared with Blood and Urine in Forensic Autopsy Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Mariko; Michiue, Tomomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Takaki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2016-06-01

    For drug screening and pharmaco-/toxicokinetic analysis, bile as a major drug excretion route in addition to urine may be used in forensic autopsy cases; however, there are limited published data on correlations between bile and blood or urine drug concentrations. The present study retrospectively investigated drug concentrations in bile, compared with blood and urine concentrations, reviewing forensic autopsy cases during 6 years (January 2009-December 2014). Drugs were analyzed using automated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following solid-liquid phase extraction. Compared with peripheral blood concentrations, bile concentrations were higher for most drugs; however, caffeine concentrations were similar. Bile concentrations were mostly lower than urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine and methylephedrine, but were usually similar to or higher for other drugs. Significant correlations were detected between bile and peripheral blood concentrations for amphetamines, several cold remedies, phenobarbital, phenothiazine derivatives and diazepam, as well as between bile and urine concentrations for amphetamines, caffeine, diphenhydramine, phenobarbital and promethazine derivatives. These findings suggest that bile can provide supplemental data useful in routine forensic toxicology, for the spectrum of drugs mentioned above, as well as for investigating pharmaco-/toxicokinetics and postmortem redistribution when analyzed in combination with drug concentrations at other sites. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Forensic Accounting And Financial Crisis In Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Osuagwwu

    passes without a report of some financial crime or the other. Forensic accounting has become an emerging topic for research in recent time as a panacea for financial crimes. This study examines the significance of forensic accounting in the face of increasing fraudulent practices in. Nigeria with a view to advancing some ...

  9. Forensic use of fingermarks and fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Li, Stan Z.; Jain, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this entry is to describe and explain the main forensic uses of fingermarks and fingerprints. It defines the concepts and provides the nomenclature related to forensic dactyloscopy. It describes the structure of the papillary ridges, the organization of the information in three levels,

  10. Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Goor, L.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance

  11. Multimedia Analytics for Image Collection Forensics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Ho, A.T.S.; Li, S.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on techniques suited for forensic analysis of large image collections. In digital forensics an investigator is often tasked to analyze a data source containing large numbers of images and their metadata sometimes reaching into the millions. Apart from the content of the images

  12. Computer forensics investigation; implications for improved cyber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computer forensics investigation is relatively new in Nigeria but promises to serve as a watch dog in curbing and checkmating cyber-crimes and ensuring cyber security. This paper aimed at examining the concepts of cyber-crime, cyber security and the implications of computer forensics investigation on cyber security in ...

  13. Neurotoxin Exposure and MMPI Forensic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Heidi A.

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has been widely used as an objective personality test, in addition to being used in forensic assessments, especially involving claims of physical or emotional damage. It now appears that questions must be raised concerning the MMPI's forensic implications given the advent of new disease…

  14. Extracting legal arguments from forensic Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with

  15. Human resources and their possible forensic meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Urlić, Ivan; Kasum, Josip

    2015-09-01

    Forensics (forensic--before the Forum) means the application of knowledge from different scientific fields in order to define facts in judicial and/or administrative procedures. Nowadays forensics, besides this, finds its application even in different economic processes. For example, forensics enters the commercial areas of business intelligence and of different security areas. The European Commission recognized the importance of forensics, and underscored the importance of development of its scientific infrastructure in member States. We are witnessing the rise of various tragedies in economic and other kinds of processes. Undoubtedly, the world is increasingly exposed to various forms of threats whose occurrences regularly involve people. In this paper we are proposing the development of a new approach in the forensic assessment of the state of human resources. We are suggesting that in the focus should be the forensic approach in the psychological assessment of awareness of the individual and of the critical infrastructure sector operator (CISO) in determining the level of actual practical, rather than formal knowledge of an individual in a particular field of expertise, or in a specific scientific field, and possible forensic meanings.

  16. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  17. Teaching Forensic Psychiatry to General Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires that general psychiatry residency training programs provide trainees with exposure to forensic psychiatry. Limited information is available on how to develop a core curriculum in forensic psychiatry for general psychiatry residents and few articles have been…

  18. Problem Based Learning in Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, Alastair; Thomas, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the efforts of two universities to address the issue of providing computer forensics students with the opportunity to get involved in the practical aspects of forensic search and seizure procedures. The paper discusses the approaches undertaken by the University of Sunderland and the University…

  19. Digital Forensic Investigation Models, an Evolution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Mushtaque

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In business today, one of the most important segments that enable any business to get competitive advantage over others is appropriate, effective adaptation of Information Technology into business and then managing and governing it on their will. To govern IT organizations need to identify value of acquiring services of forensic firms to compete cyber criminals. Digital forensic firms follow different mechanisms to perform investigation. Time by time forensic firms are facilitated with different models for investigation containing phases for different purposes of the entire process. Along with forensic firms, enterprises also need to build a secure and supportive platform to make successful investigation process possible. We have underlined different elements of organizations in Pakistan; need to be addressed to provide support to forensic firms.

  20. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Criminalistics and the forensic nursing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Piatelli, Michael J; Pasqualone, Georgia

    2011-06-01

    Students learn science by actually performing science activities. The 12 laboratories described in this article assist students in applying the fundamental techniques germane to the field of forensic science to "solve" contrived cases and present "evidence" in a mock trial. Moreover, students are also confronted with some of the legal and ethical issues concerning the validity, reliability, and application of some forensic techniques. The pedagogical design of the laboratory course provides a rich, challenging, and interdisciplinary academic experience intended to augment and compliment the didactic forensic lecture portion of the course. This laboratory course was designed to engender, embody, and articulate one of the University's directive goals to support interdisciplinary teaching, research, and programming. Because we developed the laboratories on minimal funds, we demonstrated that it could be cost-effective. And thus, we recommend a laboratory science course be included as part of the curriculum of all forensic nursing students and practitioners. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  2. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  3. Prospects for applying synthetic biology to toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendorff, James Bruce Yarnton H; Gillam, Elizabeth M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The 30 years since the inception of Chemical Research in Toxicology, game-changing advances in chemical and molecular biology, the fundamental disciplines underpinning molecular toxicology, have been made. While these have led to important advances in the study of mechanisms by which chemicals...... damage cells and systems, there has been less focus on applying these advances to prediction, detection, and mitigation of toxicity. Over the last ∼15 years, synthetic biology, the repurposing of biological "parts" in systems engineered for useful ends, has been explored in other areas of the biomedical...... and life sciences, for such applications as detecting metabolites, drug discovery and delivery, investigating disease mechanisms, improving medical treatment, and producing useful chemicals. These examples provide models for the application of synthetic biology to toxicology, which, for the most part, has...

  4. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution.

  5. Forensic Phytopathology: a Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayman, Paul; Serrato-Díaz, Luz M

    2016-08-01

    Forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to legal or criminal matters. It is an emerging field. The existing literature focuses mainly on potential agricultural bioterrorism threats to the United States. Here we try to take a broader view including agricultural bioterrorism, mycoherbicide applications to eradicate plants used for illegal drugs, civil cases involving charges of sale or movement of diseased plants, and mycotoxins. In several of the examples given the evidence is inconclusive, but the examples are no less interesting for that.

  6. [Incest--forensic genetic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood.

  7. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes

  8. Does the forensic physician have a role beyond injury documentation and specimen collection in Australia? A personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Clinical forensic medicine (CFM), as a single discipline, encompasses a number of areas of medico-legal practice including injury interpretation, management of sexual and physical assault cases (both adult and child; alleged victim and offender), mental health issues, traffic medicine, custodial medicine and toxicology. The cases are usually alive but in some jurisdictions the forensic practitioner also engages in death investigation with some undertaking autopsies. During the last 20-30 years, the discipline has fragmented with areas being hived off to other medical specialist disciplines and, importantly, to nurses. Any user of forensic services wants the best value for money particularly when under financial pressure. To this end, governments have sought savings through privitisation of services and/or the utilisation of less qualified personnel to undertake some or all of the tasks. This places CFM at a crossroads. To ensure survival, the discipline needs to reconsider its direction and performance, convince stakeholders of its relevance and importance, and lift its profile within the legal, academic and medical world. It will need to think outside the square, place greater emphasis on the 'clinical' and relinquish those activities that are better undertaken by less expensive and qualified personnel. The establishment of meaningful research and academic centres are essential. The loss of and/or failure to grow CFM will result in the loss of a skills base and the subsequent potential for the miscarriages of justice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Bromobenzene (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Bromobenzene that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Bromobenzene provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to subchronic and chronic exposure to bromobenzene.

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrylamide (External Review ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of acrylamide that once finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that the science is used credibly and appropriately in derivation of the dose-response assessments and toxicological characterization. The draft Toxicological Review of Acrylamide provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment pertaining to a chronic exposure to acrylamide.

  11. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets

  12. Developmental toxicology: adequacy of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P W

    1998-01-01

    Toxicology embraces several disciplines such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. Reproductive toxicology is concerned with possible effects of substances on the reproductive process, i.e. on sexual organs and their functions, endocrine regulation, fertilization, transport of the fertilized ovum, implantation, and embryonic, fetal and postnatal development, until the end-differentiation of the organs is achieved. Reproductive toxicology is divided into areas related to male and female fertility, and developmental toxicology. Developmental toxicology can be further broken down into prenatal and postnatal toxicology. Today, much new information is available about the origins of developmental disorders resulting from chemical exposure. While these findings seem to promise important new developments in methodology and research, there is a danger of losing sight of the precepts and principles established in the light of existing knowledge. There is also a danger that we may fail to correct shortcomings in our existing procedures and practice. The aim of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of testing substances for their impact in advance of their use and to underline that we must use the best existing tools for carrying out risk assessments. Moreover, it needs to be stressed that there are many substances that are never assessed with respect to reproductive and developmental toxicity. Similarly, our programmes for post-marketing surveillance with respect to developmental toxicology are grossly inadequate. Our ability to identify risks to normal development and reproduction would be much improved, first if a number of straightforward precepts were always followed and second, if we had a clearer understanding of what we mean by risk and acceptable levels of risk in the context of development. Other aims of this paper are: to stress the complexity of the different stages of normal prenatal development; to note the principles that are

  13. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  14. Integrating the Principles of Toxicology into a Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Designing safer products, processes and materials requires a commitment to engaging a transdisciplinary, systems approach utilizing the principles of chemistry, toxicology, environmental sciences and other allied disciplines. Chemistry and toxicology are inherently complementary ...

  15. Forensic Experts′ Opinion Regarding Clinical Forensic Medicine Practice in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanusha Nair Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical forensic medicine is a progressing branch. In Indonesia and Malaysia, there is inadequate information regarding this practice. It is always unclear about the job scopes and practitioners involved in this field. The study outlined in this article is aimed to explore the current clinical forensic medicine practice compared to existing systematic practice globally and hence analyzing for presence of difference in this practice between these two countries. A qualitative study was conducted by forensic experts in Indonesia and Malaysia from September to November 2015. In-depth interview was carried out to obtain data which were then validated using literature and legal documents in Indonesia and Malaysia known as the triangulation validation method. Data were presented in narrative form. In Indonesia, forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine were approached as one whereas in Malaysia separately. This practice was conducted by a general practitioner in collaboration with other specialists if needed in Indonesia; whereas, in Malaysia, this practice was conducted by forensic pathologists or medical officers in the absence of forensic pathologists. Both Indonesia and Malaysia followed the continental regimen in practicing clinical forensic medicine. There was still a lack of involvement of doctors in this field due to lack of understanding of clinical forensic medicine. The current clinical forensic medicine practice has not developed much and has no much difference in both countries. The gap between the current practice with systematic practice cannot be justified due to the absence of one standardized code of practice.

  16. Teaching forensic pathology to undergraduates at Zhongshan School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Qiu-Ping; Su, Terry; Zhao, Qian-Hao; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jing-Jing; Huang, Lei; Cheng, Jian-Ding

    2018-01-01

    Producing qualified forensic pathological practitioners is a common difficulty around the world. In China, forensic pathology is one of the required major subspecialties for undergraduates majoring in forensic medicine, in contrast to forensic education in Western countries where forensic pathology is often optional. The enduring predicament is that the professional qualities and abilities of forensic students from different institutions vary due to the lack of an efficient forensic pedagogical model. The purpose of this article is to describe the new pedagogical model of forensic pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, which is characterised by: (a) imparting a broad view of forensic pathology and basic knowledge of duties and tasks in future careers to students; (b) educating students in primary skills on legal and medical issues, as well as advanced forensic pathological techniques; (c) providing students with resources to broaden their professional minds, and opportunities to improve their professional qualities and abilities; and (d) mentoring students on occupational preparation and further forensic education. In the past few years, this model has resulted in numerous notable forensic students accomplishing achievements in forensic practice and forensic scientific research. We therefore expect this pedagogical model to establish the foundation for forensic pathological education and other subspecialties of forensic medicine in China and abroad.

  17. Examination of mobile phones in a university forensic lab environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.

  18. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  19. Quality assurance in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Beng Beng; Milne, Nathan

    2009-06-01

    One of the requirements for proper running of a pathology laboratory is implementation of a quality assurance programme. Forensic pathology is not exempted, especially so when cases are increasing in complexity. It is not difficult to introduce a quality assurance programme even in a small forensic centre. Among the steps that can be implemented including introduction of a set of minimal standards in performance of the autopsy, timeliness and report writing, a vigorous peer review process either internally or externally and participation in external quality programmes. Proper documentation of the post-mortem process (photography, slides and blocks and various imaging modalities) is to be encouraged. There should be limits set on workload of pathologists as overburden is known to lower standards. A pleasant work environment is also essential. Personal continuous medical education should be made mandatory. Introduction of a quality assurance programme will not only improve standards but minimise possible negligence. The post-mortem reports will be seen to carry more weight in court.

  20. Desomorphine (Krokodil): An overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Diego Hernando Ângulo; Dos Santos Moreira, Ana Maria; da Silva, Pedro Rafael; Brandão, Ricardo; Borges, Marcella Matos Cordeiro; de Santana, Fernando José Malagueño; Borges, Keyller Bastos

    2017-04-01

    "Krokodil" or "Crocodile" is an illegal homemade desomorphine drug obtained from chemical reactions of commercial codeine drugs with several other powerful and highly toxic chemical agents increasing its addiction and hallucinogenic effects when compared with other morphine analogues. This paper summarizes a complete review about an old drug called desomorphine (Krokodil), presenting its chemistry, pharmacology, metabolism, toxicology and analysis. It is of particular interest and concern because this cheaper injectable semisynthetic opioid drug has been largely used in recent years for recreational purposes in several Eastern European as well as North and South American countries, despite known damage to health that continuous use might induce. These injuries are much stronger and more aggressive than morphine's, infecting and rotting skin and soft tissue to the bone of addicts at the point of injection in less than three years, which, in most cases, evolves to death. On this basis, it is imperative that literature reviews focus on the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and analysis of dangerous Krokodil to find strategies for rapid and effective determination to mitigate its adverse effects on addicts and prevent consumption. It is crucial to know the symptoms and consequences of the use of Krokodil, as well as METHODS: for identification and quantification of desomorphine, contaminants and metabolites, which can help the forensic work of diagnosis and propose actions to control and eradicate this great danger to public health around the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Christiana J.

    Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.

  2. Forensic Entomologists: An Evaluation of their Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola; Guercini, Silvia; Leighton, Angela; Dadour, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences (2009) published a review charting several key recommendations on strengthening the forensic sciences as an entity as part of an initiative put forth by the USA Congress to streamline and improve the quality of the forensic sciences and their impact on the judiciary process. Although the review was not totally inclusive, many of its sentiments have permeated into all the forensic sciences. The following paper is designed to determine who is practicing the science of forensic entomology, and in what capacity, by questioning practicing forensic entomologists about the type of education obtained, their countries' standards and accreditation processes, as well as general demographic information such as age and gender. A 28-question survey was sent out to 300 forensic entomologists worldwide in 2009. Of the 70 respondents, 80% had a formal education (either Masters or PhD), and 66% published their research. Approximately 50% of respondents were involved in the delivery of expert evidence and writing up case reports, and countries were actively involved with accrediting personnel, facilities, and entomology kits. Many discrepancies within the reported practices and accreditation processes highlight the need for the adoption of a standard code of practice among forensic entomologists. PMID:24219583

  3. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  4. Identifying missing people: the contribution of forensic dentistry and DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Luciene Menrique CORRADI; Denise Vieira TRAVASSOS; Sylvia Cury COSTE; Rosa Núbia Vieira de MOURA; Efigênia Ferreira e FERREIRA

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Human identification is considered one of the major steps concerning missing people. The Forensic Anthropology Sector of Legal Medical Institutes identifies corpses. Forensic dentistry and DNA tests stand out among the existing standard tests. Objective This article aimed to evaluate human identification effectiveness through forensic dental examination performed in the forensic anthropology sector in a Forensic Medical Institute, comparing them with DNA analyses. Met...

  5. 78 FR 45253 - National Toxicology Program Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods; Announcement of Meeting; Request for Comments SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative... alternative safety testing methods with regulatory applicability and promotes the scientific validation and...

  6. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  7. High Throughput Transcriptomics @ USEPA (Toxicology Forum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ideal chemical testing approach will provide complete coverage of all relevant toxicological responses. It should be sensitive and specific It should identify the mechanism/mode-of-action (with dose-dependence). It should identify responses relevant to the species of interest...

  8. Good cell culture practices &in vitro toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Boström, Ann-Charlotte; Bowe, Gerhard; Coecke, Sandra; Hartung, Thomas; Hendriks, Giel; Pamies, David; Piton, Alain; Rovida, Costanza

    2017-12-01

    Good Cell Culture Practices (GCCP) is of high relevance to in vitro toxicology. The European Society of Toxicology In Vitro (ESTIV), the Center for Alternatives for Animal Testing (CAAT) and the In Vitro Toxicology Industrial Platform (IVTIP) joined forces to address by means of an ESTIV 2016 pre-congress session the different aspects and applications of GCCP. The covered aspects comprised the current status of the OECD guidance document on Good In Vitro Method Practices, the importance of quality assurance for new technological advances in in vitro toxicology including stem cells, and the optimized implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices and Good Laboratory Practices for regulatory testing purposes. General discussions raised the duality related to the difficulties in implementing GCCP in an academic innovative research framework on one hand, and on the other hand, the need for such GCCP principles in order to ensure reproducibility and robustness of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing. Indeed, if good cell culture principles are critical to take into consideration for all uses of in vitro test methods for toxicity testing, the level of application of such principles may depend on the stage of development of the test method as well as on the applications of the test methods, i.e., academic innovative research vs. regulatory standardized test method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 4th Annual Predictive Toxicology Summit 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhanfeng

    2013-08-01

    This meeting report presents a brief summary on the 4th Annual Predictive Toxicology Summit 2012, which was held on 15 - 16 February 2012 in London. The majority of presentations came from global pharmaceutical companies, although small and medium enterprise (SME) and academic researchers were represented too. Major regulatory bodies were also present. The article highlights the summit, which was considered a good learning opportunity to catch up on the recent advances in predictive toxicology. Predictive toxicology has become more and more important due to social and economic pressure and scientific reasons. Technological developments are rapid, but there is a gulf between the technology developers and the pharmaceutical end users; hence, early engagement is desirable. Stem cell-derived cell-based assays as well as three-dimensional in vitro tissue/organ model development are within the reach now, but a lot needs to be done to optimise and validate the developed protocols and products. The field of predictive toxicology needs fundamental research of interdisciplinary nature, which requires much needed trained personnel and funding.

  10. Metabolomics in Toxicology and Preclinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Bois, Frederic Y.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Coen, Muireann; Donley, Beth; Fischer, Steven M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Fabian, Eric; Guillou, Claude; Heuer, Joachim; Hogberg, Helena T.; Jungnickel, Harald; Keun, Hector C.; Krennrich, Gerhard; Krupp, Eckart; Luch, Andreas; Noor, Fozia; Peter, Erik; Riefke, Bjoern; Seymour, Mark; Skinner, Nigel; Smirnova, Lena; Verheij, Elwin; Wagner, Silvia; Hartung, Thomas; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Leist, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Metabolomics, the comprehensive analysis of metabolites in a biological system, provides detailed information about the biochemical/physiological status of a biological system, and about the changes caused by chemicals. Metabolomics analysis is used in many fields, ranging from the analysis of the physiological status of genetically modified organisms in safety science to the evaluation of human health conditions. In toxicology, metabolomics is the -omics discipline that is most closely related to classical knowledge of disturbed biochemical pathways. It allows rapid identification of the potential targets of a hazardous compound. It can give information on target organs and often can help to improve our understanding regarding the mode-of-action of a given compound. Such insights aid the discovery of biomarkers that either indicate pathophysiological conditions or help the monitoring of the efficacy of drug therapies. The first toxicological applications of metabolomics were for mechanistic research, but different ways to use the technology in a regulatory context are being explored. Ideally, further progress in that direction will position the metabolomics approach to address the challenges of toxicology of the 21st century. To address these issues, scientists from academia, industry, and regulatory bodies came together in a workshop to discuss the current status of applied metabolomics and its potential in the safety assessment of compounds. We report here on the conclusions of three working groups addressing questions regarding 1) metabolomics for in vitro studies 2) the appropriate use of metabolomics in systems toxicology, and 3) use of metabolomics in a regulatory context. PMID:23665807

  11. Toxicological requirements for risk assessment of shellfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing concern by consumers with regard to the health aspects and safety of foodstuffs. Most food additives and contaminants are controlled by regulatory authorities, with Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) having been set on the basis of detailed acute short- and long-term toxicological studies. The situation with ...

  12. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  13. The rat incisor in toxicologic pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Kooij, A.J. van de; Slootweg, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Microscopic examination of the incisors of rats and mice may reveal toxicologically significant changes. First, the incisor morphology reflects the nutritional status of the animal: fluctuations of mineral metabolism and vitamin availability are disclosed by the rodent incisors, because the incisors

  14. Toxicological Problems with the Redy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broch Møller, B.; Bahnsen, M.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1976-01-01

    be substituted by another antiseptic. Of special interest was the finding of a very high concentration of boron in the dialysate. It is suggested that this metal, which is a potentially toxic substance, may emanate from the patient. It is concluded that use of the REDY system carries no obvious toxicological...

  15. Chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects”, “toxicological effects” and “chemical composition” in English and Chinese language were retrieved through an extensive literature ... antiaging, neuroprotective, anti-stress, anti- fatigue, anti-virus and anticancer effects ..... heavy metal elements in cynomorium and leek seeds by high resolution continuum source ...

  16. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  17. Physicochemical, toxicological and ecological analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dams built to supply electricity, irrigation and fresh water, change the characteristics of the region they are located. The ecological, limnological characteristics and the quality of water in the dam reservoir deteriorate with time. In this study, the physicochemical, toxicological and ecological parameters of Gökçekaya Dam ...

  18. Phytochemical analysis and toxicological evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, Flavonoid, Alkaloids, Anthraquinone, Saponin and Cardiac glycosides. This work thus justifies the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the treatment of anaemia and its safety profile. Keywords: Toxicological, Ethno toxicity, Hematological and phytochemical ...

  19. Toxicological profiles of commercial herbal preparation, Jobelyn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    illnesses. Despite its wide use, there is limited report on its toxicological profile. This study examined the acute and shortterm chronic toxicity profiles of the product with emphasis on the LD50, gross morphological and histopathological effects. METHODS: Albino mice (mean weight: 16.45±3.14g) were used in this study.

  20. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...